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Exam Code: HDPCD Practice exam 2023 by team
HDPCD Hortonworks Data Platform Certified Developer

Test Detail:
The Hortonworks Data Platform Certified Developer (HDPCD) exam is designed to assess a candidate's knowledge and skills in developing applications using Hortonworks Data Platform (HDP). Here is a detailed description of the test, including the number of questions and time allocation, course outline, exam objectives, and exam syllabus.

Number of Questions and Time:
The HDPCD exam typically consists of a set of hands-on coding exercises that assess a candidate's ability to develop applications using HDP components. The number of exercises may vary, but candidates are usually given a time limit of 2 to 4 hours to complete the exam. The specific number of questions and time allocation may vary depending on the exam version and administration.

Course Outline:
The course outline for the HDPCD exam covers various aspects of developing applications on the Hortonworks Data Platform. The outline may include the following key areas:

1. Hadoop Fundamentals:
- Understanding Hadoop architecture and components
- Working with Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS)
- Managing and processing data using MapReduce

2. Data Ingestion and Processing:
- Importing and exporting data to/from HDP
- Using Apache Hive for data querying and analysis
- Implementing data transformations using Apache Pig

3. Data Storage and Management:
- Working with Apache HBase for NoSQL database operations
- Managing data using Apache Oozie workflows
- Implementing data partitioning and compression techniques

4. Data Analysis and Visualization:
- Performing data analysis using Apache Spark
- Visualizing data using Apache Zeppelin or Apache Superset
- Utilizing machine learning algorithms with Apache Spark MLlib

Exam Objectives:
The objectives of the HDPCD exam are to evaluate candidates' proficiency in developing applications on the Hortonworks Data Platform. The exam aims to assess the following key skills:

1. Understanding Hadoop fundamentals and its ecosystem components.
2. Implementing data ingestion and processing using tools like Hive and Pig.
3. Managing and analyzing data using HBase, Oozie, and Spark.
4. Demonstrating proficiency in coding with Hadoop APIs and frameworks.
5. Applying best practices for data storage, management, and analysis.

Exam Syllabus:
The exam syllabus for the HDPCD exam typically includes a set of hands-on coding exercises that test candidates' ability to solve real-world problems using HDP components. The exercises may cover subjects such as data ingestion, data processing, data storage, data analysis, and data visualization. Candidates should be familiar with the syntax and usage of Hadoop APIs and tools, including MapReduce, Hive, Pig, HBase, Oozie, and Spark.

Candidates should refer to the official HDPCD exam documentation, study materials, and resources provided by Hortonworks or authorized training partners for accurate and up-to-date information on the specific subjects and content covered in the exam. It is recommended to allocate sufficient time for exam preparation, including hands-on practice with HDP components and solving coding exercises.

Hortonworks Data Platform Certified Developer
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Killexams : Hortonworks Hortonworks study help - BingNews Search results Killexams : Hortonworks Hortonworks study help - BingNews Killexams : How the ‘Proust Effect’ Can Help You Study

When you need to remember something important, it makes sense to look around for hacks and tricks to maximize your recall. And plenty of those are out there, but do they actually work? One popular tip involves chewing a certain flavor of gum or spraying an specific scent in the air while you study or work, then using the same gum or scent when it’s time to perform, such as when you’re taking a text or presenting the material you went over. The tip relies on the so-called Proust Effect and if you use it, your mileage may vary.

What is the Proust Effect?

Marcel Proust, a 20th-century writer you may already be familiar with, was the man who came up with the term “involuntary memory” to describe being hit with a memory because of a scent, taste, sound, or other sense-based trigger. As a reward for his efforts, he got this effect named after himself.

It’s a real thing that happens to the best of us: A sensory stimuli, like walking by someone wearing the perfume your mom used to wear, can jolt us into a vivid memory of the past. The phenomenon has resulted in a lot of research, because it’s deeply human but also deeply physiological and scientific.

How do people use the Proust Effect to study?

When you search for studying and memory tips, this one comes up a lot. The University of Nebraska Kearney, for instance, recommends using unfamiliar scents as a “brain booster” by spraying a different scent every time you study a unique subject. Before your test in that subject, spray the corresponding scent because, they say, “this can help you recall information.”

Does the Proust Effect really work for studying and recall?

Here’s the thing: Involuntary memories are more emotional than they are practical. Research shows that olfactory cues are much more effective at triggering emotional memories than visual cues are. The scent of a spray or the taste of a gum might transport you back to when you were studying, but it’s not guaranteed to help you remember the details of what you were studying so much as make you feel the way you felt when you were doing that.

It’s similar to the idea of changing into a designated “study outfit” when it’s time to hit the books in that way: Scents can help you compartmentalize and get in the zone, which can have a positive impact on your focus and output, but they aren’t the magic cure-all to make you remember entire passages of text.

Chewing strawberry gum while you study for chemistry and again when taking your chemistry test is more likely to help you feel like you’re in your chemistry zone than anything, which, again, can be helpful. To really remember what you studied, though, make sure to double up on hacks by using a study technique, such as interleaving or the primacy effect.

Thu, 17 Aug 2023 18:05:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Study Could Help Identify 'Coma' Patients More Likely To Recover

A study published this week could help doctors to identify patients with brain injuries, in seemingly unresponsive states, who are more likely to recover.

In the study, published in the journal Brain on Monday, researchers identified what may be the source of a curious phenomenon known as "hidden consciousness" or cognitive motor dissociation (CMD).

Hidden consciousness is seen in patients with acute brain injury who appear to be in a coma or other unresponsive state.

Patients with CMD seem to be able to hear and comprehend verbal commands even though they cannot carry out those instructions because the body does not respond, study author Jan Claassen, a researcher at Columbia University and critical care neurologist at New York-Presbyterian/Columbia University Irving Medical Center, said in a statement.

The CMD phenomenon has only been identified in the past few years and is still poorly understood.

Stock image: Doctors examining a set of brain scans. Researchers have identified what may be the source of a curious phenomenon known as “hidden consciousness” that is seen in patients with brain injuries. iStock

Methods have been developed to detect CMD in unresponsive patients. These include analyzing changes in electrical activity or cerebral blood flow recorded by an electroencephalogram (EEG) or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) respectively. But both of these methods currently have their limitations.

Nevertheless, it is thought that around 15 to 20 percent of patients who appear to be in a coma or another unresponsive state display signs of CMD when evaluated with such methods, Claassen told Newsweek. The detection of CMD is reshaping our understanding of patients in comatose or other unresponsive states.

Associated With Recovery of Consciousness

Clinicians define when a patient is in a "coma" purely based on the clinical examination, Claassen said. They apply this label to patients who display a complete absence of arousal (for example, eye opening) and awareness.

Patients with CMD do not seem to be able to follow commands and may in clinical examination appear to be in a coma.

But an analysis of EEG or functional MRI, recorded while patients are given verbal commands, reveals that the brains of these unresponsive patients are being activated in a similar way to conscious patients, Claassen said. This supports the interpretation that patients with CMD are to some degree conscious.

Identifying patients with CMD has important clinical implications for interactions, communication with families and the guidance of therapeutic decisions, according to the study.

Importantly, in prior research, Claassen and colleagues have been able to associate CMD with the recovery of consciousness and long-term recovery of independence in brain-damaged patients.

Researchers have been trying to develop more effective screening methods to identify which patients are likely to be in a state of hidden consciousness. But progress has been hampered by the fact that the brain mechanisms underlying the phenomenon have remained a mystery. This is where the latest study comes in.

In previous research, Claassen and colleagues found that subtle brainwaves detectable with EEG are the strongest predictor of hidden consciousness and eventual recovery for patients with brain injuries.

Many Patients With Hidden Consciousness Remain Undiagnosed.

For the latest study, the scientists used EEG to examine 107 unresponsive patients with acute brain injury. Almost half of the patients appeared comatose, while one quarter were in a vegetative state—i.e. their eyes were open but they could not follow commands.

The remaining patents were in a minimally conscious state—meaning they could track an examiner with their eyes or look at them but were not able to follow any commands.

Using the EEG, scientists can identify when patients are trying, but are unable, to respond to a command such as "keep opening and closing your right hand."

This method detected CMD in 21 of the patients. The scientists then analyzed structural MRI brains scans from all the patients.

Using a special analysis technique, the team were able to identify patterns of brain injury that the patients with CMD shared and contrast those to the individuals who did not display signs of hidden consciousness.

The researchers found that all of the CMD patients had intact brain structures related to arousal and command comprehension. This supports the idea that they were able to hear and understand the verbal commands.

But they also found that the CMD patients had damage to brain regions responsible for integrating and carrying out motor commands, which is why they were unable to take action.

"Our study suggests that patients with hidden consciousness can hear and comprehend verbal commands, but they cannot carry out those commands because of injuries in brain circuits that relay instructions from the brain to the muscles," Claassen said in the statement.

The findings could lead to more frequent and earlier diagnosis of CMD. This, in turn, could help better predict which brain-injured individuals are more likely to recover with rehabilitation, according to the scientists.

More research is required before the approaches documented in the study can be applied to clinical practice. But the latest study shows that it may be possible to screen for CMD using widely available structural brain-imaging techniques.

Due to the technical complexity of CMD detection, at this time it is only available in a few academic centers. As a result, the vast majority of patients with hidden consciousness in the United States and around the world remain undiagnosed.

"Not every critical care unit may have resources and staff that is trained in using EEG to detect hidden consciousness, so MRI may offer a simple way to identify patients who require further screening and diagnosis," Claassen said in the statement.

Wed, 16 Aug 2023 20:50:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Researchers use artificial intelligence to help diagnose autism, study says

Researchers are proposing using artificial intelligence technology to help diagnose autism spectrum disorder.

In a accurate article published in Scientific Reports, researchers from Brazil, France and Germany reportedly used magnetic resonance imaging to train a machine learning algorithm. 

The work – in which the "quantitative diagnostic method" is proposed – was based on brain imaging data for 500 people, with more than 240 that had been diagnosed with autism. 


Machine learning techniques were applied to the data.

"We began developing our methodology by collecting functional magnetic resonance imaging [fMRI] and electroencephalogram [EEG] data," Francisco Rodrigues, the last author of the article and a professor at the University of São Paulo’s Institute of Mathematics and Computer Science, explained in a statement. 


São Paulo University on November 15, 2015, in São Paulo, Brazil. (Frédéric Soltan/Corbis via Getty Images)

"We compared maps of people with and without ASD and found that diagnosis was possible using this methodology," he added.

The machine learning algorithm was fed with the maps, and the system was able to determine which brain alterations were associated with autism with above 95% mean accuracy. 

While previous research proposes methods for diagnosing autism based on machine learning, the article notes it often uses a single statistical parameter that is not brain network organization. 

Autism is a developmental disability caused by differences in the brain. (iStock)


Analyzing the fMRI data showed changes in certain brain regions associated with cognitive, emotional, learning and memory processes, and the cortical networks of autism patients showed more segregation, less distribution of information and less connectivity compared to controls.

"Until a few years ago, little was known about the alterations that lead to the symptoms of ASD. Now, however, brain alterations in ASD patients are known to be associated with certain behaviors, although anatomical research shows that the alterations are hard to see, making diagnosis of mild ASD much harder. Our study is an important step in the development of novel methodologies that can help us obtain a deeper understanding of this neurodivergence," Rodrigues said.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention headquarters in Atlanta, Georgia, on March 14, 2020. (Elijah Nouvelage/Bloomberg via Getty Images)

The methodology is under development and will take years to implement, according to the São Paulo Research Foundation, which supported the research.


About one in 36 children has been identified with autism spectrum disorder, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 

Diagnosing the developmental disability can be difficult because there is no medical test, like a blood test, to do so. 

Wed, 16 Aug 2023 08:48:00 -0500 Fox News en text/html
Killexams : Best Help Desk Software (2023)

To ensure the best possible help desk software solutions for our readers, we use a rating system ranging from one to five stars. This allows us to objectively compare and contrast each solution against its competitors. Our ratings are not influenced by any third-party relationships. We assign weighted scores to each factor to come up with an overall star rating for each product.

When we rate help desk solutions on our website, we take into account the following factors.


For pricing, we considered several factors, such as how much the software costs, is it a good value for the price and were there any hidden costs or fees. If a provider offered a free trial or a free version of its software, we gave bonus points for that. We also looked at how inexpensive a provider’s lowest-price plan compared to its highest-priced plan and how much benefit a user received by upgrading to a higher plan. This accounted for 10% of our weighted scoring.


We wanted to know what kinds of features the software offers and if it had all of the features that users need. We broke features down into two categories: general features and additional features. For general features, these were features that we expected every software provider to offer, either as part of its regular plan or at least as a paid add-on. These included offering mobile apps―bonus points for offering software for both iOS and Android―plus self-service capabilities, asset management, social media connectivity, access to a knowledge base and community forum for assistance and the ability to work remotely.

For additional, or “nice-to-have” features, we focused on customer support. We were looking for chatbots or live chat options, support widgets, self-service ticketing and reporting dashboards. We wanted to see how responsive each provider’s customer support was and if it was available by phone, email or live chat. We weighted features at 50% of our total score.

Third-party reviews

Looking at third-party customer reviews on websites that included Capterra, G2 and Trustpilot, we looked at customer responses to using the software. We gave higher ratings to providers that had at least 300 or more reviews on these websites and then again to those providers that had positive reviews of at least 3.5 out of 5 on each provide a complete picture of reality and reduce bias. These accounted for 10% of the total score.

Expert analysis

Factors that included ease of use made up the final aspect of our analysis by our panel of experts. When looking at ease of use, they wanted to know how easy it is to set up and use the software, if the interface was intuitive and if the software required any training to get started using it. Besides ease of use, other factors our experts considered were the overall popularity of the software, any stand-out features and the value for the money each provided. Altogether, these criteria make up 30% of the total score.

Sat, 19 Aug 2023 08:03:00 -0500 Kathy Haan en-US text/html
Killexams : 15 Foods That May Help Prevent Clogged Arteries

Eating certain foods may help prevent clogged arteries and lower your risk of heart disease. Some examples include berries, beans, tomatoes, fish, oats, and leafy greens.

Atherosclerosis occurs when fatty deposits accumulate along artery walls. You may have heard this condition referred to as clogged arteries or hardening of the arteries.

Atherosclerosis causes the arteries to narrow and restricts blood flow to the heart and other parts of the body.

Foods high in antioxidants, omega-3 fatty acids, and other beneficial compounds may help prevent plaque from forming in your arteries. These foods may include:

  • berries
  • some types of fish
  • certain vegetables and leafy greens
  • nuts and seeds
  • olive oil

Here are 15 foods that may help prevent clogged arteries.

Berries include:

These fruits are associated with numerous health benefits, including their ability to reduce inflammation and Boost heart health.

  • blueberries
  • strawberries
  • cranberries
  • raspberries
  • blackberries

Berries contain fiber, vitamins, minerals, and beneficial plant compounds. These include flavonoid antioxidants, including polyphenols, which may support heart health (1).

Research has also shown that eating berries significantly reduces atherosclerosis risk factors, including (2):

  • elevated LDL (bad) cholesterol
  • blood pressure
  • blood sugar levels

Berries may help prevent clogged arteries by reducing inflammation and cholesterol accumulation, improving artery function, and protecting against cellular damage (3).

Beans are packed with fiber, and eating fiber-rich foods like beans is essential for preventing atherosclerosis (4).

Eating beans is an excellent way to manage cholesterol levels, reducing your risk of clogged arteries. Many studies have demonstrated that eating beans can significantly reduce LDL (bad) cholesterol levels (5).

Beans offer various cardioprotective effects, including (6):

  • reducing blood pressure
  • reducing blood triglyceride levels
  • lowering LDL and total cholesterol levels
  • reducing inflammation
  • improving artery function

The same review notes that bean-rich diets can also improve:

  • insulin sensitivity
  • body weight and waist circumference
  • colon health
  • gut microbiome diversity

All of these effects may reduce the risk of atherosclerosis.

Eating omega-3-rich fish may help reduce the risk of atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease, though researchers have not yet definitively determined why.

The body can metabolize omega-3 fatty acids into bioactive lipid mediators, which may reduce inflammation and blood clotting, both of which can contribute to clogged arteries (7).

Another review of research notes that eating fish may (8):

  • reduce triglycerides
  • lower heart rate and blood pressure
  • improve the pumping of oxygen-rich blood to your organs
  • reduce inflammation
  • reduce the risk of blood clots

Tomatoes and tomato products contain plant compounds that may be particularly helpful for reducing the development of atherosclerosis.

Tomatoes contain the carotenoid pigment lycopene. Studies show that consuming lycopene-rich tomato products may help (9):

  • reduce inflammation
  • boost HDL (good) cholesterol
  • reduce the risk of heart disease

Combining cooked tomato with olive oil may offer the greatest protection against clogged arteries (10).

Onions are part of the Allium genus and are linked to health benefits, including supporting artery health. Research has shown that a diet rich in these popular veggies may protect the arteries.

A 15-year study that followed 1,226 women ages 70 and older found that a higher intake of Allium vegetables like onions was associated with a lower risk of death related to disease caused by atherosclerosis (11).

Onions contain sulfur compounds that scientists think may help prevent blood vessel inflammation, inhibit the clumping together of platelets in the blood, and increase the availability of nitric oxide (11, 12).

All of these effects may help protect against atherosclerosis and Boost artery health.

Citrus fruits are delicious and provide a variety of vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants, including flavonoids.

Citrus flavonoids can decrease inflammation and help prevent free radicals in the body from oxidizing LDL (bad) cholesterol. Oxidized LDL is associated with atherosclerosis development and progression (13).

This may be why citrus consumption is associated with a reduced risk of heart disease and stroke — two conditions linked to atherosclerosis (14).

Spices, including ginger, pepper, chili, and cinnamon, may help protect against clogged arteries (15).

These and other spices have anti-inflammatory properties and may help (15):

  • reduce free radicals
  • improve blood lipid levels
  • reduce the clumping together of platelets in the blood

You can increase your spice consumption by adding these versatile flavorings to oatmeal, soups, stews, and just about any other dish you can think of.

Flax seeds are high in fiber, healthy fats, vitamins, and minerals, including calcium and magnesium. In addition to being highly nutritious, flax seeds may help prevent atherosclerosis.

Flax seeds contain secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), an anti-inflammatory and cholesterol-lowering lignan compound whose properties counter atherosclerosis and may protect against heart attack and stroke (16, 17).

You have to grind flax seeds or purchase them pre-ground to digest them and take advantage of their benefits.

Adding cruciferous vegetables like broccoli, cabbage, and cauliflower to your diet may help reduce your chances of developing clogged arteries.

Studies show that eating cruciferous vegetables is associated with a decreased risk of atherosclerosis.

A study of 1,500 females found that eating cruciferous vegetables was associated with lower carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) (18).

This measurement can help assess a person’s risk of atherosclerosis-related disease.

Research has also linked cruciferous vegetable intake to reduced arterial calcification and risk of death caused by atherosclerosis-related disease (11, 19).

Arterial calcification leads to the hardening of the arteries in atherosclerosis (20).

Beets are a rich source of nitrates, which your body converts to nitric oxide, a signaling molecule that plays many essential roles in your body.

Inflammation in the blood vessels leads to decreased nitric oxide production.

Eating foods like beets that are rich in dietary nitrates may help Boost blood vessel function and decrease inflammation, which may help prevent atherosclerosis (21).

Research has also found an association between dietary nitrate intake and a reduced risk of atherosclerosis-related death (22, 23).

Eating oats can help significantly reduce atherosclerosis risk factors, including high total and LDL (bad) cholesterol (24, 25).

Oats also contain antioxidants called avenanthramides, which may help inhibit inflammatory proteins called cytokines and adhesion molecules. This may help prevent atherosclerosis (24).

Consuming oat bran, which is packed with fiber, may also be helpful.

A study that included 716 people with coronary artery disease found that those who consumed oat fiber regularly had lower levels of LDL (bad) cholesterol and inflammatory markers than those who did not eat oat fiber (25).

The study also found that oat fiber intake was associated with a lower risk of needing revascularization — a procedure to increase oxygen delivery to the heart and other parts of the body. A person may need this if atherosclerosis has impeded their blood flow (25).

Nuts and seeds are excellent sources of protein, fiber, healthy fats, vitamins, and minerals. What’s more, these tiny and versatile foods may help prevent clogged arteries.

Eating nuts and seeds can reduce LDL (bad) cholesterol and may help boost HDL (good) cholesterol and lower systolic blood pressure (26, 27).

Research also suggests eating nuts and seeds reduces blood sugar levels and may help protect against diabetes, a known risk factor for atherosclerosis (26, 28).

Eating nuts and seeds may also help Boost blood vessel function and protect against heart disease (29, 30).

Leafy greens, including lettuces, kale, arugula, Swiss chard, and spinach, offer nutrients that may help protect against atherosclerosis.

Green leafy vegetables are a good source of dietary nitrates, which can help Boost blood vessel function and reduce inflammation (31).

They’re also packed with potassium. This mineral helps prevent vascular calcification, a process that contributes to atherosclerosis (32).

Numerous studies have shown that eating green leafy vegetables can help reduce your risk of heart disease.

A review by the American Heart Association found that eating one serving of green leafy vegetables daily was linked to a 12-18% lower risk of cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, and stroke (33).

Cocoa and dark chocolate products are delicious and may help ward off atherosclerosis.

A review of research suggests that eating chocolate is associated with a reduced risk of stroke, heart disease, and diabetes (34).

Cocoa and dark chocolate products are rich in polyphenol plant compounds. These help increase nitric oxide production and decrease inflammation in the arteries, which may help Boost physical function in people with atherosclerosis (35).

But chocolate can also contain fats and sugar, which may counteract some of its beneficial compounds. It may be best to choose dark chocolate with more than 70% cocoa to take advantage of its benefits and consume the recommended amount of one to two ounces (35).

Olive oil, a staple of the Mediterranean diet, may help reduce the risk of atherosclerosis.

Olive oil may significantly Boost blood vessel function and reduce inflammatory markers, which can reduce your risk of heart disease (36).

A 2018 review also concluded that olive oil consumption is associated with reduced atherosclerosis-related inflammatory markers and a decreased risk of heart disease and complications (37).

Researchers attribute olive oil’s ability to increase heart and blood vessel health to its high content of polyphenol compounds.

Remember that less refined extra virgin olive oil has significantly greater amounts of polyphenols than more refined olive oils (37, 38, 39).

Atherosclerosis is considered a major underlying cause of heart disease, including coronary artery disease, the most common type of heart disease in the United States (40).

Atherosclerosis is the underlying cause of about 50% of deaths in Western countries (41).

It’s a chronic inflammatory disease with numerous risk factors.

You’re more likely to develop atherosclerosis if you (41):

  • have high LDL (bad) cholesterol
  • have high blood pressure
  • smoke cigarettes
  • have diabetes
  • have a family history of atherosclerosis
  • have obesity
  • consume a poor diet
  • engage in a sedentary lifestyle

On the other hand, following a diet rich in certain foods like vegetables, fruits, and fish has been shown to reduce the risk of atherosclerosis and heart disease (42).

A healthy diet rich in nutrient-dense foods may help reduce your risk of developing clogged arteries.

Adding foods like cruciferous vegetables, fish, berries, olive oil, oats, onions, greens, and beans to your diet may be an effective way to prevent atherosclerosis.

All of the foods listed above offer many other benefits as well. Adding them to your daily routine may significantly decrease your disease risk and boost your overall health.

Tue, 15 Aug 2023 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : There’s a disconnect between health tech and the people it’s supposed to help

There’s a disconnect between health tech and the people it’s supposed to help

There’s a disconnect between health tech and the people it’s supposed to help


Wearable makers have added several advanced features aimed at improving heart health, but studies show the people most at risk are unlikely to use them

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EKG results screen on the Pixel Watch
Despite the push toward advanced heart health features, a pair of Yale studies finds those most at risk of cardiovascular disease aren’t using tech to Boost their health.
Photo by Amelia Holowaty Krales / The Verge

There’s no shortage of apps and wearables that aim to help people Boost heart health. However, a pair of recent Yale studies find that those with the highest risk of heart disease are less likely to use this type of technology — even as tech companies add more heart health features to their devices.

“In these paired studies, we found that individuals at highest cardiovascular risk were least likely to use wearable devices, such as smartwatches, or use technology on their phones to track and Boost their health,” Rohan Khera, a senior author on the study and assistant professor of medicine and at Yale School of Medicine, said in a statement.

Published in the Journal of American College of Cardiology: Advances, one study on health apps examined data from the National Cancer Institute’s Health Informational National Trends Survey (HINTS) between 2017 and 2020. Specifically, the researchers looked to see whether the participants had ever used a phone or tablet to track goals like losing weight, increasing physical activity, or quitting smoking.

The study found that roughly two out of five US adults with or at risk of heart disease use health monitoring apps. However, while older individuals and men were most at risk of developing cardiovascular disease, they were also less likely to use technology to Boost their health. Households with lower levels of education and income were also found to be less likely to use this tech. Conversely, younger people, women, and Black individuals with higher education levels or household incomes were more likely to use health apps for this purpose.

These findings mirror those from the researchers’ earlier study which found that less than a quarter of US adults with cardiovascular disease use wearable devices. It also found that older people and those with lower education and income levels were less likely to use wearables. The researchers discovered that although roughly one-third of US adults used these devices, that number dropped to 18 percent among those with heart disease.

The results may seem counterintuitive if you’re a tech-savvy person who’s watched this category expand in accurate years. Especially since tech companies have increasingly marketed smartwatches as life-saving tech and added advanced features to address heart disease. Case in point, the Apple Watch added FDA-cleared EKG capabilities in 2018 to help detect atrial fibrillation. It’s snowballed from there, with Samsung and Fitbit following suit on their smartwatches in 2020 and Garmin adding its own EKG feature this year. Moreover, Apple, Samsung, and Fitbit have all added passive aFib monitoring to their devices within the last year. Most major flagship smartwatches also now track blood oxygen levels and allow users to export their data into PDFs so they can be shared with doctors.

The Apple watch Series 8 with sensor array lit up
Companies are increasingly investing in advanced health features on wearables... but does it matter if the people most at risk are unlikely to use this tech?
Image: Amelia Holowaty Krales / The Verge

However, despite this push, both studies corroborate earlier research on health tech adoption. In 2020, Pew Research found that although 21 percent of Americans used a smartwatch or fitness tracker, the number rose to 31 percent in households earning at least $75,000 a year. It fell to 12 percent among households earning less than $30,000 annually. In that survey, women and college graduates were also more likely to regularly use the devices. Meanwhile, a 2021 meta-analysis found that across the board, health apps and wearables improved health for the rich and were ineffective for people with lower socioeconomic status.

Time and time again, researchers (including the authors of these studies) have identified lower tech literacy among older people, as well as the relatively high price of smartwatches as barriers to health tech adoption. Even so, tech companies continue to pursue more ambitious health applications, like noninvasive blood glucose tracking, cuffless blood pressure monitoring, and remote patient monitoring. The big question is whether any of it matters if the people who would most benefit are unlikely to use them.

Correction, August 16th, 8:05AM ET: A previous version of this article misspelled Rohan Khera’s name. We regret the error.