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Praxis-Core Praxis Core Academic Skills for Educators

You have been working to acquire the knowledge and skills you need for your teaching career. Now you are
ready to demonstrate your abilities by taking a Praxis® test.

Using the Praxis® Study Companion is a smart way to prepare for the test so you can do your best on test day.
This guide can help keep you on track and make the most efficient use of your study time.
The Study Companion contains practical information and helpful tools, including:

• An overview of the Praxis tests

• Specific information on the Praxis test you are taking

• A template study plan

• Study topics

• Practice questions and explanations of correct answers

• Test-taking tips and strategies

• Frequently asked questions

• Links to more detailed information

So where should you start? Begin by reviewing this guide in its entirety and note those sections that you need
to revisit. Then you can create your own personalized study plan and schedule based on your individual needs
and how much time you have before test day.

Keep in mind that study habits are individual. There are many different ways to successfully prepare for your
test. Some people study better on their own, while others prefer a group dynamic. You may have more energy
early in the day, but another test taker may concentrate better in the evening. So use this guide to develop the
approach that works best for you.

Test Name Core Academic Skills for Educators: Writing

Test Code 5722

Time 100 minutes, divided into a 40-minute selected-response section and two
30-minute essay sections

Number of Questions 40 selected-response questions and two essay questions
Format Selected-response questions involving usage, sentence correction, revision in
context, and research skills; 2 essay syllabus as the basis for writing samples
Test Delivery Computer delivered

Approximate Approximate

Content Categories Number of Percentage of Questions* Examination

I. Text Types, Purposes, and Production 6–12 selected-response 60%

2 essay

II. Language and Research Skills 28–34 selected-response 40%

for Writing

* Includes both scored and unscored (pretest) questions. Depending on the
number of pretest questions included in each scoring category, the total number
of questions in that category may vary from one form of the test to another.

The Core Academic Skills for Educators Test in Writing measures academic skills in writing needed to prepare
successfully for a career in education. All skills assessed have been identified as needed for college and career
readiness, in alignment with the Common Core State Standards for Writing.
The Writing test is 100 minutes in length and has three separately timed sections: a 40-minute selectedresponse section containing 40 selected-response questions and two 30-minute essay sections that each
require a response based on an essay topic. This test may contain some questions that will not count toward
your score.

The selected-response section is designed to measure examinees ability to use standard written English
correctly and effectively. This section is divided into four parts: usage, sentence correction, revision in context,
and research skills. In the usage questions, examinees are asked to recognize errors in mechanics, in structural
and grammatical relationships, and in idiomatic
expressions or word choice. They are also asked to
recognize sentences that have no errors and that
meet the conventions of standard written English. The
sentence correction questions require examinees to
select, from among the choices presented, the best
way to restate a certain phrase or sentence by using
standard written English; in some cases, the phrase
or sentence is correct and most effective as stated.

Examinees are not required to have a knowledge of
formal grammatical terminology. In the revision-incontext questions, examinees are asked to recognize
how a passage with which they are presented can be
strengthened through editing and revision. Revisionin-context questions require examinees to consider
development, organization, word choice, style, tone,
and the conventions of standard written English. In
some cases, the indicated portion of a passage will be
most effective as it is already expressed and thus will
require no changes.

In the research skills questions, examinees are asked to
recognize effective research strategies, recognize the
different elements of a citation, recognize information
relevant to a particular research task, and assess the
credibility of sources.
The two essays assess examinees ability to
write effectively in a limited period of time. The
Argumentative essay syllabu invites examinees to draw
from personal experience, observation, or studying to
support a position with specific reasons and examples.
The Informative/Explanatory essay syllabu asks
examinees to extract information from two provided
sources to identify important concerns related to an

The syllabus for the Argumentative and Informative/
Explanatory essays attempt to present situations
that are familiar to all educated people; no syllabu will
require any specialized knowledge other than an
understanding of how to write effectively in English.
Examinees should write only on the syllabu assigned
for each essay task, address all the points presented
in the topic, and support generalizations with
specific examples. For the Informative/Explanatory
essay, examinees should also draw information from
both sources, making sure to cite the source of the
information. Before beginning to write each essay,
examinees should read the syllabu and organize their
thoughts carefully.

I. Text Types, Purposes, and Production

A. Text Production: Writing Arguments

1. Produce an argumentative essay to support a claim using relevant and sufficient evidence

2. Write clearly and coherently

a. address the assigned task appropriately for an audience of educated adults

b. organize and develop ideas logically, making coherent connections between them

c. provide and sustain a clear focus or thesis

d. use supporting reasons, examples, and details to develop clearly and logically the ideas presented

e. demonstrate facility in the use of language and the ability to use a variety of sentence structures

f. construct effective sentences that are generally free of errors in standard written English

B. Text Production: Writing Informative/ Explanatory Texts

1. Produce an informative/explanatory essay to examine and convey complex ideas and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content

a. write clearly and coherently

b. address the assigned task appropriately for an audience of educated adults

c. draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis

d. organize and develop ideas logically, making coherent connections between them

e. synthesize information from multiple sources on the subject

f. integrate and attribute information from multiple sources on the subject, avoiding plagiarism

g. provide and sustain a clear focus or thesis

h. demonstrate facility in the use of language and the ability to use a variety of sentence structures

i. construct effective sentences that are generally free of errors in standard written English

C. Text Production: Revision

1. Develop and strengthen writing as needed by revising and editing

a. recognize how a passage can be strengthened through editing and revision

– apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts and to make effective choices for meaning or style

> choose words and phrases for effect

> choose words and phrases to convey ideas precisely

> maintain consistency in style and tone

II. Language and Research Skills for Writing

A. Language Skills

1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage

a. grammatical relationships recognize and correct:

– errors in the use of adjectives and adverbs

– errors in noun-noun agreement

– errors in pronoun-antecedent agreement

– errors in pronoun case

– errors in the use of intensive pronoun

– errors in pronoun number and person

– vague pronouns

– errors in subject-verb agreement

– inappropriate shifts in verb tense

b. structural relationships

recognize and correct:

– errors in the placement of phrases and clauses within a sentence

– misplaced and dangling modifiers

– errors in the use of coordinating and subordinating conjunctions

– fragments and run-ons

– errors in the use of correlative conjunctions

– errors in parallel structure

c. word choice recognize and correct:

– errors in the use of idiomatic expressions

– errors in the use of frequently confused words

– wrong word use

– redundancy

d. No Error recognize:

– sentences free of errors in the conventions of standard English grammar and usage

2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization and punctuation

a. mechanics recognize and correct::

– errors in capitalization

– errors in punctuation

> commas (e.g., the use of a comma to separate an introductory element from the rest of the sentence)

> semicolons (e.g., the use of a semicolon [and perhaps a conjunctive adverb] to link two or more closely related independent clauses)

> apostrophes (e.g., the use of an apostrophe to form contractions and frequently occurring possessives)

b. no errror

– recognize sentences free of errors in the conventions of standard English capitalization and punctuation

B. Research Skills

1. Recognize and apply appropriate research skills and strategies

a. assess the credibility and relevance of sources

b. recognize the different elements of a citation

c. recognize effective research strategies

d. recognize information relevant to a particular research task

Praxis Core Academic Skills for Educators
Admission-Tests Educators approach
Killexams : Admission-Tests Educators approach - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/Praxis-Core Search results Killexams : Admission-Tests Educators approach - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/Praxis-Core https://killexams.com/exam_list/Admission-Tests Killexams : Direct Admissions: Promising, but No Panacea No result found, try new keyword!Many colleges are experimenting with a novel way of enrolling prospective students. New research sheds light on its potential — and limitations. Tue, 22 Aug 2023 12:17:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://www.chronicle.com/article/direct-admissions-promising-but-no-panacea Killexams : Race-neutral admissions are next in line of fire after affirmative action ruling

Students hoping to attend Thomas Jefferson high school for science and technology in Virginia, one of the most competitive magnet schools in the US, once took a rigorous standardized test for admission. They also had to pay a $100 fee to apply. Those requirements posed a barrier for many students, particularly those who lacked access to test preparation resources and low-income students whose families couldn’t afford the fee.

As racial justice protests flared across the US in 2020, the Fairfax county school board decided to abandon the test and application fee in response to criticism that the school did not enroll enough Black and Latino students. The board overhauled the school’s admissions program, adopting a race-neutral approach and instituting a holistic evaluation of students’ grades, problem-solving skills, and “experience factors”, such as free and reduced lunch eligibility and whether they were an English language learner. It also implemented a practice of guaranteeing seats for the top students at every middle school in the county.

Almost immediately after the adoption of its new policy, TJ’s population changed. By 2021, applications rose by nearly 1,000, and the percentage of Black students grew from less than 2% to 8%. The percentage of Latino and white students also increased. The percentage of Asian American students, who had previously accounted for nearly three-quarters of the student body, fell to just over half. And a coalition of Asian American parents and others who opposed the changes formed the Coalition for TJ. In March 2021, the group sued the district alleging that their race-neutral policies were aimed at racial balancing and discriminated against Asian American students.

A federal appeals court ruled that the district’s policies did not discriminate and upheld their actions as constitutional, but earlier this week, the conservative Pacific Legal Foundation, a libertarian legal group representing the Coalition for TJ, appealed to the supreme court to hear its case. The group has pursued similar legal challenges in three other cases currently in circuit courts involving specialized high schools in New York, Boston and Montgomery county, Maryland.

The filing against Thomas Jefferson high school represents the first appeal to the nation’s highest court to challenge schools’ use of race-neutral policies. Following the US supreme court’s ban on race-conscious admissions in higher education, it’s a move that conservative activists see as the next frontier in the effort to stop any effort, race-neutral or otherwise, that encourages diversity.

The Pacific Legal Foundation’s attorneys pointed to the affirmative action ban and argued that the longer the TJ case remained unresolved, the “more incentive school districts (and now universities) will have to develop workarounds that enable them to racially discriminate without using racial classifications”. They argued that TJ’s admissions standards amounted to using “race-neutral proxies” to achieve diversity and the subsequent decline in Asian American students amounted to discrimination.

What civil rights attorneys see as a removal of barriers is seen by conservative legal activists as an attempt to achieve racial balancing, meaning more opportunities for some groups come at the expense of others. Michaele Turnage Young, a senior attorney for the NAACP Legal Defense and Education Fund, said she thought the Pacific Legal Foundation was mischaracterizing the facts of the case. Young, who represents Thomas Jefferson alumni who support the changes, said: “It’s not illegal to remove barriers to equal opportunity.”

Young pointed out that TJ’s race-neutral policy changes benefited everyone, including Asian Americans. As the school grew more diverse in 2021, Asian American students who attended “historically underrepresented” middle schools saw a “sixfold increase in offers” to the high school, according to court filings, even as a lower percentage of Asian American students attended Thomas Jefferson that year. What’s more, Asian American students from low-income backgrounds rose 5,000% from one student in 2020 to 51 in 2021. “That’s not a policy that discriminates against Asian American students,” Young said. “It’s a policy that equalizes opportunity for everyone.”

It’s unclear whether the supreme court will take up the case, but some conservative justices may be receptive. In April 2022, when the court denied an emergency request from Pacific Legal Foundation to consider the case, Justices Clarence Thomas, Samuel Alito and Neil Gorsuch disagreed with the court’s decision.

Now, after the affirmative action ban, the justices could soon again decide the fate of policies aimed at boosting diversity – a decision that civil rights attorneys worry could extend beyond education.

Wed, 23 Aug 2023 06:37:00 -0500 Edwin Rios en text/html https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2023/aug/23/school-race-neutral-admissions-affirmative-action
Killexams : Law Schools Can Apply for Variance to Admit Students Without LSAT

While the American Bar Association’s Section of Legal Education and Admissions has hit ”pause” on deciding whether to allow law schools to make admission tests optional, there may still be ways around the LSAT.

During the council of the ABA Section of Legal Education and Admissions to the Bar’s hybrid meeting in Chicago on Friday, Bill Adams, managing director of ABA accreditation and legal education, said that the question of whether to make law schools test-optional is simply on hold—no permanent decision has been reached other than Council voting in May not to send the proposal back to the House of Delegates.

Fri, 18 Aug 2023 08:06:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.law.com/2023/08/18/law-schools-can-apply-for-variance-to-admit-students-without-lsat/?slreturn=20230724020426
Killexams : Justice with Jessica: Prepping for elite college admissions in post-affirmative action world
Prev Next

Right now, many high school students are already thinking ahead to college.

The application process can look a lot different for some of those students since the United States Supreme Court made a major change to college admissions.

In June,the high court effectively ended race-conscious admissions programs, also known as affirmative action, at colleges across the country.

The decision is already making an impact with some colleges, like the University of Missouri, indicating that they will no longer offer scholarships that take race or ethnicity into consideration.

Race-conscious admissions allowed prestigious schools to consider race as one of many factors— but not the deciding factor— of whether a qualified student could be admitted.

Civil rights attorney Edward C. Hopkins Jr., a partner at Rathod Mohamedbhai LLC, has advice for students navigating the new path.

"Treat these last couple of semesters that you have as if they were the most important sports events that you've had in your entire academic career," Hopkins said. "If you're coming from a middle class or working class family. It's smart now to try to secure resources to get things like tutors, things like test prep courses."

Ose Okihan, a recent graduate of Rangeview High School in Aurora, took a similar approach. He's now preparing to start his first semester at Stanford University.

"I made sure that the classes I took were the hardest classes that were offered it at my high school," Okihan said.

Okihan balanced tough classes with sports, mentoring with Big Brothers Big Sisters, and SAT prep.

He utilized practice SAT courses at his school, and then found extra resources online in his own time.

Okihan said Khan Academy was one of his go-to test prep resources. It even gave him an SAT study schedule.

"If I wanted to do the writing section on one week, I can do that," he said. "And then take a practice questions either every two or three weeks leading up to April taking the SAT."

Hopkins also suggests that applicants at elite colleges emphasize their diverse backgrounds (racial, financial, regional, etc.) in admissions essays because the Supreme Court's decision still allows colleges to consider that.

Organizations that are committed to diversity can also provide free and low-cost test prep services to help students boost their scores.

The Big Brothers Big Sisters of Colorado Big Futures program offers those resources to some schools in the Denver metro.

Hopkins said that he expects to see fewer BIPOC students at elite universities in the coming years, but he expects that to change over time.

"I think we're going to initially see a decrease in the number of what I'll call BIPOC, Black, Indigenous, People of Color, Black and brown students— I think they're going to be a slight decrease over the first couple of five to 10 years," Hopkins said. "But after that, when society adjusts, households adjusts, and they understand the new rules of the competition... there's not going to be a significant impact."

Some advocates are concerned that the ruling could lead to a long-term decrease of minority students being admitted to elite colleges.

Regardless of the overall impact, Hopkins said that qualified students will have the greatest chance for admission if they work hard to outscore the pack.

"Now you know that your grades are going to have to be top notch, your test scores are going to have to be top notch," Hopkins said.

Free test prep resources can be found here:

Justice with Jessica: Prepping for elite college admissions in post-affirmative action world

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Wed, 23 Aug 2023 02:57:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.denver7.com/lifestyle/education/justice-with-jessica-prepping-for-elite-college-admissions-in-post-affirmative-action-world
Killexams : Can Oxford and Cambridge Save Harvard From ChatGPT?

Artificial intelligence (AI) is capable not just of disrupting higher education but of blowing it apart. The march of the smart machines is already well advanced. AI can easily pass standardized tests such as the GMAT (Graduate Management Admission Test) and the GRE (Graduate Record Examination) required by graduate schools. AI received a 3.34 GPA (grade point average) in a Harvard freshman course and a B grade on the final exam of a typical core Wharton Business School MBA course. 

What can be done to avoid a future in which AI institutionalizes cheating and robs education of any real content? This question is stirring an anxious debate in the university world, not least in the United States, a country that has long been a pacemaker in higher education and technology, but one that is losing confidence in its ability to combine equity with excellence. With the return to campus nigh, the Washington Post warns of an autumn of “chaos” and “turmoil.” This debate should also be coupled with another equally pressing one: What does the ease with which machines can perform many of the functions of higher education as well as humans tell us about the deficiencies of the current educational model?

One solution to the problem is to ban students from using AI outright. Sciences Po in Paris and RV University in Bangalore are taking this draconian approach. But is trying to ban a technology that is rapidly becoming ubiquitous realistic? And is it a good preparation for life after university to prevent students from using a tool that they will later rely on in work? The banners risk making the same mistake as Socrates who, in Plato’s Phaedrus, opposed writing things down on the grounds that it would weaken the memory and promote the appearance of wisdom, not true wisdom.

A more realistic solution is to let students use AI but only if they do so responsibly. Use it to collect information or organize your notes or check your spelling and facts. Refrain from getting it to write your essays or ace your tests. But this raises practical questions of how you draw the line. How do you tell if students have merely employed it to organize their notes (or check their facts) rather than write their essays? And are you really doing research if you get a bot to do all the work and then merely fluff the material into an essay?

The “use it responsibly” argument opens the possibility of an academic future that is a cross between an arms race and a cat-and-mouse game. The arms race will consist of tech companies developing ever more sophisticated cheating apps and other tech companies developing even more sophisticated apps to conceal the cheating. The cat-and-mouse game will consist of professors trying to spot the illicit use of AI and students trying to outwit them.

Neither approach seems to work, particularly for spotting cheating, let alone eliminating it. Open AI, the maker of ChatGPT, unveiled an app that was supposed to expose AI-generated content this January only to scrap it quietly because of its “low rate of accuracy.” Another company, Turnitin.com, has discovered that bots frequently flag human writing as being AI generated. A professor at Texas A&M, Jared Mumm, used ChatGPT to check whether his students might have been using the system to write their assignments. The bot claimed authorship and the professor held up his students’ diplomas until they provided Google Docs timestamps showing that they had actually done the writing. It turns out that ChatGPT is over enthusiastic in its claims of authorship.

So, what can be done to prevent educational Armageddon? The best answer lies not in fine-tuning machines — the solution to the problems of technology seldom lies in more technology but in adopting a teaching method that goes back to Plato and Socrates and has been perfected in Oxford and Cambridge over the past 150 years: the tutorial method. Call it the Oxbridge solution.

In Oxbridge students meet once a week individually or in a group of two (or on rare occasions three) with their tutors. The tutor sets them an essay question and provides them with a studying list. The students do the necessary studying on their own, write their essays, and then either submit them to their tutors (the preferred method in the days of email) or else read them aloud (the method in my day). The tutors then probe the essays for weaknesses. What did you mean when you said that? What about X, or Y, or Z? Why didn’t you take Professor Snodgrass’s views into consideration? (Or alternatively, if the student relied too heavily on Snodgrass, why didn’t you recognize that Snodgrass, though a dear colleague, is a blithering idiot?) The tutorial partner is also obliged to join in with the discussion in the same spirit of testing hypotheses, looking for alternative explanations or generally playing with ideas.

The spirit of the tutorial is both gladiatorial and egalitarian. Knowledge is contested. Debate is of the essence. Authorities are there to be dethroned. Tutors happily concede arguments to their pupils if the pupils get the better of them. “A good tutorial should be a sparring match” not a “substitute for a lecture” pronounced Dacre Balsdon, a fellow of Exeter College, Oxford, from 1927 to 1969.

The students’ grade is determined by high-stakes exams that involve writing essays at speed and under exam conditions; these are then marked by an alien caucus of examiners appointed by the university (perhaps Snodgrass will be among them). The tutors compete to get the best results for their pupils, and the colleges compete to get the best collective performance. There have recently been moves to lighten the burden of examinations — letting pupils type rather than write, and introducing theses as well as examinations. But AI may have the paradoxical effect of strengthening the role of old-fashioned hand-written exams. Sometimes the best way forward is backwards.

It would be hard to think of a system that is better designed to expose the over-reliance on AI. A pupil who had the chatbot compose the essay verbatim — or who had the bot do the studying and simply fluffed up the essay — would immediately be exposed under cross-examination as a fraud. The point of the essay is not merely to answer the question and get a mark. It is to start a discussion in which your understanding of the studying is examined. Fail to do the studying and you are destined to spend an uncomfortable hour being pulverized by a skillful sparring partner.

Tutorials don’t just expose cheating. They expose the illusion that AI can do the work of real education. Real education is not just about the assembling of facts into plausible patterns. Nor is it about the accumulation of marks and the awarding of certificates. It is about the open-ended exploration of ideas and, as a reward, admission into the world of learning and argument.

The great Oxford historian-cum-philosopher-cum archeologist, R. G. Collingwood, captured the difference between real learning and AI-generated pseudo learning in his 1939 Autobiography, in the context of historical writing. He denounced “scissors-and-paste” history that consisted of the rearrangements of the statements of various authorities as pointless. The real historian doesn’t engage in such futility. Instead, he concentrates on finding “something that has got the answer hidden in it” and concentrates on getting “the answer out by fair means or foul.” The aim of tutorials is to get beyond “scissors and paste” — the world of AI — and get the answer out by interrogating the literature and debating with fellow scholars.

The (admittedly self-satisfied) history of the University of Oxford (published in eight volumes by Oxford University Press) describes tutorials as “the hyphen which joined, the buckle which fastened senior to junior members.” By fastening senior to junior members, tutorials also add a moral element to education. This moral element is a safeguard against cheating: There is all the difference in the world between trying to fool an impersonal educational bureaucracy and trying to fool a tutor whom you meet personally in both educational and social contexts. But the tutorial is much more than that — “a gymnasium for the personality,” as the theater critic Kenneth Tynan put it, or perhaps even “a cure for souls” as the don Kenneth Leys ventured.

The best tutors can serve as both role models and moral guardians. They might also act as life-long mentors, opening doors to jobs, acting as sounding boards, offering advice and getting their proteges out of various pickles.

The opening of doors and unpickling of pickles underlines the ability of the tutorial system to prepare students for later life as well as adorn universities. It teaches people three of the most important skills that they need in most high-profile professions: how to present arguments under pressure, illustrating big points with vivid facts; how to absorb mountains of information in short order; and how to make fine judgments about the plausibility of various explanations. It also teaches people something that is just as useful outside your career as within it: the ability to learn and think independently — to act, as it were, as your own teacher.

The AI revolution may thus have a salutary impact on US education, where the “scissors and paste” approach has conquered even the most elite institutions. American universities emphasize the “sage on the stage” pronouncing from on high (you must wait until graduate school to establish anything like a close relationship with these demi-gods). The transmission of knowledge is tested by routine exams that are usually marked by graduate students, or by multiple-choice questions that can be marked by machines.

Every stage of this process is open to disruption by AI. The lectures can be replaced by better lectures available on the internet. The essays can be churned out by AI. The tests can be taken by machines as well as marked by them. The progressive mechanization of the system by elite professors trying to devote as much of their time as possible to research may finally have reached its Waterloo in the form of AI. The only way forward is to increase the human element in education.

The obvious objection to introducing tutorials into US education is that they are expensive — tutors must devote 12 or more hours a week to teaching and class-student ratios are reduced to 2-to-1. But Ivy League universities make Oxford and Cambridge look like paupers. They can also afford to lavish money on athletic facilities and vast administrative cadres, both of which have nothing to do with education and one of which arguably impedes it.

State universities may have a better case about money — particularly the local universities below the state flagships which specialize in providing a meat-and-potatoes education to less gifted students. But even here AI will demand an increase in the human touch. Flagship universities could introduce tutorials as a reward for the most talented students. Local universities will have to insist that their professors adapt their teaching to the AI age — shifting from lectures to seminars and setting more demanding essays.

American universities became world-beating institutions in the late 19th and early 20th centuries because they combined the best of the two available university systems: Oxford and Cambridge with their residential colleges and tutorial system, and German universities with their obsession with research. Harvard and Yale introduced houses that functioned like Oxbridge colleges and experimented with the tutorial system. Johns Hopkins and the University of Chicago increased the emphasis on research.

The Germanic model eventually won out over the Oxbridge model. Professors were subjected to a regime of publish or perish and thus spent most of their time learning more and more about less and less. Universities became more hierarchical and more bureaucratic: The aim of the ambitious academic was to become a big-name professor who was too busy flying to conferences and cultivating disciples to meet any undergraduates. Many Oxbridge academics looked at these pampered creatures with envy — Max Beloff complained that “we keep our best historians tied to the routine tasks of giving individual tuition to those unworthy of it.” But the price of such pampering was that the pastoral side of universities — mentoring students and shaping their moral lives — was either ignored or left to bureaucrats.

This system not only short-changed the undergraduates who ended up paying more and more for less and less contact with the tenured faculty. It also ended up producing a lot of useless research. Research might be the gold standard of the hard sciences, which end up not only pushing forward the frontiers of knowledge but also producing practical knowledge. But what about literary studies where the primary goal is surely to educate people’s sensibilities rather than produce yet another article for an obscure academic journal? And what about the proliferation of various “studies” whose aim is to promote an ideological agenda rather than either advance knowledge or solve practical problems?

The supposed threat from AI should be treated as an opportunity to recalibrate US higher education away from the research-centered Teutonic model and back to the human-centered Oxbridge model — and away from producing research and back toward training in thinking. The British prime minister Harold Macmillan recounted the educational philosophy of his ancient philosophy tutor at Balliol, J. A. Smith, before the First World War. Smith said that “a few — I hope a very few — will become teachers and dons.” For the rest, what they would learn at Balliol would be pointless except for one thing — “you should be able to detect when a man is talking rot, and that, in my view, is the main, if not the sole, purpose of education.” There is no better technique for teaching us to recognize the talking of rot than the tutorial system. And there is no time in history, given the proliferation of charlatan politicians, shady intellectuals and dubious management gurus, all empowered by AI bots, when the ability to spot “rot” has been more important.

More From Bloomberg Opinion:

• CEOs Must Soldier On Even as AI Anxieties Loom: Adrian Wooldridge

• Your Future AI Will Have Multiple Personalities: Parmy Olson

• AI Will Supercharge Productivity. But Will Workers Benefit?: Nir Kaissar

For more Bloomberg Opinion, subscribe to  our newsletter .

This column does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the editorial board or Bloomberg LP and its owners.

Adrian Wooldridge is the global business columnist for Bloomberg Opinion. A former writer at the Economist, he is author, most recently, of “The Aristocracy of Talent: How Meritocracy Made the Modern World.”

More stories like this are available on bloomberg.com/opinion

Tue, 22 Aug 2023 20:45:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.washingtonpost.com/business/2023/08/23/can-oxford-and-cambridge-save-harvard-from-chatgpt/71bd07ae-416c-11ee-9677-53cc50eb3f77_story.html
Killexams : These State Schools Also Favor the One Percent

Updated at 11:20 a.m. ET on August 16, 2023

Earlier this month, the century-old Pac-12 athletic conference was swiftly and brutally eviscerated. In the space of a few hours, five member universities left for rival conferences offering massive paydays financed by TV-sports contracts. As Jemele Hill put it for The Atlantic, the shift “pits the long-term interests of schools and conferences against their own insatiable greed.”

Sports lovers are used to watching their favorite teams put money ahead of the wishes of their fans. That makes it easy to forget that this isn’t a story about professional-sports franchises—or, indeed, private entities of any kind. All five of the defecting schools are public universities: Washington, Oregon, Utah, Arizona, and Arizona State. The money grab in college football is just one symptom of a troubling strain in American public higher education. Many of our public universities, it turns out, don’t act very much like public institutions at all.

It’s natural to assume that public institutions of higher education would be more egalitarian than their private counterparts. In K–12, public school is free, while private school is expensive. But at the college level, the line between civic purpose and private profit doesn’t map so neatly onto the public/private divide. The clearest evidence to date comes from a recent blockbuster study by a trio of economists at Harvard’s Opportunity Insights project. Most media coverage has focused on the study’s analysis of the so-called Ivy Plus schools, where the researchers found that the wealthiest students get an admissions bump relative to other applicants with the same academic profile. Even among people with identical SAT scores, students from the top 0.1 percent of income are more than twice as likely to get into universities like Harvard, Princeton, and Yale. Public flagships such as UC Berkeley and the University of Virginia showed no such bias.

But the researchers didn’t just study the tiny clique of elite universities that dominates the public discourse. Their sample included 139 institutions, including 50 public universities, and the results show a more complicated picture. Not all private schools are biased in favor of the rich—and some of the schools that cater most egregiously to the wealthy turn out to be public.

Like many aspects of life in our large, divided nation, the character of your local university depends a lot on where you happen to live. Big blue states such as New York and California have extensive, highly regarded university systems with no wealth bias in admissions. If anything, they have the opposite. The ultra-wealthy are almost 50 percent less likely to attend Berkeley than similarly qualified not-rich students. The trend applies throughout the University of California system, as well as campuses in the State University of New York. Although public-university budgets nationwide were devastated by the Great Recession, California and New York eventually restored the lost funding and invested even more. That gives them the resources to keep tuition low and creates fewer incentives to chase wealthy applicants. The sheer size of those systems also means that power and money aren’t concentrated in a single flagship university with aspirations of athletic greatness. SUNY at Stony Brook and UC Santa Barbara are both top-flight research universities, but nobody is paying big money for the broadcast rights to Stony Brook Seawolves or UCSB Gauchos football games; the latter team doesn’t even exist. There’s no deep-seated culture of rich athletic boosters, legacy admissions, and regional aristocracy surrounding these campuses.

The story is different in other states, especially in the South. Statistically, public universities such as Auburn University, the University of Mississippi, the University of Arkansas, and the University of Alabama look a lot like the Ivy Pluses in their approach to wealth and admissions. These schools are not highly selective—most people who apply are admitted—so the mechanism for exclusion works differently than at Princeton or Yale. To measure it, the Opportunity Insights researchers looked not just at admit rates but at whether applicants were likely to apply and attend, an approach that captures the whole process of marketing, recruitment, admissions, pricing, and enrollment. Their findings suggest that a college need not be ultra-elite to perpetuate class divides. Some public universities in the South serve the same function as private colleges and universities in the Northeast: destinations for the children of political leaders and wealthy businessmen, and a mechanism for transmitting that status to the next generation. Although Alabama has one of the highest poverty rates in America, only 11 percent of Auburn students qualify for a federal Pell grant. More than 30 percent of college-age Alabama residents are Black, yet Black students make up less than 5 percent of Auburn’s student body.

So if you’re wondering how public-university students in the South can afford $4,000 sorority-rush consultants, as The Wall Street Journal recently reported, it’s because their parents have money. If you’re curious about why so many rich kids are on campus, it’s because places like the University of Alabama give an effective 45 percent bump to the children of the top 1 percent. And if you want to know why few very low-income Black students attend these universities, it’s because the schools were originally built to sustain a racist power structure that kept Black people in poverty, and those legacies have not yet been overcome.

Representatives from the universities of Arkansas and Alabama both told me that they work hard to recruit and provide financial aid to low-income students in their respective states, which is true. Both say that income is not one of the official criteria that their admissions officers consider. But it doesn’t have to be, because a very efficient unofficial filter is at play. Most of the students attending schools like the universities of Arkansas and Alabama come from other places, meaning they pay out-of-state tuition. At Alabama, where 58 percent of undergrads come from elsewhere, that amounts to $32,400 a year, plus room and board. Students who can afford such a high sticker price are wealthy almost by definition, and they are vital to public-university finances. The University of Michigan charges out-of-state students more than $55,000, the same price as Harvard. Administrators are essentially running two institutions in parallel: a reasonably affordable public university for the residents of Michigan (in-state tuition: $16,736), and a very expensive private university for everyone else.

This dual identity shows up in the Harvard-study results. The richest and poorest students from Michigan get into Michigan at similar rates, controlling for test scores. For out-of-state students, however, there’s a marked lean toward the rich. Again, this works differently than it does at elite private universities. In the Ivy Plus schools, the pro-wealth bias is accomplished with a witches’ brew of legacy preferences, admissions bumps for patrician sports such as squash and sailing, and outright pay-to-play arrangements for mega-donors. At public universities, it’s a more straightforward downstream effect of pricing. Most out-of-state students get little or no financial aid, so only the rich can afford to enroll.

Universities defend these policies by arguing that wealthy students subsidize their poorer classmates, who don’t pay full price. But as the sociologists Elizabeth Armstrong and Laura Hamilton describe in their groundbreaking 2015 book, Paying for the Party, the two-tier approach works out badly for first-generation and low-income students. Following two groups of undergraduates at Indiana University, they found that the wealthy out-of-staters sailed through four years of fraternity parties and weekend tailgates to graduate, marry, and start careers, while the first-gen students ended up with burdensome student loans, uncertain job prospects, and no degrees.

For some low-income students, the dream of attending a flagship public university turns sour. At Alabama, there’s an 18-percentage-point gap between the graduation rate of Pell-grant students and their more well-off peers, an unusually large disparity. Despite all of those out-of-state dollars, families earning less than $75,000 still pay about $20,000 a year in total costs to attend. Auburn’s numbers are similarly grim. The more public universities come to resemble private ones, the more they cater to the people who pay the bills. Consider the three mega-conferences that now dominate the college-football landscape, the SEC, Big 10, and Big 12. Michigan State, University of Florida, Purdue, University of Kentucky, Texas A&M: all big-time sports schools, all running the out-of-state full-tuition racket, all skewed toward the rich.

The gap between public universities that combat wealth inequality and those that seem to perpetuate it maps onto the red/blue divide, but only roughly. Higher education in America is also shaped by idiosyncrasies of history and geography. North Carolina, a purplish state, has a great, well-funded system of affordable public universities. The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill has no wealth preferences, nor does North Carolina State. (Duke University, right nearby, has that covered.) Pennsylvania, a fairly blue state, has an unusually lousy tradition of inadequate funding for public universities. Penn State charges non-Pennsylvanians $38,000 a year.

One kind of university seems immune to all of these trends: science-and-engineering schools. Based on my analysis of the data, only five private universities in the Harvard study were less likely to admit applicants from the top 0.1 percent than comparably qualified middle-class students. Four of them—California Institute of Technology, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, and Case Western Reserve University—have top-class engineering programs. Among the Ivy Pluses, MIT was the least corrupted by wealth preferences. Public universities such as the Georgia Institute of Technology, Virginia Tech, and the Colorado School of Mines also had more egalitarian results.

Even the most elite liberal-arts school can create an easy glide path to graduation for the dull-witted progeny of a deep-pocketed alum. Athletic recruits can famously go from start to finish at a big state school without encountering a single challenging idea along the way. Engineering schools, by contrast, have academic standards that are harder to evade. Martin Schmidt, the president of Rensselaer Polytechnic, came to the job after serving as provost at MIT. “There’s a phrase we used there,” he told me, about the rigorous math and science classes all students are required to take. “‘There’s nowhere to hide.’”

Of course, not every university can or should be devoted to math and science. But the existence of these respected engineering institutions—public and private, humble and world-renowned—shows that there’s nothing inevitable about higher-education systems that bend toward the gravity of wealth. If academic standards come first, the power of money recedes. Otherwise, colleges and universities become just one more thing to be bought and sold.

Due to an editing error, this article originally referred to Worcester Polytechnic Institute as Worcester Polytechnic University.

Wed, 16 Aug 2023 03:13:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.theatlantic.com/ideas/archive/2023/08/public-university-wealthy-admissions/675009/
Killexams : The End of Progressive Elitism? No result found, try new keyword!One potential resolution is that the end justifies the means. That is, it is reasonable and appropriate for privileged people to leverage their status, relationships, and wealth to secure high-status ... Fri, 11 Aug 2023 23:00:00 -0500 en-us text/html https://www.msn.com/ Killexams : Earning A Master’s In Environmental Science: What You Need To Know

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Are you an environmental scientist seeking a challenge or a new opportunity? Going back to school for a master’s in environmental science might be just what you need.

In the field of environmental science, a bachelor’s degree can get your foot in the door. But if you want senior-level jobs in environmental science and higher pay, you’ll need an advanced environmental science degree—especially if you’re interested in research and faculty positions.

Keep studying to discover what it takes to earn a master’s in environmental science, including admission requirements, specializations, coursework and career prospects.

What Is a Master’s in Environmental Science Degree?

A master’s in environmental science is a graduate degree offering advanced studies of climate issues. The specialized knowledge gained during an environmental science master’s program equips students for doctoral studies, research positions, teaching roles or field work in their specialty area.

Unlike a bachelor’s in environmental science, which offers a broad, foundational approach to the field, a master’s in environmental science is more specific and research-oriented. Environmental science master’s programs typically offer specializations, allowing students to tailor their degrees to their career interests. Common specialization offerings include international environmental policy, conservation biology, climate and energy, environmental justice and sustainability.

Completing an MS in environmental science takes between 12 and 24 months, within which students must earn at least 30 credits.

Thesis Track vs. Non-Thesis Track

Aside from your concentration, most programs offer the option of a thesis or non-thesis track. A thesis track is mostly geared toward doctoral study and research positions, usually involving original research and a final report presented to a panel of faculty members. Theses can also be published in academic journals.

A non-thesis track, however, favors internship placement and capstone papers. It takes less time to complete than a thesis option. Students interested in environmental policy and advocacy careers often take non-thesis tracks.

Admission Requirements for a Master’s in Environmental Science

Every institution sets unique admission criteria for graduate applicants. However, most environmental science graduate programs require a bachelor’s degree from an accredited college.

While applications from any discipline may be considered, applicants from non-science backgrounds may need to take some additional undergraduate courses to fulfill prerequisites. These courses can help students from non-science backgrounds ease into the advanced environmental science curriculum.

Other standard requirements include a résumé, a statement of purpose and recommendation letters. Foreign applicants may be required to present proof of English proficiency.

Specializations for a Master’s in Environmental Science

Because environmental science is a vast field, graduate students often pursue specializations to deepen their understanding of a specific subfield and help define their career path. Below we explore some examples of environmental science master’s concentrations. Note that this is not an exhaustive list.

Energy-Environmental Systems

An energy-environmental systems specialization explores the world’s energy systems and sources and the environmental effects of those systems. It also uncovers the technology and policies required to transition to sustainable energy supply and consumption.

Environmental Toxicology

This specialization focuses on the cause, transport and environmental effects of toxic chemicals. Alongside classroom learning, students in this concentration do laboratory and fieldwork.

Freshwater and Terrestrial Ecology

The terrestrial ecology specialization teaches students to describe and manage natural systems. It also prepares them to assess and mitigate human impacts on water bodies and land-based ecosystems.

International Environmental Policy

This concentration is all about identifying and addressing environmental concerns across national borders. It introduces students to the development and implementation of environmental policies on the global stage.

Common Courses in an Environmental Science Master’s Program

Statistical Methods

This foundational course explores the mathematical models and formulas applied to solve problems associated with communicating statistical information. syllabus in this course include simple linear regression, multiple regression, confidence intervals, chi-square tests and tests of significance.

Climate Justice

The climate justice course explores a just division of the burdens and responsibilities associated with climate change. In this course, students examine various approaches to conceptualizing and achieving climate justice. They also analyze case studies of communities struggling with climate policies.

Introduction to GIS

A geographic information system (GIS) is a computer system that captures, stores, analyzes and displays data relating to specific positions on Earth’s surface. In this course, students learn how to navigate GIS and how it relates to decisions about land usage, resource allocation and social well-being.

Environmental Toxicology

Environmental toxicology studies the impacts of harmful substances on living organisms (including humans) and their ecosystems. This course teaches students about the source of environmental toxins, exploring the prevalent contaminants and their effects on the environment.

Accreditation for Master’s Degrees in Environmental Science

Verifying accreditation status before enrolling in your preferred environmental science program is important. Accreditation provides quality assurance to you and future employers, validating that your program meets industry standards for education.

The National Environmental Health, Science and Protection Accreditation Council is a major accrediting body for environmental science graduate programs. The Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology also accredits environmental science master’s programs through its Applied and Natural Science Accreditation Commission.

What Can You Do With a Master’s in Environmental Science Degree?

Earning an environmental science master’s degree can open up numerous career opportunities at various levels within the field. In this section, we highlight some suitable careers for environmental science master’s degree holders.

The below salary data comes from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Payscale and Glassdoor.

Environmental Consultant

Average Annual Salary: Approximately $62,400
Minimum Required Education: Bachelor’s degree in environmental science; master’s degree sometimes preferred
Job Overview: Environmental consultants ensure that their clients and employers comply with relevant environmental regulations and reduce their carbon footprint over time. They also assist with the creation and implementation of government policies pertaining to the environment.


Median Annual Salary: $87,480
Minimum Required Education: Bachelor’s degree in geoscience or environmental science; master’s degree sometimes preferred
Job Overview: Geoscientists study Earth’s history, layers, structure and processes to address environmental issues. There are many types of geoscientists, but environmental geologists specifically study how human societies impact the Earth. Geoscientists may also study the solid, liquid and gaseous matters of other planets besides Earth.

Environmental Science Professor

Median Annual Salary: $76,920
Minimum Required Education: Master’s degree in environmental science or a related discipline
Job Overview: Professors, also called postsecondary teachers or faculty, teach undergraduates. An environmental science professor prepares students for roles involving climate and resource conservation. They may teach courses like research methods, general biology, ecological principles and chemistry.


Median Annual Salary: $83,780
Minimum Required Education: Bachelor’s degree in environmental or physical science
Job Overview: Meteorologists study the weather, the climate and other components of the atmosphere. From their climate analysis, meteorologists develop reports, which are broadcast as weather forecasts. Meteorologists and other atmospheric scientists use tools like weather balloons, satellites and radar systems to monitor changes in the atmosphere.

Climate Scientist

Median Annual Salary: $86,400
Minimum Required Education: Bachelor’s degree in environmental science; master’s degree sometimes preferred
Job Overview: Climate scientists, including climate change analysts, study and analyze weather patterns over time. Unlike meteorologists, whose study of the weather is restricted to immediate conditions, climatologists investigate how the climate progresses over months, sometimes years.

Environmental Scientist or Specialist

Median Annual Salary: $76,480
Minimum Required Education: Bachelor’s degree in environmental science
Job Overview: Environmental scientists study the causes and patterns of environmental concerns. They also develop solutions. These scientists collect samples of air, water, food and soil to identify environmental threats. Based on their research data, they also inform government agencies and the public of possible health hazards, making plans to tackle environmental threats.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) About a Master's in Environmental Science Degree

What jobs in environmental science pay the most?

Most environmental science careers pay between $70,000 and $90,000 per year—well above the average salary. Depending on your salary goals, some well-paying environmental science jobs to consider include meteorologist, environmental scientist, climatologist, geoscientist and consultant.

What do environmental scientists do?

Environmental scientists study our natural habitat to identify environmental hazards and devise solutions. However, some environmental scientists, like professors, may focus on educating the next generation of professionals.

What is a career in environmental science?

A career in environmental science involves protecting and restoring the environment for a living. Environmental science professionals may also make policies to shield the public from environmental hazards.

Thu, 10 Aug 2023 02:32:00 -0500 Nneoma Uche en-US text/html https://www.forbes.com/advisor/education/masters-in-environmental-science/
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