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Exam Code: ASVAB-Automotive-and-Shop Practice exam 2022 by team
ASVAB Section 4 : Automotive & Shop Information
Military Information learning
Killexams : Military Information learning - BingNews Search results Killexams : Military Information learning - BingNews Killexams : The U.S. Military Is Already Building the AI of Tomorrow

The commanding general of the Air Force Research Lab is already thinking about the next generation of artificial intelligence (AI) as a tool that could not only engage in database comparisons but learn in real-time and assist in taking on missions that were once thought to be strictly meant for human beings.

“AI today is very database intensive. But what can and should it be in the future? How can we graduate it from just being a database to something that can leverage concepts and relationships, or emotions and predictive analyses? And so there’s so much more that we as humans can do that AI cannot. How do we get to that?” Maj. Gen. Heather Pringle, commanding general of the Air Force Research Lab, told The National Interest in an interview.

Pringle’s thinking appears closely aligned with cutting-edge AI-focused research which is focused on ways to catalog, discern, interpret, organize, and ultimately analyze things typically more difficult for mathematically-driven machines to understand. For example, Pringle questions whether AI will be able to interpret things like emotion and other nuanced topics. 

Is there a way these kinds of cognitive phenomena could be accurately tracked by computers? The hurdles preventing such a development appear high, as an interwoven blend of emotional, philosophical, and even psychological variables all inform human behavior and human perceptions. Nonetheless, Pringle appears to be referring to areas of great promise, such as AI’s emerging ability to determine context and, for instance, understand the difference between foot “ball” and dance “ball” by analyzing surrounding words. 

This kind of machine learning represents the cutting edge or new boundary for AI, which Pringle explained is not without challenges. The U.S. military and their industry partners have already made some progress in this direction, where things like previous behavior patterns, philosophical concepts, or speech patterns, for instance, can be cataloged and potentially analyzed to predict solutions. However, as Pringle explains, there are still many yet-to-be understood complexities and variables, and the intricacy of human consciousness and decisionmaking ensures that many tasks will remain well beyond the reach of what AI-enabled systems can do.

“The AI that we see today, like the navigation systems that automatically give you a pathway to get from point A to point B? Well, we placed a lot of trust in those systems, but the consequences are pretty low. And so it was pretty easy to develop a human-machine trusting relationship. But when we’re talking about warfare and warfighters, we want to build in that trust along the way,” Pringle explained.

This challenge is often referred to as “zero trust,” meaning that advanced AI-empowered algorithms need to Boost reliability by better integrating an ability to assimilate and analyze new data or information that is not part of its database. It is often said that AI is, to a large degree, only as effective as its database, as it must bounce new or incoming information off of a seemingly limitless database. Thus, what happens when an AI-capable computer comes across something it has not seen? That is a fundamental predicament in certain respects, as there are numerous abilities and faculties entirely unique to human cognition and cannot be replicated by machines… at least not yet.”

Part of the solution, Pringle explained, lies in increasing the ability for human-machine interfacing, meaning each can inform the other in a way to optimize data analysis and decisionmaking. Pringle described this as a “symbiotic relationship.”

“Right now, a lot of times when we see AI, we don’t fully understand why it’s taking the actions that it is. It’s leveraging so much data and coming up with novel solutions that we can’t understand. So it’s going to cause the trust relationship to be a little bit lower… Then, at a point in the future, when we’re able to make that more transparent, or have the AI or autonomous vehicle communicate better with the human or to even respond to the human, we even have a line of research where we’re looking at how can we adapt a machine to respond to what the human is learning, knowing, understanding, communicating,” Pringle explained.

At the same time, Pringle was also clear that there are many extremely promising near-term applications of AI which are already showing impactful breakthroughs. These will be greatly consequential to current platforms, weapons, and networks.

For instance, AI and autonomy are already helping fixed-wing aircraft such as F-35 Joint Strike Fighters share data in real-time with nearby drones, a step toward ultimately enabling a fifth-generation stealth fighter to operate numerous drones from the cockpit of an aircraft. This reduces latency and significantly multiples tactical options for pilots who could use drones to test enemy defenses, blanket an area with surveillance, or even fire weapons under human direction. Early iterations of this have already been demonstrated by the Air Force’s Valkyrie program, in which an unmanned system flew alongside F-35 and F-22 fighter jets while sharing information in real-time. 

By extension, the Valkyrie drone has even launched its own mini-drones. The Valkyrie launched a Kratos-built ALTIUS-600 mini drone in what the Air Force describes as the first-ever opening of its internal weapons bay. This demonstrates a number of interesting and significant tactical possibilities, as a drone-launched drone could operate as a mini-scout surveillance node over extremely hostile or high-threat areas amid heavy enemy fire. It would not only have a better chance of not being shot down by virtue of its small size, but a small drone of this kind could even function as a weapon itself. The Valkyrie is configured to drop bombs and fire weapons as part of a manned-unmanned teaming operational scope.

Of course, the concept is to ultimately ensure human command and control in a supervisory capacity, especially when it comes to the use of lethal force, yet breakthroughs in AI and autonomy can enable machines and unmanned systems to increasingly perform a growing number of time-sensitive warfare functions without needing human intervention. Pringle explained that researchers and weapons developers are still exploring complexities with these sorts of questions and technology.

“What is the role of the human? How are they managing these systems? How can we ease their cognitive load? How can we be most efficient with the number of vehicles? What is the right ratio of the vehicles? There are a lot of really great S&T [science and technology] questions to answer,” Pringle said.

“There’s a lot of challenges to address when you’re looking at increasing the number of systems and the number of platforms, due to the integration and the data links between them,” Pringle said.

In yet another instance, emerging programs such as Golden Horde are already demonstrating an ability for weapons to autonomously share data while en route to a target, greatly expanding the tactical attack envelope and introducing the ability for weapons to change course in flight.

The largest or most impactful near-term application of AI, arguably, is its continued contribution to “data processing” and identifying moments of relevance at the point of collection to streamline the networking of organized, relevant information across the battlefield in near real-time. This can enable multi-domain connectivity, or connect fighter jets with command and control centers, bombers, drones, and even ground forces and Navy ships. The speed at which new information can be gathered, compared to a database, analyzed, and effectively transmitted continues to rapidly increase the speed of attack, reduce “sensor-to-shooter” time, and enable attacking forces to operate inside of or ahead of an enemy’s decisionmaking process.

Kris Osborn is the defense editor for the National Interest. Osborn previously served at the Pentagon as a Highly Qualified Expert with the Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Army—Acquisition, Logistics & Technology. Osborn has also worked as an anchor and on-air military specialist at national TV networks. He has appeared as a guest military expert on Fox News, MSNBC, The Military Channel, and The History Channel. He also has a Master’s Degree in Comparative Literature from Columbia University.

Image: Reuters.

Sun, 24 Jul 2022 13:00:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : New MOS and formations could come to Army spec ops in tech-savvy era

The Army’s special operations forces are considering new tech roles and unit structures to complement their growing partnership with space and cyber personnel across the Defense Department, according to Army Special Operations Command’s top general.

Some of changes could be accomplished internally, though others, like any new jobs, would require Army approval.

Lt. Gen. Jonathan Braga raised the potential moves when asked during a Wednesday Association of the U.S. Army event about lessons the Army SOF community is learning from the war between Russia and Ukraine, plus other accurate conflicts.

Army Times also interviewed Braga via phone after the event, where he pitched a new irregular warfare triad that features SOF, space capabilities and cyber units.

“How we’re organized was optimized for counter-terrorism, and we recognize that a lot of that has to change to be ready for large-scale combat operations,” he said. “I cannot imagine a future state of warfare that does not have more drone technology and an application of AI.”

Currently, the service’s publicly acknowledged special operations forces don’t have a clear career pathway for operators who are skilled in modifying and using small drones, 3D printing, AI and coding, or similar skills.

Braga wants to change that, and he says the options on the table extend to curriculum modifications at USASOC’s schoolhouses and shifts in force structure.

“We’re experimenting even with force design...What is the SOF unit of action of the future?” he speculated. “Is it two people and 20 drones? Is it one person and 100 drones?”

The 12-solder Operational Detachment-Alpha, the default unit of the service’s Special Forces, is even up for review. Braga highlighted that its structure was set in 1952, when the three domains of warfare were land, sea and air.

“Today, that same organization, that unit of action has to operate in land, sea and air, cyber and space and the information environment and do all the things they were doing previously,” the USASOC commander said. " So can you ask those same people to do all of those same things?...Those are the things I think we have to to really take a hard look at.”

After the panel, Braga offered insight on where discussions to innovate USASOC tech talent management currently stand. He thinks that many of the people who could fill tech-centered roles are already in the SOF community — they just need a chance to specialize and advance.

“We have some amazing individuals who are building drones from scratch...programming drones, creating backdoors, 3D printing, learning Python on their own. These people already exist,” he argued. “What we don’t have right now is a proper career field and pipeline for them to maintain that talent and reinforce that [technology in special operations] can still be a successful career [for them].”

The general indicated the command is leaning towards proposing a warrant officer career field specializing in technology on the modern battlefield — with potential roles including “drone operator, drone integrator, drone builder, robotics, manned-unmanned teaming, leveraging artificial intelligence, coding, tactical cyber” and more.

But because creating a new MOS requires significant study and Army-level approvals, “an immediate target” is finding other ways to identify and retain tech-savvy soldiers, like through additional skill identifiers, Braga explained.

The USASOC chief isn’t sure, though, whether such a future career field would need to be an 18-series MOS code alongside the other Special Forces troops, which require prospective members to pass selection and a rigorous qualification course. There’s a chance that ongoing Army-wide efforts to integrate technology and small drone technology could “adapt and absorb” any ARSOF-specific role.

“I could envision a future where I would need and want and desire, an 18-series who might be needed to go further in the contact layer, and maybe do something that might be more physically demanding on a physical operation,” explained Braga. “I could envision someone who I don’t need to do that...[they] might be a drone integrator, drone builder, drone operator, that could [fight] remotely.”

And although the analysis process for establishing a new career field can take time, Braga is confident that his command has the resources and flexibility to ensure that his operators have access to the skills and tech they need in the interim.

USASOC controls three centers of excellence that produce its operators, plus “we own our whole warrant officer pipeline, we have a lot of flexibility,” explained Braga.

“This is where we’re going...because I think we have to move out.”

Davis Winkie is a senior reporter covering the Army, specializing in accountability reporting, personnel issues and military justice. He joined Military Times in 2020. Davis studied history at Vanderbilt University and UNC-Chapel Hill, writing a master's thesis about how the Cold War-era Defense Department influenced Hollywood's WWII movies.

Thu, 28 Jul 2022 10:26:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Why the Military Has an Office Dedicated to Tracking the World’s Biggest Blocks of Ice

Navy civilian and master icy analyst Katherine Quinn was doing a weekly check-in on the icebergs she monitors when she saw it: a tooth-shaped hunk that had split off from iceberg A-74 in Antarctica’s Weddell Sea. The iceberg had “calved” or split into two drifting pieces, each as large as a major world city.

A-74A, as it was now called, the biggest piece, measured 28 nautical miles by 18 nautical miles, or about 32 by 21 land miles. A-74B, the calf, measured nine nautical miles by four nautical miles, or about 10 by five land miles – as long as Washington, DC and about half as wide.

But why does the U.S. military care enough about how ice splinters at the bottom of the globe to have an office dedicated to tracking it?

The National Ice Center

It turns out that the U.S. National Ice Center, run by U.S. Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command, based in Suitland, Maryland, and staffed jointly by active-duty officers and civilians from the Navy, Coast Guard, and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, is the only entity that monitors ice movement and formation across the globe. And it has been doing so since shortly after World War II when the Navy began monitoring ice for its own ships.

The most famous ship vs. ice catastrophe is, of course, the sinking of the RMS Titanic on April 15, 1912, but the Navy had plenty of opportunities to consider the value of reliable tactical ice monitoring as it operated in the icy waters of the North Atlantic. The service even hatched a plan to install a flight deck on an iceberg and turn it into an aircraft carrier, building a prototype out of an ice-sawdust blend called Pykrete in Canada’s Patricia Lake in 1943. Sadly, that science fiction-esque carrier never made it to the fleet.

Today, lots of different entities may want to stay abreast of iceberg calving and other ice movements Katherine Quinn told Sandboxx News in a phone interview.

“Calving is a natural process, so it’s going to happen. A lot of the ones that we do track are very large. And if a ship is down there, they can see it,” she said. “I know researchers [also] use that information. There are companies, there are scientists tracking that information.”

Fast and dangerous

Not only are the icebergs that the center tracks huge – they are now monitoring 53 bergs in Antarctica that are at least 10 nautical miles across – but they can move pretty fast too. A-74 became an iceberg when it calved from the Brunt Ice Shelf, home to the British Antarctic Survey’s (BAS) Halley Research Station, in March 2021. It has since drifted 90 nautical miles – or 104 land miles, westward, officials at the National Ice center said.

The researchers at Halley had been tracking the potential calving event for 10 years or more, relocating one of its research stations in 2016 and limiting deployments to the station to the Antarctic summer in 2017 in recognition of the upcoming need for a sudden evacuation.

In August 2021, the newly formed A-74 was hit by strong easterly winds and collided with the shelf, a largely non-event, but one that could have created a new, massive berg if the collision had happened with more force.

Two scuba divers are lowered to the ice Feb. 1, 2020, from the U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Polar Star (WAGB-10) approximately seven miles north of McMurdo Station, Antarctica. Scuba divers from the U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Army and the Royal Canadian Navy are serving aboard the Polar Star in order to effect emergency repairs if needed to the 44-year-old heavy icebreaker. The crew of the Seattle-based Polar Star is working near Antarctica in support of Operation Deep Freeze 2020, the U.S. military’s contribution to the National Science Foundation-managed U.S. Antarctic Program. (NyxoLyno Cangemi/U.S. Coast Guard)

National Ice Center analysts to go

Coast Guard cutters and Navy surface ships and submarines often check in with the National Ice Center ahead of deployments or planned movements to get an accurate ice picture of their destination, Quinn said.

“We actually do provide tailored support products. So if a ship, whether it’s Coast Guard, or a Navy ship, or research ship, universities, all of that – when they are traveling somewhere, they could say, ‘Hey, this is where we’re going. What can you provide us?'”

In addition to tracking current ice formation and forecasting future ice, analysts from the center sometimes deploy aboard Coast Guard icebreakers to conduct research and provide the crews with an extra level of situational awareness.

Quinn added that the center produces a daily ice analysis, which shows ice coverage and distinguishes between light ice and pack ice, new ice formation, and old ice, so skippers know exactly what they’ll encounter in a new region.

To do that, Quinn and the other analysts rely on tools including incredibly detailed satellite imagery from NASA’s Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and NOAA’s Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS). They also use synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery, which uses radio waves to create three-dimensional models of landscapes and other objects. When clouds or harsh weather patterns obscure an area, Quinn said, SAR imagery can still provide an accurate ice picture. But there are certain things only a practiced human eye can pick up.

New ice, she said, doesn’t show up on the visible imagery, and thus must be interpreted from the SAR models.

“For the new ice, it’s going to be darker and you’re going to see it forming around the current ice edge,” she said. “As it thickens up, it turns brighter … As ice grows it will start to fracture, so the new ice becomes young ice. As that ice is circling around the Arctic for a season, or multi-year ice, those floes become more rounded and also darker. So we know what type of ice we’re looking at based on appearance.”

Erratic like ice

Calving can be frenetic at times, sporadic at others. Before A-74’s calving in June, the last announced calving was the creation of a new iceberg, C-39, from the Scott Glacier area of the Shackleton Ice Shelf in April. Icebergs are named based on the quadrant in which they were formed (A, B, C, or D) and then the order in which their tracking by the Ice Center began. The center does not name Arctic icebergs, which are generally much smaller than their southern counterparts.

“I was off for a few months a couple years ago, and when I came back, there was a ton of new bergs,” Quinn said. “Sometimes they’re just constantly calving and breaking.”

While Quinn said she didn’t want to comment on trends in ice activity or how it has been affected by climate change, saying she wasn’t a climatologist, scientists have said that warmer Antarctic air and ocean temperatures have led to increased ice shelf collapse. (The calving of A-74 from the Brunt Ice Shelf was not believed to be climate change-related.) Top Navy and Coast Guard officials have spoken repeatedly about how newly opened sea routes in the Arctic are changing the national security picture and creating a new global competition for dominance.

“Our work is and always has been important. And I think we’re also increasing our customers because of what we do and the services that we provide,” Quinn told Sandboxx News. “Our active-duty officers who are here, they’re learning what we do, and they’re taking that with them to their new commands. And they’re telling us, they’re telling these commands, ‘Hey, if you need ice analysis, the National Ice Center’s got it for you.'”

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Sat, 06 Aug 2022 23:10:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : U.S. Army Research Lab Expands Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning Contract with Palantir for $99.9M

DENVER, July 28, 2022--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Palantir Technologies Inc. (NYSE: PLTR) today announced that it will expand its work with the U.S. Army Research Laboratory to implement data and artificial intelligence (AI)/machine learning (ML) capabilities for users across the combatant commands (COCOMs). The contract totals $99.9 million over two years.

Palantir first partnered with the Army Research Lab to provide those on the frontlines with state-of-the-art operational data and AI capabilities in 2018. Palantir’s platform has supported the integration, management, and deployment of relevant data and AI model training to all of the Armed Services, COCOMs, and special operators. This extension grows Palantir’s operational RDT&E work to more users globally.

"Maintaining a leading edge through technology is foundational to our mission and partnership with the Army Research Laboratory," said Akash Jain, President of Palantir USG. "Our nation’s armed forces require best-in-class software to fulfill their missions today while rapidly iterating on the capabilities they will need for tomorrow’s fight. We are honored to support this critical work by teaming up to deliver the most advanced operational AI capabilities available with dozens of commercial and public sector partners."

By working with the U.S. Army Research Lab, integrating with partner vendors, and iterating with users on the front lines, Palantir’s software platforms will continue to quickly implement advanced AI capabilities against some of DOD’s most pressing problem sets. "We’re looking forward to fielding our latest ML, Edge, and Space technologies alongside our U.S. military partners," said Shannon Clark, Senior Vice President of Innovation, Federal. "These technologies will enable operators in the field to leverage AI insights to make decisions across many fused domains. From outer space to the sea floor, and everything in between."

About Palantir Technologies Inc.

Foundational software of tomorrow. Delivered today. Additional information is available at

Forward-Looking Statements

This press release contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. These statements may relate to, but are not limited to, Palantir’s expectations regarding the amount and the terms of the contract and the expected benefits of our software platforms. Forward-looking statements are inherently subject to risks and uncertainties, some of which cannot be predicted or quantified. Forward-looking statements are based on information available at the time those statements are made and were based on current expectations as well as the beliefs and assumptions of management as of that time with respect to future events. These statements are subject to risks and uncertainties, many of which involve factors or circumstances that are beyond our control. These risks and uncertainties include our ability to meet the unique needs of our customer; the failure of our platforms to satisfy our customer or perform as desired; the frequency or severity of any software and implementation errors; our platforms’ reliability; and our customers’ ability to modify or terminate the contract. Additional information regarding these and other risks and uncertainties is included in the filings we make with the Securities and Exchange Commission from time to time. Except as required by law, we do not undertake any obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statement, whether as a result of new information, future developments, or otherwise.

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Wed, 27 Jul 2022 22:59:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Killexams : Bossier Chamber names Tech a Military Community Champion

Louisiana Tech University has been named a Military Community Champion by the Bossier Chamber of Commerce for being “committed to the growth of our community by investing in our military, their families, and our veterans.”

Launched in May, the new program highlights those organizations within Bossier City that go “above and beyond to support our military,” Chamber President and CEO Lisa Johnson said.

“We know that a lot of retail businesses provide military discounts, but we also know that there are many other organizations who can’t necessarily provide that, but have a lot of other ways to show their support to our military,” Chamber Military Relations Liaison Kattie Hollay said. “So, the program was created to showcase our community and how each of those organizations go above and beyond to champion our military.”

Tech’s relationship with Barksdale Air Force Base is a long and strong one. Programs at Tech Barksdale, founded more than 50 years ago, are designed to help maximize credits military students might have gotten elsewhere; today, many classes are online.

Much more recently, Louisiana Tech Research Institute at National Cyber Research Park in Bossier City has partnered with Cyber Innovation Center in supporting several defense-sector efforts.

In the Veterans Resource Center – a partnership between Tech and Bossier Parish Community College – veterans and their families can receive services and information. This collaboration increases veterans’ ability to earn their undergraduate or graduate degrees close to home.

“As we continue to develop strategies to recruit, retain, and educate a diverse community of students who contribute to Tech’s inclusive learning environment, the nation’s veterans and active-duty military will continue to be an important part of our Tech Family,” said Dr. Dickie Crawford, Tech’s Vice President for Student Advancement.

Also, in March and for the ninth straight year, the University was awarded the Silver Designation in Victory Media’s 2022-23 Military Friendly Schools list.

Fri, 05 Aug 2022 02:36:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Killexams : Remember 5G? Pentagon backs 6G hub tied to Army Research Lab

WASHINGTON — As telecom companies struggle to complete the transition to the fifth-generation, or 5G, mobile standard, the Pentagon is backing an effort focused on 6G research and technologies amid a military-wide push to modernize communications and connectivity.

The Department of Defense on Aug. 2 said it committed $1.77 million to the Open6G industry-university cooperative, which will serve as a hub for development, testing and integration, and “aims to jumpstart 6G systems research on open radio access networks,” or Open RAN.

The Open6G venture is part of the defense community’s Innovate Beyond 5G Program, under the purview of the under secretary of defense for research and engineering.

“The DoD has a vital interest in advancing 5G-to-NextG wireless technologies and concept demonstrations,” Sumit Roy, the IB5G program director, said in a statement. “These efforts represent our continuing investments via public and private sector collaboration on research and development for critical beyond 5G technology enablers necessary to realize high performance, secure, and resilient network operations for the future warfighter.”

Open6G is managed by Northeastern University’s Kostas Research Institute alongside the U.S. Army Research Laboratory. Technical work will be housed at the university’s Institute for Wireless Internet of Things. The institute specializes in 5G and 6G, artificial intelligence and machine learning, and unmanned aerial systems for both civil and defense use.

The Defense Department has for years invested in 5G while keeping eyes on the horizon. The fifth generation of wireless technologies — now available to hundreds of millions of Americans, with Verizon, AT&T and other carriers spending billions of dollars to rapidly expand their 5G networks — touts faster speeds and the ability to accommodate advanced devices. Future generations are expected to be even better.

Watchdogs such as the Government Accountability Office have warned of pitfalls, though. They include steep infrastructure costs, difficulties with implementation and cybersecurity woes.

Military leaders have promoted 5G, and what’s beyond, as a means to better connect forces on the battlefield and shuttle vital information between them, a tenet of Joint All-Domain Command and Control. The fifth generation is also being used to Boost logistics in so-called smart warehouses, where private networks are powering experiments with virtual and augmented reality, high-definition video surveillance and artificial intelligence extended from the cloud.

The Defense Department secured approximately $338 million for 5G and microelectronics in fiscal 2022. It requested $250 million for fiscal 2023.

The department in 2020 announced a $600 million investment in 5G testing across a handful of U.S. military installations. Follow-up investments were made in 2021.

Colin Demarest is a reporter at C4ISRNET, where he covers military networks, cyber and IT. Colin previously covered the Department of Energy and its NNSA — namely Cold War cleanup and nuclear weapons development — for a daily newspaper in South Carolina. Colin is also an award-winning photographer.

Thu, 04 Aug 2022 06:37:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Can a Fitness App Ease the Military’s Recruitment Crisis?

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Thu, 04 Aug 2022 00:19:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : 'The demand is not going down': Fort Bragg, Army leaders look toward future of Army No result found, try new keyword!The Association of the U.S. Army held a two-day warfighter summit in Fayetteville. Here's what top Army and Fort Bragg leaders had to say. Mon, 01 Aug 2022 21:02:21 -0500 en-us text/html Killexams : Adversarial attacks can cause DNS amplification, fool network defense systems, machine learning study finds

New research shows how deep learning models trained for network intrusion detection can be bypassed

Adversarial attacks can cause DNS amplification, fool network defense systems

Recent years have seen a growing interest in the use of machine learning and deep learning in cybersecurity, especially in network intrusion detection and prevention.

However, according to a study by researchers at the Citadel, a military college in South Carolina, US, deep learning models trained for network intrusion detection can be bypassed through adversarial attacks, specially crafted data that fools neural networks to change their behavior.

DNS amplification attacks

The study (PDF) focuses on DNS amplification, a kind of denial-of-service attack in which the attacker spoofs the victim’s IP address and sends multiple name lookup requests to a DNS server.

The server will then send all the responses to the victim. Since a DNS request is much smaller than the response, it results in an amplification attack where the victim is flooded with bogus traffic.

RELATED Adversarial attacks against machine learning systems – everything you need to know

“We decided to study deep learning in DNS amplification due to the increasing popularity of machine learning-based intrusion detection systems,” Jared Mathews, the lead author of the paper, told The Daily Swig.

“DNS amplification is one of the more popular and destructive forms of DoS attacks so we wanted to explore the viability and resilience of a deep learning model trained on this type of network traffic.”

Attacking the model

To test the resilience of network intrusion detection systems, the researchers created a machine learning model to detect DNS amplification traffic.

They trained a deep neural network on the open source KDD DDoS dataset. The model achieved above 98% accuracy in detecting malignant data packets.

Architecture of machine learning model for DNS amplification attacksArchitecture of machine learning model for DNS amplification attacks

To test the resilience of the ML-based network intrusion detection system, the authors pitted it against Elastic-Net Attack on Deep Neural Networks (EAD) and TextAttack, two popular adversarial attack techniques.

“We chose TextAttack and Elastic-Net Attack due to their proven results in both natural language processing and image processing respectively,” Mathews said.

Read more of the latest information security research news

Although the attack algorithms were not initially intended to be applied to network packets, the researchers were able to adapt them for the purpose. They used the algorithms to generate DNS amplification packets that passed as benign traffic when processed by the target NIDS system.

Both attack techniques proved to be effective, significantly reducing the network intrusion detection system’s accuracy, and causing large amounts of both false positives and false negatives.

“While both attacks could easily generate adversarial examples with the DNS Amplification data we used, TextAttack was more suited for minimally perturbing the datatypes in the packet features,” Mathews said.

The researchers have not yet tested the attack on off-the-shelf intrusion detection systems, but plan to do so and report the findings in the future.

Structure of adversarial attack against ML-based network intrusion detection system
Structure of adversarial attack against ML-based network intrusion detection system

Complexities of using ML in cybersecurity

The researchers conclude that it is relatively easy to deceive a machine learning network intrusion detection systems with adversarial attacks, and it is possible to take adversarial algorithms that were initially meant for another application and adapt them to network classifiers.

“The biggest takeaway would be that using deep learning in network security is not a simple solution, and as a standalone NIDS, they are quite fragile,” Mathews said.

“For a classifier used to detect attacks on critical networks, there should be extensive testing. Using these DL models in conjunction with a rules-based NIDS as a secondary detector can prove to be very effective as well.”

The team is in the process of expanding their findings to other kinds of attacks, including IoT DDoS traffic.

READ MORE Zyxel firewall vulnerabilities left business networks open to abuse

Sun, 24 Jul 2022 23:33:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : SpaceWERX explores machine learning for on-orbit servicing, manufacturing Written by

The Space Force’s innovation arm, SpaceWERX, has tapped Wallaroo Labs to explore and demonstrate how machine learning models can be deployed to advance multiple efforts associated with on-orbit servicing, assembly, and manufacturing (OSAM) missions for the latest U.S. military branch.

The company was selected for a Phase I Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) project to help the Space Force fully unleash machine learning within its OSAM-aligned production environments, according to an announcement published Tuesday.

OSAM enables the building or repair of systems and components at the operational edge, on orbit. While predictive algorithms to support such processes can be built virtually anywhere on Earth, operationalizing those machine learning models in space is necessary to maximize their value.

“The whole point of this for them is to get to outcomes faster across a whole range of use cases,” Wallaroo CEO and founder Vid Jain told FedScoop in an interview on Monday prior to the announcement.

He explained that the enterprise platform his company has developed “facilitates the last mile of the machine learning journey.” In transportation, the last mile typically refers to the last leg of a process that moves people or goods from a specific hub to a final destination. 

“There’s all this incredible potential [for AI], but only in around 10% of use cases or examples do people realize it — and one of the big stumbling blocks is exactly that last mile,” Jain said. 

Most “machine learning journeys,” as he referred to them, begin with capturing, aggregating and cleaning data from multiple sources. Once that data is in good shape and usable, the next step is developing algorithms and models that identify patterns in it, assign probabilities, and then predict something based on that information. From there, the model needs to be integrated into existing product workflows.

“That turns out to be much harder than people expect — and then once you get that working, the reality of it is your data changes” over time, Jain noted. For that reason and others, adjustments need to be made continuously to keep up with altering patterns of data as they and the network evolve. 

“We’re focused on that. We’re focused on helping the machine learning and AI teams get their models into production, get them running very efficiently, giving them the tools to monitor the models and understand how effective they are, and giving them tools to quickly change and update the models as they need changing,” he added. 

The Air Force and several Fortune 500 companies already lean on the company’s platform, but this is the first time Wallaroo is working directly with SpaceWERX and its parent organization.

“The mission of the [Space Force] is to organize, train and equip Guardians to conduct global space operations that enhance the way our joint and coalition forces fight, while also offering decision-makers military options to achieve national objectives,” SpaceWERX Director for Science, Technology and Research Joel Mozer said in a statement. “To do this effectively, we must invest in AI and ML capabilities that can be deployed in the cloud at the edge. Wallaroo has demonstrated their AI/ML Enterprise Platform, and I believe this platform — with its uniquely modern, interoperable, and integrated architecture — is positioned exceptionally well to deliver game-changing capabilities” to the Space Force.

Executed in collaboration with Catalyst Campus (CCTI), the project could involve use cases spanning satellite life extension, on-orbit refueling, active debris removal, predictive maintenance, and the reuse of materials to underpin manufacturing in space, according to Jain.

“It’s an enabling technology that allows you to be bolder, allows you to do things you couldn’t do before,” he said. 

Wallaroo was launched in 2017 with support from investors that aimed to accelerate dual-use technologies for both the government and commercial sectors. In working with the Air Force and others more recently, Jain said he’s witnessed federal agencies increasingly become more strategically data-driven. 

“I think when we were looking at the courses that we were interested in about two years ago, machine learning was not as prominent. It was basically more data foundation-level. I think what’s changed in the last six months is we’re seeing a lot more requests — whether it’s Space Force, the U.S. military or even other parts of the government — we’re seeing a lot more around, ‘Hey, I’ve got some data scientists and I’ve got data, now what do I do?’” he said. “Which is where we come in. And so I think that’s only going to accelerate and I think there’s so many different use cases that we can help.”

-In this Story-

data, edge computing, machine learning, modeling, OSAM, predictive maintenance, satellites, space, Space Force, SPACEWERX, Vid Jain, Wallaroo Labs
Tue, 26 Jul 2022 00:00:00 -0500 Brandi Vincent en text/html
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