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Exam Code: CTEL Practice test 2022 by Killexams.com team
CTEL California Teacher of English Learners

California Teachers of English Learners (CTEL)
Program Leading to Certification to Teach

The Commission is the agency of California government that licenses teachers and other professionals who serve in the public schools. As the policy-making body that establishes and maintains standards for the education profession in the state, the Commission is concerned with the quality and effectiveness of the preparation of teachers and other school practitioners. On behalf of the education profession and the general public, one of the Commissions most important responsibilities is to establish and implement strong, effective standards of quality for the preparation and assessment of teachers who will teach English learners.

AB 2987, passed in 1992 (California Education Code sections 44253.1- 44253.6), created a two-tiered teacher certification structure for teaching English learners. Known as the Bilingual, Crosscultural, Language and Academic Development Examination and Certificate, this structure has been in effect from 1994 to the present, and it consists of the following six tests or domains:
• Test 1: Language Structure and First- and Second-Language Development;
• Test 2: Methodology of Bilingual Instruction, English Language Development and Content Instruction;
• Test 3: Culture and Cultural Diversity;
• Test 4: Methodology for Primary-Language Instruction;
• Test 5: The Culture of Emphasis; and
• Test 6: The Language of Emphasis (listening, reading, speaking, and writing)
The first tier, called Crosscultural, Language and Academic Development (CLAD) Certificate, authorizes instruction for English Language Development (ELD) and Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English (SDAIE). Candidates must pass the first 3 Tests (above) to earn this certification. The second level, called the Bilingual Crosscultural, Language and Academic Development (BCLAD) Certificate, authorizes instruction in ELD and SDAIE as well as instruction for primary-language development and content instruction in the primary language. Candidates must pass all six tests in order to earn the BCLAD Certificate.

The Standards of Program Quality and Effectiveness for Professional Teacher Preparation Programs were also referenced by the panel in its development of the CTEL Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities and the CTEL Program Standards. This was to ensure that content of CTEL Programs and the CTEL Examination were closely aligned with the relevant content in the 2042 multiple and single subject teaching credential, since all of these routes lead to an equivalent English learner authorization. The standards of the national professional organizations such as those adopted by TESOL (Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages) also served as a guide and provided a comprehensive perspective for panel members

The ELIDT developed two types of standards to guide institutional responses and expert review for CTEL Programs. The first type, called “Program Design Standards”, make up Category I of the CTEL Program Standards. These standards inform institutions about the organizational structures and resources required for sponsorship of a CTEL program. Category II of the Standards Specific to CTEL Programs provides guidance on the instructional content of the curriculum as well as the competencies that candidates must demonstrate in order to meet the requirements of the CLAD Certificate. These standards, called the “Candidate Competency Standards” are closely aligned with the CTEL Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities.
Once the ELIDT completed the draft CTEL standards, Commission staff worked with formatting and organization in order to align with the most currently-developed standards of quality for teacher preparation. The Commission adopted the Standards of Quality and Effectiveness for California Teachers of English Learners (CTEL) Programs Leading to CLAD Certification on November 30, 2006.
Language and Language Development
Domain 1:
Language Structure
and Use
Phonology and Morphology
Syntax and Semantics
Language Functions and Variations
Discourse
Pragmatics
Domain 2:
Additive Language
Development
Theories, Processes, and Stages of Language Acquisition
Theories, Models, and Processes of Second-Language Acquisition
Cognitive, Linguistic, and Physical Factors Affecting Language
Development
Affective Factors Affecting Language Development
Sociocultural and Political Factors Affecting Language
Development
Assessment
and
Instruction
Domain 1:
Assessment of
English Learners
Principles of Standards-Based Assessment and Instruction
Role, Purposes, and Types of Assessment
Language and Content-Area Assessment
Domain 2:
Foundations of
English
Language/Literacy
Development and
Content Instruction
Foundations of Programs for English Learners
Foundations of English Language Literacy
Instructional Planning and Organization for ELD and SDAIE
Components of Effective Instructional Delivery in ELD and SDAIE
Effective Resource Use in ELD and SDAIE
Domain 3:
Approaches and
Methods for ELD
and Content
Instruction
ELD – Approaches and Methods
ELD – Listening and Speaking
ELD – reading and Writing
Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English (SDAIE)
Culture and
Inclusion
Domain 1:
Culture and Cultural
Diversity and Their
Relationship to
Academic
Achievement
Cultural Concepts and Perspectives
Cultural Contact
Cultural Diversity in California and the United States
Crosscultural Interaction
Domain 2:
Culturally Inclusive
Instruction
The Role of Culture in the Classroom and School
Culturally Inclusive Learning Environment
Family and Community Involvement
Culturally Inclusive Curriculum and Instruction

California Teacher of English Learners
Teacher-Certification California download
Killexams : Teacher-Certification California obtain - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/CTEL Search results Killexams : Teacher-Certification California obtain - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/CTEL https://killexams.com/exam_list/Teacher-Certification Killexams : Four California universities receive $3 million awards for training teachers of English learners

Four universities in California will receive awards from the U.S. Department of Education to support training for teachers of English learners.

The Department of Education’s Office of English Language Acquisition announced 44 awards nationwide, of nearly $120 million over five years. The awardees in California are the San Diego State University Foundation, the regents of the University of California Los Angeles, the State University San Marcos Corp. and the California State University, Dominguez Hills Foundation. Each will receive close to $3 million over five years for different projects, in which they work with school districts or student teachers.

The grants are for implementing professional development to Improve instruction for English learners, defined as students who speak a language other than English at home and are learning English in school.

“I grew up speaking Spanish at home and thrived as an English learner in school thanks to great teachers who helped me realize that my bilingualism and my biculturalism would someday be my superpower,” said Secretary of Education Miguel Cardona in a news release. “As our nation grows more diverse than ever before, we must level up our investments in educators who can provide students from all backgrounds with equitable opportunities to succeed. This $120 million, five-year investment will support high-quality professional development and teacher-preparation programs across the country. It will also help us grow a pipeline of diverse and talented educators who can help more English learners realize their own bilingual and multilingual superpowers.”


Thu, 13 Oct 2022 13:22:00 -0500 en text/html https://edsource.org/updates/four-california-universities-receive-3-million-awards-for-training-teachers-of-english-learners
Killexams : With teachers in short supply, states ease job requirements

DALLAS (AP) — As schools across the South grapple with , many are turning to candidates without teaching certificates or formal training.

Alabama administrators increasingly have hired educators with emergency certifications, often in low-income and majority-Black neighborhoods. Texas, meanwhile, allowed about one in five new teachers to sidestep certification last school year.

In Oklahoma, an “adjunct” program allows schools to hire applicants without teacher training if they meet a local board’s qualifications. And in...

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DALLAS (AP) — As schools across the South grapple with , many are turning to candidates without teaching certificates or formal training.

Alabama administrators increasingly have hired educators with emergency certifications, often in low-income and majority-Black neighborhoods. Texas, meanwhile, allowed about one in five new teachers to sidestep certification last school year.

In Oklahoma, an “adjunct” program allows schools to hire applicants without teacher training if they meet a local board’s qualifications. And in Florida, military veterans without a bachelor’s degree can teach for up to five years using temporary certificates.

Decisions to put a teacher without traditional training in charge of a classroom involve weighing tradeoffs: Is it better to hire , even if they aren’t fully prepared, or instruct children in classes that are crowded or led by substitutes?

“I’ve seen what happens when you don’t have teachers in the classroom. I’ve seen the struggle,” Dallas schools trustee Maxie Johnson said just before the school board approved expanding that district’s reliance on uncertified teachers. He added, “I’d rather have someone that my principal has vetted, that my principal believes in, that can get the job done.”

A Southern Regional Education Board analysis of 2019-20 data in 11 states found roughly 4% of teachers were uncertified or teaching with an emergency certification. In addition, 10% were teaching out of field, which means, for example, they may be certified to teach high school English but assigned to a middle school math class.

By 2030, as many as 16 million K-12 students in the region may be taught by an unprepared or inexperienced teacher, the group projects.

“ are getting worse and morale is continuing to fall for teachers,” said the nonprofit’s Megan Boren.

In Texas, reliance on uncertified new hires ballooned over the last decade. In the 2011-12 school year, fewer than 7% of the state’s new teachers — roughly 1,600 — didn’t have a certification. By last year, about 8,400 of the state’s nearly 43,000 new hires were uncertified.

The trustees in Dallas leaned into a state program that allows districts to bypass certification requirements, often to hire industry professionals for career-related classes. The school system has hired 335 teachers through the exemption as of mid-September.

In Alabama, nearly 2,000 of the state’s 47,500 teachers didn’t hold a full certificate in 2020-21, the most latest year for which data is available. That’s double the amount from five years earlier.

And almost 7% of Alabama teachers were in classrooms outside of their certification fields, with the highest percentages in rural areas with high rates of poverty.

Many states have loosened requirements since the COVID-19 pandemic hit, but relying on uncertified teachers isn’t new. Nearly all states have emergency or provisional licenses that allow a person who has not met requirements for certification to teach.

Such hires only delay the inevitable as the teachers don’t tend to stay as long as others, said Shannon Holston, policy chief for the nonprofit National Council on Teacher Quality.

In a 2016 study, the U.S. Department of Education reported that 1.7% of all teachers did not have full certification. It went up to roughly 3% in schools that served many students of color or children learning English as well as schools in urban and high-poverty areas.

The use of such educators can be concentrated in certain fields and content areas. One example: Alabama’s middle schools.

Rural Bullock County, for example, had no certified math teachers last year in its middle school. Nearly 80% of students are Black, 20% are Hispanic, and seven in 10 of all students are in poverty.

Christopher Blair, the county’s former schools superintendent, long struggled to recruit teachers. Poorer counties can’t compete with higher salaries in neighboring districts.

Blair, who resigned from his post last spring, had launched a program to help certify the county’s math and science teachers.

“But that’s slowly changing as the teacher pool for all content areas diminishes,” he said.

Birmingham and Montgomery each had three middle schools where more than 20% of teachers had emergency certification.

Birmingham schools spokesperson Sherrel Stewart said officials seek good candidates for emergency certifications and then give them the support needed through robust mentoring.

“We have to think outside of the box,” she said. “Because realistically, you know, that pool of candidates in education schools has drastically reduced but the demand for high-quality educators is still there.”

The number of teachers holding emergency certificates has increased dramatically in rural, urban, and low-income schools across Alabama since 2019, when lawmakers eased restrictions on the certificates.

The highest percentage of such teachers in Alabama during the 2020-21 school year was in rural Lowndes County in an elementary school where seven of 16 teachers had an emergency certificate, up from three the previous year. Most of the school’s 200 students are from low-income families. Only 1% of students tested reached proficiency in math that year.

For Dallas schools, “it’s about the passion, not about the paper,” said Robert Abel, the district’s human capital management chief.

Dallas’ uncertified hires — who must have a college degree — participate in training on classroom management and effective teaching practices. Abel said the district is getting positive reports on the new teachers.

Some teacher groups worry about inconsistent expectations for teacher candidates.

A great teacher needs sensitivity and empathy to understand how a child is motivated and what could interfere with learning, said Lee Vartanian, a dean at Athens State University. A certification helps set professional standards to ensure teachers have content expertise as well as the ability to engage students, said Vartanian, who oversees the Alabama university’s College of Education.

Uncertified teachers may have some of that knowledge, he said, but not the full range.

“They’re just less prepared systematically,” he said, “and so chances are they’re not going to have the background and understanding where kids are developmentally and emotionally.”

___

AL.com’s Rebecca Griesbach contributed to this report.

___

This story is part of Tackling Teacher Shortages, a collaboration between AL.com, The Associated Press, The Christian Science Monitor, The Dallas Morning News, The Fresno Bee in California, The Hechinger Report, The Seattle Times and The Post and Courier in Charleston, South Carolina, with support from the Solutions Journalism Network.

This story was produced by the and the .

___

The Associated Press education team receives support from the Carnegie Corporation of New York. The AP is solely responsible for all content.

Copyright © 2022 . All rights reserved. This website is not intended for users located within the European Economic Area.

Thu, 13 Oct 2022 01:01:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://federalnewsnetwork.com/u-s-news/2022/10/with-teachers-in-short-supply-states-ease-job-requirements/
Killexams : SVSU sees rise in teacher certification enrollment

Saginaw Valley State University is seeing gains in the number of students pursuing teacher certification at the university for the fall semester. In addition, SVSU’s award-winning residence halls are completely filled, as student interest in living on campus has rebounded. 

SVSU has 146 students pursuing teacher certification, up from 126 last year, including 23 new students who are employees of Saginaw Public Schools and enrolled through a new partnership between SVSU and the school district. All of these students have previously completed bachelor’s degrees and want to become certified teachers. 

“I would like to express appreciation for the dedication of our colleagues in the College of Education, who worked quickly and effectively over the summer with Saginaw Public Schools to develop this new partnership to address that district’s acute need for more teachers,” said SVSU president Donald Bachand. 

SVSU welcomed 1,337 new freshmen this year, nearly the same as last year, and the freshman class has the highest entering GPA on record. The entering class has an average high school GPA of 3.59, up from 3.48 last year. 

“We also have a new partnership with MyMichigan Health, allowing their employees to complete degrees at SVSU in areas of critical need, such as nursing, laboratory science, finance, computer science and more," Bachand said. "These innovative relationships with regional employers are critical to our mission of meeting the talent needs of our region and state.” 

Wed, 12 Oct 2022 03:31:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://www.sfgate.com/news/article/SVSU-sees-rise-in-teacher-certification-17504092.php
Killexams : California Removes Hurdles To Building Teacher Housing

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This story was originally published by EdSource.

Newly signed legislation loosening zoning requirements will soon make it easier for California school districts to build affordable housing for their teachers and other staff.

It is the latest in a series of bills passed by lawmakers over the last seven years to remove hurdles around building teacher housing. The new legislation, part of a suite of 41 housing bills signed by Gov. Gavin Newsom last Wednesday, will allow staff housing to be built on any property owned by a school district without requiring the district to request zoning changes from city or county officials.

It will be in effect from Jan. 1, 2024 to Jan. 1, 2033.

“Teachers and staff are leaving because the skyrocketing cost of living and stagnant salaries make it almost impossible to afford living in the communities where they teach,” said Assemblyman Richard Bloom, the author of the legislation. “We are hemorrhaging talented teachers, which ultimately negatively impacts the quality of a public education for our kids. We can do better. AB 2295 gives school districts an essential tool in addressing staffing challenges by utilizing properties they already own.”

A 2021 report by CityLAB at the University of California found that the state’s school districts own more than 150,000 acres of land and that 75,000 of those acres could be developed into affordable housing. At 30 units per acre. that could generate 2.3 million units of housing, according to the report.

There are workforce housing developments in Santa Clara, Los Angeles and Daly City, but more than 40 other districts are considering similar projects, the report says.

The added flexibility provided by the new law comes with restrictions. The project must have at least 10 housing units and be on a vacant parcel in an area that is already largely developed. It also must be adjacent to a parcel zoned residential.

These housing projects also will be exempt from some federal and state requirements governing the construction and sale of school property, although local building requirements and design standards will still apply as long as they don’t conflict with the housing density and 30-foot height permitted by the bill.

The law is meant to keep city and county governments from putting up roadblocks to new projects by adding restrictions over and above the standard zoning, said Troy Flint, spokesperson for the California School Boards Association, which co-sponsored the legislation.

“I am thrilled that Gov. Newsom has signed AB 2295 and demonstrated his support for education workforce housing,” said CSBA Executive Director Vernon Billy. “Our members across the state have expressed a strong and growing interest in creative efforts to address the teacher shortage.”

High rent and house prices have long made it difficult for teachers, especially those at the bottom of the pay scale, to find affordable homes. Even teachers earning average or the highest salaries faced struggles paying the rent, especially in the high-cost coastal and metro areas, according to a 2019 EdSource analysis.

To address this problem, the bill requires that a majority of the units on the property be affordable to tenants with moderate incomes and at least 30% be affordable to lower-income households. Unrented units can be made available to employees of adjacent school districts and then to public employees living within district boundaries.

An Assembly analysis of the bill says moderate incomes are generally no more than 120% of an area's median income and lower incomes are less than 80% of an area's median income.

Assembly Bill 2295 is the latest legislation to make it more affordable for teachers to live in California. The Teacher Housing Act of 2016 paved the way for district-provided teacher housing by allowing school districts to provide affordable housing specifically for district employees and their families. Previous state law required that homes or apartments be open to anyone who meets the low-income requirement if they used state and federal low-income housing funds or tax credits.

Assembly Bill 1157, approved by Gov. Jerry Brown in 2017, exempted school districts from some requirements related to the sale or lease of property if it will be used for employee housing. Because of this law, districts no longer have had to convene an advisory committee when they want to sell, lease or rent surplus property. The law also exempts the district from property taxes on the complex.

In latest years, eight school districts have attempted to pass school bonds or other local propositions to fund housing for school employees. Six passed, according to the Assembly analysis of the bill.

Districts see offering housing as a way to give them a competitive edge when competing for teachers and other staff.

“School districts are eager to address these issues by converting unused or underutilized property to affordable housing for school staff but are slowed or stymied by current regulations,” according to a statement from the CSBA. “Under existing law, development of surplus school property into education workforce housing can often take seven years to complete. By removing administrative barriers, while still allowing for a robust community engagement process, AB 2295 [will] shorten that timeline in most cases, making it easier for local educational agencies to build housing on their property.”

What questions do you have about Southern California?

Tue, 04 Oct 2022 11:27:00 -0500 en text/html https://laist.com/news/education/california-removes-hurdles-to-building-teacher-housing
Killexams : Superintendent blames teacher certification backlog on lack of manpower

The Louisiana Department of Education will receive some 36,000 applications for teacher certifications this year, ranging from first-time educators to those who want to become principals or specialize in certain fields. But with only a few full-time employees handling those requests, the state’s top public education official said reducing a backlog will remain a challenge.

Superintendent Cade Brumley appeared Monday before the state Senate Education Committee to share details on why certifications take up to two months to approve. He told lawmakers the department’s certification staff has been reduced from 16 employees in 2011 to just eight currently.

“We’re moving pieces on the chess board all the time to accommodate, but there are only so many people to do the work,” Brumley said.

The limited manpower means each certification specialist has to review an average of 300 applications a week to keep pace with the number coming in, Deputy Superintendent Jenna Chaisson said.

Sen. Cleo Fields, D-Baton Rouge, who chairs the committee, asked Brumley why the education department didn’t budget for additional personnel in the certification program. The superintendent said cuts to administration didn’t allow for new hires, although he added the department is in the process of onboarding four part-time workers for certification.

Chaisson attributed the glut of applications to a combination of factors. They include the lapse of certification renewal extensions given because of COVID-19 and new certifications in areas such as algebra, geometry, dyslexia and sign language.

The backlog has stretched the certification approval process to about 65 days for some applications, according to Chaisson. Before the pandemic, they could be processed within 10 to 15 days.

Brumley said there are more than 7,000 certifications awaiting approval, but Chaisson said school systems are able to request priority status if they have a teacher candidate they are ready to hire.

Another delaying factor lawmakers explored was the need for two criminal background checks for prospective teachers and certificate applicants. Sen. Beth Mizell, R-Franklinton, said the legislature might want to consider changing state law to require just one.

Despite the difficulties, Brumley reported to the committee that the number of teaching vacancies at Louisiana public schools has been cut in half over the past year – from 2,520 in 2021 to 1,203 this year. He credited the reduction to local school systems tapping into federal incentives for new hires, a pay raise the governor and legislature supported, and teachers who left classrooms during the pandemic returning to work.

The superintendent said his department intends to hire a consultant to look at how its certification program could be run more efficiently. He expects technology upgrades to be among the recommendations along with adding more personnel – the same suggestion made when a consultant conducted a similar review in 2020.

Tue, 11 Oct 2022 06:38:00 -0500 Greg LaRose, The Louisiana Illuminator en-US text/html https://neworleanscitybusiness.com/blog/2022/10/11/superintendent-blames-teacher-certification-backlog-on-lack-of-manpower/
Killexams : California Federation of Teachers buys Downtown Sac office building for $2.875 million No result found, try new keyword!A Union of Educators and Classified Professionals is putting down deeper roots in Downtown Sacramento by purchasing a 12,800-square-foot office building at 1221-1225 H. Mon, 17 Oct 2022 01:42:00 -0500 text/html https://www.bizjournals.com/sacramento/news/2022/10/17/california-federation-of-teachers-office-building.html Killexams : Missouri loosens requirements for substitute teacher certification

Sat, 15 Oct 2022 03:46:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.newspressnow.com/news/local_news/education/missouri-loosens-requirements-for-substitute-teacher-certification/article_2dc45174-499c-11ed-b482-77c04c61c60c.html Killexams : SVSU sees teacher certification enrollment up and highest incoming freshmen GPAs

KOCHVILLE TWP, MI—After pandemic related overall-enrollment declines, Saginaw Valley State University is seeing numbers up in its teacher certification courses.

A news release shared by the university said the program gains are reflective of the current fall semester, which began on Aug. 29. The university said those gains can also be seen in its residence halls, which officials say are completely filled.

The school said interest in living on campus has been attributed to being named to its fourth consecutive year atop the Niche “Best Dorm” ranking.

There are 2,250 students living on campus this year, up from the two prior years, as SVSU residence halls have returned to pre-pandemic occupancy, according to the press release.

In regards to overall attendance, SVSU reports that it welcomed 1,337 new freshmen this year, roughly the same as last year.

What differs, however, is the incoming class’s GPA. While many universities do not have a GPA requirement anymore to apply or enter, many schools do still note incoming students’ grades and self-reports, according to the release.

According to SVSU, this year’s freshman class has the highest entering GPA on record with an average high school GPA of 3.59, up from last year’s 3.48.

Despite the increases in teacher certification enrollment, the university is reporting that overall 7,147 students are enrolled fall semester, compared to last year’s 7,523.

The release said SVSU has 146 students pursuing teacher certification, up from 126 last year, including 23 new students who are employees of Saginaw Public Schools and enrolled through a new partnership between SVSU and the school district.

It goes on to say that all of these students have previously completed bachelor’s degrees and are looking to become certified teachers.

More from MLive:

Hemlock Public Schools celebrates fiscal success after not borrowing state funds for four years

This years freshman class, according to SVSU, has the highest entering GPA on record with an average high school GPA of 3.59, up from last year 3.48.

Saints & Sinners Gala returns for 18th year at Marshall M. Fredericks Sculpture Museum

Delta College hires new vice president of Student Empowerment and Success

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Fri, 14 Oct 2022 03:56:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.mlive.com/news/saginaw-bay-city/2022/10/svsu-sees-teacher-certification-enrollment-up-and-highest-incoming-freshmen-gpas.html
Killexams : Tackling teacher shortages: Uncertified teachers fill holes in schools across Alabama, U.S.

As schools across the South grapple with vacancies, many turn to those without teaching certificates or formal training to serve students.

Alabama administrators increasingly hire educators with emergency certifications, often in low-income and majority Black neighborhoods. Texas, meanwhile, allowed about 1 in 5 new teachers to sidestep certification last school year.

In Oklahoma, lawmakers expanded an “adjunct” program that enables schools to hire applicants without teacher training if they meet a local board’s qualifications. And then there’s Florida, where military veterans without a bachelor’s degree can teach for up to five years using temporary certificates.

Read more Ed Lab stories in this series:

Teacher shortages are real, but not for the reasons you’ve heard.

These states provide a window into the patchwork approach across the South that allows those without traditional training to lead a classroom. Officials must determine if it’s better to hire these adults, even if they aren’t fully prepared, or let children end up in crowded classes or with substitutes.

“I’ve seen what happens when you don’t have teachers in the classroom. I’ve seen the struggle,” Dallas trustee Maxie Johnson said just before the school board approved expanding that district’s reliance on uncertified teachers. He added, “I’d rather have someone that my principal has vetted, that my principal believes in, that can get the job done.”

A Southern Regional Education Board analysis of 2019-20 data in 11 states found roughly 4% of teachers -- which could be up to 56,000 educators – were uncertified or teaching with an emergency certification. In addition, 10% were teaching out of field, which means, for example, they may be certified to teach high school English but assigned to a middle school math class.

By 2030, as many as 16 million K-12 students in the region may be taught by an unprepared or inexperienced teacher, the Southern Regional Education Board projects.

“Lowering standards and lowering the preparedness, the training and the supports for teachers has been happening for at least a decade, if not longer,” said the nonprofit’s Megan Boren. “The shortages are getting worse and morale is continuing to fall for teachers.”

Districts need immediate fixes

The trustees in Dallas, for example, leaned into a state program that allows districts to bypass certification requirements, often to hire industry professionals for career-related classes. But Texas’ second-largest district had to fill elementary classrooms and core subjects in middle and high schools. DISD hired 335 teachers through the exemption as of mid-September.

Texas’ reliance on uncertified new hires ballooned over the last decade. In the 2011-12 school year, fewer than 7% of the state’s new teachers – roughly 1,600 – didn’t have a certification. By last year, about 8,400 of the state’s nearly 43,000 new hires were uncertified.

In Alabama, nearly 2,000 of the state’s 47,500 teachers — 4% — didn’t hold a full certificate in 2020-21, the most latest year for which data is available. That’s double the state’s reliance on such educators from five years earlier.

And almost 7% of Alabama teachers were in classrooms outside of their certification fields, with the highest percentages in rural areas with high rates of poverty.

Ongoing problems in Alabama

Many states have loosened requirements since the pandemic hit, but relying on uncertified teachers isn’t new.

Nearly all states have emergency or provisional licenses that allow a person who has not met requirements for certification to teach. Such licenses are renewable in many areas, according to the National Council on Teacher Quality.

The rush to get more bodies into classrooms only delays the inevitable as such teachers don’t tend to stay as long as others, said Shannon Holston, the nonprofit’s policy chief. Meanwhile, student learning suffers because the quality of education takes a hit, she added.

“It has some unintended consequences down the road that in the immediacy of us trying to perhaps fix a staffing challenge for the 22-23 school year has greater or more taxable consequences down the line potentially,” she said.

In a 2016 study, the U.S. Department of Education reported that 1.7% of all teachers did not have a full certification. It went up to roughly 3% in schools that served many students of color or children learning English as well as schools in urban and high-poverty areas.

The use of such educators can be concentrated in certain fields and content areas. One example: Alabama’s middle schools.

Rural Bullock County, for example, had no certified math teachers last year in its middle school. Nearly 80% of students are Black, 20% are Hispanic, and 7 in 10 of all students are in poverty.

Christopher Blair, the county’s former schools superintendent, long struggled to recruit teachers. Poorer counties can’t compete with higher salaries in neighboring districts, and statewide recruiting initiatives often aren’t enough to increase the teacher pools when fewer and fewer educators are graduating from traditional programs.

Blair, who resigned from his post last spring, had launched a program in Bullock County to help certify its math and science teachers.

“But that’s slowly changing as the teacher pool for all content areas diminishes,” he said.

In Montgomery, seven of the 10 middle schools had rates higher than 10%, and three of those exceeded 20%. Birmingham had three middle schools where more than 20% of teachers had emergency certification.

Birmingham spokeswoman Sherrel Stewart said district officials seek good candidates for emergency certifications and then give them the support needed through robust mentoring.

“We have to think outside of the box,” she said. “Because realistically, you know, that pool of candidates in education schools has drastically reduced but the demand for high quality educators is still there.”

Athens State education students

Preservice teachers listen closely at an ethics seminar provided by the Athens State college of education, Tuesday, Oct. 11, 2022, in Athens, Ala. The seminar aimed to help prepare prospective teachers for real-world issues in the education workplace. (AP Photo/Vasha Hunt) ***Preservice teacher is the phrase administrators used to describe teachers in the internship phase thatÕs required of them before taking a full time teaching position***AP

Prior to 2019, an emergency certificate in Alabama could only be used for one year. But after a teacher shortage task force recommended changes, lawmakers changed to a two-year certification and gave educators the option to extend an additional two years.

The prohibition against using such certificates in elementary school was lifted, too.

Since then, the number of teachers holding emergency certificates increased dramatically in rural, urban, and low-income schools across the state.

The highest percentage of teachers on such status in Alabama during the 2020-21 school year was in rural Lowndes County in an elementary school where seven of 16 teachers — 42% of the teaching force — had an emergency certificate, up from three the previous year.

Most of the school’s 200 students, about 70%, are from low-income families. Only 1% of students tested reached proficiency in math that year.

The National Council on Teacher Quality recommends states not offer emergency certifications, but if they do, they should only be good for one year and nonrenewable.

Texas’ flexability on certifications, training

Dallas principals look for “highly-qualified” individuals committed to teaching who have strong academic backgrounds, said Robert Abel, the district’s human capital management chief. “For us, it’s about the passion, not about the paper.”

Dallas’ uncertified hires — who must have a college degree — participate in ongoing district-specific training on classroom management and effective teaching practices.

Abel said the district is getting positive reports so far as many who came in through this pathway have achieved academic distinctions with their students.

Texas lawmakers have embraced policies that give public schools flexibility in hiring uncertified teachers.

In 2015, the state loosened teacher certification requirements under a program called Districts of Innovation.

More than 800 public school districts — out of over 1,000 — have the flexibility to allow non-certified people to teach in specific areas.

Charters, a growing sector of public schools that operate independently from traditional districts, also have leeway in certification requirements.

Some teacher groups worry about inconsistent expectations for teacher candidates.

“You’re dealing with children’s lives, and you have very extreme and important responsibilities related to children,” said Andrea Chevalier, a former lobbyist with the Association of Texas Professional Educators. “Having the certification demonstrates the professionalism that is required for that.”

Texas officials didn’t provide information on where these teachers are concentrated and what subject areas they’re teaching. It’s unknown how the influx of uncertified teachers impacts students.

A great teacher needs sensitivity and empathy to understand how a child is motivated and what could interfere with learning, said Lee Vartanian, a dean at Athens State University.

They must know how to keep a child’s attention, engage them, and ensure the information sticks, he said.

A certification helps set professional standards to ensure teachers have those qualities as well as content expertise, said Vartanian, who oversees the Alabama university’s College of Education.

Uncertified teachers may have some of that knowledge, he said, but not the full range.

“They’re just less prepared systematically,” he said, “and so chances are they’re not going to have the background and understanding where kids are developmentally and emotionally.”

The Alabama Education Lab’s Rebecca Griesbach contributed to this report.

This story is part of a national collaboration between Education Labs and journalists at The Associated Press, AL.com, The Christian Science Monitor, The Dallas Morning News in Texas, The Fresno Bee in California, The Hechinger Report, The Seattle Times and The Post and Courier in Charleston, South Carolina.

The Alabama Education Lab team at AL.com is supported through a partnership with Report for America, a nonprofit national service program that places journalists in local newsrooms to report on undercovered issues.

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Thu, 13 Oct 2022 10:03:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.al.com/educationlab/2022/10/tackling-teacher-shortages-uncertified-teachers-fill-holes-in-schools-across-alabama-us.html
Killexams : Alabama officials demand better teacher certification test pass rates

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Alabama state officials on Thursday demanded better certification pass rates from the state’s future teachers and those who prepare them.

Wayne Reynolds, a former superintendent, said he was alarmed about a state report showing 53% of Alabama’s elementary teacher candidates passed the Praxis certification on their first try.

“Fifty percent is not impressive to me,” Reynolds said at a regular monthly meeting of the state Board of Education. He is vice president of the board.

Read more from the Ed Lab about teacher quality:

The first-attempt pass rate was reported by the Alabama Commission on Evaluative Services in September as part of a larger look at enrollment at the state’s teacher preparation programs

ACES sourced those rates to research by the National Council on Teacher Quality that evaluated first-attempt pass rates based on test results from 2015 through 2018.

Reynolds and other board members keyed in on the overall 53% pass rate and the wide range of first-attempt pass rates from the state’s 14 public universities, also published in the report.

State education officials responded by saying while low, the reported rate doesn’t necessarily reflect efforts from Alabama students and future teachers.

Alabama Superintendent Eric Mackey said the pass rates published in the report includes students who aren’t actually enrolled in an Alabama college but chose to have their results sent to that college or to the state department of education.

And some students might not be putting their full effort into that first round of taking the test, Huntingdon College Dean of Education Carolyn Corliss said, because her college pays for students to take the test once.

Deanise Peacock, who leads the teacher testing area at the state department of education, said the test for which the pass rate was published contains four subtests. One each for English language arts, math, science and social studies. A teacher would have to pass all four subtests to count as having passed the test.

But students might take the four subtests the first time simply as a matter of cost.

“Their thought process is to take the bundle. It’s a lower price,” Peacock said. And if they fail to pass one of the subtests, they can take just that test again.

“Which is a fine strategy, but it also hurts the numbers here.”

According to NCTQ, Alabama’s walk away rate – the percentage of test takers that never took the test again after failing on a first attempt – was between 22% and 25% for each of the four subtests for all students. Students of color had higher walk away rates: Between 33% and 37% of students of color didn’t take the test a second time after failing on their first attempt.

Peacock instead provided examples of individual pass rates on each of the four subtests, claiming the low overall passage rates masks much higher individual test passage rates.

An Alabama Education Lab look at NCTQ’s data found that Alabama was one of 16 states to require the same Praxis test, an elementary multiple subjects test. Of those 16 states, first-time pass rates ranged from 34% in New Jersey to 57% in Virginia.

Alabama’s 53% first-time pass rate was the third highest of the 16 states, behind Virginia and Idaho. That was not included in the ACES report.

Board members took education officials, including some deans of the colleges of education in attendance, to task, asking what action will be taken to Improve those first-attempt pass rates.

“Some deans focus on open enrollment,” Reynolds said. “They take everybody because they want equal opportunity, which is fine. But somewhere along the line with open enrollment, there has to be some discretion, and some guideposts to allow people to progress. And so that they don’t end up in our classroom as substandard teachers.”

Corliss told board members they now require pre-service teachers to be tutored prior to taking the Praxis for the first time.

Peacock said she talked with test publisher Educational Testing Service earlier in the week, after the published rates were brought to her attention, to try and find a better way of recording and reporting the data.

College officials can review the data monthly, she said, and remove results of test takers who are not enrolled at the college.

Katie Kinney, president of the Alabama Association for Colleges for Teacher Education, told AL.com the limitations of the first-attempt pass rate and what it measures means it isn’t useful in helping increase the quantity or quality of elementary teachers.

“We want data to inform continuous improvement for our programs,” Kinney said, “but first-time attempt pass rate data aren’t the data to aid us in that work.”

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Sat, 15 Oct 2022 01:07:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.al.com/educationlab/2022/10/alabama-officials-demand-better-teacher-certification-exam-pass-rates.html
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