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4A0-108 Alcatel-Lucent Multicast Protocols

Test Detail:
The Alcatel-Lucent 4A0-108 exam, also known as "Alcatel-Lucent Multicast Protocols," is a certification test offered by Alcatel-Lucent (now part of Nokia) that focuses on assessing candidates' knowledge and understanding of multicast protocols in networking. Here is a detailed description of the test, including the number of questions and time allocation, course outline, test objectives, and test syllabus.

Number of Questions and Time:
The Alcatel-Lucent 4A0-108 test typically consists of multiple-choice questions. The exact number of questions may vary, but the test generally contains around 60-70 questions. Candidates are typically given 90-120 minutes to complete the exam.

Course Outline:
The course outline for the Alcatel-Lucent 4A0-108 test covers various subjects related to multicast protocols. The outline may include the following key areas:

1. Introduction to Multicast Concepts and Protocols
2. IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol) and MLD (Multicast Listener Discovery) Protocols
3. PIM (Protocol Independent Multicast) Sparse Mode
4. PIM Dense Mode
5. PIM Sparse-Dense Mode
6. PIM Source-Specific Multicast (PIM-SSM)
7. MSDP (Multicast Source Discovery Protocol)
8. Multicast VPN (MVPN)
9. Multicast Troubleshooting and Monitoring

Exam Objectives:
The objectives of the Alcatel-Lucent 4A0-108 test are to assess candidates' knowledge and proficiency in the following areas:

1. Understanding the fundamentals of multicast concepts, including multicast addressing, distribution trees, and group management.
2. Familiarity with IGMP and MLD protocols and their roles in managing group membership.
3. Knowledge of various PIM modes (Sparse Mode, Dense Mode, Sparse-Dense Mode) and their characteristics.
4. Understanding PIM-SSM and its use for source-specific multicast.
5. Knowledge of MSDP and its role in inter-domain multicast.
6. Understanding multicast VPN (MVPN) and its implementation in service provider networks.
7. Familiarity with troubleshooting and monitoring techniques for multicast networks.

Exam Syllabus:
The test syllabus for the Alcatel-Lucent 4A0-108 test typically covers the following topics:

1. Multicast Concepts and Basics
2. IGMP and MLD Protocols
3. PIM Sparse Mode (PIM-SM)
4. PIM Dense Mode (PIM-DM)
5. PIM Sparse-Dense Mode (PIM-SDM)
6. PIM Source-Specific Multicast (PIM-SSM)
7. MSDP (Multicast Source Discovery Protocol)
8. Multicast VPN (MVPN)
9. Multicast Troubleshooting and Monitoring

Candidates should refer to official study materials and resources provided by Alcatel-Lucent (Nokia) to ensure they are adequately prepared for the exam. It is recommended to allocate sufficient time for test preparation, including studying relevant protocols, understanding multicast concepts, and practicing with demo test questions.
Alcatel-Lucent Multicast Protocols
Alcatel-Lucent Alcatel-Lucent study help

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Alcatel-Lucent
4A0-108
Alcatel-Lucent Multicast Protocols
https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/4A0-108
Answer: A
Question: 78
How many bits of the IPv4 multicast address directly match bits in the multicast
MAC address?
A. 23
B. 25
C. 27
D. 28
Answer: A
Question: 79
What is the destination address of the MLDv2 report message?
A. FF02::1
B. FF02::2
C. FF02::16
D. The specific multicast group address that the host is interested in.
Answer: C
Question: 80
Click the exhibit.
The interface's IGP metric is as shown, and PIM is using the unicast table for the
RPF- check. What happens when Router B receives a register message on its
interface facing Router A?
A. Router B discards the register message, as the RPF-check fails.
B. Router B forwards the register message to Router D (RP) according to its routing
table.
C. Router B forwards the register message out of all the interfaces in its
(',239.1.1.1) entry's outgoing interface list.
D. Router B forwards the register message out of all the interfaces in its
(192.168.1.1,239.1.1.1) entry's outgoing interface list.
Answer: B
Question: 81
How many types of Auto-Discovery routes are defined for MCAST-VPN NLRI?
A. 3
B. 5
C. 7
D. 9
Answer: C
Question: 82
What is the default version of IGMP on the Alcatel-Lucent 7750 SR?
A. Version 1
B. Version 2
C. Version 3
D. There is no default setting, you must configure the version when you enable
IGMP on 7750 SR
Answer: C
Question: 83
Click the exhibit.
The network administrator of 2001 ;DB8:FEED::/64 wants to embed an RP for the
network. The RP's address is 2001:DB8:FEED::7. Which of the following multicast
address ranges would suit this purpose? (The exhibit shows the group-to-RP
mapping for your reference only.)
A. FF7x:730:2001:DBS:FEED::/96 (x is scope)
B. FF7x:730:2001:DBS:FEED::/80 (x is scope)
C. FF7x: 740:2001:DB8:FEED::/96 (x is scope)
D. FF7x:740:2001:DB8:FEED::/80(x is scope)
Answer: C
Question: 84
Click the exhibit.
Based on the output, which of the following is correct?
A. The S-PMSI group address is 239.1.1.10.
B. The I-PMSI group address is 239.1.1.10.
C. The S-PMSI group address is 239.1.1.20.
D. The I-PMSI group address is 239.1.1.20.
Answer: C
Question: 85
Which of the following is NOT a benefit of multicast for delivering data to multiple
receivers?
A. Its data delivery is more efficient than unicast and broadcast.
B. It is more scalable than unicast and broadcast.
C. It suits VoD (Video on Demand) services very well.
D. It suits BTV (Broadcast TV) services very well.
Answer: C
Question: 86
In Draft Rosen, a PE router encapsulates customer multicast packets into provider
packets. What source IP address is used for the provider packets?
A. The system IP address of the originating PE router.
B. The source IP address of the customer packet.
C. The outgoing interface IP address of the originating PE router.
D. The source IP address specified in the MVPN configuration.
Answer: A
Question: 87
What is the advantage of using the S-PMSI over the I-PMSI in Draft Rosen?
A. The S-PMSI reduces control plane overhead because the I-PMSI is no longer
needed.
B. The S-PMSI only forwards customer multicast traffic to PEs that have interested
receivers.
C. The S-PMSI is required because it is the initial multicast distribution tree for the
MVPN.
D. The S-PMSI encapsulates customer multicast traffic in an MPLS tunnel, which
is more efficient than the GRE tunnel used by the I-PMSI.
Answer: B
Question: 88
Which of the following regarding VRF Route Import extended community is
TRUE?
A. It is used to support UMH selection in Inter-AS MVPN.
B. It is a new extended community added only to MVPN multicast routes.
C. It contains Global Administrator and Local Administrator fields.
D. It contains the AS number of the source PE.
Answer: C
Question: 89
A BSR candidate message is seen with a higher priority than the existing BSR.
Which of the following describes the action that occurs?
A. The higher priority router becomes the BSR only after the existing BSR fails.
B. The higher priority router becomes the BSR after the bootstrap message wait
interval.
C. The higher priority router becomes the BSR immediately.
D. There is a BSR configuration parameter that determines whether or not there is a
BSR election in this case.
Answer: C
Question: 90
Which of the following is NOT an advantage of NG MVPN over Draft Rosen?
A. MP-BGP is more scalable than PIM.
B. Unicast and multicast traffic in the same VPRN service can use the same
transport tunnel.
C. P routers in the core do not need to maintain any PIM group states.
D. An MPLS tunnel can be used instead of a GRE tunnel.
Answer: D
Question: 91
Click the exhibit.
According to the display in the exhibit, which of the following statements is TRUE?
A. The S-PMSI is instantiated by MPLS tunnels.
B. The S-PMSI group address range is 232.10.10.0/24.
C. 192.168.1.2 is the system IP address of the source PE.
D. The customer is sending multicast traffic to group 239.1.1.1.
Answer: D
Question: 92
Which of the following services is provided by the use of PIM as a multicast
routing protocol?
A. Authentication
B. Guaranteed delivery
C. Device security
D. Prevention of forwarding loops
E. Prevention of Denial of Service attacks
Answer: D
Question: 93
Click the exhibit.
What happens when the displayed router receives an IGMPv3 exclude none report
for group 232.1.1.1?
A. The router propagates a (:,:, 232.1.1.1) join towards RP if it exists.
B. The router sends a PIM (S, G) join toward both sources: 192.168.1.1 and
192.168.1.2.
C. The IGMPv3 report is dropped and a misconfiguration message is generated in
log 99.
D. The router sends a PIM (192.168.1.1, 232.1.1.1) join toward the source.
Answer: D
Question: 94
Which of the following regarding the BSR and the RP is TRUE?
A. A router cannot be configured as a BSR-candidate and a static RP at the same
time.
B. A router cannot be a candidate-RP and a BSR-candidate at the same time.
C. There is only one active RP in a multicast routing domain at any time.
D. There is only one elected BSR in a multicast routing domain at any time.
Answer: D
Question: 95
The Draft-Rosen S-PMSI address range is configured for 32 group addresses. What
happens if there are more than 32 customer multicast flows that exceed the
threshold configured for the MVPN?
A. Traffic for the 33rd multicast flow is dropped.
B. Traffic for the 33rd multicast flow is transmitted on the I-PMSI.
C. The source PE reassigns the S-PMSI with the smallest flow to the new multicast
flow. Traffic for the smaller flow is transmitted on the I-PMSI.
D. The source PE re-uses an S-PMSI that is currently in use for the 33rd flow.
Traffic for both flows is sent on the same S-PMSI.
Answer: D
Question: 96
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of Draft Rosen?
A. PIM in the VRF.
B. PIM in the service provider's core network.
C. GRE encapsulation for multicast data traffic.
D. MPLS encapsulation for multicast data traffic.
Answer: D
Question: 97
Which protocol is used to establish the I-PMSI in Draft Rosen?
A. PIM DM
B. PIM ASM
C. PIM SSM
D. Either PIM ASM or PIM SSM
Answer: B
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Alcatel-Lucent Alcatel-Lucent study help - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/4A0-108 Search results Alcatel-Lucent Alcatel-Lucent study help - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/4A0-108 https://killexams.com/exam_list/Alcatel-Lucent Alcatel, Lucent Confirm Merger Talks

The deal could potentially create a communications powerhouse, with combined sales of more than $25 billion.

"We can confirm that Lucent and Alcatel are engaged in discussions about a potential merger of equals that is intended to be priced at market," according to a statement issued by the companies.

"There can be no assurances that any agreement will be reached or that a transaction will be consummated," according to the companies. "We will have no further comment until an agreement is reached or the discussions are terminated."

The communications market has already seen one mega-merger in 2006. Earlier this month, AT&T Inc. acquired rival BellSouth Corp. for $67 billion.

Franced-based Alcatel and U.S.-based Lucent are no strangers to each other. In 2001, the companies were on the verge of a $23 billion merger, but the talks fell apart.

Both Lucent and Alcatel have changed in significant ways since their 2001 merger attempt, in dimensions that go beyond mere contraction in size. Lucent spun off its enterprise voice products as Avaya, as well as microelectronics products in the group that later became Agere Systems Inc. Optical transport products were reduced to those emphasizing add-drop multiplexing and multi-service switching, with the highly-touted Lambda router cross-connect dropped from Lucent's portfolio.

Lucent expanded its metro routing products, first with a Juniper alliance, and later by acquiring Riverstone Networks Inc. assets from bankruptcy court, with the latter routers and switches won in a bid against Ericsson on March 20.

Alcatel pulled together a range of enterprise and metro-carrier products for Internet Protocol switching, ranging from the 1999 acquisition of Ethernet switching company Xylan, to the 2003 acquisition of service-router startup TiMetra Networks. Both companies place more emphasis on IP routing and IP Multimedia Subsystem platforms, reflecting the phasing out of time-division multiplexed technology in public networks.

Because the Lucent and Alcatel products address a smaller sector of the overall networking market, a merger may have an easier time being approved by both the U.S. Justice Department and European Union.

However, the similarity in consolidations both companies implemented in the 2001 to 2006 time frame means that a combined Alcatel-Lucent would need to prune overlaps in their product lines, particularly in DSL access multiplexers and mid-sized routers.

After spinning off from AT&T in 1996, Lucent was once a high flyer in the booming communications equipment market. But the company has fallen on hard times. In January, Lucent reported a first-quarter loss of $278 million as sales fell $21 million from a year earlier to $2.05 billion, due to the slumping China market.

Lucent lowered its fiscal 2006 year guidance, calling for revenue to increase in the low single digits rather than mid single digits as forecast previously.

Alcatel recently paid its first dividend in four years on the back of better-than-anticipated profits at almost all of its divisions, but in particular broadband access and mobile infrastructure.

Fourth-quarter profits jumped to 541 million euros ($655 million) from 466 million euros ($564 million) a year earlier. Sales rose 7.6 percent to 4.1 billion euros, and the operating margin climbed to 13.2 percent from 12 percent in the year-ago quarter.

For the year as a whole, revenues increased from 12.2 billion euros ($14.8 billion) in 2004 to 13.1 billion euros ($15.9 billion) last year.

The company said its results were helped by a turnaround in its fixed-line business on increased demand for "triple play" services that operators use to offer a mix of voice, data and video.

Loring Wirbel contributed to this story from Colorado Springs, Co.

Mon, 11 Dec 2023 04:42:00 -0600 text/html https://www.crn.com/news/networking/183702462/alcatel-lucent-confirm-merger-talks
Channel Ponders Lucent-Alcatel Merger

Alcatel and Murray Hill, N.J.-based Lucent last week announced the $13.4 billion stock deal. Lucent Chairman and CEO Patricia Russo will become the CEO of the combined company, which will have approximately $25 billion in revenue. Alcatel Chairman and CEO Serge Tchuruk will become non-executive chairman.

The companies are not yet providing details on how the proposed merger would impact their channel strategies, an Alcatel spokesperson said.

With Lucent’s focus on wireless service provider equipment, the merger ups Alcatel’s ante in the carrier infrastructure market.

Several solution providers said they expect the merger’s impact on their Alcatel enterprise business to be positive and that it does not likely signal diminished focus on Alcatel’s enterprise efforts.

“The merger may help us in other aspects, having a stronger presence in North America with Lucent,” said Ron Goodband, COO of Advance2000, a Buffalo, N.Y.-based Alcatel partner.

However, Lucent partners are approaching the merger with more caution. Lucent has a small channel effort that has seen cutbacks over the past year, while Alcatel is not known for the strength of its channel, Lucent partners said.

“Alcatel is not exactly a channel-friendly company, so that concerns us,” said Maggie Petro, vice president of services at Solunet, a Lucent partner in Miami. Solunet has a good relationship with Lucent, but recent downsizing in the vendor’s channel support infrastructure did have a negative impact for the partner, Petro said.

“Alcatel is not known for being friendly to the channel ... and Lucent is only marginally friendly to the channel,” said another Lucent channel partner, who asked not to be identified. “I have concern about their supporting any channel going forward,” the partner said.

Mon, 01 Jan 2024 05:21:00 -0600 text/html https://www.crn.com/news/networking/184429705/channel-ponders-lucent-alcatel-merger
Pets can help slow dementia progress among those over age 50 who live alone, study says

A new study suggests getting that cute dog in one's more mature years might be a good idea after all. 

Researchers from the Sun Yat-sen University in Guangzhou, China, found that pet ownership can be associated with slower rates of developing dementia. 

The study, published on Tuesday in JAMA Network Open, determined that owning a pet made a difference in verbal memory and fluency among adults who lived alone.

NEW STUDY SHOWS THE EFFECT OWNING PETS HAS ON OWNERS' BRAINS

The study's author, professor Ciyong Lu, said in the study that slower rates of declining verbal memory and fluency were seen in those who lived alone — but not in those who lived with others.

"Pet ownership offset the associations between living alone and declining rates [of] verbal memory and verbal fluency," he said. 

Researchers found that owning a pet helps those with dementia.  (iStock)

The research involved more than 7,900 participants over the age of 50, with roughly 35% of them owning pets and 27% of them living alone.

In the study, Lu said that those living alone with a pet showed slower rates of developing signs of dementia.

DOG OWNER GOOD NEWS: PETTING YOUR DOG MAY LEAD TO STRONGER MEMORY AND BETTER PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS

"These findings suggest that pet ownership may be associated with slower cognitive decline among older adults living alone," he said.

"Contrary to living alone," the authors also wrote, "pet ownership (for example, raising dogs and cats) is related to reduced loneliness, an important risk factor for dementia and cognitive decline."

A new study found that owning a pet could be beneficial for people with signs of dementia who live alone.  (iStock)

Lu said that clinical trials will be necessary in order to confirm the study's findings.

Currently, more than 55 million people worldwide have dementia — with nearly 10 million new cases each year, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). 

EATING ONE POPULAR FRUIT COULD HELP REDUCE YOUR CHANCES OF DEVELOPING DEMENTIA, STUDY FINDS

Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia, which is currently the 7th leading cause of death, the WHO also notes. 

Early symptoms of dementia include forgetfulness, being confused, losing track of time, misjudging distances, feeling anxious, experiencing personality changes, engaging in inappropriate behavior and more. (iStock)

Early symptoms of dementia include forgetfulness, being confused, losing track of time, misjudging distances, feeling anxious, personality changes, inappropriate behavior and more.

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There is currently no cure for dementia or for someone developing signs of dementia, but the WHO suggests that staying active and continuing to stimulate the brain may help.

CLICK HERE TO SIGN UP FOR OUR LIFESTYLE NEWSLETTER

Fox News Digital reached out to Lu for further comment. 

For more Lifestyle articles, visit www.foxnews.com/lifestyle.

Tue, 26 Dec 2023 03:55:00 -0600 Fox News en text/html https://www.foxnews.com/lifestyle/pets-can-help-slow-dementia-progress-those-age-50-live-alone-study
Alcatel-Lucent

Alcatel-Lucent Alcatel-Lucent helps utilities evolve their communications networks to optimize real-time applications that drive smarter energy management and usage. As a leading partner in Smart Grid projects around the world, Alcatel-Lucent offers end-to-end communications solutions that combine power utility industry specific knowledge and experience with Bell Labs innovations and mission-critical grade communications technology and expertise. These feature Alcatel-Lucent IP/MPLS, microwave radio, WDM...

Mon, 11 Dec 2023 19:44:00 -0600 text/html https://www.tdworld.com/directory/company/21115564/alcatel-lucent
Ozempic could help curb alcohol abuse, study reveals

The latest weight loss craze could also help people control their drinking.

Semaglutide treatments such as Ozempic and Wegovy have been shown to reduce the symptoms of alcohol use disorder (AUD), according to a study published in The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry on Nov. 27.

The collaborative study from The University of Oklahoma (OU) and Oklahoma State University (OSU) found a “significant and noteworthy decrease” in the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores of six patients who were receiving semaglutide treatment for weight loss.

Lead study author Dr. Jesse Richards, director of obesity medicine and assistant professor of medicine at the OU-TU School of Community Medicine, said the study was inspired by his conversation with Dr. Kyle Simmons, professor of pharmacology and physiology at the OSU Center for Health Sciences.

“I had been hearing from a significant number of patients that their alcohol intake was spontaneously decreasing while [they were] on the medication,” Richards told Fox News Digital.

As a bariatric surgery clinic employee, Richards noted that it’s standard to screen patients for alcohol use.

Studies found that there was a decrease in Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores for six patients receiving weight-loss treatments. AP

At the clinic, a number of patients tested positive for alcohol consumption, sometimes in concerning amounts.

Later, while on semaglutide medication, they reported reduced alcohol intake.

One of Richards’ patients — who previously drank large amounts of alcohol — shared a new inability to drink more than two cans of beer now because it “just doesn’t sound good.”

After semaglutide medication, a patient who formerly drank beer regularly began to think that alcohol just didn’t “sound good.” Getty Images

This response piqued Richards’ interest in learning more about patients’ aversion to alcohol, which directly correlated to his research.

Research has shown that this effect is “mediated through adjustments in the reward pathway in the brain,” he said.

“The GLP-1s are actually modifying dopamine, decreasing the craving and decreasing the motivation to acquire things in that compulsive intake category.”

The most surprising takeaway from the study, Richards said, was that the same significant treatment response was seen even at very low doses.

“We found that even patients on the lowest dose of semaglutide — a quarter milligram — had a quite significant and relatively … quick onset reduction in alcohol intake,” he said.

Of the six patients studied, all but one were on low doses — from a quarter to a half milligram.

“And that’s very encouraging because we know that the lower doses of these medications are tolerated much better,” said Richards.

While the results seem promising, the doctor said he does not recommend that patients use semaglutide treatments for alcohol use disorder at this time, due to supply and safety issues.

“If patients have [obesity and diabetes] indications for the medication and they also struggle with alcohol intake … having them on this treatment may potentially be beneficial,” Richards said.

Due to medication shortages and a lack of long-term data, it may not be advisable to take Ozempic to target alcoholism specifically. NurPhoto via Getty Images

“But because there has been a global medication shortage, and because we don’t have prospective trials and don’t know what the specific safety is versus the well-established safety data in obesity and diabetes, [I] would not recommend it just for patients who have AUD.”

There are three FDA-approved drugs available for alcoholic use disorder that are currently underused, the doctor noted.

Given that five million people in the U.S. are currently taking semaglutide medications, if it is proven that those drugs have a significant effect on alcohol use disorder, “by default, they are going to become the most widely used drug to Excellerate these symptoms — just by virtue of the fact that so many people are on them for diabetes or obesity,” Richards noted.

Trials are underway to gather more information on the weight-loss medication and its effect on alcohol intake. UCG/Universal Images Group via G

He confirmed that additional research is underway with two ongoing trials.

“Since we were able to show clinically meaningful reductions in alcohol intake and AUD symptomatology in a real-world setting, that bodes very well for these types of medications,” he said.

Looking ahead, Richard said there is a need for higher-quality evidence of the medication’s impact on AUD compared to placebo drugs or environmental factors.

People struggling with alcohol use should speak with their healthcare provider. Getty Images

Even though it’s unclear whether GLP-1 producers will market the medication to AUD patients in the future, Richards said this could become an “established medical practice once the safety and efficacy has been determined.”

For patients who struggle with AUD, Richards recommended they talk to their health care providers about available treatment.

He also alerted patients that if they experience a reduced appetite and usually consume “a bunch of calories” in alcohol, it may be necessary to look into a more balanced diet.

Avantika Waring, 9amHealth’s chief medical officer and a trained physician and endocrinologist in San Francisco, applauded the OU and OSU study findings for further supporting what clinicians “are already seeing in practice,” she told Fox News Digital.

“GLP-1 medications have a lot of effects that we are still learning about, and the ability to decrease cravings and the reward signals related to alcohol use are just some of the benefits,” she said.

“It’s an important starting point for further clinical trials,” she added.

Waring also warned that GLP-1 medications should not be used to treat AUD specifically, as they can cause side effects such as nausea and changes in appetite.

“People struggling with alcohol use disorder should consult with their physicians before starting GLP-1 medications to make sure that they can stay hydrated and safe on therapy,” she said.

Waring noted that if ongoing clinical trials find semaglutide treatments to be effective for AUD, the medical community will “have another tool to help people living with alcohol addiction and we’ll see expanded use of these already popular drugs.”

Fox News Digital reached out to Novo Nordisk for comment on the potential link between semaglutide medications and alcohol use disorder.

Sun, 10 Dec 2023 02:53:00 -0600 en-US text/html https://nypost.com/2023/12/10/lifestyle/ozempic-could-help-curb-alcohol-abuse-study-reveals/
Ozempic and Wegovy weight loss drugs could help reduce alcohol use disorder symptoms, study suggests

The latest weight loss craze could also help people control their drinking.

Semaglutide treatments such as Ozempic and Wegovy have been shown to reduce the symptoms of alcohol use disorder (AUD), according to a study published in The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry on Nov. 27.

The collaborative study from The University of Oklahoma (OU) and Oklahoma State University (OSU) found a "significant and noteworthy decrease" in the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores of six patients who were receiving semaglutide treatment for weight loss.

OZEMPIC DIABETES AND WEIGHT LOSS MEDICATION UNDER INVESTIGATION AFTER A FEW REPORTS OF SUICIDAL THOUGHTS

Lead study author Dr. Jesse Richards, director of obesity medicine and assistant professor of medicine at the OU-TU School of Community Medicine, said the study was inspired by his conversation with Dr. Kyle Simmons, professor of pharmacology and physiology at the OSU Center for Health Sciences.

"I had been hearing from a significant number of patients that their alcohol intake was spontaneously decreasing while [they were] on the medication," Richards told Fox News Digital.

Semaglutide treatments such as Ozempic and Wegovy have been shown to reduce symptoms of alcohol use disorder, according to a new study published in The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. (iStock; SEBASTIEN BOZON/AFP via Getty Images)

As a bariatric surgery clinic employee, Richards noted that it’s standard to screen patients for alcohol use.

OZEMPIC-WEGOVY PILL MAY BE ON THE WAY: TRIAL SHOWS PROMISING RESULTS FOR NEW WEIGHT LOSS TABLET

At the clinic, a number of patients tested positive for alcohol consumption, sometimes in concerning amounts.

Later, while on semaglutide medication, they reported reduced alcohol intake.

Dr. Jesse Richards is director of obesity medicine at OU Health at the Hardesty Center for Clinical Research and Neuroscience in Tulsa, Oklahoma. "I had been hearing from a significant number of patients that their alcohol intake was spontaneously decreasing while on the medication," he told Fox News Digital.  (OSU Center for Health Sciences)

One of Richards’ patients — who previously drank large amounts of alcohol — shared a new inability to drink more than two cans of beer now because it "just doesn’t sound good."

This response piqued Richards' interest in learning more about patients' aversion to alcohol, which directly correlated to his research.

 Only about 2% of people with alcohol use disorder are on an approved treatment.

Research has shown that this effect is "mediated through adjustments in the reward pathway in the brain," he said.

"The GLP-1s are actually modifying dopamine, decreasing the craving and decreasing the motivation to acquire things in that compulsive intake category."

"Reducing liquid sugar and liquid caloric intake is strongly associated with effective weight loss," an expert told Fox News Digital. (iStock)

The most surprising takeaway from the study, Richards said, was that the same significant treatment response was seen even at very low doses.

"We found that even patients on the lowest dose of semaglutide — a quarter milligram — had a quite significant and relatively … quick onset reduction in alcohol intake," he said.

Of the six patients studied, all but one were on low doses — from a quarter to a half milligram.

OZEMPIC, WEGOVY MAY BE LINKED TO STOMACH PARALYSIS AND OTHER DIGESTIVE ISSUES IN LARGE-SCALE STUDY

"And that's very encouraging because we know that the lower doses of these medications are tolerated much better," said Richards.

While the results seem promising, the doctor said he does not recommend that patients use semaglutide treatments for alcohol use disorder at this time, due to supply and safety issues.

Wegovy is an injectable prescription weight loss medicine that has helped people address obesity. (Michael Siluk/UCG/Universal Images Group via Getty Images)

"If patients have [obesity and diabetes] indications for the medication and they also struggle with alcohol intake … having them on this treatment may potentially be beneficial," Richards said.

"But because there has been a global medication shortage, and because we don't have prospective trials and don't know what the specific safety is versus the well-established safety data in obesity and diabetes, [I] would not recommend it just for patients who have AUD."

OZEMPIC, WEGOVY AND PREGNANCY RISK: WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT THE ISSUE

There are three FDA-approved drugs available for alcoholic use disorder that are currently underused, the doctor noted.

"Unfortunately, at this point, only about 2% of people with AUD are on an approved treatment," he said.

GLP-1 treatments do not have a warning against consuming alcohol while taking the drugs, an expert pointed out. (iStock)

Given that five million people in the U.S. are currently taking semaglutide medications, if it is proven that those drugs have a significant effect on alcohol use disorder, "by default, they are going to become the most widely used drug to Excellerate these symptoms — just by virtue of the fact that so many people are on them for diabetes or obesity," Richards noted.

OZEMPIC, WEGOVY AND ALL THOSE CRAZY, VIVID DREAMS: IS THERE A CONNECTION?

He confirmed that additional research is underway with two ongoing trials.

"Since we were able to show clinically meaningful reductions in alcohol intake and AUD symptomatology in a real-world setting, that bodes very well for these types of medications," he said.

Looking ahead, Richard said there is a need for higher-quality evidence of the medication's impact on AUD compared to placebo drugs or environmental factors.

Health care providers wrote more than nine million prescriptions for Ozempic and similar drugs in the last quarter of 2022, data shows. (SEBASTIEN BOZON/AFP via Getty Images)

Even though it’s unclear whether GLP-1 producers will market the medication to AUD patients in the future, Richards said this could become an "established medical practice once the safety and efficacy has been determined."

For patients who struggle with AUD, Richards recommended they talk to their health care providers about available treatment.

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He also alerted patients that if they experience a reduced appetite and usually consume "a bunch of calories" in alcohol, it may be necessary to look into a more balanced diet.

Avantika Waring, 9amHealth's chief medical officer and a trained physician and endocrinologist in San Francisco, applauded the OU and OSU study findings for further supporting what clinicians "are already seeing in practice," she told Fox News Digital.

"People struggling with alcohol use disorder should consult with their physicians before starting GLP-1 medications."

"GLP-1 medications have a lot of effects that we are still learning about, and the ability to decrease cravings and the reward signals related to alcohol use are just some of the benefits," she said.

"It’s an important starting point for further clinical trials," she added.

Waring also warned that GLP-1 medications should not be used to treat AUD specifically, as they can cause side effects such as nausea and changes in appetite.

Patients' aversion to alcohol is part of balancing the "side effects with the benefit" of the medication, said the lead study author. (iStock)

"People struggling with alcohol use disorder should consult with their physicians before starting GLP-1 medications to make sure that they can stay hydrated and safe on therapy," she said.

CLICK HERE TO GET THE FOX NEWS APP

Waring noted that if ongoing clinical trials find semaglutide treatments to be effective for AUD, the medical community will "have another tool to help people living with alcohol addiction and we’ll see expanded use of these already popular drugs."

Fox News Digital reached out to Novo Nordisk for comment on the potential link between semaglutide medications and alcohol use disorder.

For more Health articles, visit www.foxnews.com/health.

Sat, 09 Dec 2023 20:30:00 -0600 Fox News en text/html https://www.foxnews.com/health/ozempic-wegovy-weight-loss-drugs-reduce-alcohol-use-disorder-symptoms-study
Study: Mindfulness May Help People Stick to the DASH Diet Better

Fact checked by Nick Blackmer

  • New research found that mindfulness helps people stick with the DASH diet.

  • The DASH diet is known to lower blood pressure and may be a good option for people with hypertension.

  • Experts recommend practicing small, mindful habits over longer periods of time to see the best results.

Mindfulness could help you stick to the DASH diet, a new study finds.

Sticking to a new eating plan can be difficult, but certain habits and disciplines may help.

New research, published last month in JAMA Network Open, found that practicing mindfulness helps people better follow the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, which is known to lower blood pressure.

Not only did the people Excellerate self-awareness, but they stuck more accurately to the DASH healthy eating pattern, Eric B. Loucks, PhD, study author and an associate professor and director of the c at Brown University, told Health.

For the study, Loucks and his team used the Mindfulness-Based Blood Pressure Reduction (MB-BP) program, which has been previously confirmed as effective at reducing systolic blood pressure.

“This research has direct implications for bringing awareness into people’s lives regarding modifiable determinants of hypertension,” Maryanna D. Klatt, PhD, director of the Center for Integrative Medicine and a mindfulness educator at The Ohio State University College of Medicine, told Health.

Loucks’ MB-BP program uses a combination of emotional regulation, yoga, self-awareness, and attention control.

It centers on teaching those tools to lower blood pressure, specifically. It’s based on Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR), a proven method of using mindfulness to achieve goals.

Here’s how mindfulness may impact the success of the DASH diet, as well as tips for being more mindful in your day-to-day routine.

Creating Mindful Habits Makes a Difference

Loucks’ study focused on mindfulness education and practice to follow the DASH diet and lower blood pressure.

99 participants attended an orientation, eight 2.5-hour group sessions a week, and went to a one-day retreat—10 sessions of training total. Each participant received individualized education about hypertension, behavior change support, and learned about mindful eating for hypertension.

People in the program were encouraged to practice mindfulness techniques at home for 45 minutes a day, six days a week.

The control group, on the other hand, only received educational materials on how to control blood pressure.

Everyone in the trial received and was trained on how to use a home blood-pressure monitor, and got information on local primary care doctors.

All of the participants had elevated blood pressure. At the beginning of the trial, none of them meditated more than once a week.

To see how well the MB-BP program worked, researchers used two scores: a Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA) questionnaire and a DASH adherence score.

The MAIA uses a 0–5 score and is intended to assess how in tune people are with their body’s sensations and cues. The DASH adherence score ranges from 0–11 and gauges how well people stuck to the diet.

Six months into the study, participants in the mindfulness training program saw a 0.71-point increase in their MAIA score—that was 0.54 points higher than the median score of the control group. Similarly, people in the program increased their median DASH adherence score by 0.34, while people in the control group saw a 0.04-point decrease.

In the future, Loucks wants to assess if the MB-BP program still works as well with fewer sessions or a shorter program length. He also wants to see how well MB-BP would work in real-world settings, and how insurers may be able to cover it.

Environmental and Emotional Triggers Often Guide Eating Choices

Many people eat in response to environmental and emotional triggers, rather than using cues of hunger and satiety to guide their eating, Michelle May, MD, a retired doctor and mindful eating educator from Phoenix, AZ, told Health after reviewing the research.

Environmental triggers include seeing commercials for food or situations you associate with eating—like a movie theater, baseball game, or the holidays.

Emotional triggers include stress, boredom, or loneliness—and even pleasant emotions like celebrations, said May.

“Mindfulness helps you change habitual, mindless, reactive behaviors because being in the present moment allows you to consciously choose your response,” she said.

According to Loucks, three areas make mindfulness effective at impacting eating habits:

  1. Self-awareness: Noticing hunger and fullness, how different foods make you feel, and being aware of eating behaviors and habits

  2. Attention control: Being present when you eat, making conscious choices for healthy eating patterns, making choices against possibly unconscious unhealthy eating patterns, and making intentional choices when choosing food at restaurants and while grocery shopping

  3. Emotion regulation: Lowering your reactivity to food cravings, practicing self-kindness and compassion for your body and mind, and reducing psychological distress that can keep you from adhering to your desired eating patterns

Creating Mindful Habits Long-Term

Mindful eating can look different for everyone.

When it comes to sticking with the DASH diet, you may focus more on making choices about what goes into your food (while someone using mindful eating to reduce portion sizes may focus their approach on eating less).

Low sodium and low saturated fat are two hallmarks of the DASH diet. If you want to be more intentional about reducing your intake, you might use a mindfulness tool that helps you avoid or reduce the amount of salt you put in a meal. Or you might practice mindfulness when shopping for ingredients low in saturated fat.

In addition to learning mindfulness tools, it matters how often or how long you practice them, too.

According to Loucks, you’ll probably get better results the longer you practice but you’ve got to find the right amount of time that works for you.

“It comes down to awareness, compassion, and willingness to adopt the change you desire,” added Klatt.

Mindfulness is effective if you incorporate it into your daily life—even in small, but significant ways.

Klatt concluded: “These small ways can add up to very big changes in the way we approach our days.”

For more Health.com news, make sure to sign up for our newsletter!

Read the original article on Health.com.

Thu, 07 Dec 2023 10:00:00 -0600 en-US text/html https://www.yahoo.com/lifestyle/study-mindfulness-may-help-people-202741636.html
Study: Minors help social media companies earn billions

Social media companies collectively made over $11 billion in U.S. advertising revenue from minors in 2022, according to a study from the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health.

The researchers say the findings show a need for government regulation of social media since the companies that stand to make money from children who use their platforms have failed to meaningfully self-regulate. They note such regulations, as well as greater transparency from tech companies, could help alleviate harms to youth mental health and curtail potentially harmful advertising practices that target children and adolescents.

To come up with the revenue figure, the researchers estimated the number of users under 18 on Facebook, Instagram, Snapchat, TikTok, X (formerly Twitter) and YouTube in 2022 based on population data from the U.S. Census and survey data from Common Sense Media and Pew Research. They then used data from research firm eMarketer, now called Insider Intelligence, and Qustodio, a parental control app, to estimate each platform's U.S. ad revenue in 2022 and the time children spent per day on each platform. After that, the researchers said they built a simulation model using the data to estimate how much ad revenue the platforms earned from minors in the U.S.

Researchers and lawmakers have long focused on the negative effects stemming from social media platforms, whose personally-tailored algorithms can drive children towards excessive use. This year, lawmakers in states like New York and Utah introduced or passed legislation that would curb social media use among kids, citing harms to youth mental health and other concerns.

Meta, which owns Instagram and Facebook, is also being sued by dozens of states for allegedly contributing to the mental health crisis.

“Although social media platforms may claim that they can self-regulate their practices to reduce the harms to young people, they have yet to do so, and our study suggests they have overwhelming financial incentives to continue to delay taking meaningful steps to protect children," said Bryn Austin, a professor in the Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences at Harvard and a senior author on the study.

The platforms themselves don't make public how much money they earn from minors.

Social media platforms are not the first to advertise to children, and parents and experts have long expressed concerns about marketing to kids online, on television and even in schools. But online ads can be especially insidious because they can be targeted to children and because the line between ads and the content kids seek out is often blurry.

In a 2020 policy paper, the American Academy of Pediatrics said children are “uniquely vulnerable to the persuasive effects of advertising because of immature critical thinking skills and impulse inhibition.”

“School-aged children and teenagers may be able to recognize advertising but often are not able to resist it when it is embedded within trusted social networks, encouraged by celebrity influencers, or delivered next to personalized content,” the paper noted.

As concerns about social media and children's mental health grow, the Federal Trade Commission earlier this month proposed sweeping changes to a decades-old law that regulates how online companies can track and advertise to children. The proposed changes include turning off targeted ads to kids under 13 by default and limiting push notifications.

According to the Harvard study, YouTube derived the greatest ad revenue from users 12 and under ($959.1 million), followed by Instagram ($801.1 million) and Facebook ($137.2 million).

Instagram, meanwhile, derived the greatest ad revenue from users aged 13-17 ($4 billion), followed by TikTok ($2 billion) and YouTube ($1.2 billion).

The researchers also estimate that Snapchat derived the greatest share of its overall 2022 ad revenue from users under 18 (41%), followed by TikTok (35%), YouTube (27%), and Instagram (16%).

Thu, 28 Dec 2023 10:00:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.news-journal.com/study-minors-help-social-media-companies-earn-billions/article_0af6a7ea-a69e-11ee-8bf5-0b1e637dbe7a.html
Can wasabi help your memory? A new study has linked the sushi condiment to a better brain Your browser is not supported | usatoday.com
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Mon, 11 Dec 2023 11:28:00 -0600 en-US text/html https://www.usatoday.com/story/life/health-wellness/2023/12/11/wasabi-benefits-memory-boost-study/71884622007/




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