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Exam Code: IAPP-CIPT Practice test 2022 by team
IAPP-CIPT Certified Information Privacy Technologist

Understand critical privacy concepts and practices that impact IT
Become familiar with consumer privacy expectations and responsibility
Bake privacy into early stages of IT products and services for cost control, accuracy and speed-to-market
Establish privacy practices for data collection and transfer
Pre-empt privacy issues in the Internet of Things
Factor privacy into data classification and emerging tech such as cloud computing, facial recognition and surveillance
Communicate privacy issues with partners such as management, development, marketing and legal.

CIPT Training Course Outline
MODULE 1: Fundamentals of Information Privacy
Unit 1: Common Principles and Approaches to Privacy

Discussion of the modern history of privacy, an introduction to types of information, an overview of information risk management and a summary of modern privacy principles.
Unit 2: Jurisdiction and Industries
Introduction to the major privacy models employed around the globe and provides an overview of privacy and data protection regulation by jurisdictions and industry sectors.
Unit 3: Information Security: Safeguarding Personal Information
Introductions to information security, including definitions, elements, standards and threats/vulnerabilities, as well as introductions to information security management and governance, including frameworks, controls, cryptography and identity and access management (IAM).
Unit 4: Online Privacy: Using Personal Information on Websites and with Other Internet-related Technologies
Examines the web as a platform, as well as privacy considerations for sensitive online information, including policies and notices, access, security, authentication and data collection.
Examine additional syllabus include children’s online privacy, email, searches, online marketing and advertising, social media, online assurance, cloud computing and mobile devices.
MODULE 2: Privacy in Technology
Unit 1: Understanding the Need for Privacy in the IT Environment

Explore the impact that regulatory activities, security threats, advances in technology and the increasing proliferation of social networks have on IT departments.
Unit 2: Core Privacy Concepts
Uncover how privacy compliance becomes more attainable through developing information lifecycle plans, data identification and classification systems and data flow diagrams.
Unit 3: Regulations and Standards Impacting Privacy in IT
Understand privacy laws, regulations and standards that can help IT professionals design better privacy programs and systems to handle personal information throughout the data lifecycle.
Unit 4: Privacy in Systems and Applications
Develop an understanding of the risks inherent in the IT environment and how to address them.
Unit 5: Online Privacy Issues
Learn about online threats, threat prevention and the role of IT professionals in ensuring proper handling of user data.
Unit 6: De-identifying and Anonymizing Personally Identifiable Information
Understand the importance of personally identifiable information and methods for ensuring its protection.
Unit 7: Cloud Computing
Evaluates privacy and security concerns associated with cloud services, and standards that exist to advise on their use.

Certified Information Privacy Technologist
IAPP Technologist outline
Killexams : IAPP Technologist outline - BingNews Search results Killexams : IAPP Technologist outline - BingNews Killexams : International Association of Privacy Professionals: Career and Certification Guide

Founded in 2000, the International Association of Privacy Professionals (IAPP) bills itself as “the largest and most comprehensive global information privacy community and resource.” It is more than just a certification body. It is a full-fledged not-for-profit membership association with a focus on information privacy concerns and topics. Its membership includes both individuals and organizations, in the tens of thousands for the former and the hundreds for the latter (including many Fortune 500 outfits).

Its mandate is to help privacy practitioners develop and advance in their careers, and help organizations manage and protect their data. To that end, the IAPP seeks to create a forum where privacy pros can track news and trends, share best practices and processes, and better articulate privacy management issues and concerns.

By 2012, the organization included 10,000 members. By the end of 2015, membership had more than doubled to 23,000 members. According to a Forbes story published that same year, approximately half of the IAPP’s membership is women (which makes it pretty special, based on our understanding of the gender composition for most IT associations and certification programs). Current membership must be between 30,000 and 40,000 as growth rates from 2012 to 2015 have continued, if not accelerated in the face of the EU’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), which went into full effect on May 25, 2018. The IAPP also claims to have certified “thousands of professionals around the world.”

IAPP certification program overview

The IAPP has developed a globally recognized certification program around information privacy. Its current certification offerings include the following credentials:

  • Certified Information Privacy Professional (CIPP): seeks to identify professionals who work primarily with privacy laws, regulations and frameworks
  • Certified Information Privacy Manager (CIPM): seeks to identify professionals who manage day-to-day privacy operations for businesses and organizations
  • Certified Information Privacy Technologist (CIPT): seeks to identify IT professionals who work regularly (if not primarily) with privacy policies, tools and technologies on the job

All these certifications comply with the ANSI/ISO/IEC 17024 standard, which means they have been developed to meet stringent requirements for analyzing the subject matter and the fields of work to which they apply, along with formal psychometric analysis of test items to make sure that exams truly differentiate those who possess the required skills and knowledge to do the related jobs from those who do not.

All the IAPP exams follow the same cost structure, though charges vary by location. In the U.S., each first-time test costs $550, with a $375 charge for any subsequent retake of the same exam. Those who already hold any IAPP certification pay just $375 for each additional certification test they take. IAPP certification holders can either pay an annual maintenance fee of $125 to keep their certifications current (and meet continuing education requirements of 20 CPE credits every two years) or they must join the IAPP.

If a person joins, they’ll pay an annual membership fee. Currently, that’s $250 for professional members, $50 for student members, and $100 for all other membership categories (government, higher education, retired and not-for-profit). Those who elect to pay the certification maintenance fee need pay only once a year, no matter how many IAPP certifications they earn.

IAPP exams are available at Kryterion testing centers, which may be identified with its test center locator. Exams consist of 90 question items. Candidates may take up to 150 minutes (2.5 hours) to complete any IAPP exam. Payment is handled through the IAPP website, but Kryterion handles date and time windows for exams at its test centers.

Certified Information Privacy Technologist (CIPT)

This credential is the most likely place for a person working in IT to start their IAPP efforts. The CIPT validates skills and knowledge about the components and technical controls involved in establishing, ensuring and maintaining data privacy. To be more specific, the body of knowledge (BoK) for the CIPT stresses important privacy concepts and practices that impact IT, and makes sure that practitioners understand consumer privacy expectations and responsibilities.

It also addresses how to bake privacy into early stages of IT products or services to control costs and ensure data accuracy and integrity without impacting time to market. CIPTs understand how to establish privacy policies for data collection and transfer, and how to manage privacy on the internet of things. They also know how to factor privacy into data classification, and how it impacts emerging technologies such as biometrics, surveillance and cloud computing. Finally, CIPTs understand how to communicate on privacy issues with other parts of their organizations, including management, development staff, marketing and legal.

Certified Information Privacy Professional (CIPP)

IAPP describes this certification as just right for “the go-to person for privacy laws, regulations and frameworks” in an organization. This audience may include more senior privacy or security professionals with IT backgrounds, but it may also involve people from management, legal or governance organizations whose responsibilities include data privacy and protection concerns. This goes double for those involved with legal and compliance requirements, information management, data governance, and even human resources (as privacy is a personal matter at its core, involving personal information).

Because managing privacy and protecting private information is often highly regulated and subject to legal systems and frameworks, the IAPP offers versions of the CIPP certification where such content and coverage has been “localized” for prevailing rules, regulations, laws and best practices.

There are five such versions available: Asia (CIPP/A), Canada (CIPP/C), Europe (CIPP/E), U.S. Government (CIPP/G) and U.S. Private Sector (CIPP/US). As of this writing, the CIPP/E perforce offers the most direct and focused coverage of GDPR topics. That said, given that GDPR applies to companies and online presences globally, such material will no doubt soon make its way into other CIPP versions in the next 6-12 months. The U.S.-focused exams are already scheduled for a refresh in August 2018, as per the IAPP website’s certification pages.

For example, the CIPP/US page includes the following materials:

Each of the other regional versions of the CIPP has a similarly large, detailed and helpful collection of resources available to interested readers and would-be certified professionals.

Certified Information Privacy Manager (CIPM)

The CIPM is a more senior credential in the IAPP collection. It seeks to identify persons who can manage an information privacy program. Thus, the focus is on privacy law and regulations and how those things must guide the formulation of workable and defensible privacy policies, practices and procedures for organizational use. The CIPM BoK covers the following topics:

  • Privacy program governance: organizational vision, program definition and creating a privacy team; developing a privacy program framework; implementing a privacy policy framework; and identifying and using metrics to report on privacy for governance, auditing, and regulatory purposes
  • Privacy operational lifecycle: assess organizational and third-party partner and processor privacy posture, including physical and business assessments; establish privacy protections over the data lifecycle, following best cybersecurity practices and Privacy by Design; sustain privacy protections by measuring, aligning, auditing and monitoring privacy data; respond to requests for information about personal data; and respond to privacy incidents as they occur

In general, CIPMs play a lead role in defining and maintaining data privacy policies for their organizations. They will usually be responsible for operating the privacy apparatus necessary to demonstrate compliance with all applicable privacy rules, regulations and laws for the organization as well.

Other IAPP certifications

The IAPP also offers two other elements in its certification programs. One is the Privacy Law Specialist, which aims at attorneys or other licensed legal professionals who wish to focus on privacy syllabus in a legal context. The other, called the Fellow of Information Privacy (FIP), aims at those at the top of the privacy profession and is available only to those who’ve completed two or more IAPP credentials, including either a CIPM or a CIPT, and one or more of the CIPP credentials. It requires three professional peer referrals and completion of a detailed application form. We won’t discuss these credentials much more in this article, except to note here that the Privacy Law Specialist garnered a surprising 200 hits in our job board search (see below for other details gleaned thereby).

Finally, the IAPP website recommends the combination of CIPP/E and CIPM as the possible credentialing for those wishing to focus on GDPR, shown in this screenshot from its Certify pop-up menu:

The IAPP thinks that these two certs make an ideal combination for IAPP.orgCredit:

IAPP employment: Job board stats and example jobs

We visit four job posting sites to check on demand for specific credentials: Simply Hired, Indeed, LinkedIn and LinkUp. Here’s what we learned.

Certification  Search string  Simply Hired  Indeed  LinkedIn  LinkUp  Total 
CIPP CIPP 668 745 1,064 401 2,878
CIPM CIPM 187 198 260 191 836
CIPT CIPT 146 155 276 210 787

The breakdown for CIPP fell out like this: CIPP/A 27, CIPP/C 287, CIPP/E 351, CIPP/G 154 and CIPP/US 401. As you’d expect, the U.S. categories combine for a majority, with Europe a surprising second ahead of third-place Canada.

Salary information appears in the next table. We collected low, median and high values for each credential, finding surprisingly little difference between the CIPM and the CIPP. Given that a CIPM is likely to hold a management position, this shows that the CIPP holds considerable value in employers’ estimations. It’s also interesting that the median values show the CIPT and the CIPP are close to one another too. This bodes well for IT professionals interested in pursuing the CIPT.





CIPP $33,969 $66,748 $131,156
CIPM $41,069 $73,936 $133,106
CIPT $32,131 $62,279 $120,716
Privacy Law Attorney $46,146 $89,026 $171,752

Typical positions for privacy professionals are very much one-offs. We found a risk management and compliance manager position at a South Carolina government agency charged with defining and implementing security and privacy policies for the department of corrections. That position paid $120,000 per year and involved security and audit compliance, business continuity and disaster recovery planning, and risk and incident management. By itself, the requested CIPM would not be enough to qualify for that job.

The next position was for a healthcare services director position in Albuquerque, New Mexico, which involved auditing, risk management, and contract and vendor negotiation. Its pay range was $140,000 to $190,000 per year, and it required serious management chops, along with IT governance and risk and compliance experience, with calls for knowledge of tools like Archer and Clearwell. The third position was for a senior data privacy associate at a Washington law firm, which sought a person with a CIPP/E, CIPP/US and CIPT, with pay in the $120K-$150K range.

Thus, it appears there are plenty of opportunities – some with high rates of pay – for those willing to climb the IAPP certification ladder. Both the job boards and the individual postings speak directly to strong and urgent need in the field for qualified privacy professionals at all levels.

Training resources

IAPP courses are available through many channels, including classroom training through the IAPP and its partner network. Online training classes are also available, for lesser charges. The IAPP provides ample references and resources, with authoritative and supplemental texts, websites, legal references and statutes, and more for each of its credentials. There’s also plenty of self-study material for those who prefer that route.

The IAPP also offers practice exams (which it calls sample questions) to help candidates prepare for exams. Surprisingly, there is even something of an aftermarket for IAPP books and materials, as a quick trip to Amazon will attest.

Mon, 10 Oct 2022 12:01:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Jenn Behrens, Partner and EVP of Privacy and Security at Kuma, to Participate in the 'IAPP Privacy. Security. Risk. 2022' Conference in Austin

Behrens will speak on an impressive all-female panel about leveraging biometrics securely at the International Association of Privacy Professionals' major conference on Oct.14.

BRISTOW, Va., Oct. 13, 2022 /PRNewswire-PRWeb/ -- Kuma, which for nearly a decade has helped organizations across sectors shift their data privacy and security risk management from reactive to proactive, announces that Jenn Behrens, Partner and EVP of Privacy and Security, will attend and participate in this week's "IAPP Privacy. Security. Risk. 2022" in Austin.

Presented by the International Association of Privacy Professionals, the largest and most comprehensive non-profit global information privacy community and resource, the annual conference is a major hub of networking, learning, and unraveling the biggest questions in privacy and technology.

Behrens is one of four privacy experts who will present a panel discussion, "Picture Perfect: Leveraging Biometrics Without Compromising Privacy & Security," from 9 to 10 a.m. on Friday, October 14. The all-female panel — Behrens will be joined by Tatiana Rice, Future of Privacy Forum; Anna Rudawski, Norton Rose Fulbright; and Veronica Torres, Jumio — is notable in the male-dominated world of tech. Kuma is proud to empower a workforce with 67% female representation and with 58% of employees from diverse backgrounds.

One of Kuma's most experienced privacy and security experts, Behrens holds three degrees: a bachelor's in psychology, a master's in social work, and a Ph.D. in public policy and administration. She began her career in social work before entering the IT, privacy, and security field as a consultant specializing in digital identity. Behrens' certifications include Fellow of Information Privacy (FIP), Certified Information Privacy Professional/United States (CIPP/US), Certified Information Privacy Manager (CIPM), Certified HIPAA Privacy Security Expert (CHPSE), and Certified Information Privacy Professional/Government (CIPP/G).

"Privacy and security are increasingly intertwined for organizations making risk-based decisions, and biometrics are more and more a part of that landscape," Behrens said. "This dynamic panel of industry leaders will provide audience members with both strategic and tangible guidance for considering the ethical and legal issues of emerging technologies and solutions that optimize the use of biometric data."


For almost a decade, Kuma has provided privacy, identity, and security expertise to various local, state, and federal government agencies, non-profits, and businesses, often in highly regulated sectors. Trust is deeply ingrained in our ethos and is illustrated in the work we deliver in all our engagements. Over the years, Kuma has gained and maintained customer confidence and built a reputation for customizing its cybersecurity services to meet the needs of small and large companies alike, while always grounded in national standards. Kuma rejects a "one-size fits all" approach, and we are especially proud of the close and long-standing working relationships we have cultivated with our clients as they mature their security, privacy, and identity postures. For more information visit

Media Contact

Tiffany Reeves, Butin PR, 1 347-524-2939,


© 2022 Benzinga does not provide investment advice. All rights reserved.

Thu, 13 Oct 2022 07:04:00 -0500 text/html
Killexams : LIG Nex1 outlines LAMD development plans

by Jon Grevatt

LIG Nex1's low-altitude missile defence system, a model of which is shown above, has a range of 7 km. (Janes/Dae Young Kim)

South Korea's LIG Nex1 has disclosed plans to supply its low-altitude missile defence (LAMD) system to the Republic of Korea (RoK) Armed Forces by the end of the decade.

The company started development of the system earlier this year, and told Janes at the DX Korea 2022 exhibition in Goyang that the LAMD will undergo seven more years of work before it is ready for deployment.

“We have planned two years of engineering development, one year to prepare for full-scale development, and four more years of full-scale development,” said an LIG Nex1 official.

The company is developing the system in collaboration with the Agency for Defense Development (ADD).

The LAMD, which is based on the Haegung Korean Surface-to-Air Anti-Missile (K-SAAM) system developed for the Republic of Korea Navy (RoKN), underwent its first test in April. This featured a test-firing from the ADD's launch facility in Anheung.

Janes has earlier reported that the LAMD missile is fitted with an active radar seeker for terminal guidance. The missile is 165 mm in diameter and can intercept targets up to 7 km away and 5 km in altitude.

The launcher demonstrated at DX Korea 2022 had 16 containers in a 4×4 arrangement. It is expected that the launcher would also be mounted on a semitrailer.

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Thu, 22 Sep 2022 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Russia Outlines the Move That Would Spark World War 3

Ukraine's accession to NATO would lead to World War III, a Russian official warned on Thursday.

"Kyiv is well aware that such a step would mean a guaranteed escalation to a World War Three," Alexander Venediktov, the deputy secretary of the Security Council of the Russian Federation, said in an interview with Russia's state-run news agency, Tass.

Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky addresses the Bundestag via live video from the embattled city of Kyiv on March 17, 2022. He asked to accelerate Ukraine's application to NATO in late September.

His remarks come after Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky asked to accelerate Ukraine's application to NATO in late September, just hours after Russian President Vladimir Putin declared that the Kremlin had annexed four regions in Ukraine.

Venediktov accused Ukraine of seeking to create informational noise," to try to attract attention to itself.

The official also said that he was certain, given Kyiv's "disengagement from reality," that there are those who expect Ukraine to be accepted as a NATO member.

Ukraine's application for an accelerated entry into NATO is "rather a propaganda move," Venediktov said. He also repeated the Kremlin's rhetoric that countries in the West, by assisting Ukraine in the war, "are a direct party to the conflict".

NATO is unlikely to accept Ukraine's entry to the alliance while it is in a state of war because membership would compel fellow member nations to militarily defend Ukraine against Russia, and potentially ignite a global conflict.

NATO membership requires the unanimous approval of all 30 member nations.

"The suicidal nature of this step [to admit Ukraine to NATO] is understood by the NATO members themselves," said Venediktov.

He noted that "Kyiv's request was immediately supported by Eastern Europeans, including the Balts."

"But the more serious powers, and even Brussels itself, reacted to this initiative without enthusiasm and immediately issued a standard set of counterarguments—non-compliance with the bloc's standards, the existence of territorial disputes, and so on," the official continued.

He concluded by saying that Russia's position on the matter remains unchanged, and that Ukraine's accession to NATO "or some other alliances formed under the auspices of the United States" would be "unacceptable."

Zelensky's decision to formally request an "accelerated accession" to join NATO came after Putin formally annexed four Ukrainian regions following referendums that were viewed by the international community as illegitimate.

"We trust each other, we help each other and we protect each other. This is what the Alliance is. De facto. Today, Ukraine is applying to make it de jure," Zelensky said during a video address at the time.

NATO Secretary-General Jens Stoltenberg has said that the alliance's "focus" now "is on providing immediate support to Ukraine, to help Ukraine defend itself against the Russian brutal invasion."

Newsweek has contacted Ukraine's foreign ministry and NATO for comment.

Wed, 12 Oct 2022 21:40:00 -0500 en text/html Killexams : Celebrating Latina Founders, Innovators, And Technologists

Latinas are doing incredible things in technology. They are founding companies, creating new products, and leading innovation. They stand at the forefront of the future of tech, and they do this despite only holding 2% of technology jobs, with that representation dropping by an additional 28% just one step up the management ladder.

32% of women of Latin heritage say they feel stalled at work, and technology has the lowest rate of Latine participants out of all of STEM areas. We have an opportunity to Excellerate Latina representation in the tech industry. The challenge is overcoming a feeling like they don’t have a path to leadership or a chance to grow in their professions. This barrier leads to over half leaving their positions by mid-career. By creating a sense of belonging, helping to map their career path, and ultimately retaining these talented individuals in the industry their lifetime earning average increases by $1.7 million.

We need to celebrate the incredible Latina women already changing the world and shine a spotlight on their work so that we can show others that they have a path to success. We need to inspire both this and the next generation and transform the oft-perceived face of tech to be more inclusive of the many that contribute to it.

Founder, Innovator, and Technologist

María Teresa Arnal

Maria is an industry leader with broad recognition for her efforts to develop digital business in Mexico. She’s the Founder of the Interactive Advertising Bureau (IAB) in Mexico, the Co-Founder and a member of the Academic Council of the Higher Institute for Internet Development (ISDI) in Mexico, and the President of the board of the Mexican chapter of the World Internet Project.

Maria is also a board member for several other organizations, including Sigma, Salud Digna, and Mexichem. She is an esteemed speaker, a mentor at Endeavor, and a member of the International Women’s Forum. Currently, she is the Business lead for Stripe LATAM, and she has worked previously as a Managing Director at Google and Twitter LATAM.

Global Media Partnerships

María Ferreras

As the Global Head of Partnerships at Netflix, Maria has broad experience in content and deals negotiation for all media and platforms. Before this, she spent ten years as the Vice President of Business Development for Google in Southern Europe and emerging markets. With more than 20 years of experience in the Internet and Audiovisual industry, Maria has played a pivotal role in shaping content distribution across multiple digital channels and geographic locations.

Mentor and Leader

Luz de León

Luz de León has a dedication to educating others and sharing knowledge with her community. In addition to being a Front End Team Lead at Accenture, she is a professor of Computer Science at the Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León and a mentor to girls in tech. She is also a Leadership Fellow for the Women Who Code Front End Track, where she develops and leads regular technology education events and programming for a digital community of technologists.

Educator, Leader, Scientist

Cecilia Aragon

Cecilia is the first Latina full professor for the College of Engineering at the University of Washington in its 100-year history. She works in the Department of Human-Centered Design & Engineering, where she pursues research and teaching efforts in human-centered data science, aviation, visual analytics, and social computing to develop methods for gaining better insights from vast data sets.

She was also the first Latina pilot on the United States Aerobatic Team. Cecilia was a winner of the Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers (PECASE), has authored three books and over 200 articles, and was previously a computer scientist at NASA.

Overcoming Hardship to Touch the Stars

Diana Trujillo (NASA)

At seventeen, Diana moved to the United States from Colombia with just $300 to escape economic difficulties back home. She took on several jobs while taking English lessons at Miami Dade College. After being inspired by an article featuring women working in the aerospace field, Diana enrolled at the University of Florida, applied to NASA Academy, and became the first Hispanic immigrant woman admitted into the program. She was one of two participants to be offered a job at NASA. Today, Diana is an Aerospace Engineer at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, leading the engineering team responsible for the Perseverance rover's robotic arm. On February 18th, 2021, Trujillo hosted the first ever Spanish-language NASA transmission of a planetary landing for the Perseverance rover landing on Mars.

Founder and Venture Capitalist

Miriam Rivera

Miriam is the CEO, Co-Founder, and Managing Director of Ulu Ventures, a seed-stage venture firm that has negotiated over $10 billion in commercial partnerships. She is also a Member of the Board of Trustees for the Sesame Workshop and a Trustee/Chair for the Kauffman Foundation. Her previous experience includes being an ASX public company board member and an assistant secretary to the US public company board with $10 billion in revenue. She has also worked as the Vice President of Google, where she re-engineered their sales closing process to allow 50% of transactions to close in one day.

International Community Development

Grecia Castaldi

In her role as Program Manager and formerly Women Who Code Monterey Director, Grecia has become recognized as an advocate for inclusion and diversity in technology and a community builder who has successfully developed and guided local and global digital groups of women technologists. She is a respected public speaker and has been vital in developing WWCode CONNECT LATAM, a Spanish-only developer conference designed to empower diverse women across Latin America with inspiration and education to excel in technology careers.


Latinas are doing amazing things in technology despite only making up 2% of the industry. Celebrating their accomplishments creates role models demonstrating that there is a path to success for them in tech. It’s a way to inspire those who are just starting their careers, or who feel isolated. Through their accomplishment the next leader is encouraged to dream, and demonstrate how much there is to gain through greater inclusion, equity, diversity, and belonging.

Tue, 11 Oct 2022 12:00:00 -0500 Alaina Percival en text/html
Killexams : New NRC Report Outlines Options For Regulating Nuclear Fusion

On Wednesday, staff at the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) released a long-anticipated white paper titled, “Licensing and Regulating Fusion Energy Systems.” The paper lays out various options to commissioners for regulating fusion energy devices. Establishing a clear legal framework to accommodate the industry will be critical to enable the fledgling American nuclear fusion industry to thrive in the years ahead. The release of the white paper represents an important early step in this process.

In 2019, Congress passed the Nuclear Energy Innovation and Modernization Act, which directs the NRC to craft regulations establishing a framework for new license applications for advanced nuclear reactors. Complicating matters somewhat is that the law’s definition of an “advanced nuclear reactor” includes both fission and fusion technologies. Given the very different risk profiles associated with these two technologies, regulating them together under the same framework may not make sense.

The differences between fission and fusion are myriad: Nuclear fusion involves the fusing together of atomic nuclei, while fission involves splitting atoms. All commercial nuclear power plants operating across the globe today are fission ones, while fusion is not yet a commercially viable or proven technology. Unlike fission, fusion doesn’t require fissile materials, like plutonium or uranium-233 or -235, which can be used in the production of nuclear weapons. A meltdown scenario is also not possible at a fusion plant. If power is cut, the reaction simply stops, whereas at a fission plant, it can be self-sustaining, potentially leading to catastrophe.

Concerns raised about fusion energy tend to relate to containing the radioactivity that is emitted during operations. There may also be some radioactive materials produced at fusion plants, such as tritium. However, the NRC notes in its white paper that, “Radioactive releases and risk levels … are generally agreed to be lower for fusion devices than current generation fission-based power stations” and that, “the majority of the waste output from a fusion facility should consist of low-level radioactive waste.”

Within the fusion industry, a diversity of approaches exist. Reactors can rely on magnets or lasers, and can be large or small or utilize a variety of different design schemes. This may complicate matters from a regulatory standpoint. As there is no single tried and proven approach, a one-size-fits-all approach may not work for the industry.

The white paper presents two possible options from which fusion devices could be licensed. The first is to treat them as “utilization facilities,” the legal definition of which means that an equipment or device produces enough nuclear material to be a concern from the standpoint of national defense and security, or more generally a concern for public health and safety.

The NRC only names one item on the “pro” side of the ledger for this option, which is that the agency is already in the process of updating regulations for utilization facilities. Including fusion in this framework would therefore mean less work for the agency, but that’s hardly evidence it’s what’s best for the industry, or, for that matter, the country as it transitions to a cleaner energy system. The NRC staff also acknowledges that, “Potential hazards of current fusion energy systems appear lower than typical utilization facilities,” suggesting that relying solely on this framework may not make much sense for the industry.

A second, slightly less onerous, option would be to regulate fusion devices under “byproduct material facilities” standards. According to this framework, NRC could classify fusion devices as “particle accelerators,” which share some common features with fusion devices.

A third option would be some combination of the other two. This approach might end up more tailored to the industry, but it could also end up getting complicated. A danger is that it would favor some technologies or methods over others, regardless of their potential to be commercially or technologically viable.

What’s clear memorizing the white paper is that fusion doesn’t fit neatly within the current regulatory paradigm for nuclear devices, which was established decades ago with fission technology in mind. Currently, there is no clear legal path to bringing a commercial fusion plant online, and trying to fit the revolutionary technology into an older-style regulatory regime is already looking highly imperfect.

Technology expert Adam Thierer notes that some technologies are “born in captivity” in the sense that upon inception, they find themselves regulated under old regimes that were intended for different purposes. Other technologies, meanwhile, are “born free” of any regulation. Thus, a new regulatory framework has to be created to accommodate them.

Cryptocurrencies might be an example of a “free” technology today, while fusion energy is a classic example of a “captive” one. If some innovator were to stumble upon a major breakthrough in this area, it could take years for the regulatory regime to catch up. In the meantime, competitors would catch up too, and the first mover advantage—some of the motivation to innovate in the first place—is lost.

The NRC is making steady progress to reduce regulatory uncertainty affecting the fusion industry. While the agency has until the end of 2027 to issue its regulations, given the urgency of climate change, the faster progress happens the better. Even with a clear regulatory framework established, however, it will ultimately fall on the industry to prove its technology has a future.

Fri, 16 Sep 2022 12:00:00 -0500 James Broughel en text/html
Killexams : Modern Warfare 2 trailer outlines PC features
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Activision has released a trailer (opens in new tab) outlining the PC features of the upcoming Modern Warfare 2 (opens in new tab), releasing on October 28. This game is not to be confused with Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2, which was released on November 12, 2009.

It all looks pretty good, if to be expected for a AAA PC release in 2022. In between snippets of gameplay, the trailer promises features like 4k graphics and ultrawide support. The first one, ok, sure, everyone and their mother is doing 4k (or at least 4k reconstructions), but ultrawide isn't always a given, so it's nice to have the assurance from Activision.