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Exam Code: PEGACRSA80V1 Practice test 2022 by Killexams.com team
PEGACRSA80V1 Certified Robotics System Architect (CRSA) 80V1

- Create a standard Windows form using .NET window controls
- Integrate and interrogate a Windows application and a Web application within the solution
- Create a unified solution using project-to-project references
- Use the Interaction Framework within the unified solution to seamlessly maintain and transfer data and activities across the solution
- Create a project and solution hierarchy structure to easily maintain and scale the unified solution
- Using a defined process, create automations to streamline the process by integrating the multi-project solution through programming logic
- Add and edit match rules on interrogated objects to create an understanding of the matching process for both Window and Web applications Generate build files and deployment packages of the unified solution
- Use the standard Visual Studio diagnostic and debugging tools to test the unified solution

Course Outline
- Course Introduction
- Before you begin
- Completing the exercises
- Introduction to Pega Robotic Automation
- RDA and RPA architecture
- Pega Robot Studio IDE basics
- Common Tool windows
- How to organize the workspace
- Assessment: Introduction to Pega Robotic Automation
- Project Management: Project Documentation
- Solution Design Document
- Solution Architecture Document
- Assessment: Project documentation
- Project Management: Solutions and Projects
- Robotic solutions and projects
- How to create a solution and project
- Assessment: Solutions and projects
- Project Management: Exercise
- Exercise: Creating solutions and projects
- System Integration: Adapters
- Introduction to adapters
- Overview of adapters
- Windows adapters
- Web adapters
- Universal Web adapter
- Modifying the properties of an object
- How to add and configure a web adapter
- Assessment: Adapters
- System Integration: Exercise
- Exercise: Adding and configuring adapters
- Interrogation: Basic Interrogation
- Introduction to basic interrogation
- Overview of interrogation
- Web application interrogation
- Global web pages
- Other interrogation techniques
- How to interrogate a web application
- Assessment: Basic interrogation
- Interrogation: Match Rules
- Introduction to match rules
- Overview of match rules
- Web-based match rules
- Universal Web adapter match rules
- Common match rule issues
- Adapter Match Rules tab
- Modifying match rules
- Assessment: Match rules
- Interrogation: Exercise
- Exercise: Interrogating Windows and web applications
- Automations: Basic Robotic Automations
- Introduction to basic robotic automations
- Automation development
- Object Explorer and automations
- Object properties, events, and methods
- Creating an automation
- MessageDialog
- Types of automation links
- Managing automation workflow
- Automations as procedures
- Label/Jump To component
- Creating a procedure automation
- Assessment: Basic robotic automation
- Automations: Exercise 1
- Exercise: Creating an automation
- Debugging and Diagnostics: Debugging
- Introduction to debugging
- Overview of debugging
- How to use breakpoints
- Debugging automation data values
- How to check data values
- Assessment: Debugging
- Debugging and Diagnostics: Diagnostics
- Introduction to diagnostics
- Diagnostics settings
- Modifying diagnostic settings
- Diagnostic logging
- Add a diagnostic log component to an automation
- Dissecting a log file
- Pega Robotic Automation Playback
- Log file cleaner
- Assessment: Diagnostics
- Debugging and Diagnostics: Exercise
- Exercise: Using breakpoints and diagnostic logs
- Automations: UseKeys Property
- Introduction to working with the UseKeys property
- The UseKeys property
- Application of keys
- Setting the UseKeys property
- Automations: Automation Techniques
- Introduction to automation techniques
- Raising events
- Automation data elements
- Accessing automation data elements
- Creating a Windows Form
- Assessment: Automation techniques
- Automations: Exercise 2
- Exercise: Creating Windows form and procedure automations
- Automations: Toolbox Components
- Introduction to toolbox components
- Automation variables
- Expressions and comparisons
- String, DateTime, and File utilities
- Automation looping
- Using wait logic
- Excel File Connector
- Assessment: Toolbox components
- Automations: Out-of-the-Box Configurations
- Introduction to out-of-the-box configurations
- Assisted Sign-on
- Configuring Assisted Sign-on
- Start My Day
- Configuring Start My Day
- Message Manifest
- Implementing Message Manifest
- Configuring Message Manifest
- Assessment: Out-of-the-box configurations
- Automations: Exercise 3
- Exercise: Setting UseKeys and implementing ASO
- Interaction Framework: Components
- Introduction to Interaction Framework components
- Components of Interaction Framework
- The interaction.xml
- Modifying the interaction.xml
- Interaction Manager component
- Adding the Interaction Manager component
- Project-to-project references
- Creating a project-to-project reference
- Assessment: Interaction Framework components
- Interaction Framework: Exercise 1
- Exercise: Adding framework components to a solution
- Interaction Framework: Implementing Interaction Framework
- Introduction to implementing Interaction Framework
- Framework context values
- Interactions and activities
- The Activity component
- Adding an Activity component
- Interaction versus activity activation
- Updated Framework context values
- Assessment: Implementing Interaction Framework
- Interaction Framework: Exercise 2
- Exercise: Implementing interactions and activities
- Deployment: Automation Package Deployment
- Introduction to automation package deployment
- Robotic solution deployment
- Robotic configuration files
- Creating a project configuration file
- Project properties
- Deploying a solution
- Deploying to Robot Manager
- Assessment: Deployment
- Deployment: Exercise
- Exercise: Deploying a solution using configuration files

Certified Robotics System Architect (CRSA) 80V1
Pegasystems Certified Practice Test
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Wed, 13 Jul 2022 09:51:00 -0500 en text/html https://ung.edu/learning-support/placement-test-practice.php
Killexams : Best Project Management Certifications

Project management certifications have claimed a place in every top IT certification list for years. That’s because project managers are important to IT operations of all kinds. Whether you are interested in becoming an IT project manager or just want to add project management to your list of soft skills, these five leading certifications will help you add to or boost those skills and, in turn, increase your value.

If there’s a single set of soft skills that’s been fixed on the IT radar for the past decade or so, to the point where it’s become almost as sought after and every bit as valuable as top-level credentials, it must be project management. Thanks in large part to the immensely popular and widely pursued Project Management Professional (PMP) certification from the Project Management Institute (PMI), this area has become an incredibly valuable merit badge for IT professionals of all stripes. That’s because it enhances and expands on the value of just about any other kind of technical credential.

Project management has everything to do with planning, scheduling, budgeting for, and then executing and reporting on projects of all shapes and sizes. In fact, anything and everything that IT does can be understood or handled as a project of some kind. It applies to one-of-a-kind activities that happen only once or very seldom (think hardware or OS upgrades or migrating from older to newer platforms or infrastructures). Ditto for a recurring series of activities that repeat regularly (think security patches, software updates or other regular maintenance tasks). Thus, project management is incredibly important and valuable to IT operations across the board.

According to PMI’s Earning Power: Project Management Salary Survey, 10th Edition [pdf], IT professionals who hold a PMP report median base annual salaries in the U.S. of almost $116,000. The top 25 percent of survey respondents report base salaries of at least $139,000. Depending on such factors as complexity and size of projects, location, fields of expertise (e.g., IT, construction or healthcare), and experience, salaries for some PMP credential holders can be much higher still.

Robert Half’s Technology & IT 2019 Salary Guide lists project management as a hot certification, with salaries varying slightly by technology area. It cites a salary range of $93,000 to $157,500 for project managers in application development environments. Project managers engaged in consulting and system integration roles can expect to earn $96,250 to $163,500 nationwide. This explains nicely why PMP appears in nearly every top 10 list of popular, targeted or most desirable certifications since the early 2000s. It’s no surprise that Robert Half also lists the PMP credential, along with Agile and Scrum certifications, as “highly valued technology certifications” trending up in the IT industry.

To deliver you an idea of which project management credentials employers look for in prospective candidates, we conducted a quick survey on some popular job boards. Clearly, the PMP is the overall favorite and remains our No. 1 pick for must-have project management certifications. PMI’s entry-level project management credential, the CAPM, also made our top five. The CSM from Scrum Alliance, along with ASQ’s Certified Six Sigma Black Belt and Green Belt credentials, round out those picks. It’s also worth noting that job postings for project managers increased by 20 percent from 2018 across all project management certifications.

Job board survey results (in alphabetical order, by certification)

Certification SimplyHired Indeed LinkedIn Jobs LinkUp.com Total
CAPM (Project Management Institute) 593 718 1,187 381 2,879
CSM (Scrum Alliance) 3,550 4,916 9,286 3,052 20,804
CSSBB (ASQ) 998 1,231 1,817 848 4,864
CSSGB (ASQ) 1,205 1,457 1,966 842 5,470
PMP (Project Management Institute) 13,683 18,311 28,064 9,096 69,154

CAPM: Certified Associate in Project Management

CAPM: Certified Associate in Project Management

The same organization behind the more senior Project Management Professional (PMP) credential also backs the Certified Associate in Project Management (CAPM). In fact, the CAPM is properly considered a steppingstone credential for those who wish to attain PMP status by stages, rather than in a single giant leap. That’s why PMI describes the CAPM as a “valuable entry-level certification for project practitioners” that is “designed for those with little or no project experience.”

The PMP requires three to five years of documented on-the-job project management experience, depending on the educational background of each applicant. On the other hand, the CAPM requires only a high school diploma and either 1,500 hours of documented on-the-job experience (about nine months of full-time work) or 23 hours of project management classroom training prior to taking the exam. The education prerequisite can be met by completing PMI’s Project Management Basics online course which costs $350 for PMI members and $400 for non-members.

Nor does the CAPM require continuing education (which PMI calls PDUs, or professional development units) as does the PMP (60 PDUs every three years) to maintain this credential. To recertify, CAPM holders must retake the test once every five years.

The CAPM is one of a small set of entry-level project management certifications (including the CompTIA Project+) that IT professionals interested in project management might choose to pursue. Remember, though, that it is just a steppingstone to the PMP.

Unless you work in a large organization where a project management team is in place that includes junior as well as senior positions, the CAPM by itself is unlikely to provide a ticket to a project management job. However, it’s ideal for IT professionals for whom project management is a part-time job role or who want to grow into full-time project management.

CAPM facts and figures

Certification name Certified Associate in Project Management (CAPM)
Prerequisites/required courses High school diploma, associate’s degree or global equivalent, plus 1,500 hours of project management experience or 23 hours of project management education

Certification valid for five years; candidates must retake test to maintain credential.

Number of exams One (150 questions; 15 questions are unscored; three hours to complete)
Cost per exam Computer- or paper-based exams:

PMI member: $225 (retake $150)

Nonmember: $300 (retake $200)

Exam available in online proctored or center-based test (CBT) formats.

Exam administered by Pearson VUE.

URL www.pmi.org/Certification/Certified-Associate-in-Project-Management-CAPM.aspx
Self-study materials PMI maintains a list of self-study materials on its exam guidance webpage, including the Exam Content Outline [pdf], trial exam questions [pdf] and the CAPM Handbook [pdf].

Numerous books are available, including:

A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide) – Sixth Edition; Sept. 22, 2017; Project Management Institute; ISBN-10: 1628251840; ISBN-13: 978-1628251845 (available for free download to PMI members)

CAPM test Prep, Third Edition, by Rita Mulcahy, Sept. 2013, RMC Publications, ISBN-10: 1932735720, ISBN-13: 978-1932735727

CAPM/PMP Project Management Certification All-in-One test Guide, Fourth Edition, by Joseph Phillips; April 23, 2018; McGraw-Hill Education; ISBN-10: 1259861627; ISBN-13: 978-1259861628

CSM: Certified ScrumMaster

As companies seek to deliver more for less, many adopt Agile methodologies to streamline processes, build quality into products and ensure that final builds meet customer requirements. As Agile methodologies have become more popular, it’s no surprise that we see increased demand for IT practitioners qualified to manage projects in Agile environments.

While different Scrum master certifications are available, our pick is the Certified ScrumMaster (CSM) from the Scrum Alliance. This nonprofit encourages adoption of Scrum and Agile practices, promotes user groups and learning events, and provides resources for professional development. The organization boasts more than 500,000 certified practitioners worldwide.

The Scrum Alliance provides a support system for Scrum practitioners, including Scrum Gatherings, user groups, virtual communications, coaching, online training and much more. In addition to community and advocacy activities, the Scrum Alliance offers numerous Scrum-related certifications at the foundation, advanced, professional, elevated (guide) and leadership levels. Scrum Alliance certifications are designed for team members engaged in Scrum master, product owners and developer roles. The Scrum master and product owner tracks offer credentials at the foundation, advanced and professional levels which the developer track only offers a foundation and professional level cert.

For project managers getting started as Scrum practitioners, the CSM makes an excellent entry-level credential. Not only must candidates demonstrate an understanding of Scrum principles and values, but they’ll learn how to implement and apply Scrum in practice. The Scrum Alliance provides CSMs with multiple resources, plus checklists and information about the servant-leader role of the Scrum master.

Certified ScrumMaster facts and figures

CSSBB: Certified Six Sigma Black Belt

Globally recognized, ASQ certifications attest to candidate expertise, mastery of industry and regulation standards, and mastery of the ASQ Body of Knowledge. Currently, ASQ offers 18 credentials, three of which specifically target project management: the Certified Six Sigma Black Belt (CSSBB) (expert level), the Six Sigma Green Belt (CSSGB) (professional level) and the Six Sigma Yellow Belt (CSSYB) (entry level).

The Certified Six Sigma Black Belt is ASQ’s highest Six Sigma credential. The CSSBB aims at experienced practitioners who understand Six Sigma methodologies (including the DMAIC model), tools, systems and philosophies. CSSBBs can lead teams or manage team dynamics, roles and responsibilities.

The path to CSSBB certification is rigorous. In addition to passing a comprehensive exam, candidates must complete two projects that employ Six Sigma tools and processes, resulting in project improvement and a positive financial project impact. An affidavit is also required to attest to the veracity of the project. Alternatively, candidates with at least three years of experience in one or more of the Six Sigma Body of Knowledge areas need only complete one Black Belt project.

CSSBB candidates are expected to demonstrate mastery of the ASQ Black Belt Body of Knowledge, called standards:

The CSSBB is valid for three years. To recertify, candidates must earn 18 recertification units or retake the exam.

CSSBB facts and figures

Certification name Certified Six Sigma Black Belt (CSSBB)
Prerequisites/required courses Two completed projects with signed project affidavit, or one completed project with signed affidavit plus three years of experience in one or more areas of the Six Sigma Body of Knowledge
Number of exams One: computer-based (165 questions, 4.5 hours) or paper-based (150 questions, 4 hours)
Cost per exam $438 members, $538 nonmembers (retakes $338)

Exams administered by Prometric.

URL https://asq.org/cert/six-sigma-black-belt
Self-study materials ASQ maintains a comprehensive list of test prep materials, including training opportunities, question banks, interactive trial exams, books and other recommended references.

CSSGB: Certified Six Sigma Green Belt

The Certified Six Sigma Green Belt (CSSGB) by ASQ is a professional-level credential targeting experienced Six Sigma practitioners. Often, a CSSGB works under the direction of the more senior CSSBB or as an assistant. CSSGBs identify issues and drive quality and process improvements in projects.

To earn the credential, candidates should have at least three years of experience working with Six Sigma processes, systems and tools. The work experience must have been full time and compensated; an unpaid internship, for example, doesn’t count. In addition, work performed must have been in at least one of the Six Sigma Green Belt Body of Knowledge competency areas.

In addition to work experience, candidates must pass an test that tests their knowledge of the Six Sigma Green Belt Body of Knowledge. Currently, the Green Belt Body of Knowledge includes six competency areas:

Overall, this is an excellent credential for those who have some experience but are not quite ready to take on the roles and responsibilities of a Black Belt.

CSSGB facts and figures

Certification name Certified Six Sigma Green Belt (CSSGB)
Prerequisites/required courses Three years of experience in one or more of the Six Sigma Green Belt Body of Knowledge areas

Experience must be a full-time paid position (internships do not meet the experience requirement)

Number of exams One: computer-based (110 questions, 4.5 hours) or paper-based (100 questions, 4 hours)
Cost per exam $338 members, $438 nonmembers; retakes cost $238

Exams administered by Prometric.

URL https://asq.org/cert/six-sigma-green-belt
Self-study materials ASQ maintains a comprehensive list of test prep materials, including training opportunities, question banks, interactive trial exams, books and other recommended references.

PMP: Project Management Professional

The Project Management Institute (PMI) not only stands behind its Project Management Professional certification, it works with academia and training companies to ensure proper coverage and currency in the various curricula that support this and other PMI credentials. Boasting more than 500,000 global members and 750,000 PMP certified professionals around the world, PMI’s PMP remains one of the most prestigious project management credentials available. (Note: The PMP’s precursor, the CAPM, is covered in an earlier section of this article.)

That’s why you can obtain college- and university-based PMP training from so many institutions. It’s also why you may sometimes find PMP coverage integrated into certain degree programs (often at the master’s degree level).

The PMP credential is coveted by employers seeking the most highly skilled project management professionals. Developed by project managers, the PMP certification is the highest level offered in PMI certifications. It is designed to ensure that credential-holders possess the skills and qualifications necessary to successfully manage all phases of a project, including initiating, planning, scheduling, controlling and monitoring, and closing out the project.

PMP certified projects managers are also well versed and skilled in managing all aspects of the triple constraints – time, cost and scope. Employers depend on the skills of PMP professionals to manage budgets, track costs, manage scope creep, identify how changes to the triple constraints may introduce risk into the project, and minimize such risk to protect the project investment.

The standards for PMP certification are rigorous. Beyond passing a comprehensive exam, credential holders must first demonstrate and certify that they have the skills and education necessary to succeed in the project management field. Credential seekers should be ready to provide documentation for items such as education, projects worked on and hours spent in each of the five project management stages – initiating, planning, executing, monitoring and controlling, and closing out the project.

While it’s difficult to achieve, the rewards for PMP credential holders can be significant. According to PMI’s Earning Power: Project Management Salary Survey, 10th Edition [pdf], PMPs in the U.S. earn an average of 23 percent more than their non-credentialed counterparts. The survey reports median salaries of PMPs in the United States at $115,000, as opposed to $92,000 for non-PMP certified project managers.

For those interested in program management or wishing to specialize in a project management area, PMI offers several interesting additional credentials:

The PMP remains a nonpareil certification for IT and other professionals whose responsibilities encompass project management. It is the standard against which all other project management credentials are judged.

It should be noted that, after meeting the prerequisites, candidates are also required to pass a rigorous exam. Candidates must obtain an eligibility ID from PMI before they can register for the exam.

PMP facts and figures

Certification name Project Management Professional (PMP)
Prerequisites/required Courses Required courses: None

Prerequisite skills: Four-year degree, 4,500 hours in leading and directing projects, and 35 hours of project management education

OR

Secondary degree (high school diploma, associate’s degree or equivalent), 7,500 hours leading and directing projects, and 35 hours of project management education

Note: Credential holders must earn 60 professional development units (PDUs) per each three-year cycle to maintain certification.

Number of exams One (200 questions, 4 hours)
Cost per exam Paper* and computer-based exams:

PMI member: $405 (retake $275)

Nonmember: $555 (retake $375)

*Paper-based test only available if candidates lives more than 150 miles from testing center or if testing center is not available in the country of residence and travel would provide an undue burden.

Exam administered by Prometric. Eligibility ID from PMI required to register.

URL www.pmi.org/Certification/Project-Management-Professional-PMP.aspx
Self-study materials PMI maintains a list of training resources on the PMP test guidance webpage, including links to trial questions, the PMP test Content Outline [pdf] and the PMP Handbook [pdf]. Additional training materials (quizzes, publications, books, practice guides and more) are available from the PMI Store.

Numerous books are available, including:

Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide) – Sixth Edition; Sept. 22, 2017; Project Management Institute; ISBN-10: 1628251840; ISBN-13: 978-1628251845 (available for free download to PMI members)

PMP test Prep: Accelerated Learning to Pass the Project Management Professional (PMP) Exam, Ninth Edition, by Rita Mulcahy; Feb. 1, 2018; RMC Publications Inc.; ISBN-10: 1943704040; ISBN-13: 978-143704040

CAPM/PMP Project Management Certification All-in-One test Guide, Fourth Edition, by Joseph Phillips; April 23, 2018; McGraw-Hill Education; ISBN-10: 1259861627; ISBN-13: 978-1259861628

Practice exams: PMP test practice test and Study Guide, Ninth Edition, by J. LeRoy Ward and Ginger Levin; June 28, 2018; Auerbach Publications, ISBN-10: 1138440299; ISBN-13: 978-1138440299

Beyond the top 5: More project management certifications

Project management is truly a white-hot area for both certification seekers and employers. Several other project management certifications are available, for general IT project management as well as software development project management.

Honorable mention goes to the Global Association for Quality Management (GAQM) project management certifications, such as the Professional in Project Management, Associate in Project Management and Certified Project Director. The Prince2 Foundation and Practitioner qualifications (featured in the 2017 top-five list) are also excellent credentials and worth honorable mention.

The CompTIA Project+ credential (featured in the 2017 top-five list and honorable mention in 2018) remains a well-known entry-level project management certification for those starting their project management careers. ASQ’s Certified Six Sigma Yellow Belt (CSSYB) is another entry-level credential worth exploring, particularly if you’re interested in eventually moving up to the more senior Green and Black Belt credentials.

Most graduate business, management and management information systems (MIS) programs offer project management training to students, and some offer certificate programs outside the project management organizations as well.

You’ll also find training and occasional certification around various project management tool sets. For example, some Microsoft Learning Partners offer courses on Microsoft Project, and you can find a dizzying array of project management packages on Wikipedia’s comparison of project management software page.

The CAPM and Project+ remain the best-known entry-level project management certifications, with the PMP as the primary professional target and capstone for would-be professional IT project managers. Don’t forget to consider PMI’s related certifications as well. For project managers seeking entry into the realm of Scrum, the CSM is the best entry-level cert for Scrum practitioners.

Tue, 11 Oct 2022 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.businessnewsdaily.com/10762-best-project-management-certifications.html Killexams : Best InfoSec and Cybersecurity Certifications of 2022
  • The U.S. job market has almost 600,000 openings requesting cybersecurity-related skills. 
  • Employers are struggling to fill these openings due to a general cyber-skill shortage, with many openings remaining vacant each year. 
  • When evaluating prospective information-security candidates, employers should look for certifications as an important measure of excellence and commitment to quality.
  • This article is for business owners looking to hire cybersecurity experts, or for individuals interested in pursuing a cybersecurity career. 

Cybersecurity is one of the most crucial areas for ensuring a business’s success and longevity. With cyberattacks growing in sophistication, it’s essential for business owners to protect their companies by hiring qualified cybersecurity experts to manage this aspect of their business. The best candidates will have a certification in information security and cybersecurity. This guide breaks down the top certifications and other guidance you’ll need to make the right hire for your company. It’s also a great primer for individuals who are embarking on a cybersecurity career.

Best information security and cybersecurity certifications

When evaluating prospective InfoSec candidates, employers frequently look to certification as an important measure of excellence and commitment to quality. We examined five InfoSec certifications we consider to be leaders in the field of information security today.

This year’s list includes entry-level credentials, such as Security+, as well as more advanced certifications, like Certified Ethical Hacker (CEH), Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP), Certified Information Security Manager (CISM) and Certified Information Systems Auditor (CISA). According to CyberSeek, more employers are seeking CISA, CISM and CISSP certification holders than there are credential holders, which makes these credentials a welcome addition to any certification portfolio.

Absent from our list of the top five is SANS GIAC Security Essentials (GSEC). Although this certification is still a very worthy credential, the job board numbers for CISA were so solid that it merited a spot in the top five. Farther down in this guide, we offer some additional certification options because the field of information security is both wide and varied.

1. CEH: Certified Ethical Hacker

The CEH (ANSI) certification is an intermediate-level credential offered by the International Council of E-Commerce Consultants (EC-Council). It’s a must-have for IT professionals who are pursuing careers in white hat hacking and certifies their competence in the five phases of ethical hacking: reconnaissance, enumeration, gaining of access, access maintenance and track covering. 

CEH credential holders possess skills and knowledge of hacking practices in areas such as footprinting and reconnaissance, network scanning, enumeration, system hacking, Trojans, worms and viruses, sniffers, denial-of-service attacks, social engineering, session hijacking, web server hacking, wireless networks and web applications, SQL injection, cryptography, penetration testing, IDS evasion, firewalls and honeypots. CEH V11 provides a remapping of the course to the NIST/NICE framework’s Protect and Defend (PR) job role category, as well as an additional focus on emerging threats in cloud, OT and IT security, such as fileless malware.

To obtain a CEH (ANSI) certification, candidates must pass one exam. A comprehensive five-day CEH training course is recommended, with the test presented at the course’s conclusion. Candidates may self-study for the test but must submit documentation of at least two years of work experience in information security with employer verification. Self-study candidates must also pay an additional $100 application fee. Education may be substituted for experience, but this is evaluated on a case-by-case basis. Candidates who complete any EC-Council-approved training (including with the iClass platform, academic institutions or an accredited training center) do not need to submit an application prior to attempting the exam.

Because technology in the field of hacking changes almost daily, CEH credential holders are required to obtain 120 continuing-education credits for each three-year cycle.

Once a candidate obtains the CEH (ANSI) designation, a logical progression on the EC-Council certification ladder is the CEH (Practical) credential. The CEH (Practical) designation targets the application of CEH skills to real-world security audit challenges and related scenarios. To obtain the credential, candidates must pass a rigorous six-hour practical examination. Conducted on live virtual machines, candidates are presented 20 scenarios with questions designed to validate a candidate’s ability to perform tasks such as vulnerability analysis, identification of threat vectors, web app and system hacking, OS detection, network scanning, packet sniffing, steganography and virus identification. Candidates who pass both the CEH (ANSI) and the CEH (Practical) exams earn the CEH (Master) designation.

CEH facts and figures

Certification name Certified Ethical Hacker (CEH) (ANSI)
Prerequisites and required courses Training is highly recommended. Without formal training, candidates must have at least two years of information security-related experience and an educational background in information security, pay a nonrefundable eligibility application fee of $100 and submit an test eligibility form before purchasing an test voucher.
Number of exams One: 312-50 (ECC Exam)/312-50 (VUE) (125 multiple-choice questions, four hours)
Cost of exam $950 (ECC test voucher) Note: An ECC test voucher allows candidates to test via computer at a location of their choice. Pearson VUE test vouchers allow candidates to test in a Pearson VUE facility and cost $1,199.
URL https://www.eccouncil.org/programs/certified-ethical-hacker-ceh
Self-study materials EC-Council instructor-led courses, computer-based training, online courses and more are available at ECCouncil.org. A CEH skills assessment is also available for credential seekers. Additionally, Udemy offers CEH practice exams. CEH-approved educational materials are available for $850 from EC-Council.

Certified Ethical Hacker (CEH) training

While EC-Council offers both instructor-led and online training for its CEH certification, IT professionals have plenty of other options for self-study materials, including video training, practice exams and books.

Pluralsight currently offers an ethical-hacking learning path geared toward the 312-50 exam. With a monthly subscription, you get access to all of these courses, plus everything else in Pluralsight’s training library. Through Pluralsight’s learning path, students can prepare for all of the domains covered in the CEH exam.  

CyberVista offers a practice test for the CEH 312-50 certification that includes several sets of exam-like questions, custom quizzes, flash cards and more. An test prep subscription for 180 days costs $149 and gives candidates access to online study materials, as well as the ability to download the materials for offline study. Backed by its “pass guarantee,” CyberVista is so confident its practice test will prepare you for the CEH test that the company will refund its practice test costs if you don’t pass.

Did you know?FYI: Besides certifications in information security and cybersecurity, the best IT certifications cover areas such as disaster recovery, virtualization and telecommunications.

2. CISM: Certified Information Security Manager

The CISM certification is a top credential for IT professionals who are responsible for managing, developing and overseeing information security systems in enterprise-level applications or for developing organizational security best practices. The CISM credential was introduced to security professionals in 2003 by the Information Systems Audit and Control Association (ISACA).

ISACA’s organizational goals are specifically geared toward IT professionals who are interested in the highest-quality standards with respect to the auditing, control and security of information systems. The CISM credential targets the needs of IT security professionals with enterprise-level security management responsibilities. Credential holders possess advanced and proven skills in security risk management, program development and management, governance, and incident management and response.

Holders of the CISM credential, which is designed for experienced security professionals, must agree to ISACA’s code of ethics, pass a comprehensive examination, possess at least five years of experience in information security management, comply with the organization’s continuing education policy and submit a written application. Some combinations of education and experience may be substituted for the full experience requirement.

The CISM credential is valid for three years, and credential holders must pay an annual maintenance fee of $45 (ISACA members) or $85 (nonmembers). Credential holders are also required to obtain a minimum of 120 continuing professional education (CPE) credits over the three-year term to maintain the credential. At least 20 CPE credits must be earned every year.

CISM facts and figures

Certification name

Certified Information Security Manager (CISM)

Prerequisites and required courses

To obtain the CISM credential, candidates must do the following:

  1. Pass the CISM exam.
  2. Agree to the ISACA code of professional ethics.
  3. Adhere to ISACA’s CPE policy
  4. Possess a minimum of five years of information security work experience in described job practice analysis areas. Experience must be verifiable and obtained in the 10-year period prior to the application date or within five years of test passage. There are some exceptions to this requirement depending on the current credentials held.
  5. Apply for CISM certification. (The processing fee is $50.) The credential must be obtained within five years of test passage.

Number of exams

One: 150 questions, four hours

Cost of exam

Exam fees: $575 (members), $760 (nonmembers)

Exam fees are nontransferable and nonrefundable.

URL

https://www.isaca.org/credentialing/cism

Self-study materials

Training and study materials in various languages, information on job practice areas, primary references, publications, articles, the ISACA Journal, review courses, an test prep community, terminology lists, a glossary and more are available at ISACA.org. Additionally, Udemy offers comprehensive training for the certification exam.

Other ISACA certification program elements

In addition to CISM, ISACA offers numerous certifications for those interested in information security and best practices. Other credentials worth considering include the following:

  • Certified Information Systems Auditor (CISA)
  • Certified in the Governance of Enterprise IT (CGEIT)
  • Certified in Risk and Information Systems Control (CRISC)

The CISA designation was created for professionals working with information systems auditing, control or security and is popular enough with employers to earn it a place on the leaderboard. The CGEIT credential targets IT professionals working in enterprise IT management, governance, strategic alignment, value delivery, and risk and resource performance management. IT professionals who are seeking careers in all aspects of risk management will find that the CRISC credential nicely meets their needs.

Certified Information Security Manager (CISM) training

Pluralsight offers a CISM learning path containing five courses and 17 hours of instruction. The courses cover the domains addressed in the exam, but the learning path is aimed at the CISM job practice areas. 

CyberVista offers a CISM online training course in both live and on-demand formats. The course includes more than 16 hours of training videos, supplementary lessons, custom quizzes, practice test questions and access to experts through the instructor. As with other CyberVista courses, the CISM training course comes with a “pass guarantee.” 

Did you know?Did you know?: According to CyberSeek, there are enough workers to fill only 68% of the cybersecurity job openings in the U.S. A cybersecurity certification is an important way to demonstrate the knowledge and ability to succeed in these job roles.

3. CompTIA Security+

CompTIA’s Security+ is a well-respected, vendor-neutral security certification. Security+ credential holders are recognized as possessing superior technical skills, broad knowledge and expertise in multiple security-related disciplines.

Although Security+ is an entry-level certification, the ideal candidates possess at least two years of experience working in network security and should consider first obtaining the Network+ certification. IT pros who obtain this certification have expertise in areas such as threat management, cryptography, identity management, security systems, security risk identification and mitigation, network access control, and security infrastructure. The CompTIA Security+ credential is approved by the U.S. Department of Defense to meet Directive 8140/8570.01-M requirements. In addition, the Security+ credential complies with the standards for ISO 17024.

The Security+ credential requires a single exam, currently priced at $381. (Discounts may apply to employees of CompTIA member companies and full-time students.) Training is available but not required.

IT professionals who earned the Security+ certification prior to Jan. 1, 2011, remain certified for life. Those who certify after that date must renew the certification every three years to stay current. To renew, candidates must obtain 50 continuing-education units (CEUs) or complete the CertMaster CE online course prior to the expiration of the three-year period. CEUs can be obtained by engaging in activities such as teaching, blogging, publishing articles or whitepapers, and participating in professional conferences and similar activities.

CompTIA Security+ facts and figures

Certification name

CompTIA Security+

Prerequisites and required courses

None. CompTIA recommends at least two years of experience in IT administration (with a security focus) and the Network+ credential before the Security+ exam. Udemy offers a complete and comprehensive course for the certification.

Number of exams

One: SY0-601 (maximum of 90 questions, 90 minutes to complete; 750 on a scale of 100-900 required to pass)

Cost of exam

$381 (discounts may apply; search for “SY0-601 voucher”)

URL

https://certification.comptia.org/certifications/security

Self-study materials

Exam objectives, trial questions, the CertMaster online training tool, training kits, computer-based training and a comprehensive study guide are available at CompTIA.org.

CompTIA Security+ training

You’ll find several companies offering online training, instructor-led and self-study courses, practice exams and books to help you prepare for and pass the Security+ exam.

Pluralsight offers a Security+ learning path as a part of its monthly subscription plan for the latest SY0-601 exam. Split into six sections, the training series is more than 24 hours long and covers attacks, threats and vulnerabilities; architecture and design; implementation of secure solutions; operations and incident response; and governance, risk and compliance.

CyberVista offers a Security+ practice test so you can test your security knowledge before attempting the SY0-601 exam. The test comes with a 180-day access period and includes multiple sets of test questions, key concept flash cards, access to InstructorLink experts, a performance tracker and more. As with CyberVista’s other offerings, this practice test comes with a “pass guarantee.”

4. CISSP: Certified Information Systems Security Professional

CISSP is an advanced-level certification for IT pros who are serious about careers in information security. Offered by the International Information Systems Security Certification Consortium, known as (ISC)2 (pronounced “ISC squared”), this vendor-neutral credential is recognized worldwide for its standards of excellence.

CISSP credential holders are decision-makers who possess the expert knowledge and technical skills necessary to develop, guide and manage security standards, policies and procedures within their organizations. The CISSP certification continues to be highly sought after by IT professionals and is well recognized by IT organizations. It is a regular fixture on most-wanted and must-have security certification surveys.

CISSP is designed for experienced security professionals. A minimum of five years of experience in at least two of (ISC)2’s eight common body of knowledge (CBK) domains, or four years of experience in at least two of (ISC)2’s CBK domains and a college degree or an approved credential, is required for this certification. The CBK domains are security and risk management, asset security, security architecture and engineering, communications and network security, identity and access management, security assessment and testing, security operations, and software development security.

(ISC)2 also offers three CISSP concentrations targeting specific areas of interest in IT security:

  • Architecture (CISSP-ISSAP)
  • Engineering (CISSP-ISSEP)
  • Management (CISSP-ISSMP)

Each CISSP concentration test is $599, and credential seekers must currently possess a valid CISSP.

An annual fee of $125 is required to maintain the CISSP credential. Recertification is required every three years. To recertify, candidates must earn 40 CPE credits each year, for a total of 120 CPE credits within the three-year cycle.

CISSP facts and figures 

Certification name

Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP) 

Optional CISSP concentrations:  

  • CISSP Architecture (CISSP-ISSAP)
  • CISSP Engineering (CISSP-ISSEP)
  • CISSP Management (CISSP-ISSMP)

Prerequisites and required courses

At least five years of paid, full-time experience in at least two of the eight (ISC)2 domains or four years of paid, full-time experience in at least two of the eight (ISC)2 domains and a college degree or an approved credential are required. Candidates must also do the following:

  • Agree to the (ISC)2 code of ethics.
  • Submit the CISSP application.
  • Complete the endorsement process.

Number of exams

One for CISSP (English CAT exam: 100-150 questions, three hours to complete; non-English exam: 250 questions, six hours) 

One for each concentration area

Cost of exam

CISSP is $749; each CISSP concentration is $599.

URL

https://www.isc2.org/Certifications/CISSP

Self-study materials

Training materials include instructor-led, live online, on-demand and private training. There is an test outline available for review, as well as study guides, a study app, interactive flash cards and practice tests.

Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP) training

Given the popularity of the CISSP certification, there is no shortage of available training options. These include classroom-based training offered by (ISC)2, as well as online video courses, practice exams and books from third-party companies.

Pluralsight’s CISSP learning path includes 12 courses and 25 hours of e-learning covering the security concepts required for the certification exam. Available for a low monthly fee, the CISSP courses are part of a subscription plan that gives IT professionals access to Pluralsight’s complete library of video training courses.

When you’re ready to test your security knowledge, you can take a simulated test that mimics the format and content of the real CISSP exam. Udemy offers CISSP practice tests to help you prepare for this challenging exam.

5. CISA: Certified Information Systems Auditor

ISACA’s globally recognized CISA certification is the gold standard for IT workers seeking to practice in information security, audit control and assurance. Ideal candidates can identify and assess organizational threats and vulnerabilities, assess compliance, and provide guidance and organizational security controls. CISA-certified professionals demonstrate knowledge and skill across the CISA job practice areas of auditing, governance and management, acquisition, development and implementation, maintenance and service management, and asset protection.

To earn the CISA certification, candidates must pass one exam, submit an application, agree to the code of professional ethics, agree to the CPE requirements and agree to the organization’s information systems auditing standards. In addition, candidates must possess at least five years of experience working with information systems. Some substitutions for education and experience with auditing are permitted.

To maintain the CISA certification, candidates must earn 120 CPE credits over a three-year period, with a minimum of 20 CPE credits earned annually. Candidates must also pay an annual maintenance fee ($45 for members; $85 for nonmembers).

CISA facts and figures

Certification name

Certified Information Systems Auditor (CISA)

Prerequisites and required courses

To obtain the CISA credential, candidates must do the following:

  1. Pass the CISA exam.
  2. Agree to the ISACA code of professional ethics.
  3. Adhere to ISACA’s CPE policy.
  4. Agree to the information auditing standards.
  5. Possess a minimum of five years of information systems auditing, control or security work in described job practice analysis areas. Experience must be verifiable and obtained in the 10-year period prior to the application date or within five years after the test is passed. There are some exceptions to this requirement depending on the current credentials held.
  6. Apply for CISA certification. (The processing fee is $50.) The credential must be obtained within five years of test passage.

Number of exams

One: 150 questions, four hours

Cost of exam

$575 (members); $760 (nonmembers)

URL

https://www.isaca.org/credentialing/cisa

Self-study materials

ISACA offers a variety of training options, including virtual instructor-led courses, online and on-demand training, review manuals and question databases. Numerous books and self-study materials are also available on Amazon.

Certified Information Systems Auditor (CISA) training

Training opportunities for the CISA certification are plentiful. Udemy offers more than 160 CISA-related courses, lectures, practice exams, question sets and more. On Pluralsight, you’ll find 12 courses with 27 hours of information systems auditor training covering all CISA job practice domains for the CISA job practice areas.

Beyond the top 5: More cybersecurity certifications

In addition to these must-have credentials, many other certifications are available to fit the career needs of any IT professional interested in information security. Business owners should consider employing workers with these credentials as well.

  • The SANS GIAC Security Essentials (GSEC) certification remains an excellent entry-level credential for IT professionals seeking to demonstrate that they not only understand information security terminology and concepts but also possess the skills and technical expertise necessary to occupy “hands-on” security roles.
  • If you find incident response and investigation intriguing, check out the Logical Operations CyberSec First Responder (CFR) certification. This ANSI-accredited and U.S. DoD-8570-compliant credential recognizes security professionals who can design secure IT environments, perform threat analysis, and respond appropriately and effectively to cyberattacks. Logical Operations also offers other certifications, including Master Mobile Application Developer (MMAD), Certified Virtualization Professional (CVP), Cyber Secure Coder and CloudMASTER.
  • The associate-level Cisco Certified CyberOps Associate certification is aimed at analysts in security operations centers at large companies and organizations. Candidates who qualify through Cisco’s global scholarship program may receive free training, mentoring and testing to help them achieve a range of entry-level to expert certifications that the company offers. CompTIA Cybersecurity Analyst (CySA+), which launched in 2017, is a vendor-neutral certification designed for professionals with three to four years of security and behavioral analytics experience.
  • The Identity Management Institute offers several credentials for identity and access management, data protection, identity protection, identity governance and more. The International Association of Privacy Professionals (IAPP), which focuses on privacy, has a small but growing number of certifications as well.
  • The SECO-Institute, in cooperation with the Security Academy Netherlands and APMG, is behind the Cyber Security & Governance Certification Program; SECO-Institute certifications aren’t well known in the United States, but their popularity is growing. 
  • It also may be worth your time to browse the Chartered Institute of Information Security accreditations, the U.K. equivalent of the U.S. DoD 8570 certifications and the corresponding 8140 framework.

Also, consider these five entry-level cybersecurity certifications for more options.

TipTip: Before you decide to purchase training for a certification or an test voucher, see if your employer will cover the cost. Employers may cover all or part of the cost if you have a continuing education or training allowance, or if the certification is in line with your current or potential job duties.

Information security and cybersecurity jobs

According to CyberSeek, the number of cybersecurity job openings in the U.S. stands at almost 598,000, with about 1.05 million cybersecurity professionals employed in today’s workforce. Projections continue to be robust: The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics expects 33% growth in information security analyst positions between 2020 and 2030; in comparison, the average rate of growth for all occupations is about 8%.

Security-related job roles include information security specialist, security analyst, network security administrator, system administrator (with security as a responsibility) and security engineer, as well as specialized roles, like malware engineer, intrusion analyst and penetration tester.

Average salaries for information security certified and security engineers – two of the most common job roles – vary depending on the source. For example, SimplyHired reports about $74,000 for specialist positions, whereas Glassdoor‘s national average is about $108,000. For security engineers, SimplyHired reports almost $112,000, while Glassdoor’s average is more than $111,000, with salaries on the high end reported at $261,000. Note that these numbers frequently change as the sources regularly update their data. [Meet the man who kept Microsoft safe and secure for more than a decade.]

Our informal job board survey from April 2022 reports the number of job posts nationwide in which our featured certifications were mentioned on a given day. This should deliver you an idea of the relative popularity of each certification.

Job board search results (in alphabetical order by cybersecurity certification)

Certification

SimplyHired

Indeed

LinkedIn Jobs

TechCareers

Total

CEH (EC-Council)

1,989

3,907

7,952

2,829

16,677

CISA (ISACA)

5,389

12,507

20,573

4,701

43,170

CISM (ISACA)

3,467

6,656

14,503

4,072

28,698

CISSP [(ISC)2]

11,472

23,463

34,716

11,060

80,711

Security+ (CompTIA)

5,953

6,680

5,998

1,851

20,482

Did you know?Did you know?: Cybersecurity matters even when you’re traveling. Find out how to keep your computer secure when you’re on the road for business or pleasure.

The importance of hiring information security and cybersecurity professionals

According to Risk Based Security‘s 2021 Year End Data Breach Quickview Report, there were 4,145 publicly disclosed breaches throughout 2021, containing over 22 billion records. This is the second-highest number of breached records, after an all-time high the year before. The U.S. was particularly affected, with the number of breaches increasing 10% compared with the previous year. More than 80% of the records exposed throughout 2021 were due to human error, highlighting an ever-increasing need for cybersecurity education, as well as for highly skilled and trained cybersecurity professionals. [Learn how to recover from a data breach.]

If you’re serious about advancing your career in the IT field and are interested in specializing in security, certification is a great choice. It’s an effective way to validate your skills and show a current or prospective employer that you’re qualified and properly trained. If you’re a business owner, hiring certified professionals and skilled IT managers can help prevent cyberattacks and provide confidence that your company’s security is in the right hands. In the meantime, review our quick cybersecurity tips to Boost your company’s protection.

Jeremy Bender contributed to the writing and research in this article.

Mon, 10 Oct 2022 12:01:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.businessnewsdaily.com/10708-information-security-certifications.html
Killexams : How to Use practice tests to Study for the LSAT Young student learning in the middle of a public library.  memorizing an old book and making notes. © (Getty Images) Young student learning in the middle of a public library. memorizing an old book and making notes.

The LSAT is a test of endurance under time pressure, like a mental marathon.

It would be inadvisable to run a marathon without first training to run a full 26.2 miles. Likewise, it’s a bad idea to take the LSAT without first training with real practice tests.

That said, very few athletes run daily marathons. Instead, they vary their training with shorter intervals and complementary forms of exercise. They might focus one day on sprinting or climbing hills and another day on strength and conditioning at the gym.

In the same way, LSAT test-takers should use full practice tests judiciously. Taking one test after another, day after day, may seem impressive, but it can reinforce bad habits and lead to burnout.

Improvement comes from focused and methodical practice with careful attention to review and experimentation. Still, real practice tests belong at the core of any LSAT study strategy, as long as they’re used well.

Accessing Real Practice LSAT Tests

Unlike other standardized tests, real LSAT tests are not hard to come by. In fact, the Law School Admission Council, which administers the exam, has made available more than 70 full, real, past LSAT tests for purchase, either through paperback compendiums of practice tests or through Official LSAT Prep Plus, which is currently priced at $99 and provides one year of access to an online bank of practice tests.

The LSAC also provides one free trial test online and five practice tests for members who sign up for an online account. Even more tests are available through private test prep companies.

Choosing a LSAT Practice Test

With so many tests available, where should law school applicants start? Since the mid-1990s, practice tests have been numbered in chronological order. More accurate tests provide the most relevant practice.

The LSAT has changed a bit over time. In 2007, the memorizing comprehension section began including a comparative passage, and in 2019 the LSAT moved to a digital format. LSATs that date back to the 1990s may include less clear questions and more elaborate types of logic games than accurate tests.

It’s also easier to find discussions and explanations of questions online for more accurate LSATs.

That said, sections from old LSATs can be great substitutes for experimental sections. On the genuine LSAT, one section will be experimental and unscored. Experimental sections often throw test-takers for a loop, precisely because they haven’t been correctly balanced and refined. Since older tests also feel a little offbeat, they achieve the same effect.

Using Timed and Untimed Practice

Taking full timed practice tests is great for simulating test conditions and getting a sense of your current LSAT score range. Most of the time, however, it is better to break each practice test into individual sections. Taking each section at full attention, separated by downtime for rest and review while the questions are fresh in your memory, is more conducive to learning than taking a full test at once.

A good LSAT study plan should start with a period of mastering fundamental techniques learned from a book, course, online program or tutor.

Once you have the basics down, practice them by taking untimed sections. Work slowly and deliberately, as if you were learning how to swim or ski for the first time. The questions you get wrong with unlimited time are exactly the kinds of questions you should focus on in your practice and review.

It may come as a surprise, but you will pick up speed more reliably through untimed practice than through timed practice. Slowly working your way through difficult questions will help you break each question into a series of steps that eventually feel intuitive and automatic, like muscle memory. In contrast, time pressure makes it too tempting to cut corners.

Once you are performing consistently with untimed practice, move to timed section practice. Periodically take full practice tests, as a marathoner might space out long-distance runs.

Weeks of timed practice will help build stamina, so you can sustain the focus you need to perform at your best. By knowing exactly what you’re up against, you’ll face less test anxiety.

Following this plan will help make test day feel like just another day of practice – hopefully your last!

Copyright 2022 U.S. News & World Report

Tue, 11 Oct 2022 01:45:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://www.msn.com/en-us/health/other/how-to-use-practice-tests-to-study-for-the-lsat/ar-AA12PJ6R
Killexams : Calculus Readiness Test Practice Test

The questions that follow are designed to make prospective students aware of the mathematics background required for those intending to take one of the SFU Calculus courses: MATH 150, 151, 154 or 157. The genuine test will cover the same concepts as this practice test does, but the questions will be different. For more information about the expectations, read Calculus Readiness Test Assessment Topics.

If you do not achieve a passing score on the genuine test, we recommend that you enroll in Math 100 course, Precalculus.

Treat the Practice Calculus Readiness Test as a learning experience: if your answer to a question is incorrect, make sure that you understand the concept the question is related to before attempting the genuine test.

You should be aware of the following conditions when you attempt this practice test:

  1. To be admitted to MATH 151, you must answer at least 24 questions out of the 30 questions correctly (on the genuine test, not the practice test). For the other Calculus courses, the passing score is 20. The practice test does not keep track of your success rate - you will have to keep track of it yourself.
  2. You may take as much time as you like to complete the practice test. However, the genuine test will be timed: you will have 1.5 hour for completion of the test.
  3. On the practice test, you will be allowed multiple attempts at each question. On the genuine test, you will be allowed to attempt each question only once.
  4. You may take the practice test as many times as you wish. However, you will be allowed to take the genuine test only once.
  5. You will have to write the genuine test virtually on Canvas, and you will have to book a specific day to take it. You will not be permitted to bring any electronic devices to the test, but the software you will be using will allow you to use a basic four-function calculator if you wish to do so.
Sun, 15 May 2022 08:54:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.sfu.ca/math/undergraduate/advising/calculus-readiness-test/calculus-readiness-test-practice-test.html
Killexams : Practice Test: Synonyms and Antonyms

Tackle these vocabulary basics in a short practice test: synonyms and antonyms. Synonyms are words that have a similar meaning, and antonyms are words with opposite meanings. Students in first and second grade will think deeply about word meaning as they search for the matching synonym or antonym in each row of this memorizing and writing worksheet.

Grade
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Sat, 15 Aug 2020 09:42:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.education.com/worksheet/article/practice-test-synonyms-antonyms/
Killexams : Why Product Testing and Certification Really Matters

Quality-built home and industrial electronic devices have marks indicating that they have passed a variety of tests. The UL mark shown here indicates extensive evaluation and testing. (Image source: AutomationDirect)

These days, we really don’t concern ourselves with questions around product safety all that often. Our homes and plants are full of electronic equipment and, under normal circumstances, we don’t worry about a refrigerator, computer, or electric motor causing a fire. We take it for granted that these products are built well and tested to ensure safe performance because most of them are.

At least this was the working assumption. But things are changing for the worse with some components—particularly for industrial use.

For the last 20 years and more, the bulk of the electrical components used in industrial facilities have come from companies that are known for their reliability and quality—much of which is assured through careful product design and thorough testing. Users might assume this is the case for all electrical components. Unfortunately, it isn’t.

What happens when inferior products are selected—either unknowingly or as a means to reduce cost? This type of situation is happening more often in the world of manufacturing because of both the growing interest in devices from the Maker community and the growing ease of purchasing inexpensive electronic components from no-name suppliers.

Understanding Quality Differentiators

Not all products are tested according to any government standards because testing is expensive and requires more sophisticated circuit design.

For someone working on a basic industrial project and needing a standard electronic automation device, there are many potential suppliers with a wide range of prices. Some searching on eBay can turn up unbranded units that cost barely one-quarter the price of even a high-value supplier, with other name brand units offered at far higher prices.

We’ll assume the un-branded unit works, but it will likely have few if any marks showing it has passed any certifications or tests. The customer in this case has no assurance that the unit has ever been checked for any type of manufacturing quality outside of powering up correctly. The more expensive choices will undoubtedly come with an assortment of testing marks, such as Underwriter’s Laboratories (UL), Conformité Européene (CE), Canadian Standards Association (CSA), and possibly others determined by the country of origin and intended markets. 

Similarly, someone wanting to use “maker” devices in a project has to be careful as to the source of the products. For example, the basic Arduino UNO, if made by the Arduino company, is provided with the CE and US Federal Communications Commission (FCC) marks. Additionally, it is ROHS compliant. These together designate that it meets the most basic requirements for levels of potentially hazardous chemical content, such as lead and cadmium—necessary for legal sale in the EU countries. The FCC mark indicates that it doesn’t cause excessive amounts of radio frequency interference (RFI).

Two functionally equivalent “Uno” boards, one from Arduino (left) and the other a clone, do not carry the same certifications. (Image source: AutomationDirect)

Why Testing Matters

Those are fine as far as they go, but they don’t mean nearly as much as the kind of analysis and testing done by a nationally recognized testing laboratory (NRTL) such as UL. Moreover, it only applies to products actually made by Arduino. The bigger problem is that an equivalent board can be purchased from multiple manufacturers because the UNO design is open source. Anyone can make and sell a functionally equivalent board. It may operate exactly as it should, but it may not have any certifications at all. Let the buyer beware.

Product testing and certifications do not create quality, but they ensure a product is designed and manufactured with quality as a primary objective. Testing always requires using some standard as the yardstick (see table). For example, making sure a PLC can operate without getting excessively hot can be examined under IEC 61131-2. It covers more performance areas and goes into much greater detail. Basically, it defines circumstances of normal operation, the potential amount of time involved, and what temperature qualifies as excessive. The more complex the standard, the more complex the testing.

Standards may be imposed externally or internally. Manufacturing a product so it can carry the UL mark means it has to be tested to the relevant UL standard, Verified by UL. In other cases, another lab certified by the standard-issuing organization can perform the test, but it can’t be done by the manufacturer. On the other hand, a manufacturer may perform its own tests. It can follow an existing standard, such as a MIL-STD, and say that the testing has been carried out in conformance with the standard.

The genuine testing process pushes the product to any limits spelled out in the standard. If the standard requires it to survive a drop of 15 feet to a concrete floor, it will be dropped 15 feet to a concrete floor. If a switch has to be capable of surviving 50,000 cycles, it will be switched 50,000 times. Testing labs take these things very literally.

If an existing standard is not available or doesn’t pertain to the product as desired, a company can impose its own standard on a product. For example, let’s say it wants to advertise a new device designed for use in cold climates, able to perform when it is -40 degrees fahrenheit. The manufacturer may hire an external testing lab to carry out the test, but it may do it internally because it is an in-house standard. It will write its own procedure saying the unit must be placed in a freezer at -42 degrees for 24 hours before powering up, etc. The objective is figuring out a way to prove the point being claimed in a repeatable and documentable manner. Prospective purchasers can decide if they accept its validity or not.

Shown are the internals of an unbranded, uncertified temperature display. It carries no marks at all, so there is no assurance it was designed well, uses quality components, or was assembled properly. For example, the MA+ connection at the lower left does not appear to be soldered, and the adjacent connections are hand soldered and inconsistent. (Image source: AutomationDirect)

What Standards Include

Standards go well beyond simply describing testing procedures. Testing is certainly part of the process, but it goes much deeper to include how the product is designed and manufactured. A new product going through initial evaluation by an NRTL like UL will need to be studied in great detail. The first step is deciding which standards might apply for the type of product and its applications. Once established, the examiners begin looking for a variety of characteristics, including but not limited to:

  • If the components are appropriate for the application and procured from reliable suppliers. UL maintains lists of recognized suppliers of individual components that are considered acceptable. Those not on the list have to be tested.
  • If the circuit board and internal component layouts ensure conductors and board traces are wide enough for expected current levels, components have sufficient space between them, internal spaces allow heat dissipation, etc.
  • If the power supply is stable and capable of delivering sufficient current for all operating conditions without creating excessive RFI or heat.
  • If the design and construction files detailing the thought processes used for overall configuration, component selection, and assembly demonstrate correct thinking and analysis.

The list could go on at great length. Suffice it to say there are many elements typically entering into the discussion that are dictated by the nature of the product and its applications.

How Much Testing is Enough?

Standards issuers and testing organizations used for industrial electronic components and devices:
   
ABS—American Bureau of Shipping FCC—US Federal Communications Commission
ANSI—American National Standards Institute FM—Factory Mutual
ATEX—Atmosphères Explosibles EU Directive IEC—International Electrotechnical Commission
Baseefa—British Approval Service for
Electrical Equipment in Flammable Atmospheres 
ISO—International Organization for Standards
CCC—China Compulsory Certificate NFPA—National Fire Protection Association
CE—Conformité Européene TÜV—Technischer Übervachungsverein
CGMP—Current Good Manufacturing Practices, US FDA UL—Underwriter’s Laboratories
CSA—Canadian Standards Association VDE—Verband der Elektrotechnik
DIN—Deutsches Institut für Normung  

Most people who explore this subject in any depth are astonished by the number of testing organizations around the world and the mind-boggling number of standards. These stem from the days before globalization, when most industrial countries had their own locally manufactured products. Circuit breakers made in Germany were used there as well, and their own NRTL networks grew up to service those producers and users. The same thing happened in most other industrially advanced countries.

Nowadays, products can be produced and used anywhere, but the national concept of NRTLs persists. To a large extent, a user in Germany still has to have products tested and certified locally, but this is beginning to break down. For example, the CE mark in Europe applies to all the EU countries. Similarly, UL can do one test that applies equally in Canada and the US, but these are still exceptions to the larger regional rules.

Consequently, an automation product manufacturer has to launch a testing program for every major country. This creates a lot of duplicated effort, but at least most countries have relatively similar testing criteria. There are differences from country to country and some are stricter than others. But a truly well-designed and manufactured product can pass most examinations. Nonetheless, paying for all that testing can run up costs into the six figures and delay introduction of a product for months.

To further complicate matters, NRTLs usually insist on testing genuine production models of a product rather than prototypes. This means a manufacturer has to gear up and produce months before they can have the necessary marks applied. This also adds cost.

The number of certifications required by a given customer will depend on a variety of factors. Some are regionally based and required by law. Specific types of plants—particularly those with hazardous environments, such as oil refining or chemical manufacturing—may have requirements outlined by a regulatory agency or industry group. Similarly, an insurance provider can impose minimum requirements needed to keep policies in force.

A Means, not an End

Product designers who know their efforts will be dissected under a microscope by a dispassionate evaluator realize they can’t cut corners. Everything has to be executed correctly at every phase of the process. Test and certification are simply a verification of the correct process. Passing the test is important, but not as important as a desire to create and build quality products.

Bill Dehner is a technical marketing engineer for AutomationDirect. He holds a bachelor’s degree in electrical engineering with an associate’s degree in avionics from the USAF. He has spent the majority of his 14-year engineering career designing and installing industrial control systems for the oil and gas, power, and package handling industries.

Tim Dunn is a design engineer for Host Engineering. He holds a bachelor’s degree in electrical engineering from West Virginia University. He has worked as a reliability and design engineer for a variety of companies, including Siemens and Texas Instruments. At Host Engineering, is responsible for design, development, testing, and certifications of many PLC product lines for AutomationDirect.

Thu, 13 Oct 2022 11:59:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.designnews.com/electronics-test/why-product-testing-and-certification-really-matters
Killexams : Multi-AoA System Performs CTIA OTA Certification Test

What you’ll learn:

  • 5G NR mmWave technology challenges.
  • How the 5G spectrum is split.
  • The importance of multi-AoA test.

The mmWave 5G market is predicted to grow to US$4.9 billion by 2027, according to a new report by MarketsandMarkets, driven by industry migration and adoption. The 5G NR mmWave infrastructure leverages advanced technologies such as beamforming using sophisticated antenna array systems, challenging designers to develop solutions that can operate in a crowded multispectral RF space.

The 5G operating spectrum is currently split into two different frequency ranges, frequency range 1 and 2 (FR1 and FR2). FR1 is expected to carry the lion's share of traditional cellular communications, while the higher frequency of the FR2 range targets short-range high-bandwidth applications. For FR2, every device must be tested over the air (OTA) to verify data rates and latencies. Certification by CTIA is important for validating 5G devices, especially at FR2 frequencies.

To address the validation requirements of these advanced 5G NR solutions, Rohde & Schwarz released a test solution authorized by the CTIA for 5G FR2 certification that also offers full multiple angles of arrival (multi-AoA) capabilities, verifying the performance of mobile devices in the millimeter-wave (mmWave) space. The solution uses the R&S TS8980 conformance test system and the R&S CMX500 5G tester, along with the R&S ATS1800M mmWave (FR2) chamber. 

Scalable from 30- to 40-cm quiet zone, from single AoA to multi-AoA and from in-band to out-of-band, the test system can address advanced testing challenges such as phantom testing with two-hand landscape, as well as single-hand portrait and head testing. Providing support for the upcoming test requirements from 3GPP release 16, 17 and 18, the solution gives customers the opportunity to fully automate the RF and RRM certification testing process on a single test system. It covers OTA performance tests from CTIA as well as tests defined by 3GPP and GCF.

Tue, 11 Oct 2022 03:21:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.electronicdesign.com/technologies/test-measurement/article/21252538/electronic-design-multiaoa-system-performs-ctia-ota-certification-test
Killexams : 'Victory for all future educators': NJ does away with teacher certification test — sort of

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Tue, 27 Sep 2022 00:30:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://www.northjersey.com/story/news/education/2022/09/27/teacher-shortage-nj-mandated-assessment-test-to-be-replaced/69520248007/
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