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TOGAF Enterprise Architecture Combined Part 1 and Part 2
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OGEA-103 TOGAF Enterprise Architecture Combined Part 1 and Part 2

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Question: 171
Which of the following statements about architecture partitioning are correct*?
1 Partitions are used to simplify the management of the Enterprise Architecture
2 Partitions are equivalent to architecture levels
3 Partitions enable different teams to work on different element of the architecture at the same time.
4 Partitions reflect the organization's structure
A. 2 & 3
B. 1 & 3
C. 1 & 4
D. 2 & 4
Answer: B
Explanation:
Statements 1 and 3 about architecture partitioning are correct. Architecture partitioning is the technique of dividing an
architecture into smaller and more manageable parts that can be developed, maintained, and governed independently.
Partitions are used to simplify the management of the Enterprise Architecture and to enable different teams to work on
different elements of the architecture at the same time. Partitions are not equivalent to architecture levels, which are
different degrees of abstraction or detail in an architecture. Partitions do not necessarily reflect the organization‚s
structure, which may change over time or differ from the architecture‚s scope and boundaries.
Reference: The TOGAF¬ģ Standard | The Open Group Website, Section 2.5 Architecture Partitioning
Question: 172
Complete the following sentence:
Presenting different_________and_________to stakeholders helps architects to extract
hidden agendas principles and requirements that could impact the final Target
Architecture
A. Alternatives Trade-offs
B. Solutions Applications
C. Architecture Views Architecture Viewpoints
D. Business Scenarios Business Models
Answer: A
Explanation:
Presenting different alternatives and trade-offs to stakeholders helps architects to extract hidden agendas principles and
requirements that could impact the final Target Architecture. Alternatives are different ways of achieving a desired
$13$10
outcome, while trade-offs are compromises or sacrifices that must be made to choose one alternative over another.
Reference: The TOGAF¬ģ Standard | The Open Group Website, Section 3.3.1 Business Scenarios.
Question: 173
What is presented as ‚striking a balance between positive and negative outcomes resulting from the realization of
either opportunities or threats?
A. Agile development
B. Architecture Security
C. Transition Management
D. Risk Management
Answer: D
Explanation:
Risk Management is the process of identifying, assessing, and responding to risks that may affect the achievement of
the enterprise‚s objectives. Risk Management involves balancing positive and negative outcomes resulting from the
realization of either opportunities or threats.
Reference: The TOGAF¬ģ Standard | The Open Group Website, Section 3.3.3 Risk Management.
Question: 174
Refer to the table below:
Which ADM Phase does this describe?
A. Phase A
B. Phase B
C. Preliminary Phase
D. Phase C
Answer: B
Explanation:
Phase B of the ADM cycle is the Business Architecture phase. It describes the development of a Business Architecture
$13$10
to support an agreed Architecture Vision. The objectives of this phase are to describe the baseline and target Business
Architecture, identify candidate Architecture Roadmap components based on gaps between the baseline and target, and
determine whether an incremental approach is required.
Reference: The TOGAF¬ģ Standard | The Open Group Website, Section 3.2.2 Phase B: Business Architecture.
Question: 175
Complete the sentence The TOGAF standard covers the development of four architecture domains. Business. Data,
Technology and__________________.
A. Segment
B. Transition
C. Capability
D. Application
Answer: D
Explanation:
The TOGAF standard covers the development of four architecture domains: Business, Data, Technology and
Application. These domains represent different aspects of an enterprise‚s architecture and provide a consistent way of
describing, analyzing, and designing them.
Reference: The TOGAF¬ģ Standard | The Open Group Website, Section 2.2 Architecture Development Method
(ADM).
Question: 176
Which of the following are the four purposes that typically frame the planning horizon, depth and breadth of an
Architecture Project, and the contents of the EA Repository-?
A. General Foundational Subordinate and Superior Architecture
B. Segment, Capability. Enterprise and End-to-end Target Architecture
C. Avant-Garde Big-Bang, Discreet and Cohesive
D. Strategy Portfolio Project Solution Delivery
Answer: B
Explanation:
These four purposes frame the planning horizon, depth, and breadth of an Architecture Project and the contents of the
EA Repository. They help to determine the scope and focus of the enterprise architecture initiative.
Question: 177
Which statement best describes iteration and the ADM?
$13$10
A. The ADM is iterative within the first cycle and then between phases
B. The level of detail is defined once and applies to all iterations
C. The ADM is sequential Iteration is applied within phases
D. The ADM is iterative, over the whole process between phases and within phases
Answer: D
Explanation:
This statement best describes iteration and the ADM. The ADM is iterative over the whole process between phases
and within phases because it allows for feedback loops and refinements at any point in the architecture development
and transition process. Iteration enables architects to address changing requirements, assumptions, constraints, and
environments; to validate and Boost architectures; to manage risks and issues; and to ensure stakeholder satisfaction
and value realization.
Reference: The TOGAF¬ģ Standard | The Open Group Website, Section 3.1 Introduction to the ADM.
Question: 178
Complete the sentence Business Transformation Readiness Assessment is_________________.
A. a joint effort between corporate staff lines of business and IT planners
B. to ensure the active support of powerful stakeholders
C. a way to put building blocks into context thereby supporting re-usable solutions
D. widely used to validate an architecture that is being developed
Answer: A
Explanation:
Business Transformation Readiness Assessment is a joint effort between corporate staff lines of business and IT
planners to evaluate the readiness of the organization to undergo change. It involves assessing factors such as vision,
commitment, capacity, capability, culture, and motivation that may influence the success of a business transformation
initiative.
Reference: The TOGAF¬ģ Standard | The Open Group Website, Section 3.3.2 Business Transformation Readiness
Assessment.
Question: 179
What are the following activities part or?
‚Ę Initial risk assessment
‚Ę Risk mitigation and residual risk assessment
‚Ę Risk monitoring
A. Risk Management
B. Phase A
$13$10
C. Security Architecture
D. Phase C
Answer: A
Explanation:
The following activities are part of Risk Management:
‚ Initial risk assessment
‚ Risk mitigation and residual risk assessment
‚ Risk monitoring
Risk Management is the process of identifying, assessing, and responding to risks that may affect the achievement of
the enterprise‚s objectives. Risk Management involves balancing positive and negative outcomes resulting from the
realization of either opportunities or threats.
Reference: The TOGAF¬ģ Standard | The Open Group Website, Section 3.3.3 Risk Management.
Question: 180
Complete the sentence The Enterprise Continuum provides methods for classifying architecture artifacts as they evolve
from________________________.
A. Solutions Architectures to Solution Building Blocks
B. generic architectures to reusable Solution Building Blocks
C. Foundation Architectures to re-usable architecture assets
D. generic architectures to Organization-Specific Architectures
Answer: D
Explanation:
The Enterprise Continuum provides methods for classifying architecture artifacts as they evolve from generic
architectures to Organization-Specific Architectures. Generic architectures are architectures that have been developed
for use across a wide range of enterprises with similar characteristics. They provide common models, functions, and
services that can be reused and adapted for specific purposes. Organization-Specific Architectures are architectures that
have been tailored to meet the needs and requirements of a particular enterprise or a major organizational unit within
an enterprise. They reflect the unique vision, goals, culture, structure, processes, systems, and technologies of that
enterprise or unit.
Reference: The TOGAF¬ģ Standard | The Open Group Website, Section 2.3 Enterprise Continuum.
$13$10

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More than 80,000 votes were cast over the last two weeks and, after careful review, the results of the 2019 ArchDaily Building of the Year Awards presented by Unreal are in. Building of the Year, which itself celebrated ten years this year, is the largest peer-based crowdsourced architecture award in the world, showcasing the projects chosen by you, our readers, as the most significant of the year.

This is no mean feat. More than 4000 projects were in contention this year, challenging readers to carefully consider a wide variety of projects across type, scale, and location. 4000 projects were whittled to 75 finalists; 75 have now been reduced to the 15 winners - one for each typological category.

The results are as diverse as the architecture itself. Well-known names are, as in years past, present among the bunch, among them Zaha Hadid Architects, MVRDV, and Heatherwick Studio. For London-based Heatherwick, their win marks the second consecutive year they have taken top honors for a refurbishment-based project. But less-renowned names dominate the ranks of the winners this year. Innocad’s serenely simple office building for a real estate company elevates what corporate architecture can be while the technical and material mastery of Sameep Padora’s Maya Somaiya Library is enough to make any architect look twice. The library is, in fact, one of two Indian projects to take top honors this year - a strong first year showing for the nation whose design talent seems finally to be coming to the fore.

But for all their many beautiful differences, the winners share a crucial element in common: they represent the values of our mission, to bring inspiration, knowledge, and tools to architects everywhere. Building of the Year - indeed, ArchDaily itself - would not be possible without the generosity of firms and readers as invested in our mission as we are. We supply our profound thanks to all who participated this year, no matter the form. Congratulations to all the winners!

Mon, 02 Oct 2023 12:00:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://www.archdaily.com/tag/open-architecture
Top 90 Retail Architecture Firms

Top 90 Retail Architecture Firms

Gensler, GreenbergFarrow, and MG2 top Building Design+Construction’s annual ranking of the nation’s largest retail sector architecture and A/E firms, as reported in the 2016 Giants 300 Report.


By BD+C Staff | August 10, 2016

Audimas Concept Store. Photo: Valdas Ruzgys, Wikimedia Commons

TOP 90 RETAIL ARCHITECTURE FIRMS
Rank Firm 2015 Revenue
1 CallisonRTKL $205,964,000
2 Gensler $129,680,000
3 GreenbergFarrow $49,719,540
4 MG2 $45,652,293
5 Stantec $39,933,013
6 FRCH Design Worldwide $38,017,500
7 WD Partners $38,000,000
8 MBH Architects $28,126,062
9 NORR $20,326,054
10 P+R Architects $20,000,000
11 Little $19,762,300
12 RSP Architects $16,563,000
13 Bergmann Associates $15,730,440
14 Sargenti Architects $15,450,000
15 CTA Architects Engineers $14,967,299
16 CASCO $13,000,000
17 Herschman Architects $12,392,392
18 GFF $11,919,387
19 DLR Group $11,600,000
20 Ware Malcomb $11,315,063
21 TPG Architecture $11,098,000
22 LK Architecture $7,620,000
23 Cooper Carry $7,525,644
24 Beck Group, The $7,428,909
25 Nelson Worldwide Holdings $7,061,545
26 LS3P $6,912,851
27 Howell Belanger Castelli Architects $6,463,346
28 Nadel $6,376,015
29 Perkins+Will $6,080,000
30 Larson Design Group $5,999,155
31 api(+) $5,200,000
32 HOK $4,812,000
33 Lawrence Group $4,766,000
34 Jencen Architecture $3,900,000
35 Cuningham Group Architecture $3,888,522
36 Beyer Blinder Belle Architects & Planners $3,629,318
37 NewStudio Architecture $3,600,000
38 Zyscovich Architects $3,597,383
39 ai Design Group $3,574,874
40 MV+A Architects $3,330,738
41 Architects Hawaii Ltd. $3,325,000
42 Gresham, Smith and Partners $2,940,000
43 RS&H $2,700,000
44 Vocon $2,484,140
45 Oculus $2,418,832
46 Alliiance $2,363,000
47 LPA $2,267,451
48 Perkins Eastman $1,950,000
49 BRPH $1,851,069
50 Rossetti $1,828,975
51 Goodwyn, Mills and Cawood $1,791,052
52 Skidmore, Owings & Merrill $1,739,569
53 Architecture Design Collaborative $1,700,000
54 Studios Architecture $1,439,136
55 GSB $1,426,000
56 Goettsch Partners $1,400,000
57 GBBN Architects $1,280,000
58 Smallwood, Reynolds, Stewart, Stewart & Associates $1,123,009
59 Robert A.M. Stern Architects $1,050,000
60 tvsdesign $1,030,000
61 Moody Nolan $1,000,000
62 Ted Moudis Associates $1,000,000
63 Environetics $908,099
64 TK Architects International $892,597
65 Clark Nexsen $779,198
66 TEG Architects $767,617
67 BKSK Architects $744,852
68 HDR $629,600
69 Becker Morgan Group $622,250
70 VOA Associates $611,188
71 Cambridge Seven Associates $610,000
72 FXFOWLE $557,963
73 Montroy Andersen DeMarco $480,000
74 DLA+ Architecture & Interior Design $424,268
75 Eppstein Uhen Architects $359,296
76 Solomon Cordwell Buenz $337,426
77 Heery International $331,414
78 Emersion Design $329,066
79 KSQ Design $326,195
80 Morris Architects $318,000
81 GGLO $300,000
82 Hnedak Bobo Group $263,713
83 Corgan $253,242
84 DAG Architects $250,000
85 Leo A Daly $249,796
86 KGP Design Studio $227,500
87 Schenkel & Shultz $224,384
88 FitzGerald Associates Architects $219,000
89 Paulus, Sokolowski and Sartor $213,600
90 ZGF Architects $212,268
91 Margulies Perruzzi Architects $204,517
92 Mithun $190,000
93 FKP Architects $170,147
94 Large Architecture $169,125
95 Diamond Schmitt Architects $127,000
96 JRS Architect $110,000
97 Niles Bolton Associates $100,000 
MFPRO+ News | Jan 4, 2024

Bjarke Ingels' curved residential high-rise will anchor a massive urban regeneration project in Greece

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Top 10 trends in multifamily rental housing

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Giants 400 | Jan 3, 2024

Top 200 Reconstruction Architecture Firms for 2023

Gensler, Stantec, HDR, Corgan, and PBK Architects top BD+C's ranking of the nation's largest building reconstruction/renovation architecture and architecture engineering (AE) firms for 2023, as reported in the 2023 Giants 400 Report.

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Designing better built environments for a neurodiverse world

For most of human history, design has mostly considered ‚Äútypical users‚ÄĚ who are fully able-bodied without clinical or emotional disabilities. The problem with this approach is that it offers a limited perspective on how space can positively or negatively influence someone based on their physical, mental, and sensory abilities.

Giants 400 | Jan 2, 2024

Top 120 Hotel Architecture Firms for 2023

Gensler, WATG, HKS, DLR Group, and HBG Design top BD+C's ranking of the nation's largest hotel and resort architecture and architecture/engineering (AE) firms for 2023, as reported in Building Design+Construction's 2023 Giants 400 Report. 

Resiliency | Jan 2, 2024

Americans are migrating from areas of high flood risk

Americans are abandoning areas of high flood risk in significant numbers, according to research by the First Street Foundation. Climate Abandonment Areas account for more than 818,000 Census Blocks and lost a total of 3.2 million-plus residents due to flooding from 2000 to 2020, the study found.

MFPRO+ News | Jan 2, 2024

New York City will slash regulations on housing projects

New York City Mayor Eric Adams is expected to cut red tape to make it easier and less costly to build housing projects in the city. Adams would exempt projects with fewer than 175 units in low-density residential areas and those with fewer than 250 units in commercial, manufacturing, and medium- and high-density residential areas from environmental review. 

Contractors | Dec 22, 2023

DBIA releases two free DEI resources for AEC firms

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MFPRO+ News | Dec 22, 2023

Document offers guidance on heat pump deployment for multifamily housing

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For most of human history, design has mostly considered ‚Äútypical users‚ÄĚ who are fully able-bodied without clinical or emotional disabilities. The problem with this approach is that it offers a limited perspective on how space can positively or negatively influence someone based on their physical, mental, and sensory abilities.

Tue, 09 Aug 2016 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.bdcnetwork.com/top-90-retail-architecture-firms
Smart Africa and The Open Group Join Forces to Formulate a Government Enterprise Architecture Guide for Africa No result found, try new keyword!By working together, The Open Group and the Smart Africa alliance will aim to promote, guide, and build capabilities on the development of a cohesive Government Enterprise Architecture framework. Mon, 20 Nov 2023 22:06:00 -0600 en-us text/html https://www.msn.com/ Can traditional architecture help build a ‚Äėmore resilient future‚Äô? No result found, try new keyword!Suva, Fiji ‚Äď From the Arctic to the Pacific, Indigenous communities have used unique design and building techniques for millennia to help them ... traditional architecture‚Äôs potential is ... Wed, 06 Dec 2023 10:33:00 -0600 en-us text/html https://www.msn.com/ Top 50 Sports Facility Architecture Firms

Top 50 Sports Facility Architecture Firms

Populous, HKS, and HOK top Building Design+Construction’s annual ranking of the nation’s largest sports facility sector architecture and A/E firms, as reported in the 2016 Giants 300 Report.


By BD+C Staff | August 15, 2016

The Pavilion at Ole Miss, Oxford, Miss. AECOM (architect) and BL Harbert International (GC). Image courtesy of AECOM.

TOP 50 SPORTS FACILITY ARCHITECTURE FIRMS
Rank Firm 2015 Revenue
1 Populous $113,741,160
2 HKS $81,220,737
3 HOK $58,589,000
4 Gensler $42,850,000
5 HNTB Corporation $13,419,171
6 Cuningham Group Architecture $10,238,235
7 Moody Nolan $9,800,000
8 Sink Combs Dethlefs $9,719,919
9 VOA Associates $9,577,715
10 Stantec $8,654,844
11 DLR Group $8,400,000
12 Heery International $7,543,712
13 Rossetti $6,307,635
14 PBK $6,120,000
15 MEIS $5,800,000
16 JLG Architects $5,606,613
17 LPA $5,563,065
18 Beck Group, The $5,257,064
19 BWBR $4,061,299
20 CallisonRTKL $3,808,000
21 Diamond Schmitt Architects $3,324,000
22 EwingCole $3,285,000
23 tvsdesign $2,840,000
24 Perkins+Will $2,600,000
25 Becker Morgan Group $2,597,913
26 NORR $2,146,059
27 LS3P $2,054,885
28 NBBJ $2,000,000
29 Perkins Eastman $1,950,000
30 Rosser International $1,834,689
31 S/L/A/M Collaborative, The $1,576,000
32 GFF $1,485,422
33 ZGF Architects $1,419,287
34 DLA+ Architecture & Interior Design $1,363,472
35 Goodwyn, Mills and Cawood $1,320,557
36 HDR $1,259,200
37 Convergence Design $1,226,000
38 Alliiance $1,168,050
39 Eppstein Uhen Architects $1,091,981
40 CTA Architects Engineers $880,580
41 Kirksey Architecture $836,448
42 HGA $822,000
43 BBS Architects and Engineers $800,000
44 Guernsey $785,038
45 Architects Hawaii Ltd. $719,000
46 Clark Nexsen $700,000
47 GSB $624,057
48 SMMA | Symmes Maini & McKee Associates $606,596
49 GWWO $588,114
50 Leo A Daly $521,100
MFPRO+ News | Jan 4, 2024

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MFPRO+ Special Reports | Jan 4, 2024

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Giants 400 | Jan 3, 2024

Top 200 Reconstruction Architecture Firms for 2023

Gensler, Stantec, HDR, Corgan, and PBK Architects top BD+C's ranking of the nation's largest building reconstruction/renovation architecture and architecture engineering (AE) firms for 2023, as reported in the 2023 Giants 400 Report.

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Designing better built environments for a neurodiverse world

For most of human history, design has mostly considered ‚Äútypical users‚ÄĚ who are fully able-bodied without clinical or emotional disabilities. The problem with this approach is that it offers a limited perspective on how space can positively or negatively influence someone based on their physical, mental, and sensory abilities.

Giants 400 | Jan 2, 2024

Top 120 Hotel Architecture Firms for 2023

Gensler, WATG, HKS, DLR Group, and HBG Design top BD+C's ranking of the nation's largest hotel and resort architecture and architecture/engineering (AE) firms for 2023, as reported in Building Design+Construction's 2023 Giants 400 Report. 

Resiliency | Jan 2, 2024

Americans are migrating from areas of high flood risk

Americans are abandoning areas of high flood risk in significant numbers, according to research by the First Street Foundation. Climate Abandonment Areas account for more than 818,000 Census Blocks and lost a total of 3.2 million-plus residents due to flooding from 2000 to 2020, the study found.

MFPRO+ News | Jan 2, 2024

New York City will slash regulations on housing projects

New York City Mayor Eric Adams is expected to cut red tape to make it easier and less costly to build housing projects in the city. Adams would exempt projects with fewer than 175 units in low-density residential areas and those with fewer than 250 units in commercial, manufacturing, and medium- and high-density residential areas from environmental review. 

Contractors | Dec 22, 2023

DBIA releases two free DEI resources for AEC firms

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MFPRO+ News | Dec 22, 2023

Document offers guidance on heat pump deployment for multifamily housing

ICAST (International Center for Appropriate and Sustainable Technology) has released a resource guide to help multifamily owners and managers, policymakers, utilities, energy efficiency program implementers, and others advance the deployment of VHE heat pump HVAC and water heaters in multifamily housing.

Sustainability | Dec 22, 2023

WSP unveils scenario-planning online game

WSP has released a scenario-planning online game to help organizations achieve sustainable development goals while expanding awareness about climate change.


Top 10 trends in multifamily rental housing

Demographic and economic shifts, along with work and lifestyle changes, have made apartment living preferable for a wider range of buyers and renters. These top 10 trends in multifamily housing come from BD+C's 2023 Multifamily Annual Report.


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Gensler, Stantec, HDR, Corgan, and PBK Architects top BD+C's ranking of the nation's largest building reconstruction/renovation architecture and architecture engineering (AE) firms for 2023, as reported in the 2023 Giants 400 Report.


Designing better built environments for a neurodiverse world

For most of human history, design has mostly considered ‚Äútypical users‚ÄĚ who are fully able-bodied without clinical or emotional disabilities. The problem with this approach is that it offers a limited perspective on how space can positively or negatively influence someone based on their physical, mental, and sensory abilities.

Sun, 14 Aug 2016 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.bdcnetwork.com/top-50-sports-facility-architecture-firms
The Open Process Automation Standard takes flight
  • By Dave Emerson
  • Cover Story
The Open Process Automation Standard takes flight

A detailed look at O-PAS‚ĄĘ Standard, Version 1.0

By Dave Emerson

Process automation end users and suppliers have expressed interest in a standard that will make the industry much more open and modular. In response, the Open Process Automation‚ĄĘ Forum (OPAF) has worked diligently at this task since November 2016 to develop process automation standards. The scope of the initiative is wide-reaching, as it aims to address the issues associated with the process automation systems found in most industrial automation plants and facilities today (figure 1).

It is easy to see why a variety of end users and suppliers are involved in the project, because the following systems are affected:

  • manufacturing execution system (MES)
  • distributed control system (DCS)
  • human-machine interface (HMI)
  • programmable logic controller (PLC)
  • input/output (I/O)

In June 2018, OPAF released a technical reference model (TRM) snapshot as industry guidance of the technical direction being taken for the development of this new standard. The organization followed the TRM snapshot with the release of the OPAS‚ĄĘ Version 1.0 in January 2019. Version 1.0 addresses the interoperability of components in federated process automation systems. This is a first stop along a three-year road map with annual releases targeting the themes listed in table 1.

Table 1. The O-PAS Standard three-year release road map addresses progressively more detailed themes.

Version

Target date

Theme

1.0

2019

Interoperability

2.0

2020

Configuration portability

3.0

2021

Application portability

 

By publishing versions of the standard annually, OPAF intends to make its work available to industry expeditiously. This will allow suppliers to start building products and returning feedback on technical issues, and this feedback-along with end user input-will steer OPAS development. O-PAS Version 1.0 was released as a preliminary standard of The Open Group to allow time for industry feedback.

The OPAF interoperability workshop in May 2019 is expected to produce feedback to help finalize the standard. The workshop allows member organizations to bring hardware and software that support O-PAS Version 1.0, testing it to verify the correctness and clarity of this preliminary standard. The results will not be published but will be used to update and finalize the standard.


Cover Story Fig 1
Figure 1. A broad sampling of suppliers and end users are highly interested in the scope of the OPAS under development by OPAF, because it touches on all the key components of industrial automation systems: hardware (I/O), the communication network, system software (e.g., run time, namespace), application software, and the data model. 


Some terminology

For clarity, a summary of the terminology associated with the OPAF initiative is:

  • The Open Group: The Open Group is a global consortium that helps organizations achieve business objectives through technology standards. The membership of more than 625 organizations includes customers, systems and solutions suppliers, tool vendors, integrators, academics, and consultants across multiple industries.
  • Open Process Automation Forum: OPAF is an international forum of end users, system integrators, suppliers, academia, and other standards organizations working together to develop a standards-based, open, secure, and interoperable process control architecture. Open Process Automation is a trademark of The Open Group.
  • O-PAS Standard, Version 1.0 (O-PAS): OPAF is producing the OPAS Standard under the guidance of The Open Group to define a vendor-neutral reference architecture for construction of scalable, reliable, interoperable, and secure process automation systems.

Standard of standards

Creating a "standard of standards" for open, interoperable, and secure automation is a complex undertaking. OPAF intends to speed up the process by leveraging the valuable work of various groups in a confederated manner.

The OPAS Standard will reference existing and applicable standards where possible. Where gaps are identified, OPAF will work with associated organizations to update the underlying standard or add OPAS requirements to achieve proper definition. Therefore, OPAF has already established liaison agreements with the following organizations:

  • Control System Integrators Association (CSIA)
  • Distributed Management Task Force (DMTF), specifically for the Redfish API
  • FieldComm Group
  • Industrial Internet Consortium (IIC)
  • International Society of Automation (ISA)
  • NAMUR
  • OPC Foundation
  • PLCopen
  • ZVEI

Additionally, OPAF is in discussions with AutomationML and the ISA Security Compliance Institute (ISCI) as an ISA/IEC 62443 validation authority. In addition to these groups, the OPC Foundation has joined OPAF as a member, so no liaison agreement is required.

As an example of this cooperation in practice, OPAS Version 1.0 was created with significant input from three existing standards, including:

  • ISA/IEC 62443 (adopted by IEC as IEC 62443) for security
  • OPC UA adopted by IEC as IEC 62541 for connectivity
  • DMTF Redfish for systems management (see www.dmtf.org/standards/redfish)

Next step: Configuration portability

Configuration portability, now under development for OPAS Version 2.0, will address the requirement to move control strategies among different automation components and systems. This has been identified by end users as a requirement to allow their intellectual property (IP), in the form of control strategies, to be portable. Existing standards under evaluation for use in Version 2.0 include:

  • IEC 61131-3 for control functions
  • IEC 16499 for execution coordination
  • IEC 61804 for function blocks

O-PAS Version 3.0 will address application portability, which is the ability to take applications purchased from software suppliers and move them among systems within a company in accordance with applicable licenses. This release will also include the first specifications for hardware interfaces.

Under the OPAS hood

The five parts that make up O-PAS Version 1.0 are listed below with a brief summary of how compliance will be Verified (if applicable):

  • Part 1 ‚ÄĒ Technical Architecture Overview (informative)
  • Part 2 ‚ÄĒ Security (informative)
  • Part 3 ‚ÄĒ Profiles
  • Part 4 ‚ÄĒ Connectivity Framework (OCF)
  • Part 5 ‚ÄĒ System Management

Part 1 - Technical Architecture Overview (informative) describes an OPAS-conformant system through a set of interfaces to the components. Read this section to understand the technical approach OPAF is following to create the O-PAS.

Part 2 - Security (informative) addresses the necessary cybersecurity functionality of components that are conformant to OPAS. It is important to point out that security is built into the standard and permeates it, as opposed to being bolted on as an afterthought. This part of the standard is an explanation of the security principles and guidelines that are built into the interfaces. More specific security requirements are detailed in normative parts of the standards. The detailed normative interface specifications are defined in Parts 3, 4, and 5. These parts also contain the associated conformance criteria.

Part 3 - Profiles  defines sets of hardware and software interfaces for which OPAF will develop conformance tests to make sure products interoperate properly. The O-PAS Version 1 profiles are:

  • Level 1 Interoperability Hardware Profile: A certified product claiming conformance to this profile shall implement OSM-Redfish.
  • Level 2 Interoperability Hardware Profile: A certified product claiming conformance to this profile shall implement OSM-Redfish BMC.
  • Level 1 Interoperability Software Profile: Software claiming conformance to this profile shall implement OCF-001: OPC UA Client/Server Profile.
  • Level 2 Interoperability Software Profile: Software claiming conformance to this profile shall implement OCF-002: OPC UA Client/Server and Pub/Sub Profile.

The term "Level" in the profile names refers to profile levels.

Part 4 - Connectivity Framework (OCF) forms the interoperable core of the system. The OCF is more than just a network, it is the underlying structure allowing disparate components to interoperate as a system. The OCF will use OPC UA for OPAS Versions 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0.

Part 5 - System Management covers foundational functionality and interface standards to allow the management and monitoring of components using a common interface. This part will address hardware, operating systems and platform software, applications, and networks-although at this point Version 1.0 only addresses hardware management.

Conformance criteria are identified by the verb "shall" within the O-PAS text. An OPAF committee is working on a conformance guide document that will be published later this year, which explains the conformance program and requirements for suppliers to obtain a certification of conformance.

Technical architecture

The OPAS Standard supports communication interactions that are required within a service-oriented architecture (SOA) for automation systems by outlining the specific interfaces the hardware and software components will use. These components will be used to architect, build, and start up automation systems for end users.

The vision for the OPAS Standard is to allow the interfaces to be used in an unlimited number of architectures, thereby enabling each process automation system to be "fit for purpose" to meet specific objectives. The standard will not define a system architecture, but it will use examples to illustrate how the component-level interfaces are intended to be used. System architectures (figure 2) contain the following elements:

Distributed control node (DCN): A DCN is expected to be a microprocessor-based controller, I/O, or gateway device that can handle inputs and outputs and computing functions. A key feature of O-PAS is that hardware and control software are decoupled. So, the exact function of any single DCN is up to the system architect. A DCN consists of hardware and some system software that enables the DCN to communicate on the O-PAS network, called the OCF, and also allows it to run control software.

Distributed control platform (DCP): A DCP is the hardware and standard software interfaces required in all DCNs. The standard software interfaces are a common platform on top of which control software programs run. This provides the physical infrastructure and interchangeability capability so end users can control software and hardware from multiple suppliers.

Distributed control framework (DCF): A DCF is the standard set of software interfaces that provides an environment for executing applications, such as control software. The DCF is a layer on top of the DCP that provides applications with a consistent set of O-PAS related functions no matter which DCN they run in. This is important for creating an efficient marketplace for O-PAS applications.

OPAS connectivity framework (OCF): The OCF is a royalty-free, secure, and interoperable communication framework specification. In O-PAS Version 1, the OCF uses OPC UA.

Advanced computing platform (ACP): An ACP is a computing platform that implements DCN functionality but has scalable computing resources (memory, disk, CPU cores) to handle applications or services that require more resources than are typically available on a small profile DCP. ACPs may also be used for applications that cannot be easily or efficiently distributed. ACPs are envisioned to be installed within on-premise servers or clouds.

Within the OPAS Standard, DCNs represent a fundamental computing building block (figure 3). They may be hardware or virtual (when virtual they are shown as a DCF as in figure 2), big or small, with no I/O or various amounts. At the moment, allowable I/O density per DCN is not settled, so some standardization in conjunction with the market may drive the final configuration.

DCNs also act as a gateway to other networks or systems, such as legacy systems, wireless gateways, digital field networks, I/O, and controllers like DCS or PLC systems. Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) devices can also be accessed via any of these systems.


Cover Story Fig 2
Figure 2. OPAS establishes a system architecture organizing process automation elements into interoperable groupings.


Building a system

End users today must work with and integrate multiple systems in most every process plant or facility. Therefore, the OPAS Standard was designed so users can construct systems from components and subsystems supplied by multiple vendors, without requiring custom integration. With the OPAS Standard it becomes feasible to assimilate multiple systems, enabling them to work together as one OPAS-compliant whole. This reduces work on capital projects and during the lifetime of the facility or plant, leading to a lower total cost of ownership.

By decoupling hardware and software and employing an SOA, the necessary software functions can be situated in many different locations or processors. Not only can software applications run in all hardware, but they can also access any I/O to increase flexibility when designing a system.

One set of components can be used to create many different systems using centralized architectures, distributed architectures, or a hybrid of the two. System sizes may range from small to large and can include best-in-class elements of DCS, PLC, SCADA, and IIoT systems and devices as needed.

Information technology (IT) can also be incorporated deeper into industrial automation operational technology (OT). For example, DMTF Redfish is an IT technology for securely managing data center platforms. OPAF is adopting this technology to meet OPAS system management requirements.

Comprehensive and open

Each industrial automation provider offers a variety of devices and systems, most of which are proprietary and incompatible with similar products from other vendors and sometimes with earlier versions of their own products. End users and system integrators trying to integrate automation systems of varying vintages from different suppliers therefore have a challenging job.

To address these issues, OPAF is making great strides toward assembling a comprehensive, open process automation standard. Partially built on other established industry standards, and extending to incorporate most aspects of industrial automation, the O-PAS Standard will greatly Boost interoperability among industrial automation systems and components. This will lower implementation and support costs for end users, while allowing vendors to innovate around an open standard.

For more information on OPAS Version 1.0, please get the standard at https://publications.opengroup.org/p190. Submit feedback by emailing ogspecs@opengroup.org. 


Cover Story Fig 3
Figure 3. DCNs are conceived as modular elements containing DCP (hardware) and DCF (software), both of which are used to interface field devices to the OCF.


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Thu, 06 Jun 2019 04:53:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.isa.org/intech-home/2019/may-june/features/the-open-process-automation-standard-takes-flight
Open scoring in architecture

Yeoryia Manolopoulou, University College London

Awards RIBA President's Awards for Research 2020
Category Design and Technical

Lattice (performance I), Montreal, 2017. Detail view of the paper construction. © Yeoryia Manolopoulou and UQAM

This project draws on research in chance-aided design, expanding the field of inquiry from the individual to the collective. It focuses on the complex cognitive and productive possibilities that emerge within a group of designers who welcome plurality and performance in their practice via the use of an architectural score. Scores use textual, pictorial or numeric notations to describe and structure a process that occurs over time. Whilst linear scores specify an ordered sequence of events, open scores are less-hierarchical and can allow participants to invent and adapt the units and relations of an ensemble temporally and spatially. What is the creative and social potential of the score in architectural practice and pedagogy? Through an examination of an architectural score and workshop that I developed for the Université du Québec à Montréal, named Lattice, and an exploration of the ideas underpinning it, I will show that one of the advantages of open scoring in architecture is the way in which it encourages both autonomy and collaboration, increasing the range of ideas, experiences and opportunities available to designers. The work invents and proposes a pedagogic method that grounds design on a condition of social experience and shared authorship. By foregrounding the process rather than the outcome in architectural design; by opening up this process to a social embodiment of time between actors, materials and tools; and by deliberately acknowledging its production within a collective, open scoring in architecture has the capacity to fundamentally change the ways in which architecture is taught and practiced as a social activity and understood as a social artefact.

Thu, 17 Dec 2020 23:42:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.architecture.com/awards-and-competitions-landing-page/awards/riba-presidents-awards-for-research/2020/open-scoring-in-architecture
Open RAN slowed to a crawl in 2023

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Smart Africa and The Open Group Join Forces to Formulate a Government Enterprise Architecture Guide for Africa
media

KIGALI, Rwanda ‚ÄĒ In a significant stride toward advancing its digital economy initiatives, the Smart Africa alliance and The Open Group have signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) to develop a unified Enterprise Architecture guide for the African continent.

Article content

By working together, The Open Group and the Smart Africa alliance will aim to promote, guide, and build capabilities on the development of a cohesive Government Enterprise Architecture framework. Both organizations will collaborate to conduct a nationwide survey and host focus groups to comprehensively grasp the present status of Government Enterprise Architecture within the member states.

Article content

They will also jointly devise a strategy for enhancing capabilities and proposing targeted actions pertaining to Government Enterprise Architecture and associated domains to foster capacity development.

This partnership emphasizes the Smart Africa central objective to pave the way for a unified single digital market.

Commenting on the partnership, Mr. Lacina Kon√©, CEO of Smart Africa, highlighted: ‚ÄúAnother key step towards achieving a single digital market in Africa has been made by joining forces with The Open Group today to build a Government Enterprise Architecture guide for the continent. This is another testament of our multi-stakeholder approach.‚ÄĚ

‚ÄúGlobal collaboration is at the heart of The Open Group, and we‚Äôre delighted to be partnering with Smart Africa to advance digital transformation practices on the continent. Our partnership will bring together the collective expertise of our Members as we aim to accentuate architecture-based approaches to digital transformation in order to form a single, open, digital market,‚ÄĚ said Steve Nunn, President and CEO of The Open Group.

This strategic partnership is a milestone in the ongoing commitment of both organizations to propel the digital transformation journey of the African continent. The collaboration will leverage their collective expertise, resources, and networks to create a significant and lasting impact on the region.

About Smart Africa

Smart Africa is an alliance of 39 African countries, international organisations and global private sector players tasked with Africa’s digital agenda. The alliance is empowered by a bold and innovative commitment by African Heads of State to accelerate sustainable socio-economic development on the continent and usher Africa into the knowledge economy through affordable access to broadband and the use of ICTs. With a vision to create a single digital market in Africa by 2030, the Smart Africa Alliance brings together Heads of State who seek to accelerate the digitalization of the continent and create a common market. Launched in 2013 by seven (7) African Heads of State, the Alliance now has 39 member countries, representing over 1 billion people and over 50 Private Sector members committed to the vision and the advancement of Africa. (Partners of the Smart Africa Alliance include the African Union, the ITU, World Bank, the African Development Bank, the United Nations Economic Commission of Africa, the GSMA, ICANN and Companies.)

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