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Wed, 27 Jul 2022 04:41:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.computerworld.com/
Killexams : Updating To Windows 10 For Fun And Profit: Make Those OEM Keys Go Further

Microsoft seems to have an every-other-version curse. We’re not sure how much of this is confirmation bias, but consider the track record of releases. Windows 95 was game-changing, Windows 98 famously crashed during live demo. Windows 2000 was amazing, Windows ME has been nicknamed the “Mistake Edition”. XP was the workhorse of the world for years and years, and Vista was… well, it was Vista. Windows 7 is the current reigning champion of desktop installs, and Windows 8 was the version that put a touchscreen interface on desktops. The “curse” is probably an example of finding patterns just because we’re looking for them, but the stats do show a large crowd clinging to Windows 7.

Windows 10 made a name for itself by automatically installing itself on Windows 7 and Windows 8 computers, much to the annoyance of many unexpecting “victims” of that free upgrade. Several years have gone by, Windows 10 has gotten better, and support for Windows 7 ends in January. If you’re tied to the Windows ecosystem, it’s time to upgrade to Windows 10. It’s too bad you missed out on the free upgrade to Windows 10, right?

About that… It’s probably an unintended side effect, but all valid Windows 7 and Windows 8 keys are also valid Windows 10 keys. Activation is potentially another issue, but we’ll get to that later.

What Exactly Do They Mean by OEM License?

Microsoft has finally come to their collective senses: Windows install ISOs are available for download. There are only 2 ISOs, 32 bit and 64 bit. Both images support home and professional versions, and the right version is installed based on the Windows key provided.

Speaking of versions, let’s talk about the different Windows versions. Not the difference between home and professional, but what is meant by an OEM license. Take a look at Windows 10 Pro on Amazon. Right now I see Windows 10 Professional for $184.99, and a Windows 10 Professional OEM for $113. What’s the difference? The packaging may look different, calling Microsoft Support might be a different experience, but the main difference is that an OEM key is locked to the computer it is first installed on.

How do computer upgrades work with an OEM key? The Ship of Theseus is a useful thought experiment. Taken directly from the Wikipedia article:

If it is supposed that the famous ship sailed by the hero Theseus in a great battle has been kept in a harbour as a museum piece, and as the years went by some of the wooden parts began to rot and were replaced by new ones then, after a century or so, all of the parts had been replaced. The question then is if the “restored” ship is still the same object as the original.

If it is then supposed that each of the removed pieces were stored in a warehouse, and after the century, technology developed to cure their rotting and enabled them to be put back together to make a ship, then the question is if this “reconstructed” ship is still the original ship. And if so, then the question also regards the restored ship in the harbour still being the original ship as well.

How much of a computer’s hardware can you upgrade and still consider it the same computer? Rather than wrestle with such a philosophical question for every instance, Microsoft has opted for a simple rule. A new motherboard constitutes a new computer.

So where does that leave us? First, you can go download a Windows 10 ISO, burn it to a DVD, and do a free upgrade right now from Windows 7 or 8. Boot into Windows as normal, and then run the setup executable from the DVD. Follow the prompts to start the upgrade. The installer will copy everything it needs to the hard drive and reboot the machine. After the install finishes, Windows will go through the activation process again, and activation should succeed.

Something about the free upgrade process forces Microsoft to treat this Windows 10 activation as a new computer activation. Because every Windows 7/8 key is eligible for the free upgrade, this means that you can do a full hardware rebuild, motherboard included, and use your Windows 7 OEM key to install Windows 10, and activation should succeed. Do note that this will work only once. Once you’ve used your free upgrade, that Windows key is once again locked, and out of additional activations.

Give Windows The Old Switcheroo

There is one more trick worth mentioning. You may be familiar with the challenge of upgrading hardware on an existing Windows install. It’s not uncommon for booting with the new hardware to trigger a BSOD before the desktop even loads. The Windows 10 upgrade process has the side-effect of re-installing all the hardware drivers, making it a perfect time for that hardware upgrade. The timing on this is a little tricky. You need to run the setup off the Windows 10 disk and wait for the setup files to finish copying over. When the setup program reboots to start the genuine installation, pull the power plug before the drive starts to boot again. You may find it useful to first turn off quiet boot in BIOS. The window for interrupting the process is narrow, but success gives you a hard drive with all your existing data and programs, ready to install Windows 10 on next boot. Rebuild the hardware with all the changes you’d like to make, and boot off that hard drive. Windows 10 will install the proper drivers, just like a fresh install, and the Windows 7 key should activate without any issues.

It’s time to face the music, and upgrade from Windows 7. If you just can’t stomach Windows 10, at least there are options. Open Shell is the open source successor to Classic Shell, and many find it to smooth the rough edges. Alternatively, maybe it’s time to look at Linux? We’re still holding out hope that the Year of the Linux Desktop™ is coming. Or for those willing to go over to the dark side, there is that other Unix derived desktop OS you could use. In any case, stay secure out there.

Tue, 02 Aug 2022 12:00:00 -0500 Jonathan Bennett en-US text/html https://hackaday.com/2019/12/05/updating-to-windows-10-for-fun-and-profit-make-those-oem-keys-go-further/
Killexams : Transfer Credit and Assessment

Transfer Credit and Assessment

Goodwin College of Professional Studies recognizes that adults have many opportunities for valuable learning in their everyday lives and work. When this prior learning is college-level, it can be identified in an evaluative process designed to determine whether it is worthy of college credit. These policies and procedures are designed to help students understand the various ways they can demonstrate and earn credit for the college-level learning they may already have. Defining college-level learning can be a complex task. At Drexel University, we use the following standards to decide whether learning is college-level:

  • The learning should be theoretical as well as practical. For example, if a student seeks credit for supervising several employees at work, the student should demonstrate some knowledge of the concepts of motivation, management styles and job evaluation techniques, as well as the routine processes of day-to-day operations.
  • Students should be able to identify the principles involved in doing what they are able to do.
  • The learning should be equivalent to college-level work in terms of quality as determined by college faculty.
  • The learning should be identified as college-level when evaluated by an expert in the field. This means students should be able to demonstrate by examination, license, essay, etc., that their knowledge or competence is at the college-level. One way of determining if a course is college-level is if the course is taught at a regionally accredited college or university. This means some learning, though valuable, does not qualify as college-level. Some examples of common, learning competencies that are not considered college level might include: driving a car, maintaining the family budget, buying a house, or obtaining a Notary Public license.

Credit is Granted for Learning, not Experience

In addition to learning evidenced by transcripted credit earned at regionally accredited colleges and universities, Drexel University recognizes that learning takes places in students' everyday lives and work. Consistent with CAEL's Standards for Assessing Prior Learning, Goodwin College grants credit only for verifiable, college-level, noncollegiate supported learning acquired through life or work experience.

Possible Sources of College-Level Learning

Some of the possible sources of prior college-level learning that could be considered for evaluation include work, non-credit courses, seminars and in-service training programs, volunteer work in the community, research, military training, among others. This list is intended to supply you an idea of possible sources. Other sources of college-level learning are possible.

Transcripted Credit

Students can transfer credit earned at regionally accredited colleges and universities on an official transcript that is sent from the original institution directly to Drexel University's Office of Admissions. Students must have earned grades of C or higher for coursework to be considered for transfer credit.

Assessment of Prior Learning Application Procedures

  1. If you are interested in applying for a prior learning assessment, please contact your academic advisor to discuss this possibility.
  2. The Assessment of Prior Learning (APL) assessment fee is $200.00 per course. Fees and tuition are payable to Drexel University. The APL fee is paid regardless of the final outcome.
  3. The Assessment of Prior Learning fee is for the assessment of the learning, not for the "purchase of credit." Therefore, the fee is not refunded if the petition for credit is denied.
  4. The student is responsible for any fees related to the assessment and posting of Prior Learning credits.
  5. Grades are not assigned for credits earned through prior learning outside of the academic classroom. If credit is granted for Assessment of Prior Learning, transfer credit is awarded.
  6. Any credit earned from evaluated noncollegiate sponsored instruction follows the same rules that govern the acceptance of transfer credits at Drexel. Please see the Drexel University's official Transfer Credit Policy [PDF].

Specific Academic Requirements

  1. A maximum of 30 quarter credit hours can be granted through the Portfolio Assessment of Prior Learning process.
  2. Students may use the APL option, testing or transfer coursework to fulfill a maximum of one-half of the upper division of the major or minor degree requirement.
  3. A maximum of 8.0 credits (2 courses) in a certificate program may be completed through via Portfolio Assessment.
  4. Assessment of Prior Learning credit must not duplicate transfer credit or any other coursework used to fill degree requirements.

Standardized Examinations

Standardized examinations such as CLEP (College Level Examination Program), Excelsior College Examinations (ECE), Thomas Edison College Examination Program (TECEP), NYU Foreign Language Testing, and DANTES Subject Standardized Tests (DSST) are commonly used to verify college-level learning. After some independent study, you can take an test covering the subject area you believe you have mastered. Study guides are available at bookstores and often on the examination organization's website. If your results meet those established by the college for credit, you can include that credit in your degree program.

Students should discuss these testing programs with their academic advisor to determine suitability for their degree program and transfer applicability. Any credit earned by examination follows the same rules that govern the acceptance of transfer credits at Drexel. Please see the Drexel University's official Transfer Credit Policy [PDF]. Any examinations students take cannot duplicate courses for which a student has already earned credit, other examinations successfully completed, or assessed as prior learning.

College Level Examination Program (CLEP)

The College Level Examination Program (CLEP) offers general examinations in Humanities, Mathematics, Natural Sciences and Social Sciences and History, which validate non-traditional learning. About 30 additional subject examinations correspond to specific college courses taught across the country.

For more information regarding CLEP exams, please contact:

CLEP
Box 6600
Princeton, NJ 08541-6600
Phone 800.257.9558
CLEP website

Thomas Edison College Examination Program (TECEP)

The Thomas Edison College Examination Program (TECEP) offers more than 100 examinations in liberal arts, business and management, and professional/vocational areas.

Obtaining a TECEP Transcript

The official score report indicates whether or not you passed the test and are eligible for the credit. For more information regarding earning TECEP credit, please visit TECEP website.

Dantes Subject Standardized Tests (DSST EXAMS)

Developed and owned by Thompson Prometric, DSST is a nationally recognized testing program and offers tests in 37 subject areas – applied technology, humanities, and more. For information regarding preparation and registration, please visit http://getcollegecredit.com or call 1.877.471.9860.

Excelsior College Examinations (ECE)

Formerly the Regents College Examinations (RCE), College Proficiency Examination Program (CPEP), the Regents External Degree (RED) Program, and ACT/PEP tests outside of New York.

Excelsior College Examinations are available in business, education, health, liberal arts and sciences, and nursing. Examination content outlines and study guides are available at no cost. For more information, please contact:

ECE
7 Columbia Circle
Albany, NY 12203
Phone 888.723.9267
Excelsior College website

The official score report from Excelsior indicates whether or not you passed and are eligible for the credit.

Military Training [American Council on Education (ACE) Evaluated]

Since 1945, the American Council on Education (ACE) has provided a collaborative link between the U. S. Department of Defense and higher education through the review of military training and experiences for the award of equivalent college credits for members of the Armed Forces. Goodwin College will review ACE evaluated military training. A student must provide an AARTS or SMART transcript to his or her Drexel academic advisor.

Timing of Training

The student must have completed training during the time period that ACE evaluated the training program to be eligible for credit.

Even if a student completed training programs that have ACE credit recommendations, credit will often be granted on a case-by-case basis depending on the student's program of study, credit needs and the policies of the various colleges within Drexel.

Please visit The American Council on Education (ACE) for more information regarding the guidelines and experiences that are eligible for review by ACE.

Go to ACE for more information on requesting a transcript.

Noncollegiate Sponsored Instruction and Professional Training

The National College Credit Recommendation Service (NCCRS) and The American Council on Education (ACE) have pre-evaluated a variety of structured programs, experiences and licenses. If you have learning from a pre-evaluated experience, you may be able to gain credit by supplying the appropriate documentation. The dates, location and length of time of your training must match the dates, location and length of time stipulated in the by NCCRS or ACE.

National CCRS evaluates courses, training programs, licenses and/or certificates and recommends credit. Credit recommendations apply only to training received during the period of time, at the locations, and for the length of time listed in the directory.

Among their evaluations are:

  • New York City Fire Department
  • New York City Police Department
  • J.P. Morgan
  • LOMA
  • Verizon

The American Council on Education (ACE) recommends credit for training programs and courses offered by noncollegiate organizations. These recommendations are published in the National Guide to Educational Credit for Training Programs. Noncollegiate organizations include business and industry, government agencies, nonprofit organizations, hospitals, professional associations, labor unions and some other types of organizations. Credit recommendations apply only to training received during the period of time, at the locations, and for the length of time listed in the guide and directory.

Examples include:

  • American Council on Exercise
  • Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)
  • National Court Reports Association RPR and RMR Examinations
  • Novell®

Individualized Credit by Evaluation (CBE)

If you have college-level learning that cannot be evaluated by the methods already mentioned, you might consider individualized credit by evaluation. There are two CBE options: Department-Approved Assessment and Portfolio Assessment.

An evaluation of learning from prior experience for a specific subject area may be based on examination, the submission of papers, presentation of a portfolio of completed work, and/or a demonstration of acquired skills.

Assessment of prior learning is based on a faculty evaluation of the respective learning experience(s) in terms of their identified relationship to the knowledge and skills of the subject matter. Assessment of Prior Learning credits will be granted toward a student's specific program of study. If a student changes his or her program of study, assessment of prior learning credits may not be recognized in the new program.

Approval of relevant prior learning credit must be in writing with the signature of at least one faculty member, the student's academic advisor, and the Director of Prior Learning Assessment.

FAQs

How many credits can be earned via Assessment of Prior Learning?

There are limits to the number of credits that can be earned via the APL process as delineated below:

  • The maximum number of credits that can be earned via any combination of credit by external test (CLEP, DSST, TECEP, NYU Foreign Language Testing, etc.) is 30.0 quarter credits.
  • The maximum number of credits that can be earned via any combination of ACE (military and corporate training) or NCCRS recommendations is 60.0 quarter credits.
  • The maximum number of credits that can be earned via individualized portfolio assessment is 30.0 quarter credits.
  • The maximum number of credits that can be earned via individualized departmental assessment is 30.0 quarter credits.
  • The maximum number of credits that can be earned via any combination of APL options listed above is 90.0 quarter credits.
  • The total number of transfer credit hours a student can transfer through traditional transcripted credit or Assessment of Prior Learning is 135 quarter hours as stipulated by Drexel University's Transfer Credit Policy [PDF].
  • Each college engaged in the assessment of academic and work experiences determines its own procedures for review and testing; students should contact the appropriate advising office at Drexel for information about the procedures for assessment.

Note: The above options are considered by Goodwin College of Professional Studies and may or may not be considered by other colleges or programs at Drexel University. Acceptance of noncollegiate supported learning for credit is at the discretion of the individual college or program and must be vetted with an authorized representative of the college or program.

Thu, 26 May 2022 18:20:00 -0500 en text/html https://drexel.edu/goodwin/academics/degree-completion-programs/transfer-credit-apl/
Killexams : Apache Module mod_ldap

Summary

This module was created to Improve the performance of websites relying on backend connections to LDAP servers. In addition to the functions provided by the standard LDAP libraries, this module adds an LDAP connection pool and an LDAP shared memory cache.

To enable this module, LDAP support must be compiled into apr-util. This is achieved by adding the --with-ldap flag to the configure script when building Apache.

SSL/TLS support is dependant on which LDAP toolkit has been linked to APR. As of this writing, APR-util supports: OpenLDAP SDK (2.x or later), Novell LDAP SDK, Mozilla LDAP SDK, native Solaris LDAP SDK (Mozilla based), native Microsoft LDAP SDK, or the iPlanet (Netscape) SDK. See the APR website for details.

The following is an example configuration that uses mod_ldap to increase the performance of HTTP Basic authentication provided by mod_authnz_ldap.

# Enable the LDAP connection pool and shared
# memory cache. Enable the LDAP cache status
# handler. Requires that mod_ldap and mod_authnz_ldap
# be loaded. Change the "yourdomain.example.com" to
# match your domain.

LDAPSharedCacheSize 500000
LDAPCacheEntries 1024
LDAPCacheTTL 600
LDAPOpCacheEntries 1024
LDAPOpCacheTTL 600

<Location /ldap-status>
SetHandler ldap-status
Order deny,allow
Deny from all
Allow from yourdomain.example.com
AuthLDAPURL ldap://127.0.0.1/dc=example,dc=com?uid?one
AuthzLDAPAuthoritative off
Require valid-user
</Location>

LDAP connections are pooled from request to request. This allows the LDAP server to remain connected and bound ready for the next request, without the need to unbind/connect/rebind. The performance advantages are similar to the effect of HTTP keepalives.

On a busy server it is possible that many requests will try and access the same LDAP server connection simultaneously. Where an LDAP connection is in use, Apache will create a new connection alongside the original one. This ensures that the connection pool does not become a bottleneck.

There is no need to manually enable connection pooling in the Apache configuration. Any module using this module for access to LDAP services will share the connection pool.

For improved performance, mod_ldap uses an aggressive caching strategy to minimize the number of times that the LDAP server must be contacted. Caching can easily double or triple the throughput of Apache when it is serving pages protected with mod_authnz_ldap. In addition, the load on the LDAP server will be significantly decreased.

mod_ldap supports two types of LDAP caching during the search/bind phase with a search/bind cache and during the compare phase with two operation caches. Each LDAP URL that is used by the server has its own set of these three caches.

The Search/Bind Cache

The process of doing a search and then a bind is the most time-consuming aspect of LDAP operation, especially if the directory is large. The search/bind cache is used to cache all searches that resulted in successful binds. Negative results (i.e., unsuccessful searches, or searches that did not result in a successful bind) are not cached. The rationale behind this decision is that connections with invalid credentials are only a tiny percentage of the total number of connections, so by not caching invalid credentials, the size of the cache is reduced.

mod_ldap stores the username, the DN retrieved, the password used to bind, and the time of the bind in the cache. Whenever a new connection is initiated with the same username, mod_ldap compares the password of the new connection with the password in the cache. If the passwords match, and if the cached entry is not too old, mod_ldap bypasses the search/bind phase.

The search and bind cache is controlled with the LDAPCacheEntries and LDAPCacheTTL directives.

Operation Caches

During attribute and distinguished name comparison functions, mod_ldap uses two operation caches to cache the compare operations. The first compare cache is used to cache the results of compares done to test for LDAP group membership. The second compare cache is used to cache the results of comparisons done between distinguished names.

The behavior of both of these caches is controlled with the LDAPOpCacheEntries and LDAPOpCacheTTL directives.

Monitoring the Cache

mod_ldap has a content handler that allows administrators to monitor the cache performance. The name of the content handler is ldap-status, so the following directives could be used to access the mod_ldap cache information:

<Location /server/cache-info>
SetHandler ldap-status
</Location>

By fetching the URL http://servername/cache-info, the administrator can get a status report of every cache that is used by mod_ldap cache. Note that if Apache does not support shared memory, then each httpd instance has its own cache, so reloading the URL will result in different information each time, depending on which httpd instance processes the request.

The ability to create an SSL and TLS connections to an LDAP server is defined by the directives LDAPTrustedGlobalCert, LDAPTrustedClientCert and LDAPTrustedMode. These directives specify the CA and optional client certificates to be used, as well as the type of encryption to be used on the connection (none, SSL or TLS/STARTTLS).

# Establish an SSL LDAP connection on port 636. Requires that
# mod_ldap and mod_authnz_ldap be loaded. Change the
# "yourdomain.example.com" to match your domain.

LDAPTrustedGlobalCert CA_DER /certs/certfile.der

<Location /ldap-status>
SetHandler ldap-status
Order deny,allow
Deny from all
Allow from yourdomain.example.com
AuthLDAPURL ldaps://127.0.0.1/dc=example,dc=com?uid?one
AuthzLDAPAuthoritative off
Require valid-user
</Location>

# Establish a TLS LDAP connection on port 389. Requires that
# mod_ldap and mod_authnz_ldap be loaded. Change the
# "yourdomain.example.com" to match your domain.

LDAPTrustedGlobalCert CA_DER /certs/certfile.der

<Location /ldap-status>
SetHandler ldap-status
Order deny,allow
Deny from all
Allow from yourdomain.example.com
AuthLDAPURL ldap://127.0.0.1/dc=example,dc=com?uid?one TLS
AuthzLDAPAuthoritative off
Require valid-user
</Location>

The different LDAP SDKs have widely different methods of setting and handling both CA and client side certificates.

If you intend to use SSL or TLS, read this section CAREFULLY so as to understand the differences between configurations on the different LDAP toolkits supported.

Netscape/Mozilla/iPlanet SDK

CA certificates are specified within a file called cert7.db. The SDK will not talk to any LDAP server whose certificate was not signed by a CA specified in this file. If client certificates are required, an optional key3.db file may be specified with an optional password. The secmod file can be specified if required. These files are in the same format as used by the Netscape Communicator or Mozilla web browsers. The easiest way to obtain these files is to grab them from your browser installation.

Client certificates are specified per connection using the LDAPTrustedClientCert directive by referring to the certificate "nickname". An optional password may be specified to unlock the certificate's private key.

The SDK supports SSL only. An attempt to use STARTTLS will cause an error when an attempt is made to contact the LDAP server at runtime.

# Specify a Netscape CA certificate file
LDAPTrustedGlobalCert CA_CERT7_DB /certs/cert7.db
# Specify an optional key3.db file for client certificate support
LDAPTrustedGlobalCert CERT_KEY3_DB /certs/key3.db
# Specify the secmod file if required
LDAPTrustedGlobalCert CA_SECMOD /certs/secmod
<Location /ldap-status>
SetHandler ldap-status
Order deny,allow
Deny from all
Allow from yourdomain.example.com
LDAPTrustedClientCert CERT_NICKNAME <nickname> [password]
AuthLDAPURL ldaps://127.0.0.1/dc=example,dc=com?uid?one
AuthzLDAPAuthoritative off
Require valid-user
</Location>

Novell SDK

One or more CA certificates must be specified for the Novell SDK to work correctly. These certificates can be specified as binary DER or Base64 (PEM) encoded files.

Note: Client certificates are specified globally rather than per connection, and so must be specified with the LDAPTrustedGlobalCert directive as below. Trying to set client certificates via the LDAPTrustedClientCert directive will cause an error to be logged when an attempt is made to connect to the LDAP server..

The SDK supports both SSL and STARTTLS, set using the LDAPTrustedMode parameter. If an ldaps:// URL is specified, SSL mode is forced, override this directive.

# Specify two CA certificate files
LDAPTrustedGlobalCert CA_DER /certs/cacert1.der
LDAPTrustedGlobalCert CA_BASE64 /certs/cacert2.pem
# Specify a client certificate file and key
LDAPTrustedGlobalCert CERT_BASE64 /certs/cert1.pem
LDAPTrustedGlobalCert KEY_BASE64 /certs/key1.pem [password]
# Do not use this directive, as it will throw an error
#LDAPTrustedClientCert CERT_BASE64 /certs/cert1.pem

OpenLDAP SDK

One or more CA certificates must be specified for the OpenLDAP SDK to work correctly. These certificates can be specified as binary DER or Base64 (PEM) encoded files.

Client certificates are specified per connection using the LDAPTrustedClientCert directive.

The documentation for the SDK claims to support both SSL and STARTTLS, however STARTTLS does not seem to work on all versions of the SDK. The SSL/TLS mode can be set using the LDAPTrustedMode parameter. If an ldaps:// URL is specified, SSL mode is forced. The OpenLDAP documentation notes that SSL (ldaps://) support has been deprecated to be replaced with TLS, although the SSL functionality still works.

# Specify two CA certificate files
LDAPTrustedGlobalCert CA_DER /certs/cacert1.der
LDAPTrustedGlobalCert CA_BASE64 /certs/cacert2.pem
<Location /ldap-status>
SetHandler ldap-status
Order deny,allow
Deny from all
Allow from yourdomain.example.com
LDAPTrustedClientCert CERT_BASE64 /certs/cert1.pem
LDAPTrustedClientCert KEY_BASE64 /certs/key1.pem
AuthLDAPURL ldaps://127.0.0.1/dc=example,dc=com?uid?one
AuthzLDAPAuthoritative off
Require valid-user
</Location>

Solaris SDK

SSL/TLS for the native Solaris LDAP libraries is not yet supported. If required, install and use the OpenLDAP libraries instead.

Microsoft SDK

SSL/TLS certificate configuration for the native Microsoft LDAP libraries is done inside the system registry, and no configuration directives are required.

Both SSL and TLS are supported by using the ldaps:// URL format, or by using the LDAPTrustedMode directive accordingly.

Note: The status of support for client certificates is not yet known for this toolkit.

Specifies the maximum size of the primary LDAP cache. This cache contains successful search/binds. Set it to 0 to turn off search/bind caching. The default size is 1024 cached searches.

Specifies the time (in seconds) that an item in the search/bind cache remains valid. The default is 600 seconds (10 minutes).

This directive configures the LDAP_OPT_NETWORK_TIMEOUT option in the underlying LDAP client library, when available. This value typically controls how long the LDAP client library will wait for the TCP connection to the LDAP server to complete.

If a connection is not successful with the timeout period, either an error will be returned or the LDAP client library will attempt to connect to a secondary LDAP server if one is specified (via a space-separated list of hostnames in the AuthLDAPURL).

The default is 10 seconds, if the LDAP client library linked with the server supports the LDAP_OPT_NETWORK_TIMEOUT option.

LDAPConnectionTimeout is only available when the LDAP client library linked with the server supports the LDAP_OPT_NETWORK_TIMEOUT option, and the ultimate behavior is dictated entirely by the LDAP client library.

This specifies the number of entries mod_ldap will use to cache LDAP compare operations. The default is 1024 entries. Setting it to 0 disables operation caching.

Specifies the time (in seconds) that entries in the operation cache remain valid. The default is 600 seconds.

Specifies the directory path and file name of the shared memory cache file. If not set, anonymous shared memory will be used if the platform supports it.

Specifies the number of bytes to allocate for the shared memory cache. The default is 500kb. If set to 0, shared memory caching will not be used.

Description: Sets the file containing or nickname referring to a per connection client certificate. Not all LDAP toolkits support per connection client certificates.
Syntax: LDAPTrustedClientCert type directory-path/filename/nickname [password]
Context: server config, virtual host, directory, .htaccess
Status: Extension
Module: mod_ldap

It specifies the directory path, file name or nickname of a per connection client certificate used when establishing an SSL or TLS connection to an LDAP server. Different locations or directories may have their own independant client certificate settings. Some LDAP toolkits (notably Novell) do not support per connection client certificates, and will throw an error on LDAP server connection if you try to use this directive (Use the LDAPTrustedGlobalCert directive instead for Novell client certificates - See the SSL/TLS certificate guide above for details). The type specifies the kind of certificate parameter being set, depending on the LDAP toolkit being used. Supported types are:

  • CERT_DER - binary DER encoded client certificate
  • CERT_BASE64 - PEM encoded client certificate
  • CERT_NICKNAME - Client certificate "nickname" (Netscape SDK)
  • KEY_DER - binary DER encoded private key
  • KEY_BASE64 - PEM encoded private key
Description: Sets the file or database containing global trusted Certificate Authority or global client certificates
Syntax: LDAPTrustedGlobalCert type directory-path/filename [password]
Context: server config
Status: Extension
Module: mod_ldap

It specifies the directory path and file name of the trusted CA certificates and/or system wide client certificates mod_ldap should use when establishing an SSL or TLS connection to an LDAP server. Note that all certificate information specified using this directive is applied globally to the entire server installation. Some LDAP toolkits (notably Novell) require all client certificates to be set globally using this directive. Most other toolkits require clients certificates to be set per Directory or per Location using LDAPTrustedClientCert. If you get this wrong, an error may be logged when an attempt is made to contact the LDAP server, or the connection may silently fail (See the SSL/TLS certificate guide above for details). The type specifies the kind of certificate parameter being set, depending on the LDAP toolkit being used. Supported types are:

  • CA_DER - binary DER encoded CA certificate
  • CA_BASE64 - PEM encoded CA certificate
  • CA_CERT7_DB - Netscape cert7.db CA certificate database file
  • CA_SECMOD - Netscape secmod database file
  • CERT_DER - binary DER encoded client certificate
  • CERT_BASE64 - PEM encoded client certificate
  • CERT_KEY3_DB - Netscape key3.db client certificate database file
  • CERT_NICKNAME - Client certificate "nickname" (Netscape SDK)
  • CERT_PFX - PKCS#12 encoded client certificate (Novell SDK)
  • KEY_DER - binary DER encoded private key
  • KEY_BASE64 - PEM encoded private key
  • KEY_PFX - PKCS#12 encoded private key (Novell SDK)

The following modes are supported:

  • NONE - no encryption
  • SSL - ldaps:// encryption on default port 636
  • TLS - STARTTLS encryption on default port 389

Not all LDAP toolkits support all the above modes. An error message will be logged at runtime if a mode is not supported, and the connection to the LDAP server will fail.

If an ldaps:// URL is specified, the mode becomes SSL and the setting of LDAPTrustedMode is ignored.

Specifies whether to force the verification of a server certificate when establishing an SSL connection to the LDAP server.

Sat, 02 Oct 2021 15:24:00 -0500 en text/html https://dof.gob.mx/manual/en/mod/mod_ldap.html
Killexams : Tasks That Are Common to SAS/CONNECT and SAS/SHARE Killexams : Windows: NetBIOS Access Method : Tasks That Are Common to SAS/CONNECT and SAS/SHARE
Communications Access Methods for SAS/CONNECT and SAS/SHARE Software
System Administrator, Network Administrator, Applications Programmer, or User
To use the NetBIOS access method with a Windows host for SAS/CONNECT and SAS/SHARE, perform these tasks:
  1. Verify that you have met all your site and software requirements.
  2. Verify that you know how to set options in SAS software.
  3. Set the desired SAS/CONNECT and SAS/SHARE options.

System and Software Requirements for SAS/CONNECT and SAS/SHARE

Ensure that the following conditions have been met:

  1. The NetBIOS application program interface (API) has been installed at both the local and remote hosts.
  2. SAS software is installed on both the local and remote hosts.

Windows NT and Windows 95 Requirements

To use the NetBIOS access method with Windows NT and Windows 95, install the IBM compatible NetBIOS API that is included with Windows.

When configuring NetBIOS on a host, the system administrator binds the NetBIOS interface to a lower-level protocol, which is sometimes called the wire protocol. Examples of wire protocols are NETBEUI, IPX SPX, or TCP/IP. The wire protocol to which NetBIOS is bound is based on the type of network that your site uses. The IBM compatible NetBIOS interface is bound to a network that is running the NETBEUI wire protocol. The Novell compatible NetBIOS interface is bound to a network that is running the IPX/SPX wire protocol.

Windows 32s Requirements

To use the NetBIOS access method with Windows 32s, install the Windows interface to the IBM compatible NetBIOS that is loaded into DOS. Then, you should be able to use software from any vendor that supplies a NetBIOS product. The following two packages have been Tested by SAS Institute:

  • the IBM LAN Support Program
  • the Novell Netware Requestor for DOS.

You may need to set specific options to establish the connections that you want with SAS/CONNECT and SAS/SHARE when using the NetBIOS communications access method.

Consult with your network administrator to determine what options must be set and what values to assign to them.

You may specify an option in any of the following forms:

Values for these options may contain up to eight characters, consisting of alphanumeric characters, the percent sign (%), the dollar sign ($), the pound sign (#), the at sign (@), and the underscore (_).

If you set multiple forms of the same option, here is the order of precedence that is followed:

SAS macro variable
OPTIONS statement
AUTOEXEC file
SAS invocation
SAS configuration file
DOS environment variable.

Note:   In the Windows environment, SAS/SHARE server security is supported on the Windows NT platform only.  [cautionend]

For SAS/CONNECT, you must supply identifying information to sign on without a script to a remote host running a spawner program. A SAS/SHARE server, running secured, requires identification from each connecting client. The next sections outline the alternatives for specifying security information for SAS/CONNECT and SAS/SHARE.

USER= and PASSWORD= Options in Selected Statements

In Version 8, you provide client identification to a SAS/CONNECT remote host or a SAS/SHARE server using the USER= and PASSWORD= options. These options are valid in the following statements:

PROC SQL
Connect to Remote

Specifying client identification in the applicable security option (SASUSER= and SASPASS= for SAS/CONNECT and SASSECUR= for SAS/SHARE) is still accepted but is not recommended in Version 8. The USER= and PASSWORD= options take precedence over the client security option when both are specified. For example, a SAS/SHARE client's execution of a LIBNAME statement with values assigned to the USER= and PASSWORD= options would override a SASSECUR= setting in the same client SAS session.

CAUTION:
In order to make a SAS/SHARE server secured, the SASSECUR= option must be set at a SAS/SHARE server that can run on any host.  [cautionend]

Here is the syntax and definitions for these options:

USER | USERNAME | USERID | UID=username | _PROMPT_
PASS | PASSWORD | PASSWD | PWD | PW=password | _PROMPT_

Specifying these options allows a user on the local host whose username and password have been Tested to access the remote host.

username
is a valid userid for the remote host and is thus host-dependent in form. If the value contains blanks or special characters, it must be enclosed in quotes. On Windows NT only, the username can also include the domain name, which locates the specified username in a domain.
password
is the password, if any, required for authentication of the supplied username. This value will not be echoed in the SAS log. If the value contains blanks or special characters, it must be enclosed in quotes.
_PROMPT_
specifies that the SAS System prompts the client for username and password.

Note:   The values provided when prompted must NOT be quoted.  [cautionend]

Specifying USER=_PROMPT_ and omitting the PASSWORD= specification will cause SAS to prompt you for both userid and password.

This is especially useful for allowing the SAS statements containing the USER= and PASSWORD= options to be copied and otherwise effectively reused by others.

For SAS/SHARE, the values supplied for the USER= and PASSWORD= options are valid for the duration of the remote host connection. Additional accesses of the remote host while the connection to that host is still in-effect do not require re-supply of the USER= and PASSWORD= options. For example while the first, connecting library assign to a SAS/SHARE server may require specification of the options, subsequent assigns to the same server will not heed specification of these options as long as the original connection is in-effect. A subsequent re-connect to the same server or connect to a different server would require re-supply of the USER= and PASSWORD= options.

Here is a Version 8 example for SAS/SHARE:

libname test 'prog2 a' user=joeblue password="2muchfun" server=share1;

For SAS/CONNECT, these values are valid until SIGNOFF.

Here is a Version 8 example for SAS/CONNECT:

signon rmthost user=joeblack password=born2run;

As a security precaution, PASSWORD= field entries echoed in the log are replaced with Xs. If _PROMPT_ was specified for entering the password, the entry would not be displayed on the screen as it is typed.

SAS/CONNECT SASUSER and SASPASS Options

On the local host, either assign a valid userid and password to the SASUSER and SASPASS options or supply them to SAS, when prompted.

Consult with the system administrator of the remote host at which the spawner is invoked for a valid userid and password.

The SASUSER and SASPASS options store the userid and the password of the remote host that, when passed to the remote host, allow a local host connection.

Example:

options set=sasuser bass;
options set=saspass time2go;

See Setting SAS Options and Variables for examples of the forms that you can use to specify the SASUSER and SASPASS options.

Also see PC Spawner Program for information about the -SECURITY option in the PC spawner program, which controls the security of the remote host.

SAS/SHARE SASSECUR Option

You must set the SASSECUR option in order to pass a remote host userid and a password to a SAS/SHARE server for verification. After the userid and the password have been verified, the connection to the SAS/SHARE server can proceed.

SASSECUR=_NONE_ | _PROMPT_ | userid.password | _SECURE_
CAUTION:
Windows NT only SAS/SHARE server security is supported on the Windows NT platform only.  [cautionend]
_NONE_
must be set at the SAS/SHARE client.

Setting this value does not establish secure sessions for connecting SAS/SHARE clients.

This is the default.

_PROMPT_
must be set at the SAS/SHARE client.

_PROMPT_ specifies that SAS prompt the user for userid and password information. When prompted for a password, the input field is not displayed. Choosing to prompt for a userid and a password provides more security than assigning the userid and the password to the system option.

userid.password
must be set at the SAS/SHARE client.

This value specifies both the userid and password. Assigning the userid and password directly to the SASSECUR option at the SAS/SHARE client may inadvertently publicize this information and compromise the security of the SAS/SHARE server. Assigning the value to the option in a file allows anyone to read it.

_SECURE_
must be set at the SAS/SHARE server on a Windows NT host only.

The _SECURE_ value for the SASSECUR option requires a SAS/SHARE client to supply a valid userid and password to the remote host or to the remote host on which the server is running in order to allow client access to the server.

Specify the SASSECUR option before you create a server.

Examples:

options set=sassecur _none_;
options set=sassecur _prompt_;
options set=sassecur bass.time2go;
options set=sassecur "apex\bass.time2go";
options set=sassecur _secure_;

See Setting SAS Options and Variables for examples of the forms that you can use to specify SASSECUR.


SAS/CONNECT and SAS/SHARE Options
VQMLINKS number-of-links
specifies the number of links that can be active simultaneously. The default is 0.

For SAS/CONNECT, each time you sign on to a remote host, you initiate one link. If you want to sign on to more than one remote host during a single SAS session, set VQMLINKS to the number of links that will be active at the same time. There is no limit to the number of links that you can specify, but use the smallest number possible to conserve NetBIOS session resources. The number that you specify for this option must be the same as or less than the maximum number of sessions that are configured for NetBIOS when it is installed. If you specify 0, VQMLINKS defaults to the number of sessions that are configured for a single NetBIOS user.

At the SAS/CONNECT remote host, set both VQMLINKS and VQMCONVS to 1. Specify a higher value if you are accessing a SAS/SHARE server from your SAS/CONNECT remote session. Details about the VQMCONVS option are given later in this section.

At a SAS/SHARE server, set VQMLINKS to a value that represents the maximum number of clients that can be connected simultaneously. Specifying 0 implies that no limit is to be enforced and that the maximum is constrained only by system memory.

The server administrator should specify this value if you want to set a limit.

VQADAPTR adapter-number
for SAS/CONNECT and SAS/SHARE, specifies which network adapter, and, therefore, which network to use when establishing the link. You do not need this option if you are connected to only one network. The default is 0.

Note that if both the SAS/CONNECT local and remote hosts or a SAS/SHARE server and clients are connected to multiple networks, both hosts must specify the same network in order to establish a connection. For example, if your node has network connections for a Token Ring network and an Ethernet network and you want to connect to another node on the Ethernet network, you must set VQADAPTR to the correct adapter number for that network. This doesn't necessarily mean that the value of VQADAPTR is the same on both hosts. One host may have adapter 0 set to Ethernet while the other host has adapter 1 set to Ethernet. In this case, VQADAPTR must be 0 for one host and 1 for the other host.

Ask your PC installation staff or a SAS Software Representative for help to determine which adapter to use for each network.

For Windows NT hosts using SAS/SHARE, VQADAPTR specifies the logical adapter number as configured in the Main -> Control -> Panel -> Network -> Netbios Interface menu that matches the desired network route (driver and adapter combination).

Ask the system administrator for help to determine this value.

VQCAMLEN access-method-buffer-and-packet-length
specifies the access method buffer and packet length. This option determines the maximum number of characters that can be transmitted in a single packet. The value can range from 55 to 65535 characters. The default value is 4096.

Ask your system administrator for help to determine this value.

VQMCONVS number-of-conversations
specifies the number of conversations that can occur simultaneously. Each time that you sign on to a remote host, access a server, or access a new library, you initiate one conversation; therefore, set this value to at least the same number as VQMLINKS. There is no limit to the number of conversations that you can specify, but use the smallest number possible to conserve NetBIOS command resources. The number that you specify for this option must be the same or less than the number of commands that are configured for NetBIOS. If you specify 0, VQMCONVS defaults to the number of commands that are configured for a single NetBIOS user.
VQPNAME symbolic-user-name
specifies the symbolic user name to be used by a SAS/SHARE server when referring to a user session in its SAS log and in output from the OPERATE procedure. This name can be any valid SAS name. See SAS Language Reference: Dictionary for information about SAS naming rules. The default name is the alphabetic character U followed by the last seven characters of the network hardware address.

Copyright 1999 by SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA. All rights reserved.

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Killexams : Health and Medicine Division No result found, try new keyword!The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine are private, nonprofit institutions that provide expert advice on some of the most pressing challenges facing the nation and world. Our ... Fri, 15 Apr 2022 02:38:00 -0500 text/html https://www.nationalacademies.org/hmd/health-and-medicine-division Killexams : Pharming Announces New ICD-10-CM Code for APDS, a Rare Primary Immunodeficiency

Implemented by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the diagnosis code will accurately identify US patients with APDS, supporting care and research efforts

LEIDEN, Netherlands, Aug. 2, 2022 /PRNewswire/ -- Pharming Group N.V. ("Pharming" or "the Company") (EURONEXT Amsterdam: PHARM/Nasdaq: PHAR) announces that a new diagnosis code for reporting cases of activated phosphoinositide 3-kinase delta syndrome (APDS), a rare primary immunodeficiency, will be added to the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The diagnosis code, D81.82 ‒ Activated Phosphoinositide 3-kinase Delta Syndrome (APDS), will be effective starting October 1, 2022.

Pharming Group N.V. logo

Anurag Relan, Chief Medical Officer of Pharming, commented:

"By assigning this ICD-10-CM code, the CDC is formally recognizing APDS as a discrete immunological disease, and that will make a life-altering difference for people affected by the condition. By using the unique diagnostic code to identify both established and new patients with APDS, physicians will increase care options for affected individuals while helping to boost the world's understanding of the prevalence, mechanisms, and outcomes of this progressively debilitating disease. For healthcare practitioners, this milestone marks an opportunity to make a big difference by taking a simple action."

The assignment of the ICD-10-CM code will, for the first time, enable physicians and payors in the US to add a diagnosis of APDS to patients' health records, which will help connect these individuals with researchers studying the prevalence and course of the disease. In addition, by allocating a specific diagnosis, the new ICD-10-CM code may help confirm medical necessity in individual patients, thus improving their access to relevant care options through US health insurance plans.

Caused by genetic variants affecting approximately one to two people per million, APDS causes significant lymphoproliferation and immune dysfunction, as well as an increased risk of lymphoma. There is no approved therapy for the disease and treatment is generally limited to supportive care, such as antibiotics and immunoglobulin replacement therapy. Physician and patient advocacy groups specializing in immunodeficiency disorders, along with Pharming, expect the decision to raise awareness about this rare disease.

Vicki and Fred Modell, co-founders of the Jeffrey Modell Foundation, commented:

"We are excited that US regulatory authorities have assigned APDS an ICD-10-CM code. As a foundation dedicated to early diagnosis, meaningful treatments, and cures for primary immunodeficiency, we are aware of the physical and emotional challenges people with APDS face due to misdiagnosis of their disease. By increasing recognition of the condition, we expect the new diagnostic code to help ensure that every patient is included when it comes to the delivery of appropriate and meaningful treatments for APDS."

About Activated Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase δ Syndrome (APDS)

APDS is a rare primary immunodeficiency that affects approximately one to two people per million. Also known as PASLI, it is caused by variants in either of two genes, PIK3CD or PIK3R1, that regulate maturation of white blood cells. Variants of these genes lead to hyperactivity of the PI3Kδ (phosphoinositide 3-kinase delta) pathway.1,2 Balanced signaling in the PI3Kδ pathway is essential for physiological immune function. When this pathway is hyperactive, immune cells fail to mature and function properly, leading to immunodeficiency and dysregulation.1,3 APDS is characterized by severe, recurrent sinopulmonary infections, lymphoproliferation, autoimmunity, and enteropathy.4,5 Because these symptoms can be associated with a variety of conditions, including other primary immunodeficiencies, people with APDS are frequently misdiagnosed and suffer a median 7-year diagnostic delay.6 As APDS is a progressive disease, this delay may lead to an accumulation of damage over time, including permanent lung damage and lymphoma.4-7 The only way to definitively diagnose this condition is through genetic testing.

About Pharming Group N.V.

Pharming Group N.V. (EURONEXT Amsterdam: PHARM/Nasdaq: PHAR) is a global biopharmaceutical company dedicated to transforming the lives of patients with rare, debilitating, and life-threatening diseases. Pharming is commercializing and developing an innovative portfolio of protein replacement therapies and precision medicines, including small molecules, biologics, and gene therapies that are in early to late-stage development. Pharming is headquartered in Leiden, Netherlands, and has employees around the globe who serve patients in over 30 markets in North America, Europe, the Middle East, Africa, and Asia-Pacific.

For more information, visit www.pharming.com.

About the Jeffrey Modell Foundation

Vicki and Fred Modell established the Jeffrey Modell Foundation (JMF) in 1987, in memory of their son Jeffrey, who died at the age of 15, from complications of Primary Immunodeficiency (PI) — a genetic condition that is chronic, serious, and often fatal. JMF is a global nonprofit organization dedicated to early diagnosis, meaningful treatments and, ultimately, cures through research, physician education, public awareness, advocacy, patient support, newborn screening, and genetic sequencing. For more information, visit https://www.info4pi.org/.

Forward-Looking Statements

This press release contains forward-looking statements, including with respect to timing and progress of Pharming's preclinical studies and clinical trials of its product candidates, Pharming's clinical and commercial prospects, Pharming's ability to overcome the challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic to the conduct of its business, and Pharming's expectations regarding its projected working capital requirements and cash resources, which statements are subject to a number of risks, uncertainties and assumptions, including, but not limited to the scope, progress and expansion of Pharming's clinical trials and ramifications for the cost thereof; and clinical, scientific, regulatory and technical developments. In light of these risks and uncertainties, and other risks and uncertainties that are described in Pharming's 2021 Annual Report and the Annual Report on Form 20-F for the year ended December 31, 2021 filed with the US Securities and Exchange Commission, the events and circumstances discussed in such forward-looking statements may not occur, and Pharming's genuine results could differ materially and adversely from those anticipated or implied thereby. Any forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this press release and are based on information available to Pharming as of the date of this release.

Inside Information

This press release relates to the disclosure of information that qualifies, or may have qualified, as inside information within the meaning of Article 7(1) of the EU Market Abuse Regulation.

References

1. Lucas CL, et al. Nat Immunol. 2014;15:88-97.
2. Elkaim E, et al. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016;138(1):210-218.
3. Nunes-Santos C, Uzel G, Rosenzweig SD. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2019;143(5):1676-1687.
4. Coulter TI, et al. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2017;139(2):597-606.
5. Maccari ME, et al. Front Immunol. 2018;9:543.
6. Jamee M, et al. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2019;May 21.
7. Condliffe AM, Chandra A. Front Immunol. 2018;9:338.

Logo - https://mma.prnewswire.com/media/1454235/Pharming_Group_NV_Logo.jpg

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