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This test is intended for informational and entertainment purposes only. It is not a substitute for professional diagnosis or for the treatment of any health condition. If you would like to seek the advice of a licensed mental health professional you can search Psychology Today's directory here.
Fri, 03 Mar 2017 04:42:00 -0600en-UStext/htmlhttps://www.psychologytoday.com/us/tests/health/depression-testKillexams : Happiness Test
Is your glass half-full or half-empty? On those days when nothing in your life seems to be going right, it can be really tough to see the silver lining among all those clouds. However, it's during these times when the ability to see the good in even the worst situations is so important. An optimistic attitude benefits not only your mental health, but your physical well-being as well. Take this test to see where you fall on the optimism/pessimism continuum.
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After finishing this test you will receive a FREE snapshot report with a summary evaluation and graph. You will then have the option to purchase the full results for $4.95
This test is intended for informational and entertainment purposes only. It is not a substitute for professional diagnosis or for the treatment of any health condition. If you would like to seek the advice of a licensed mental health professional you can search Psychology Today's directory here.
Fri, 03 Mar 2017 04:46:00 -0600en-UStext/htmlhttps://www.psychologytoday.com/us/tests/health/happiness-testKillexams : Avaya and Alcatel-Lucent Enterprise announce next partnership phase
COMPANY NEWS: American multinational technology company Avaya and Alcatel-Lucent Enterprise announced at Gitex Global last week the next phase of their partnership that will enable enterprises to innovate easier without the need for disruptive technology replacement initiatives.
The existing partnership sees Alcatel-Lucent Enterprise Alcatel-Lucent Enterprise (ALE) offer Avaya OneCloud CCaaS to its customers and Avaya offer ALE Digital Age Networking solution to its clients. According to Avaya, the integration key for both the companies’ customers to innovate using an expanding, rich, and complementary set of capabilities from either—and painlessly roll them out.
“Our common objective is to support our customers in their digital transformation, providing all capabilities needed to make everything connect. Looking to the future, we are collaborating to deliver new value and services to our respective customers thanks to the tailored vertical solutions we are building together,” said Alcatel-Lucent Enterprise executive vice president global sales, services, and marketing Rukmini Glanard.
“Our customers want innovation, but they want that innovation to come over the top of their IT infrastructures – typically over the cloud. They don’t want any costly or time-consuming disruption underneath. Through the integration of our technology with ALE’s, and through the strength of our collective global customer base, we’re in a unique position to provide that innovation without disruption,” added Avaya president Nidal Abou-Ltaif.
Avaya’s presence at Gitex Global comes in partnership with Alcatel-Lucent Enterprise, Uniphore, Verint Systems, GS Lab, Imperium, Konnect Insights, LumenVox, Nectar, Sestek and Topaz Visit Avaya at its stand in Zabeel Hall, at Dubai World Trade Centre until 14 October 2022.
This first appeared in the subscription newsletter CommsWire on 10 October 2022.
GET READY FOR XCONF AUSTRALIA 2022
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Risk Disclosure: Trading in financial instruments and/or cryptocurrencies involves high risks including the risk of losing some, or all, of your investment amount, and may not be suitable for all investors. Prices of cryptocurrencies are extremely volatile and may be affected by external factors such as financial, regulatory or political events. Trading on margin increases the financial risks. Before deciding to trade in financial instrument or cryptocurrencies you should be fully informed of the risks and costs associated with trading the financial markets, carefully consider your investment objectives, level of experience, and risk appetite, and seek professional advice where needed. Fusion Media would like to remind you that the data contained in this website is not necessarily real-time nor accurate. The data and prices on the website are not necessarily provided by any market or exchange, but may be provided by market makers, and so prices may not be accurate and may differ from the actual price at any given market, meaning prices are indicative and not appropriate for trading purposes. Fusion Media and any provider of the data contained in this website will not accept liability for any loss or damage as a result of your trading, or your reliance on the information contained within this website. It is prohibited to use, store, reproduce, display, modify, transmit or distribute the data contained in this website without the explicit prior written permission of Fusion Media and/or the data provider. All intellectual property rights are reserved by the providers and/or the exchange providing the data contained in this website. Fusion Media may be compensated by the advertisers that appear on the website, based on your interaction with the advertisements or advertisers.
Fri, 14 Oct 2022 01:30:00 -0500entext/htmlhttps://www.investing.com/equities/alcatel-lucent-teletasKillexams : Best DNA Test for 2022: AncestryDNA vs. 23andMe and More
Imagine knowing all about your family's ancestry, getting a detailed report about your body's health and predispositions -- just from a simple at-home test. It's never been easier to get your hands on a personal DNA test and find out all about yourself. These easy-to-use tests can teach you all about your genetics, right from the comfort of your own couch. And there are plenty of reputable DNA tests to choose from. This article breaks down what each company offers with tests and memberships.
Though it's a thorny and controversial topic, some tests also claim to reveal your "ethnicity." There are also DNA test services that can shed light on your genetic predisposition for diseases and physiological traits, ranging from your eye color to your tolerance for cilantro.
While they used to cost about $1,000 back in the 2000s, you can now get a sophisticated DNA data analysis of your genetic makeup for a fraction of that price, thanks to trailblazers such as 23andMe and Ancestry, and upstarts like Living DNA.
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There are three types of DNA tests -- each with its own particular strengths, limitations and rationales.
An autosomal DNA test is the best investment for most beginners; it can identify relatives between five and seven generations back, across both maternal and paternal lines.
Only men can effectively use a Y-DNA test, which identifies male relatives on the paternal line reaching back 60,000 years. If you're looking to trace the history of your family's surname, this is the test to use.
Mitochondrial DNA testing, also known as mtDNA testing, can determine genetic relationships on a maternal line from up to 150,000 years ago; both men and women can take this type of test.
Each testing company will supply you an analysis of your DNA test results. These results could include your geographical origin -- some claim to be able to pinpoint a specific country, town or even "tribe" -- as well as your genetic ancestry composition and your susceptibility to particular genetic diseases. We should note that these tests don't serve a diagnostic purpose. A doctor-administered genetic test and a follow-up with a genetic counselor is important if you think you have a genetic disease. No online testing company offering results from a saliva sample can substitute for a health test administered by your doctor.
Certain companies will also serve up "matches" from their DNA databases, which will supply you a head start on connecting with possible relatives and offer some degree of family-tree research support. AncestryDNA, for example, offers a subscription service that includes access to hundreds of databases containing birth, death and marriage announcements, census documents, newspaper archives and other historical records.
Some DNA companies sell tests designed for specific ethnicities or specialized kits that claim to shed light on your optimal skin care regimen or weight; others offer tests designed to identify the genetic makeup of your cat or dog. (Yes, you can get a dog DNA test.) The experts I spoke to were dubious of the efficacy and value of these tests, however, and recommended avoiding them.
Though there's no blood involved with modern DNA testing -- you either swab the inside of your cheek or fill a small test tube with your saliva -- there are plenty of reasons to be wary of the companies that sell these kits. Your success in DNA test genealogy is largely dependent on supplying highly personal information about yourself and your relatives, from your genetic data to your mother's maiden name (a traditional cornerstone of password security).
DNA testing, and genealogy more broadly, involves a complicated mixture of genetics, probabilities and guesswork. The various DNA testing services use different labs, algorithms, equipment and criteria to analyze your genetic material. Although you should expect some degree of overlap between analyses from different companies, they may differ significantly. There's also an element of critical mass -- the larger the company's database, the larger the sample they use to analyze your results, and the more accurate your test result should be.
We tried some of the top DNA testing services, assessing the breadth and depth of their offerings, methodologies, reputation and price. Take a look at our recommendations below.
23andMe segments its analysis into three main categories -- health, ancestry and traits. The basic ancestry and traits test, which is now on sale for $99, includes an analysis of your genetic makeup including your regions of origin, maternal and paternal lineage and Neanderthal ancestry. Once you opt in, the company's match database -- which has more than 10 million profiles -- will identify and offer to connect you with people who share a DNA match with you.
The company's DNA health test, which is on sale for $199, adds information about your genetic predisposition for late-onset Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and other diseases. The service also includes analysis of your carrier status as a potential genetic carrier for disorders like Cystic Fibrosis and Sickle Cell Anemia as well as indicators for lactose intolerance and other "wellness" issues. The Premium Membership bundle, currently on sale for $199 with the on-page instant coupon, provides priority lab processing, premium customer support and a personalized walkthrough of your results.
I found 23andMe's website and mobile app very easy to navigate and brimming with interesting, comprehensible information about both my ancestry and health as well as the science of genetics and genealogy. The main dashboard offers intuitive links to exploring your ancestry, learning about the genetic risks for health conditions, building out a family tree and connecting with relatives. Among all of the DNA tests I tried, 23andMe delivered the best introduction to my recent and ancient genealogy along with an analysis of my genetic health. The only real drawback is that it does not offer integrated access to historical documents.
23andMe does provide easy access to a full range of privacy preferences and consent options, however. (That noted, 23andMe's terms of service and privacy statement is among the most extensive, exceeding 20,000 words.) You can ask the company to store your saliva sample indefinitely for future testing or have them discard it. Having signed off when I first signed up, I subsequently changed my mind about giving the company permission to share my data with researchers outside of 23andMe, and was able to retract my consent with the click of a button.
Founded in Utah in the 1990s, Ancestry.com -- the parent company of AncestryDNA -- started out as a publishing and genealogy company. Since then, it has had a somewhat tumultuous corporate existence, having been bought, sold, publicly traded and then purchased by private equity groups.
The company's basic DNA kit service, currently on sale for $99, provides you with an "ethnicity estimate" derived from its proprietary sequencing techniques. It's noteworthy that the company's genetic testing, which is outsourced to Quest Diagnostics, is distinct from most other companies that use paternal Y chromosome and/or maternal mitochondrial DNA methodologies, and less is known about the particular criteria it uses.
That noted, AncestryDNA says its database contains more than 18 million profiles, making it the largest of all of the DNA test kit services. The company also maintains a powerful tool for searching through hundreds of historical document databases -- but any substantive research will quickly bring you to a paywall. Ancestry's databases are further bolstered by its partnership with FamilySearch.org, a genealogical records site run by the Mormon church.
An entry-level membership, which provides access to more than 6 billion records in the US, costs $119 for six months or $25 per month, after a free two-week trial. The "World Explorer" membership, for $40 per month, broadens your access to the company's 27 billion international records, and the "All Access" tier, starting at $60 per month, includes unlimited access to Ancestry's historical and contemporary database of more than 15,000 newspapers and military records from around the world.
AncestryDNA offers a personalized health report with "actionable insights," access to genetic counseling resources, an online tool to help you map your family's health over generations and a next-generation sequencing service for screening your genetic risk for heart disease, some cancers and blood disorders. Still, the results are not diagnostic -- though the test result must be approved by one of the company's physicians -- and the service does not have FDA approval. For now, 23andMe maintains the advantage when it comes to introductory DNA testing for health risks and genetic screening. But AncestryDNA's service is particularly well-suited for leveraging an introductory DNA analysis into deep historical research to build out a family tree.
AncestryDNA allows you to get your full DNA results profile and upload the raw data into other tools, and it provides reasonably good control over your privacy preferences, though the options are not as granular as others.
Founded in 2000, FamilyTreeDNA offers a comprehensive suite of reports and interactive tools to analyze your DNA and build a family tree. With a credible claim to "the world's most comprehensive DNA matching database," FamilyTreeDNA offers all three types of tests -- autosomal DNA, Y-DNA and mtDNA. And it's the sole company to own and operate its own testing facility: The Gene-by-Gene genetic lab, located in Houston.
The company's entry-level "family ancestry" package usually costs $79, though its testing kit is currently on sale for less. The test results provide information about your ethnic and geographic origins, identifies potential relatives and offers access to the company's massive DNA database. I paid $275 for a broad DNA test that included analysis of my mtDNA and Y-DNA -- tests that currently cost $139 and $99, respectively, when you buy them individually -- as well as the "Family Finder," the company's $49 autosomal test.
Though the user interface is a bit more complicated than what you'll find on other sites, FamilyTreeDNA provides the most complete suite of introductory tools of any provider I tested. For each type of test, you are presented with matches -- I got more than 22,000 for my autosomal DNA test -- a chromosome browser, migration maps, haplogroups and connections to ancestral reference populations, information about mutations and a link that allows you to get your raw data. Suffice to say, there are numerous threads to pull on to learn about yourself, your family and your health.
FamilyTree also offers a number of higher-end tests, for those interested in digging deeper, including a range of Y-DNA tests that will trace the path of your male ancestors and the history of your surname. The company also allows you to upload raw DNA data files from other services and transfer your autosomal information to its database to expand your universe of matches and relationships.
From a data security and privacy perspective, there are several things I find appealing about FamilyTreeDNA. The company does its own DNA testing in house, processing and storing your sample in its lab. Posted prominently on the front page of its website is a promise that the company will never sell your DNA to third parties. Like most other companies, however, FamilyTreeDNA may use your aggregate genetic information for internal research and may comply with requests from law enforcement -- unless you opt out.
Other DNA testing options
The three services above are our top choices for the best DNA test. But they weren't the only ones we tested. What follows are some additional options, none of which eclipsed the 23andMe, Ancestry or FamilyTreeDNA in any significant fashion.
Based in Israel, MyHeritage was founded in 2003, and like a number of other services profiled here, started out as a genealogy software platform. Over time, it acquired a number of historical databases and eventually added DNA testing in 2016. (MyHeritage outsources its DNA analysis to FamilyTreeDNA.) In 2018, MyHeritage committed a security breach, exposing the email addresses and hashed passwords of more than 92 million users.
MyHeritage offers a free tier of service that includes some basic family tree-building and access to excerpts of historical documents. It won't get you too far.
The basic DNA testing and analysis service, which is now on sale for $49, includes the usual fare -- a report of your genetic makeup across the company's 42 supported ethnicities, the identification of relatives and connections to them where possible. All things considered, I preferred FamilyTreeDNA's presentation of my DNA information. But MyHeritage highlighted a first cousin living in the US, with whom I shared about 15% of my DNA, and offered to show me her family tree -- if I paid a $209 annual subscription fee.
Yes, that's expensive -- a free 14-day trial is available -- but the company maintains an impressive online database of historical documents that includes 3.5 billion profiles in addition to information about over 100 million subscribers and their collective 46 million family trees. This enormous database is powered by Geni.com, a genealogy social media site that's also MyHeritage's parent company. According to the New York Times, Geni.com has assembled "the world's largest, scientifically vetted family tree."
In 2019, MyHeritage launched a health test similar to the one offered by 23andMe. As part of this effort, the company partnered with PWNHealth, a network of US physicians who oversee the process. I was required to complete a personal and family health history questionnaire -- it was 16 questions -- which was then ostensibly reviewed by a doctor. Though the company says it may recommend a "genetic counseling" session administered by PWNHealth, my health results were simply delivered along with my ancestry analysis.
On the plus side, I like MyHeritage's straightforward access to a range of comprehensible privacy preferences. Still, overall, I found MyHeritage's user interface far less intuitive and more difficult to navigate than others. Though the company's offering is broad -- it's one of the few to offer a comprehensive research database of historical documents, DNA analysis and health screening -- I found the integration among them to be a bit clumsy.
Living DNA describes itself as a "consumer genealogy DNA service that does not sell or share customers' DNA or data with third parties," which gives you a sense of its priorities -- or, at least, its sense of customers' concerns. LivingDNA's headquarters in the UK may also be a factor in its distinctive mission statement, as it is subject to the more stringent data and privacy regulations of the GDPR.
LivingDNA divides its offerings in a different way than others. The $79 autosomal DNA kit provides an overview of your ancestry in 80 geographical regions and information about maternal and paternal haplogroups and access to the company's genetic matching tool. The $99 "wellbeing package" includes reports about your physiological compatibility with vitamins, foods and exercise. And the $149 DNA ancestry and well-being package gives you all of it.
Recent ancestry results are presented with a breakdown of percentage by country as well as the percentage attributable to more detailed regions, as well as the origin and migration path of haplogroups. In February 2020, LivingDNA introduced an African Ancestry DNA test report that features data on 72 regions in Africa and, according to the company, "five times the detail of any other test on the market." The report is available for free to existing customers.
That noted, the company has a very limited family match database; a company representative declined to supply me a specific number but said that it contained less than 1 million profiles. My wife, who took the test, returned exactly zero matches. So, if you're looking to identify and make connections with relatives, there are better choices in the market. That noted, LivingDNA has a very solid reputation for both the quality of its DNA analysis and privacy terms among experienced genealogists.
For experts only: Whole genome sequencing
There are a number of companies -- including Full Genomes, Veritas Genetics, Nebula Genomics and Dante Labs -- that can sequence all of your DNA, otherwise known as your genome. This level of analysis is appropriate for advanced users only. Not only is it expensive -- these tests can run into the thousands of dollars, in some cases -- it requires a sophisticated understanding of both genetics and a range of technical tools required to explore and interpret your results.
The least expensive whole genome tests cost about $300. For example, Full Genome's 30X test -- which scans every targeted location of your genome 30 times on average -- is considered the standard for a clinical analysis. It costs $299.
For most people, the main rationale for sequencing the whole genome is to dive deep into your genetic health outlook. You can glean your personal risk factors for diseases, drug sensitivities and your status as a carrier; that is, what you might pass on to your kids. But there are also plenty of applications for advanced genealogical projects.
All of these efforts can also be undertaken -- to a less intense degree -- with some of the more affordable options outlined above. But whole genome sequencing provides a significantly more comprehensive, accurate and high-resolution analysis.
HomeDNA sells testing kits under a number of brands, including DNA Origins, and has a retail presence at Walmart, CVS, Rite Aid and Walgreens. The company's tests claim to combine genetic research and "ancestral tracking" techniques that can identify the town or village where your ancestors originated with a high degree of accuracy. Many experts dispute these claims.
The company offers a range of ancestry testing services starting at $69. That's the price for the maternal and paternal lineage kits and the "Starter Ancestry Test," which uses DNA markers to develop an estimate of your origins in Europe, Indigenous America, East Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa -- and shows you the modern population groups that share your DNA. The $124 "Advanced Ancestry Test" expands the analysis to 80,000 autosomal genetic markets, 1,000 reference populations and 41 gene pools.
I'll note that the HomeDNA test kit contained no warning about not eating or drinking for any period of time prior to taking the test -- unlike every other kit I used. And of the four swabs the company sent, one broke. The test kit just didn't seem as rigorously hygienic as the others.
For $199, HomeDNA claims that the Asian Edition of its GPS Origins Ancestry Test can analyze 17 Asia-specific gene pools and hundreds of Asia-specific reference populations. In addition to a $164 paternity kit, the company also sells a variety of specific kits to determine your sensitivities to particular animals and foods, one to help you achieve a healthy weight, and another that promises to "unlock your skin's full potential."
For $39, the company will allow you to upload a raw data file from another DNA testing service and pinpoint your origin to a particular town or city. There are also kits to help you screen your dog or cat for genetic diseases and traits.
But this company doesn't have a sterling reputation in the genetic genealogy world. When we recently spoke with Debbie Kennett, a genetic genealogist from University College London, she referenced the company's notoriety for delivering "bizarre results" and expressed doubt about the efficacy of its specialized tests for particular ethnic groups. HomeDNA did not respond to CNET's inquiry about its testing process or results.
And the HomeDNA reports don't stack up particularly well against those returned by other companies. Results are summarized on a single webpage, though you also get a PDF that certifies that you've "undergone DNA testing" and shows the continents and countries where your DNA originates. The company also throws in a boilerplate 20-page explainer about DNA science and technology. HomeDNA does not offer access to any matching databases -- so there's no obvious next step or any actionable data that comes with your results. Given this, I'd recommend choosing a different DNA testing service.
Claiming to have the most comprehensive database of African lineages, African Ancestry promises to trace its customers' ancestry back to a specific country and identify their "ethnic group origin." But a number of experienced genealogists have cited issues with this company's marketing claims and science.
Unlike most other companies, African Ancestry doesn't offer an autosomal DNA test. Instead, it offers an mtDNA test or a Y-DNA test (for males only). In contrast to your standard DNA analysis, African Ancestry's report doesn't provide the percentage of DNA that's likely to have originated across a range of regions. Instead, African Ancestry claims to trace your DNA to a specific region of Africa.
According to experts, however, African Ancestry's DNA tests come up short. As explained in a blog post by African American genetic genealogist Shannon Christmas, the company's methodology simply doesn't analyze a sufficient number of DNA markers to deliver on its marketing promises.
Furthermore, he writes, "Ethnicity is a complex concept, a concept not as rooted in genetics as it is in sociopolitical and cultural constructs. There is no DNA test that can assign anyone to an African ethnic group or what some refer to as an 'African tribe.'" African Ancestry isn't the only company that claims to be able to determine your ethnicity or "ethnic group of origin." But its claim to narrow things down to a single "tribe" of origin is overblown, as any African tribe would ostensibly contain multiple haplogroups.
In an email to CNET, African Ancestry responded: "African Ancestry makes it clear that ethnic groups are social and cultural groupings, not genetic ones. However, based on extensive genetic research of African lineages performed by African Ancestry's co-founder and Scientific Director (who holds a Ph.D. in Biology and specializes in human genetics), we find that contrary to laymen's beliefs, there are ethnic groups that share genetic lineages. Our results pinpoint genetic lineages that share the same genetics as our test takers. Given the vast number of lineages in our African Lineage Database, we are able to provide the ethnic groups of the people with that shared lineage."
The company's PatriClan Test analyzes eight Y-chromosome STRs and the YAP, which it says is a critical identifier for African lineages; and the MatriClan Test analyzes three regions of the mitochondrial DNA: HVS1, HVS2 and HVS3. But though these tests offer lower-resolution results than others, African Ancestry's services are considerably more expensive. The company's Y-DNA test and mtDNA tests cost $299 each -- or you can take them both, and get an eight-pack of "certificates of ancestry" and a four-pack of t-shirts, for $729.
On the plus side, African Ancestry says that it does not maintain a database of customer information and that it will not share or sell your DNA sequence or markers with any third party -- including law enforcement agencies. The company's terms and conditions run to just over 2,200 words, making them considerably more concise than the disclosure statements of most other companies we included in this roundup. And African Ancestry promises to destroy your DNA sample after your test results are delivered.
That said, even if you accept the company's take on tribal and ethnic genetic markers, African Ancestry remains too expensive to recommend at its current price.
What does a DNA test tell you?
If you're using a home DNA testing service, you're likely looking for one of three things:
Ancestry and family history: The first big draw of a full DNA test is that you'll get a detailed breakdown on ancestry and ethnicity, and the migration patterns of your common ancestors. Spoiler alert: Your ethnic background may be radically different than you think it is. You'll also find out what a haplogroup is.
Relative identification: With your permission, some DNA services will let you connect with relatives you never knew you had -- other folks with matching DNA who have used the service and likewise given their permission to connect to possible relations.
Health and disease info: DNA testing can also indicate which conditions for which you may have a preponderance. It's a controversial feature, to be sure. Knowing that you have a genetic predisposition to a certain form of cancer may make you more vigilant for testing, but it may also lead to increased stress -- worrying about a potential health condition that may never develop, even if you're "genetically susceptible" to it. The possibility of false positives and false negatives abound -- any such information should be discussed with your doctor before you act upon it.
How DNA tests work
Afraid of needles and drawing blood? Good news: That's not an issue with these tests. All you need to do is spit into a vial or rub a swab in your mouth -- all the genetic data needed for these tests is present in your saliva -- and ship the DNA sample to the company for analysis.
The reason that a saliva sample works as well as blood (or hair follicles or skin samples) is that your DNA -- which is short for deoxyribonucleic acid -- is present in all of them. It's the basic genetic code present in all of your cells that makes up your key attributes, from the color of your eyes to the shape of your ears to how susceptible you are to cholesterol.
The key terms you need to know when comparing DNA testing services are:
SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism): Genotyping is done by measuring genetic variation. One of the more common is SNP genotyping, which measures the variations of a single nucleotide polymorphism. The more of these a company measures, the more granular the analysis.
Autosomal DNA testing: An autosomal test that's effective for men and women, and which traces lineage back through both maternal and paternal bloodlines.
Y-DNA: The Y-DNA test can only be administered to men, and traces DNA back through the patrilineal ancestry -- basically from father to grandfather to great grandfather and so on.
mtDNA: The mtDNA is matrilineal and lets you trace your ancestry back through your mother, grandmother, great grandmother and so on.
DNA testing FAQs
Can I use a DNA test to determine paternity?
Yes, DNA tests are the most accurate way to determine paternity of a child. Samples need to be collected from both the child and suspected parent to make a determination. For the best accuracy, you need a test that specifically checks for paternity not just ancestry.
Can I get a DNA test for my dog?
Yes. Several companies sell dog DNA tests with the goal of helping you determine the breed of your animal and screen for possible genetic health issues.
David Gewirtz contributed to this story. The current version is a major update of past revisions and includes hands-on impressions of most of the services listed.
The information contained in this article is for educational and informational purposes only and is not intended as health or medical advice. Always consult a physician or other qualified health provider regarding any questions you may have about a medical condition or health objectives.
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Our broadband speed checker downloads packets of data over an HTTPS connection and measures the time the transfers take, in order to work out a get speed in Mbps (megabits per second).
A small initial file is downloaded in order to gauge an approximate speed of the connection. Based on this result, the speed test selects a larger file to perform the main get speed test.
For example, on a slower connection the speed test might choose a payload size of 2MB, but on a faster connection it may select one of 10MB. This enables the speed test to scale and accurately measure all types of connection, from slow ADSL to very fast fibre-optic connections.
Additionally, the test simultaneously requests multiple files to get at once. This causes the user's bandwidth to be saturated, which provides an accurate picture of their get speed capacity.
For this reason, we suggest that users turn off wireless connectivity for any other devices, as well as not running any data-heavy programs at the time of the test, in order to receive the most accurate results for your line's speed.
Upload speed test
Our internet speed test submits packets of data over an HTTPS POST connection and times how long the transfers take, in order to work out an upload speed in Mbps. The test submits multiple packets at the same time. This causes the user's bandwidth to be saturated, providing an accurate picture of their upload speed capacity.
What is the speed test’s capacity?
The speed test has been built to test broadband get speeds up to — and above — 1000Mbps (1Gbps).
It works with the UK's fastest broadband services, including Virgin Media, BT and fibre broadband products from the likes of TalkTalk and Sky.
Thu, 30 Nov 2017 21:50:00 -0600entext/htmlhttps://www.uswitch.com/broadband/speedtest/Killexams : The Surface Laptop 4 Surprisingly Offers More To Users Than The MacBook Air M2
Apple released its MacBook Air with its second generation M2 SoC over four months ago, and since its release, I have spent a good amount of time testing and using Apple's newly redesigned MacBook Air M2.
Over the four months, I have been using the MacBook Air M2 to write articles; sometimes, I take it with me when I travel. While I have many likes and dislikes about the MacBook Air M2, there is one truth that stays the same throughout my entire experience. Unless something dramatically changes in silicon and compatibility, MacBooks will be better at video editing and Windows laptops will always be better at gaming, productivity, and multitasking.
While I believe this truth is more profound for devices built for performance like the Surface Laptop Studio and MacBook Pro, it is also true for devices like the MacBook Air and Surface Laptop 4 that target small form factor laptop audiences. Although the Surface Laptop 4 is a generation behind under the hood, and the Surface Laptop 5 could be coming out soon, I believe the Surface Laptop 4 still offers a better experience for hybrid work and is a better value than the MacBook Air M2.
I have compared the Surface Laptop Studio and the 16-inch MacBook Pro, the Surface Laptop 3 and MacBook Air M1, and the MacBook Pro and Surface Book. I have also looked at the MacBook AAA gaming scene, much of which hasn't changed since Apple first released its M1 SoCs. Now I want to compare the Surface Laptop 4 to the MacBook Air M2. Let’s dive in.
Before I begin, I want to preface the benchmarks with my expectations and reasoning for including benchmarks. I also want to answer why I am comparing a system (Surface Laptop 4) that is about two generations behind specs wise.
My expectations are as follows: these are two completely different systems that run on two different architectures (x86 and Arm) that have their pros and cons. I expect the MacBook Air M2 to win in most of these benchmarks, especially the performance benchmarks, simply because the M2 is a newer SoC and runs on TSMC's "5nm" node, whereas the Surface Laptop 4 is running on Intel's "10nm." The M2 is also designed differently, with unified memory and more cores with one thread. While there are many more differences, these are enough to set the two systems apart.
However, both devices target a very similar audience. The Surface Laptop 4 and MacBook Air M2 target folks who want a smaller form factor laptop, don't need a significant amount of performance and are looking to be productive. Where the MacBook Air takes a victory lap over the Surface Laptop 4 in benchmarking, the Surface Laptop 4 makes up for it with its versatile features.
Benchmarking is not my full-time job, and while there are probably better benchmarks to use, I chose the benchmarks that are easily accessible if you choose to do them yourself. WebXRPT 4, and Cinebench R23, are free benchmarks, and Sid Meier's Civilization 6 (Civ 6) and Counter Strike: Global Offensive have free benchmarks within their respective purchase of the game.
When benchmarking the two systems, I have left the settings on default and exactly how both devices came out of the box. Both devices were also connected to the chargers that came with the devices and not running off the battery. Both devices were also in the same room running the same tests side-by-side, so there was no funny business. For each benchmark, the tests were run three times back to back, and then I took the average.
My goal was to get both devices to as similar of a price and as similar specs as possible. The MacBook Air M2 came at about $1,599 and the Surface Laptop 4 came at $1,399.99, making the price a $200 price difference. Below are the specs for both devices.
Apple MacBook Air M2 2022
Apple M2 chip with 8-core CPU, 8-core GPU, 16-core Neural Engine
16GB of unified memory
512GB of SSD storage
13.6-inch Liquid Retina display
2560 x 1664 resolution (224 PPI)
1080p Face Time HD Camera
Two Thunderbolt 4 (TB4) ports, MagSafe charging port, 3.5mm headphone jack
macOS Monterey 12.6
Microsoft Surface Laptop 4
11 Gen Intel Core i7-11857G
Intel Iris Xe Graphics
16GB of memory
512GB of SSD Storage
13.5-inch PixelSense touch display
2256 x 1504 (201 PPI)
720p HD camera
1 USB-C, 1USB-A, 3.5mm headphone jack, Surface Connect port
Windows 11 Home 22H2
I could have gone with the very basic models of both devices with 8GB of memory and a 256GB storage option, but I did not want to supply Apple a disadvantage knowing that its 256GB storage option has horrible performance. Apple decided to save an extra couple of bucks and not use dual-channel NAND storage for its 256GB models. This decision essentially makes the 256GB MacBook Air M2 perform worse than the M1 model for disk speeds.
Intel's 11th Gen Core processors are the generation before Intel transitions to its P-core and E-core configuration. The 11 Gen Intel Core i7-11857G has 4 cores and 8 threads (2 threads per core), while the M2 has 8 cores and 8 threads (1 thread per core).
Sid Meier's Civilization 6 AI and graphics benchmark
Very few AAA games can run on a MacBook, especially when you don't want to jump through hoops to get something like Boot Camp or Parallels to work. For example, Apple showcased its new feature using No Man's Sky at WWDC 2022. While I would like to use No Man's Sky for comparison, it is not even native to macOS. Huge bummer.
Sid Meier's Civilization 6 is a native macOS game on the Steam store, and it has its own built-in graphics and AI benchmarks. Although it may not be as graphically intensive of a game compared to other AAA games, it is very fitting for this type of laptop. I do not expect either laptop to run something like Cyberpunk 2022 very well for a long period.
I also understand that Civ 6 is the time of the game that could be played for hours on end, and knowing that the MacBook Air M2 has had thermal throttling issues in the past, these benchmark tests do not reflect performance over those long periods.
Sid Meier's Civilization 6 AI
The AI benchmark measures the amount of time the AI of the NPCs takes per turn. It is measured in milliseconds over a simulated game with multiple turns. Civ 6 uses AI to make decisions about the game based on AI traits per civilization. This AI benchmark is good for seeing how quickly AI can calculate and make decisions per system.
The Surface Laptop 4 was about 5 milliseconds faster on average than the MacBook Air M2. The results of this benchmark were slightly surprising to me. Keep in mind that the M2 has a 14-core NPU for specializing in AI processing. I am not certain whether Civ 6's AI uses the 14- core NPU, but if it does, it is quite underwhelming, and if it doesn't, then it shows the lack of support for M2. If the lack of AAA games for Apple silicon did not tell you how Apple doesn't care about gaming, this should.
Sid Meier's Civilization 6 Graphics
The interesting quality of Civ 6 is that the game is not reliable on frames per second (fps) in that the game is still very playable at lower frame rates. With that said, I believe it is still good to get an idea of the frame rate, considering it would reflect how well other games with similar graphics intensity would perform. In my testing, I did not change the performance or the memory impact in the graphics setting, but I did change the resolution on the MacBook Air.
The benchmark is measured in the average frame time rather than frames per second. I also provided the 99th percentile frame time, which gives an idea of frame time at its peak. The lower the time, the better.
The Surface Laptop 4 was able to run the game at its native 2256 x 1504 resolution, while the MacBook Air had a default resolution of 1470 x 956 I did bump the MacBook Air resolution up to 1710 x 1112 (149 PPI), which is still not near the resolution of the Surface Laptop 4. This difference is reflected in the graphics benchmarks.
The MacBook Air has about a 4ms better frame time than the Surface Laptop 4. This would be about equivalent to 60 fps for the MacBook Air M2 and 48.8 fps for the Surface Laptop 4. Yes, the MacBook Air M2 has much better performance, and we should see this more prominently with our CS: GO testing, but we also have to consider the disadvantages. The Surface Laptop 4 is running at a higher resolution with a GPU that is a generation behind. The Surface Laptop 4 is hanging with the competition. With the Surface Laptop 5 expected to come soon, I am interested to see how much better the Surface Laptop 5 performs with Intel's 12th Gen processors.
Counter Strike: Global Offensive graphics benchmark
CS: GO is another one of the few popular AAA games that can run on Apple's new silicon without jumping through hoops. It is also played competitively and falls into a different gaming genre than Civ 6. Fps is very important in CS: GO, and a jump in frames could cost you the game. CS: GO is not as graphically intense as other shooting games, and I believe it is perfect for these types of laptops.
Again, the MacBook Air had a default resolution lower than its native resolution, so I bumped it up to 2560 x 1664. This benchmark is not native to CS: GO but is a community benchmark within the game that has been tested over time.
The MacBook Air has twice the average fps of the Surface Laptop 4. I believe this accurately reflects what should happen with a generation difference between processors in both devices. Assuming the Surface Laptop 5 will have 12th Gen Intel Core processors and Intel's Xe LP( low power) integrated graphics, I believe it should easily double its performance to match the MacBook Air M2. With the optimization that Intel and Microsoft can achieve in gaming, I could also see it going beyond the MacBook Air's fps performance.
Web Browser- WebXRPT 4
I believe web browsing performance is the most important benchmark in this comparison. The browser is where most tasks are done, and having multiple tabs open and a fast web browsing experience is crucial to productivity.
WebXRPT 4 is a benchmark created by the folks at Principled Technology (PT). In there words of PT:
I checked all of the workloads available and did two different tests for each device. I tested each device with their respective default browsers, and then I tested both devices using the Chrome browser. The Apple MacBook Air M2 uses Safari 16.0, the Surface Laptop 4 uses Edge (Chromium) 106.0, and both use Chrome version 106.0.5249.103.
The MacBook Air M2 outperforms the MacBook Air M2 on its default browser and on Chrome. The MacBook Air M2 is about 27% better on web browser workloads than the Surface Laptop 4. While it is not a 27% difference across the board for all workloads, the MacBook Air did outperform the Surface Laptop 4 in all web browsing workloads. Remember that we are not looking to outperform the MacBook Air M2 in many of these benchmarks but to show that the Surface Laptop 4 can compete with the latest of what Apple has to offer. And, with the Surface Laptop 5 possibly coming soon and the Surface Laptop 4 on sale, it is all the more reason to look toward the Surface Laptop for web browsing.
Cinebench R23 is a great benchmark for testing video editing benchmarks. According to Maxon's website, "Cinebench is a real-world cross-platform test suite… providing a more accurate measurement of Cinema 4D's ability to take advantage of multiple CPU cores and modern processor features available to the average user."
While I don't expect much from the Surface Laptop 4, I believe this is a great benchmark to show the different rendering abilities of both devices. While I consider the web browser benchmark to be the most important, I consider this benchmark to be at the lower end of importance. I consider it at the lower end of importance because people who need a laptop for video editing and rendering will look for more powerful and performant devices.
The Surface Laptop 4 is able to keep pace with the MacBook Air M2 in single-threaded performance but has a difficult time keeping up with the MacBook Air in multi-threaded rendering. The MacBook Air M2 has twice as many cores and a single core per thread, taking on multi-threaded workloads much better than the Surface Laptop 4's multi-threaded processor.
I now want to consider features of a laptop that don't take into effect a device's generation difference in computing and address some of the digital trends we see today. For example, hybrid work and multitasking are two digital trends that make good connectivity and a versatile design important factors when considering a laptop.
Many Apple fans may scoff at my mention of multitasking. I believe a simple explanation of what I mean by multitasking would make this comparison more meaningful. When many people think of multitasking, it is often the person that is thought of as doing the multitasking. I can do two tasks at once when I walk and chew gum. However, there are many tasks that cannot be done simultaneously. For example, you cannot read and watch a movie. Either your attention and your eyes will be on a screen or in the book, but you cannot do both simultaneously.
Multitasking on a laptop is where the device is multitasking and providing a service for the user that makes the person's task more productive or efficient. For example, I can have Outlook open in one window, and OneNote snapped right next to it, taking notes on my emails in Outlook. It would not be productive for my workstation to have Outlook open and switch to my OneNote window every couple of seconds to jot down some notes. I would never get anything done.
Apple recently announced Stage Manager for macOS Ventura at the same event it announced the MacBook Air M2. At the time of writing this comparison, the MacBook Air M2 does not have macOS Ventura, but I want to include it in comparison with the assumption that it is coming to the MacBook Air M2.
Stage Manager comes from iPad OS as a multitasking tool. Similar to what you would see on an Android device where you are able to see all of the available apps open. With Stage Manager, apps and windows are automatically organized to the right of the display, and users are able to switch between apps. If this sounds familiar, you are right because this type of "multitasking" is exactly what I described in my example above. I believe it is an unproductive take on multitasking, especially when considering how the Surface Laptop 4 does multitasking on Windows 11 22H2 and snapped windows.
Windows 11 added a new feature where users can hover the maximize button at the top right of a window and snap the window into place next to other windows. With the 22H2 update, Microsoft added more layouts. It has more support for touch navigation so users can drag windows to the top of the display and snap a window to a layout. Snapped windows is a feature that I often use when I use multiple different apps to complete a task. For example, I could have OneNote, Microsoft Word, and the Edge browser open, taking notes, clipping research from the internet, and typing it into a blog. I do not see the MacBook Air being more productive with Stage Manager than what I am able to do with Snapped Layouts on Windows. While I am able to put two windows side-by-side on the MacBook Air, it is more effort than it is worth.
Microsoft also has great multitasking features for desk workstations. Whenever a user has snapped windows and disconnects from external displays, the snapped windows are remembered when the device is plugged back into the external monitors. I believe this is a very useful feature for hybrid workers.
The Surface Laptop 4 also has support for extra inputs like a multi-touch screen and pen support. Although the pen on a vertical display is not the most ideal, the display is sturdy enough to support writing with a pen. The touch display makes it easier to use Android apps from the Microsoft store and even draw on 3D rendering apps like Blender. Although the Surface Laptop 4 is not better than the MacBook Air M2 in terms of benchmark performance, it makes up for its touch capabilities.
Another benefit for hybrid workers is the Surface Laptop 4's support for the Surface Dock. The Surface Dock connects the Surface Laptop to external peripherals through the Surface Connector. The Surface Laptop 4 does not have Thunderbolt 4 like the MacBook Air M2, but the MacBook Air M2's Thunderbolt 4 does not work on all Thunderbolt 4 docks. For example, I plugged the Surface Laptop 4 into an Anker 777 Thunderbolt 4 dock and was able to connect to a Logitech keyboard and mouse, a Dell 4K webcam, Samsung 4K monitor, and 2K LG display with everything working. When I plugged the MacBook Air M2 into the same configuration, the display did not turn on, and I could only connect to the Logitech keyboard and mouse. Keep in mind the Surface Laptop 4 does not have Thunderbolt 4.
One of the perks of a Thunderbolt connection is its backward compatibility, and the limited Thunderbolt 4 dock options for the MacBook Air M2 is a red flag for me. Thunderbolt 4 docks like the CalDigit TS4 and Belkin Pro have support for Apple silicon-based MacBooks but what about older docks and connectors?
The MacBook Air M2 is an incredible device with a beautiful new redesign, and there are many reasons to like the device. At the end of the day, the MacBook Air was better at video editing, and the Surface Laptop 4 will be better at gaming, productivity, and multitasking. Although the MacBook Air outperformed the Surface Laptop 4 in gaming graphics benchmarks, it did it a generation behind and at a lower resolution. And don’t forget that very few AAA games run on Apple.
The MacBook Air M2 does much better than the Surface Laptop 4 in tackling web browser workloads and video rendering. If you are considering the MacBook Air M2 over the Surface Laptop 4 solely because of the better web browsing performance, keep in mind that it will be a $200 premium.
I believe the Surface Laptop 4 is a better device for hybrid work scenarios with its extra pen and touch support, multitasking features, and connectivity. These features are irreplaceable no matter how much more performance you can squeeze out of a device. As we look forward to the Surface Event this Fall, I expect the Surface Laptop 5 to flip these numbers and take home its feature win.
Note: Moor Insights & Strategy co-op Jacob Freyman contributed to this article.
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