BusinessObjects was acquired by SAP in 2007 for $6 billion. BusinessObjects was acquired by SAP in 2009 for $78 billion, its largest acquisition to date. Initially, BusinessObjects operated independently, but in 2009 became a SAP division, and its products became SAP BusinessObjects.
The general availability announcement for SAP BusinessObjects BI 4 was made recently by SAP. The SAP Business Intelligence 4 application is in step 3. Thus, all speculations that SAP was getting rid of BusinessObjects came to an end. SAP announced SAP BI 4 instead. Supported until 2027, this is 3.
With BusinessObjects Business Intelligence, you can easily report on, visualize, and share data. In its role as an on-premises BI layer for SAP's Business Technology Platform, it transforms data into actionable insights available from any location, at any time.
Starting at $14000, SAP BusinessObjects Business Intelligence is offered by SAP. The annual fee is $800. There is no free version of the software. There is no free trial for SAP BusinessObjects Business Intelligence.
Starting at $24,958/month for SAP Business One AP Business One Starting @ ₹ 24,958/Month*
As for the licenses, a Professional license will set you back about $3213, whereas a Limited license is $1666 per year. For those who are Professional users, they must pay $94 per month per user, whereas those who are Limited users must pay $54 per month per user. Additionally, you can also purchase a subscription for one year for a prepaid amount.
SAP BusinessObjects (BO, BOBJ, or BObjects) is a business intelligence (BI) software company founded by SAP. SAP acquired BusinessObjects in 2007 for a reported $5 billion. During its final earnings release before being acquired by SAP, the company reported that it had over 46,000 customers.
Price details on SAP BusinessObjects Business Intelligence SAP BusinessObjects Business Intelligence pricing starts at $14,000. The annual fee is $800. There is no free version of the software.
We will now examine the instruments that are included in the SAP BI offer from the end user's perspective: SAP BusinessObjects BI Suite is a real-time BI platform that is on premises. Integrating extra analytical tools, data sources, or separate applications like ERP is also an option.
With SAP BusinessObjects Business Intelligence, you can create reports, share data visualisations, and report on it. It transforms data into useful insights and makes them available anytime, anywhere as the on-premise BI layer for SAP's Business Technology Platform.
SAP BusinessObjects Business Intelligence is a tool that provides business intelligence. With SAP BusinessObjects Business Intelligence, you can create reports, share data visualisations, and report on it. In its role as an on-premises BI layer for SAP's Business Technology Platform, it transforms data into actionable insights available from any location, at any time.
The SAP BusinessObjects Explorer lets you access data within your Business Intelligence system in a Google like manner: just type your question and it will deliver the data in a table, chart, or a variety of other ways that will make sense to you.
BI is a tool used to store data and report on it. BI (Business Intelligence) involves cleaning raw data, applying business logic, processing it, and presenting user-friendly information. Business Intelligence is a SAP product that offers a user-friendly interface.
A web-based reporting and analysis tool for SAP Business Objects is SAP Business Objects Web Intelligence (WebI). This is a tool that allows you to analyze workforce-related data as a part of the Enterprise Data Warehouse (EDW) of Washington Workforce Analytics (WWA).
Reporting and analytical business intelligence (BI) are the core functions of SAP BusinessObjects BI. Formerly known as BOBJ, SAP BO is a business intelligence software solution. This is a front-end-based platform for business intelligence that pulls in data from various back-end sources, rather than storing it in the application itself.
Reporting and analytical business intelligence (BI) are the core functions of SAP BusinessObjects BI. Formerly known as BOBJ, SAP BO is a business intelligence software solution. The application includes multiple reporting applications that allow users to conduct analytics, find data, ous reporting applications that help the users to find data, conduct analytics, and generate reports.
Over time, it became one of the largest and most respected BI vendors. BusinessObjects was acquired by SAP in 2007 for $6 billion. In 2001, SAP acquired SAP for $78 billion, their largest acquisition to date.
You may be aware that SAP BusinessObjects BI platform version 4 was recently released. From 31 December 2020, number 1 will undergo an official 'End of Life' (EOL) designation. There are still customers still running 4. As long as you keep using unsupported software, you will be subject to the normal operational, security, and compliance risks that go along with this.
With SAP BusinessObjects BI 4, a highly successful beta has been completed. The third release has been released. The 4. With the latest version 3, this industry leaders' scalable enterprise reporting platform has taken a major step forward.
Sap® Businessobjects™ portfolio of information management solutions accelerates momentum with product enhancements and new customers
Customer Momentum and Recognition from Industry Influencers Underscore Market Leadership in Providing Companies With Trusted Information
SAP® BusinessObjects™ Data Services and SAP® BusinessObjects™ Data Federator, Now Even More Integrated With SAP NetWeaver® Business Warehouse, Bring Reliable Data to All Business Processes
To provide organizations with a foundation of trusted information for all their key business processes and decisions, SAP AG (NYSE: SAP) today announced enhancements to SAP® BusinessObjects™ Data Services and SAP® BusinessObjects™ Data Federator software, part of SAP BusinessObjects information management (IM) solutions. These solutions support both SAP and non-SAP IT environments, and today have expanded support for SAP customers with integration with the SAP NetWeaver® Business Warehouse (SAP NetWeaver BW) capability. Regardless of the underlying system, SAP provides companies with trusted information to launch successful initiatives in areas such as business intelligence (BI), customer relationship management (CRM), enterprise resource planning (ERP), supply chain management (SCM), system migrations and data governance. Significant customer momentum and industry recognition illustrate how market leadership for SAP BusinessObjects IM solutions is providing business users with integrated, accurate and timely data.
In today's world of huge data volumes and multiple, disparate sources, it is more important than ever that people can trust the accuracy and timeliness of business information. The growth of organizations, both organically and through mergers and acquisitions, has added to this challenge. SAP BusinessObjects IM solutions continue to help companies tackle this problem by helping to ensure the availability, completeness and transparency of all their data – regardless of its origin or format.
Providing Customers With a Clear View into Information Assets
Nearly one-third of the 2009 Global 100 companies use SAP BusinessObjects IM solutions to achieve their business objectives for data quality, data integration and metadata management. More customers are turning to SAP to deliver market-leading information management innovation. For example, SAP BusinessObjects Data Services is a unique software solution that combines data integration and data quality into a single solution, providing companies with one environment for improving data and delivering it anywhere. Customers worldwide like the Oslo Stock Exchange and London-based television network Channel 4 are benefiting from this and other SAP BusinessObjects IM solutions today.
"We selected SAP BusinessObjects Data Services for our data integration needs because of its total cost, a richer pre-built function set, and we wanted one vendor for both reporting and data integration," said Ketil Smaaskjær, head of Database Systems, Oslo Stock Exchange. "By standardizing on SAP BusinessObjects IM solutions we have better visibility into our report information—where the data is coming from and what it really means. This one solution allows us to ensure that our data is unified, complete and accurate."
SAP BusinessObjects IM Solutions Receive Industry Recognition
Gartner, Inc. has positioned SAP BusinessObjects technology in the leaders quadrant of the “Magic Quadrant for Data Quality Tools” 1 report, based on completeness of vision and ability to execute. Additionally, SearchDataManagement.com recently named the software as a Data Integration “Product of the Year,” an award conferred by a panel of industry analysts and consultants (see “ SearchDataManagement.com Names SAP® BusinessObjects™ Data Services a Data Integration ‘Product of the Year'”).
Product Enhancements Deliver More Robust Integration With SAP and Third Party Applications
The new versions of SAP BusinessObjects Data Services and SAP BusinessObjects Data Federator, available now, deliver even tighter integration with SAP applications. For example, SAP customers can more easily extract, profile, cleanse and integrate data from non-SAP sources and load that data into SAP NetWeaver BW, helping to ensure that trusted information is feeding BI initiatives downstream. Data from SAP NetWeaver BW can also be federated with other sources to provide a combined, virtual data warehouse in real-time.
These new enhancements join the existing IM portfolio, including the SAP® BusinessObjects™ Data Quality Management software, which provides integration with SAP® Business Suite software, Siebel CRM and a wide variety of additional applications.
In addition, now companies can more easily embed data integration and data quality capabilities into applications and processes with an expanded Web services-based toolkit for fast and simple integration. This will help SAP customers to ensure trusted data at the application level, providing business users with more accurate data to feed their daily business decisions.
“We have a significant community of SAP BusinessObjects IM customers that continues to grow, showing that trusted data is top of mind for companies today,” said Marge Breya, executive vice president and general manager, Intelligence Platform Group and SAP NetWeaver Solution Management, SAP AG. “Our IM solutions make it easier for companies to create a baseline of reliable data, which enables CIOs to provide reliable information to their employees across the organization quickly and cost-effectively. Everyday our IM family of solutions help companies to translate a wealth of information into economic growth.”
1Gartner “Magic Quadrant for Data Quality Tools” by Ted Friedman and Andreas Bitterer, June 9, 2009.
Picture this: you're chilling during your free time, your favorite beverage in one hand, scrolling through the latest tech updates with the other, when suddenly a friend texts, panicking about a cyberattack that has just left them devastated.
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This scenario is more common than you think and could easily happen to anyone, especially those who harbor stubborn myths about cyber security.
If you're tossing your hair back, saying, "Well, I don't have anything a hacker would want," think again. Hackers aren't picky eaters. They'll feast on any bit of data they can find. Your banking details? Yummy appetizers. Personal information? A delicious main course.
To hackers, we're all just meals waiting to be devoured. The fix here is simple: Take digital threats seriously, set up a sound security system, and be mindful of what you share online.
HOW TO ADD SAFE BROWSERS TO YOUR MOBILE DEVICE
In the quest for robust protection against these lurking cyber threats, there’s a beacon of hope. Identity theft services. Identity theft protection companies can monitor personal information like your home title, Social Security Number (SSN), phone number and email address and alert you if it is being sold on the dark web or being used to open an account. They can also assist you in freezing your bank and credit card accounts to prevent further unauthorized use by criminals.
One of the best parts of using some services is that they might include identity theft insurance of up to 1 million dollars to cover losses and legal fees and a white glove fraud-resolution team where a U.S.-based case manager helps you recover any losses.
See my tips and best picks on how to protect yourself from identity theft by visiting Cyberguy.com/IdentityTheft
For all those confident souls who think a strong password is all the protection they need, here's a wake-up call: Hackers have become more intelligent. They've got tools and tricks to crack even the most complex passwords.
BEWARE OF CHERRYBLOS, THE ANDROID MALWARE THAT STEALS PASSWORDS
Create strong passwords for your accounts and devices, and avoid using the same password for multiple online accounts. Consider using a password manager to securely store and generate complex passwords. It will help you to create unique and difficult-to-crack passwords that a hacker could never guess.
It also keeps track of all your passwords in one place and fills passwords in for you when you're logging into an account so that you never have to remember them yourself. The fewer passwords you remember, the less likely you will be to reuse them for your accounts.
When it comes to choosing the best password manager for you, here are some of my top tips:
Check out my best expert-reviewed password managers of 2023 by heading to Cyberguy.com/Passwords.
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You got antivirus protection? Awesome! But remember, not all antivirus software is created equal. Some may provide better protection and performance than others, so choose wisely. And if you are running a free antivirus program, consider replacing it for these reasons.
For sure, the best way to protect yourself from having your data breached is to have antivirus protection installed on all of your devices. This will make sure you are stopped from clicking on any potential malicious links that may install malware on your devices and allow hackers to gain access to your personal information.
See my expert review of the best antivirus protection for your Windows, Mac, Android & iOS devices by heading to Cyberguy.com/LockUpYourTech
It's time to also address the belief that only downloading apps from official app stores is 100% safe. Here's the thing: official app stores do offer a safer environment, but they're not invincible. Some malicious apps can slip through, disguised as popular apps. A little extra caution won't hurt here.
Before downloading an app, do a little detective work. Check reviews, ratings, developer details, and app permissions. You will likely find this information at the bottom of the description page of whatever app you are attempting to obtain from the App Store or Google Play store.
TOP APPS TO TROUBLESHOOT YOUR WI-FI SIGNAL
Have faith in your WiFi password? It’s time to go a step further and boost your WiFi security. With Cyber threats becoming increasingly sophisticated, enhancing your WiFi security measures can safeguard your personal data and prevent unauthorized access to your network, ensuring you're more protected when you're online.
Enabling encryption: By enabling encryption, such as WPA2 (Wi-Fi Protected Access 2) or WPA3, you can ensure that the data transmitted over your Wi-Fi network is encrypted and not easily accessible to unauthorized users. Encryption adds a layer of security by encoding the data in a way that can only be decrypted by devices with the correct encryption key.
Changing default passwords: Many Wi-Fi routers come with default usernames and passwords set by the manufacturer. It is crucial to change these default credentials, as they are widely known and can make your network vulnerable to unauthorized access. Choose strong, unique passwords that are not easily guessable, and use a password manager, as I detailed above.
Using a Virtual Private Network: A VPN establishes an encrypted connection between your device and a remote server, routing your internet traffic through the VPN server. This adds an extra layer of security and privacy to your Wi-Fi network, as the data transmitted between your device and the VPN server is encrypted. It can help protect your data from potential eavesdropping and provide anonymity by masking your IP address.
For best VPN software, see my expert review of the best VPNs for browsing the web privately on your Windows, Mac, Android & iOS devices by visiting CyberGuy.com/VPN
MORE: HOW TO SPEED UP YOUR WIFI AND INTERNET CONNECTION
Despite the myth that it is difficult and time-consuming to update your software and devices, it is very easy and doesn't take a lot of time. You do not want to neglect those software-update notifications that pop up on your devices. Updates often include important security patches that fix vulnerabilities and protect against the latest threats. Keeping your operating system, apps and antivirus software up to date is crucial in maintaining a strong defense against cyberattacks.
Set your devices to automatically install updates or make it a habit to manually check for updates regularly to ensure you're running the latest, most secure versions. And don’t forget to always back up your devices if you should ever need to restore them. Remember, an outdated system is an open invitation for hackers. It's like leaving your doors unlocked when you go to bed.
It's always better to be safe than sorry. With these cyber security myths busted wide open, it's important to remember that digital security isn't a set-and-forget deal. It's more like a perpetual chess game, and you always need to stay a move ahead of the hackers out there.
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What's one thing that might change your behavior after knowing the truth behind these myths? Could it be finally tapping that neglected 'Update' button? Or perhaps it's time to secure that home Wi-Fi with a reliable VPN? Every strategy counts in this game. How will you up your cyber security game? Let us know by writing us at Cyberguy.com/Contact.
For more of my tech tips and security alerts, subscribe to my free CyberGuy Report Newsletter by heading to Cyberguy.com/Newsletter.
Copyright 2023 CyberGuy.com. All rights reserved.
By Rachel Zupek
Editor's note: CNN.com has a business partnership with CareerBuilder.com, which serves as the exclusive provider of job listings and services to CNN.com.
Key to answering "weaknesses" question is not to respond literally. Identify areas where you can improve.
There's no worse feeling than when you're in an interview and the interviewer asks you a question to which you don't know the answer.
The best way to handle this dreaded debacle is to go into the interview prepared. Familiarize yourself with a few common difficult questions and arm yourself with answers prepared ahead of time.
Check out these tough interview questions and some suggested responses in order to avoid an interview disaster:
Tough question No. 1: "Tell me about yourself."
This is usually the opening question in an interview and it's the perfect moment for you to toot your own horn -- not to tell your life history. Your answers should be a quick rundown of your qualifications and experience. Talk about your education, work history, latest career experience and future goals.
Suggested answer: "I graduated from University X and since then, I have been working in public relations with an agency where I have generated millions of PR hits for my clients. While I've enjoyed working on the agency side, I'm looking to expand my horizons and start doing PR for corporate companies such as this one."
Tough question No. 2: "Why did you leave your last job?"
This is your chance to talk about your experience and your career goals, not to badmouth a former boss or give a laundry list of reasons for your exit. Instead, focus on what you learned in your previous position and how you are ready to use those skills in a new position.
Suggested answer: "The company just wasn't a good fit for my creativity, but I learned that organizations have distinct personalities just like people do. Now I know where I'll be a better fit."
Tough question No. 3: "Where do you see yourself in five years?"
Let the employer know that you're stable and you want to be with this company for the long haul. Keep your aspirations to take over the firm with which you are interviewing, own your own company, retire at 40 or be married with five children to yourself.
Suggested answer: "I want to secure a civil engineering position with a national firm that concentrates on retail development. Ideally, I would like to work for a young company, such as this one, so I can get in on the ground floor and take advantage of all the opportunities a growing firm has to offer."
Tough question No. 4: "What are your weaknesses?"
The key to answering this age-old question is not to respond literally. Your future employer most likely won't care if your weak spot is that you can't cook, nor do they want to hear the generic responses, like you're "too detail oriented" or "work too hard."
Respond to this query by identifying areas in your work where you can Strengthen and figure out how they can be assets to a future employer. If you didn't have the opportunity to develop certain skills at your previous job, explain how eager you are to gain that skill in a new position.
Suggested answer: "In my last position, I wasn't able to develop my public-speaking skills. I'd really like to be able to work in a place that will help me get better at giving presentations and talking in front of others."
Tough question No. 5: "Why were you laid off?"
This question will become more common as the economy continues to slow down. It's a tough question, however, especially because many workers aren't told exactly why they were laid off. The best way to tackle this question is to answer as honestly as possible.
Suggested answer: "As I'm sure you're aware, the economy is tough right now and my company felt the effects of it. I was part of a large staff reduction and that's really all I know. I am confident, however, that it had nothing to do with my job performance, as exemplified by my accomplishments. For example..."
Tough question No. 6: "Tell me about the worst boss you ever had."
Never, ever talk badly about your past bosses. A potential boss will anticipate that you'll talk about him or her in the same manner somewhere down the line.
Suggested answer: "While none of my past bosses were awful, there are some who taught me more than others did. I've definitely learned what types of management styles I work with the best."
Tough question No. 7: "How would others describe you?"
You should always be asking for feedback from your colleagues and supervisors in order to gauge your performance; this way, you can honestly answer the question based on their comments. Keep track of the feedback to be able to give to an employer, if asked. Doing so will also help you identify strengths and weaknesses.
Suggested answer: "My former colleagues have said that I'm easy to do business with and that I always hit the ground running with new projects. I have more specific feedback with me, if you'd like to take a look at it."
Tough question No. 8: "What can you offer me that another person can't?"
This is when you talk about your record of getting things done. Go into specifics from your résumé and portfolio; show an employer your value and how you'd be an asset.
Suggested answer: "I'm the best person for the job. I know there are other candidates who could fill this position, but my passion for excellence sets me apart from the pack. I am committed to always producing the best results. For example..."
Tough question No. 9: "If you could choose any company to work for, where would you go?"
Never say that you would choose any company other than the one where you are interviewing. Talk about the job and the company for which you are being interviewed.
Suggested answer: "I wouldn't have applied for this position if I didn't sincerely want to work with your organization." Continue with specific examples of why you respect the company with which you are interviewing and why you'll be a good fit.
Tough question No. 10: "Would you be willing to take a salary cut?"
Salary is a delicate topic. In today's tough economy though, how much a company can afford to pay you might be the deal breaker in whether or not you are offered a position.
Suggested answer: "I'm making $X now. I understand that the salary range for this position is $XX - $XX. Like most people, I would like to Strengthen on my salary, but I'm more interested in the job itself than the money. I would be open to negotiating a lower starting salary but would hope that we can revisit the subject in a few months after I've proved myself to you."
Copyright CareerBuilder.com 2009. All rights reserved. The information contained in this article may not be published, broadcast or otherwise distributed without the prior written authority
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Q: Who is allowed to submit or enter final grades?
A: Final grades must be entered or submitted online via myPurdue Faculty Self Service or BrightSpace by the instructor of record for that course.
Q: How do you know that you're an instructor of record?
A: Log into myPurdue and look in the My Course channel from the Faculty tab. If you have access to course lists, you will see your course offerings. If all do not appear, select the more link under your visible courses.
Q: What if I make a mistake or need to change a student’s final grade after I have submitted it?
A: Grades can be resubmitted through myPurdue or BrightSpace as often as you need up to the deadline. Corrections after that will require a Form 350 or a change submitted using the Grade Change Workflow in myPurdue.
Q: I keep getting the same final grade roster when I click Final Grade entry.
A: Scroll to the bottom of your final grade page and look for the link called "CRN Selection". Click on it and a drop down for all the courses you are faculty of record will display. Click on the arrow for a full list. Select your next CRN, then hit Submit.
Q: When can students see grades in Banner/myPurdue?
A: Students will be able to view grades after they have been rolled to academic history. That process should be complete by 8:00 a.m. the morning after the grade entry deadline.
Q: Can grades be printed?
A: To print a copy of grades for your records, click on "download course roster" from your final grade page.
Q: How can grades be viewed after grades have been rolled to history?
A: Faculty may view their grade rosters again after the deadline has passed and all end of term processing has completed in myPurdue. This is typically by 8:00 a.m. the following day. Grade reports are available using Cognos – Public Folders-Validate-Grades through the schedule deputy in each department for faculty.
Q: What if I have a Pass or No-Pass class?
A: A grade of Pass (P) or No-Pass (N) may be used if the course was originally set up with that grading criteria. If you are assigning an incomplete grade for a Pass or No-Pass class, the grade of PI should be given. If you are pushing grades from BrightSpace, the letter grade you push will automatically convert to a P or N based on the rules in university regulations.
Q: How do I handle regular incomplete grades?
A: Incomplete grades are assigned when a student has attended class, but has not completed work and has been allowed time to do so. As before, a Registrar Form 60 must completed for each student with an Incomplete or (I) grade submitted..
Incompletes are not to be used for students who never attended class and are still on the class roster. Failure to complete the class or turn in passing coursework is noted as an (F).
Q: How do I know if I should assign an "F" grade or an "FN" grade?
A: A grade of F (Failing) is awarded to students who complete the course and participate in activities through the end of the term but fail to achieve the course objectives. A grade of FN (Failing/Non-authorized Incomplete) is awarded to students who did not officially withdraw from the course, but who failed to participate in course activities through the end of the term. The FN grade is to be used when, in the opinion of the instructor, completed assignments or course activities or both were insufficient to make normal evaluation of academic performance possible. Note that once the FN grade is entered, the instructor is required to indicate the date the student last participated in course activity at an academically related activity, i.e., the last date the student completed an exam, quiz, assignment, paper, project, or attended class (if attendance was taken).
As ISRO prepares for the launch of Chandrayaan-3, there are many questions in the minds of people about the mission. Here are some questions and their answers.
What is Chandrayaan-3?
Chandrayaan-3 is the name of the spacecraft to be sent to the moon by India’s space agency, ISRO.
We come across many terms such as LVM-3, propulsion module, lander, rover, and instruments like RHAMBHA. It is a bit confusing. What are all these, and which of these is called Chandrayaan-3?
LVM-3 is the the rocket that will take Chandrayaan-3 up and drop it at a certain point above the earth. With that LVM-3’s job would end.
From that point, Chandrayaan-3 will journey towards the moon.
The spacecraft consists of two parts — the propulsion and the Lander-rover modules. The propulsion module’s main job is to take the lander-rover payloads to the moon. You can think of the propulsion module as a truck and the lander-rover payload as the cargo.
After reaching the vicinity of the moon, the lander-rover payload will detach itself from the propulsion module and falling on to the moon. The lander has engines that will slow down the fall, so that it descends gently onto the moon rather than crash-landing on it.
The rover is a tiny, trolley kind of device with wheels. Once the lander lands on the moon, the rover will slide out of the lander’s belly and crawl over the moon’s surface.
Both the lander and the rover have instruments for experiments, such as analysing the moon soil, checking how the moon’s surface conducts heat, and how quake waves move through the moon surface.
Watch: Why Chandrayaan-3 is important for India’s space dreams
Why does Chandrayaan-3, like Chandrayaan-1 and 2, take a month to reach the moon, when fifty years ago, the United States’ Apollo spacecraft reached the moon in four days?
We can also shoot off a rocket straight to the moon. Only, the rocket will have to be extremely big. To travel the distance of 384,400 km, the rocket will have to carry enormous amounts of fuel. The fuel adds to the weight of rocket, so it would need to be more powerful. The Saturn V rocket that took Apollo 11 to the moon in 1969 stood 363-feet tall. The LVM-3 is 142-feet tall. Big rockets are very expensive. Besides, there is no urgency, there is no need for the Chandrayaan-3 to reach the moon fast. That is why it takes a route that makes use of the gravity of the earth to sling itself towards the moon.
The Chandrayaan-3 circles the earth many times before it reaches the moon and then circles the moon many times before the lander detaches itself from the propulsion module and descends onto the moon surface? Why this peculiar route?
Kepler’s second law of planetary motion states that the imaginary line that connects a planet and its satellite sweeps equal areas in equal intervals of time. This means that the satellite travels faster as it approaches the planet and slows down as it moves away, while moving in an elliptical orbit. The law also means that the farther an object approaches the planet from, the higher the velocity it acquires as it comes closer to the planet. We want to make use of this property to get Chandrayaan-3 enough velocity to shoot off towards the moon.
So, after the LVM-3 puts it above the earth, Chandrayaan-3 will start circling the earth, on its own, in an elliptical orbit. When it reaches the farthest point, engineers on the ground will nudge it slightly to change the direction a little so that its next loop is bigger than the first. So, when the spacecraft approaches the earth on its second loop, it will acquire a higher velocity. Again, when it reaches the farthest point, called apogee, the engineers will once again change the direction a little, so that on the third loop, the spacecraft acquires an even higher velocity. On completing 5-6 such loops, the spacecraft will have acquired enough velocity to sling itself towards the moon.
Once it reaches the moon, the reverse will happen. Loop-by-loop the spacecraft will get closer to the moon. When it is about 100 km from the moon’s surface, the lander will detach itself and begin its descent onto the moon.
Also read: Way to go — the intriguing route of Chandrayaan-3 to the Moon
How does the lander descend onto the moon?
The lander actually ‘falls’ on the moon. But it has four thrusters — or engines — which will provide it an upward thrust and slow down its descent. It is calculated that just before the touchdown, it will be traveling at a speed of 2 meters per second.
We have seen spacecraft sent to Mars, like Curiosity and Perseverance, slowly parachute down, but there is no parachute in our moon missions. Isn’t parachuting down simpler and cheaper than using engines to slow down the descent?
That is because Mars has an atmosphere, while the moon doesn’t. Yes, the Martian atmosphere is thin. The average atmospheric pressure is about 1 per cent of Earth’s. But still there is an atmosphere, which is, by the way, made of carbon dioxide. You need some air to be put under the parachute — to provide what is called ‘drag’. Mars has some, the moon has none.
What happens after the lander touches down on the moon surface?
After the lander has soft-landed, it will make sure everything is okay. Then, figuratively speaking, a sort of a trap door under the lander will open and guiderails will slip out of it. The rover will slide down the rails to the moon surface.
What is the rover and what does it do?
Equipped with wheels, the rover will crawl around the moon’s surface like a cockroach, pick up soil and do experiments, punch a probe a foot down the surface to check thermal conductivity. Instruments on the lander will also do experiments. Basically, these instruments check-out the moon, to know more about it.
Do the lander and rover return to earth?
No. The propulsion module, the lander, the rover are all up there forever. Unless some day an astronaut lands on the moon and decides to bring them back as souvenirs.
The lander and rover do experiments and analysis. How do we, on earth, get the information?
They digitize the data and transmit it in the form of electromagnetic waves, to a receiver on the propulsion module, which is still circulating the moon. For back-up, we still have the orbiter module of Chandrayaan-2, the previous moon mission, which also has a receiver. The propulsion module or the orbiter will transmit the data to the earth.
Is the method of sending information like how radio stations broadcast, say, a running commentary?
No. Broadcasts are done through audio waves, which need a medium — the air — to propagate. Signals through space are sent in the form of electromagnetic waves — such as radio waves or microwaves — which are progressions of energy. They don’t need a medium to travel.
Howlong will the lander and rover function?
The lander and rover will be alive for 14 earth days, which corresponds to one moon day. When the moon rotates one full round on its axis, the earth would have completed 29.5 days. A moon day is about 14 earth days, as is a moon night. Since the solar panels that provide electricity to the lander and rover need sunlight, they will be alive for one moon day, which is 14 earth days.
Also read: Chandrayaan-3. Wishing India’s moon lander a happy touchdown
What is the cost of the Chandrayaan-3 mission?
The Chandrayaan-3 is estimated to cost around Rs 615 crore.
What is the significance of Chandrayaan-3? Why go to the moon at all?
For decades after the US Apollo missions, mankind ignored the moon. But now, after the presence of ice in the southern polar region of the moon has been conclusively established, there is renewed interest. Ice means water, water could be split into hydrogen and oxygen, both of which are rocket fuels. This means, in future, rockets could be built on the moon and powered by locally produced fuels, for other space missions. It is easier and cheaper to launch deep space missions from the moon, because of its low gravity, but this wouldn’t have been economically feasible if you have to carry rocket fuel from the earth to the moon.
Aaron Charles began writing about "pragmatic art" in 2006 for an online arts journal based in Minneapolis, Minn. After working for telecom giant Comcast and traveling to Oregon, he's written business and technology articles for both online and print publications, including Salon.com and "The Portland Upside."