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Advanced Novell Network Management;Netware 6.5
Novell Management;Netware learner
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This document explains how to install, configure and run Apache 2.0 under Novell NetWare 6.0 and above. If you find any bugs, or wish to contribute in other ways, please use our bug reporting page.

The bug reporting page and dev-httpd mailing list are not provided to answer questions about configuration or running Apache. Before you submit a bug report or request, first consult this document, the Frequently Asked Questions page and the other relevant documentation topics. If you still have a question or problem, post it to the novell.devsup.webserver newsgroup, where many Apache users are more than willing to answer new and obscure questions about using Apache on NetWare.

Most of this document assumes that you are installing Apache from a binary distribution. If you want to compile Apache yourself (possibly to help with development, or to track down bugs), see the section on Compiling Apache for NetWare below.

Apache 2.0 is designed to run on NetWare 6.0 service pack 3 and above. If you are running a service pack less than SP3, you must install the latest NetWare Libraries for C (LibC).

NetWare service packs are available here.

Apache 2.0 for NetWare can also be run in a NetWare 5.1 environment as long as the latest service pack or the latest version of the NetWare Libraries for C (LibC) has been installed . WARNING: Apache 2.0 for NetWare has not been targeted for or tested in this environment.

Information on the latest version of Apache can be found on the Apache web server at http://www.apache.org/. This will list the current release, any more accurate alpha or beta-test releases, together with details of mirror web and anonymous ftp sites. Binary builds of the latest releases of Apache 2.0 for NetWare can be downloaded from here.

There is no Apache install program for NetWare currently. If you are building Apache 2.0 for NetWare from source, you will need to copy the files over to the server manually.

Follow these steps to install Apache on NetWare from the binary download (assuming you will install to sys:/apache2):

  • Unzip the binary download file to the root of the SYS: volume (may be installed to any volume)
  • Edit the httpd.conf file setting ServerRoot and ServerName along with any file path values to reflect your correct server settings
  • Add SYS:/APACHE2 to the search path, for example:

Follow these steps to install Apache on NetWare manually from your own build source (assuming you will install to sys:/apache2):

  • Create a directory called Apache2 on a NetWare volume
  • Copy APACHE2.NLM, APRLIB.NLM to SYS:/APACHE2
  • Create a directory under SYS:/APACHE2 called BIN
  • Copy HTDIGEST.NLM, HTPASSWD.NLM, HTDBM.NLM, LOGRES.NLM, ROTLOGS.NLM to SYS:/APACHE2/BIN
  • Create a directory under SYS:/APACHE2 called CONF
  • Copy the HTTPD-STD.CONF file to the SYS:/APACHE2/CONF directory and rename to HTTPD.CONF
  • Copy the MIME.TYPES, CHARSET.CONV and MAGIC files to SYS:/APACHE2/CONF directory
  • Copy all files and subdirectories in \HTTPD-2.0\DOCS\ICONS to SYS:/APACHE2/ICONS
  • Copy all files and subdirectories in \HTTPD-2.0\DOCS\MANUAL to SYS:/APACHE2/MANUAL
  • Copy all files and subdirectories in \HTTPD-2.0\DOCS\ERROR to SYS:/APACHE2/ERROR
  • Copy all files and subdirectories in \HTTPD-2.0\DOCS\DOCROOT to SYS:/APACHE2/HTDOCS
  • Create the directory SYS:/APACHE2/LOGS on the server
  • Create the directory SYS:/APACHE2/CGI-BIN on the server
  • Create the directory SYS:/APACHE2/MODULES and copy all nlm modules into the modules directory
  • Edit the HTTPD.CONF file searching for all @@Value@@ markers and replacing them with the appropriate setting
  • Add SYS:/APACHE2 to the search path, for example:

Apache may be installed to other volumes besides the default SYS volume.

During the build process, adding the keyword "install" to the makefile command line will automatically produce a complete distribution package under the subdirectory DIST. Install Apache by simply copying the distribution that was produced by the makfiles to the root of a NetWare volume (see: Compiling Apache for NetWare below).

To start Apache just type apache at the console. This will load apache in the OS address space. If you prefer to load Apache in a protected address space you may specify the address space with the load statement as follows:

load address space = apache2 apache2

This will load Apache into an address space called apache2. Running multiple instances of Apache concurrently on NetWare is possible by loading each instance into its own protected address space.

After starting Apache, it will be listening to port 80 (unless you changed the Listen directive in the configuration files). To connect to the server and access the default page, launch a browser and enter the server's name or address. This should respond with a welcome page, and a link to the Apache manual. If nothing happens or you get an error, look in the error_log file in the logs directory.

Once your basic installation is working, you should configure it properly by editing the files in the conf directory.

To unload Apache running in the OS address space just type the following at the console:

or

If apache is running in a protected address space specify the address space in the unload statement:

unload address space = apache2 apache2

When working with Apache it is important to know how it will find the configuration files. You can specify a configuration file on the command line in two ways:

  • -f specifies a path to a particular configuration file

apache2 -f "vol:/my server/conf/my.conf"

In these cases, the proper ServerRoot should be set in the configuration file.

If you don't specify a configuration file name with -f, Apache will use the file name compiled into the server, usually conf/httpd.conf. Invoking Apache with the -V switch will display this value labeled as SERVER_CONFIG_FILE. Apache will then determine its ServerRoot by trying the following, in this order:

  • A ServerRoot directive via a -C switch.
  • The -d switch on the command line.
  • Current working directory
  • The server root compiled into the server.

The server root compiled into the server is usually sys:/apache2. invoking apache with the -V switch will display this value labeled as HTTPD_ROOT.

Apache 2.0 for NetWare includes a set of command line directives that can be used to modify or display information about the running instance of the web server. These directives are only available while Apache is running. Each of these directives must be preceded by the keyword APACHE2.

RESTART
Instructs Apache to terminate all running worker threads as they become idle, reread the configuration file and restart each worker thread based on the new configuration.
VERSION
Displays version information about the currently running instance of Apache.
MODULES
Displays a list of loaded modules both built-in and external.
DIRECTIVES
Displays a list of all available directives.
SETTINGS
Enables or disables the thread status display on the console. When enabled, the state of each running threads is displayed on the Apache console screen.
SHUTDOWN
Terminates the running instance of the Apache web server.
HELP
Describes each of the runtime directives.

By default these directives are issued against the instance of Apache running in the OS address space. To issue a directive against a specific instance running in a protected address space, include the -p parameter along with the name of the address space. For more information type "apache2 Help" on the command line.

Apache is configured by practicing configuration files usually stored in the conf directory. These are the same as files used to configure the Unix version, but there are a few different directives for Apache on NetWare. See the Apache documentation for all the available directives.

The main differences in Apache for NetWare are:

  • Because Apache for NetWare is multithreaded, it does not use a separate process for each request, as Apache does on some Unix implementations. Instead there are only threads running: a parent thread, and multiple child or worker threads which handle the requests.

    Therefore the "process"-management directives are different:

    MaxRequestsPerChild - Like the Unix directive, this controls how many requests a worker thread will serve before exiting. The recommended default, MaxRequestsPerChild 0, causes the thread to continue servicing request indefinitely. It is recommended on NetWare, unless there is some specific reason, that this directive always remain set to 0.

    StartThreads - This directive tells the server how many threads it should start initially. The recommended default is StartThreads 50.

    MinSpareThreads - This directive instructs the server to spawn additional worker threads if the number of idle threads ever falls below this value. The recommended default is MinSpareThreads 10.

    MaxSpareThreads - This directive instructs the server to begin terminating worker threads if the number of idle threads ever exceeds this value. The recommended default is MaxSpareThreads 100.

    MaxThreads - This directive limits the total number of work threads to a maximum value. The recommended default is ThreadsPerChild 250.

    ThreadStackSize - This directive tells the server what size of stack to use for the individual worker thread. The recommended default is ThreadStackSize 65536.

  • The directives that accept filenames as arguments must use NetWare filenames instead of Unix names. However, because Apache uses Unix-style names internally, forward slashes must be used rather than backslashes. It is recommended that all rooted file paths begin with a volume name. If omitted, Apache will assume the SYS: volume which may not be correct.

  • Apache for NetWare has the ability to load modules at runtime, without recompiling the server. If Apache is compiled normally, it will install a number of optional modules in the \Apache2\modules directory. To activate these, or other modules, the LoadModule directive must be used. For example, to active the status module, use the following:

    LoadModule status_module modules/status.nlm

    Information on creating loadable modules is also available.

Additional NetWare specific directives:

  • CGIMapExtension - This directive maps a CGI file extension to a script interpreter.
  • NWSSLTrustedCerts - Adds trusted certificates that are used to create secure connections to proxied servers.
  • NWSSLUpgradeable - Allow a connection created on the specified address/port to be upgraded to an SSL connection.

Compiling Apache requires MetroWerks CodeWarrior 6.x or higher. Once Apache has been built, it can be installed to the root of any NetWare volume. The default is the sys:/Apache2 directory.

Before running the server you must fill out the conf directory. Copy the file HTTPD-STD.CONF from the distribution conf directory and rename it to HTTPD.CONF. Edit the HTTPD.CONF file searching for all @@Value@@ markers and replacing them with the appropriate setting. Copy over the conf/magic and conf/mime.types files as well. Alternatively, a complete distribution can be built by including the keyword install when invoking the makefiles.

Requirements:

The following development tools are required to build Apache 2.0 for NetWare:

Building Apache using the NetWare makefiles:

  • Set the environment variable NOVELLLIBC to the location of the NetWare Libraries for C SDK, for example:

    Set NOVELLLIBC=c:\novell\ndk\libc

  • Set the environment variable METROWERKS to the location where you installed the Metrowerks CodeWarrior compiler, for example:

    Set METROWERKS=C:\Program Files\Metrowerks\CodeWarrior

    If you installed to the default location C:\Program Files\Metrowerks\CodeWarrior, you don't need to set this.
  • Set the environment variable LDAPSDK to the location where you installed the LDAP Libraries for C, for example:

    Set LDAPSDK=c:\Novell\NDK\cldapsdk\NetWare\libc

  • Set the environment variable ZLIBSDK to the location where you installed the source code for the ZLib Library, for example:

    Set ZLIBSDK=D:\NOVELL\zlib

  • Set the environment variable AP_WORK to the full path of the httpd source code directory.

    Set AP_WORK=D:\httpd-2.0.x

  • Set the environment variable APR_WORK to the full path of the apr source code directory. Typically \httpd\srclib\apr but the APR project can be outside of the httpd directory structure.

    Set APR_WORK=D:\apr-1.x.x

  • Set the environment variable APU_WORK to the full path of the apr-util source code directory. Typically \httpd\srclib\apr-util but the APR-UTIL project can be outside of the httpd directory structure.

    Set APU_WORK=D:\apr-util-1.x.x

  • Make sure that the path to the AWK utility and the GNU make utility (gmake.exe) have been included in the system's PATH environment variable.
  • Download the source code and unzip to an appropriate directory on your workstation.
  • Change directory to \httpd-2.0 and build the prebuild utilities by running "gmake -f nwgnumakefile prebuild". This target will create the directory \httpd-2.0\nwprebuild and copy each of the utilities to this location that are necessary to complete the following build steps.
  • Copy the files \httpd-2.0\nwprebuild\GENCHARS.nlm and \httpd-2.0\nwprebuild\DFTABLES.nlm to the SYS: volume of a NetWare server and run them using the following commands:

    SYS:\genchars > sys:\test_char.h
    SYS:\dftables sys:\chartables.c

  • Copy the files test_char.h and chartables.c to the directory \httpd-2.0\os\netware on the build machine.
  • Change directory to \httpd-2.0 and build Apache by running "gmake -f nwgnumakefile". You can create a distribution directory by adding an install parameter to the command, for example:

    gmake -f nwgnumakefile install

Additional make options

  • gmake -f nwgnumakefile

    Builds release versions of all of the binaries and copies them to a \release destination directory.

  • gmake -f nwgnumakefile DEBUG=1

    Builds debug versions of all of the binaries and copies them to a \debug destination directory.

  • gmake -f nwgnumakefile install

    Creates a complete Apache distribution with binaries, docs and additional support files in a \dist\Apache2 directory.

  • gmake -f nwgnumakefile prebuild

    Builds all of the prebuild utilities and copies them to the \nwprebuild directory.

  • gmake -f nwgnumakefile installdev

    Same as install but also creates a \lib and \include directory in the destination directory and copies headers and import files.

  • gmake -f nwgnumakefile clean

    Cleans all object files and binaries from the \release.o or \debug.o build areas depending on whether DEBUG has been defined.

  • gmake -f nwgnumakefile clobber_all

    Same as clean and also deletes the distribution directory if it exists.

Additional environment variable options

  • To build all of the experimental modules, set the environment variable EXPERIMENTAL:
  • To build Apache using standard BSD style sockets rather than Winsock, set the environment variable USE_STDSOCKETS:

Building mod_ssl for the NetWare platform

By default Apache for NetWare uses the built-in module mod_nw_ssl to provide SSL services. This module simply enables the native SSL services implemented in NetWare OS to handle all encryption for a given port. Alternatively, mod_ssl can also be used in the same manner as on other platforms.

Before mod_ssl can be built for the NetWare platform, the OpenSSL libraries must be provided. This can be done through the following steps:

  • Download the accurate OpenSSL 0.9.8 release source code from the OpenSSL Source page (older 0.9.7 versions need to be patched and are therefore not recommended).
  • Edit the file NetWare/set_env.bat and modify any tools and utilities paths so that they correspond to your build environment.
  • From the root of the OpenSSL source directory, run the following scripts:

    Netware\set_env netware-libc
    Netware\build netware-libc

    For performance reasons you should enable to build with ASM code. download NASM from the SF site. Then configure OpenSSL to use ASM code:

    Netware\build netware-libc nw-nasm enable-mdc2 enable-md5

    Warning: dont use the CodeWarrior Assembler - it produces broken code!
  • Before building Apache, set the environment variable OSSLSDK to the full path to the root of the openssl source code directory, and set WITH_MOD_SSL to 1.

    Set OSSLSDK=d:\openssl-0.9.8x
    Set WITH_MOD_SSL=1

Sat, 02 Oct 2021 15:29:00 -0500 en text/html https://dof.gob.mx/manual/en/platform/netware.html
Killexams : Novell certification

Novell provides certification for technical competence with self-study tests and courses given at National Authorized Education Centers (NAECs). The earlier Enterprise CNE (ECNE), which included WAN expertise, was replaced with the Master CNE, which itself expires in mid-2007. Once a certification can no longer be obtained, people who have successfully completed the exams will not be stripped of that title.

Following are the Novell certifications, which used to be known as NetWare certifications. For example, a CNA used to be a Certified NetWare Administrator. For more information, visit www.novell.com/training/certinfo. See certification.

Tue, 19 Mar 2019 21:33:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.pcmag.com/encyclopedia/term/novell-certification
Killexams : Was Novell’s NE2000 Really That Bad?

If you used almost any form of networked PC in the late 1980s or the 1990s, the chances are that you will at some point have encountered the Novell NE2000 network card. This 16-bit ISA card became a de facto standard for 16-bit network cards, such that very few “NE2000” cards were the real thing. A host of clones filled the market, some of which followed the spec of the original rather loosely. It’s something [Michal Necasek] examines as he takes the reader through the history of the NE2000 and why it gained something of a bad reputation. An interesting read for ’90s PC veterans who battled with dodgy Windows 3.1 network drivers.

The Novell line of network cards were not a primary product of the network server OS company but an attempt to spur the uptake of networked computers in an age when few machines were supplied from the factory with a network card installed. They were largely an implementation of the reference design for the National Semiconductor DP3890 Ethernet interface chipset, and for simplicity of interfacing and drivers they used an I/O mapped interface rather than DMA. The problem with the NE2000 wasn’t the card itself which would work with any NE2000 driver, but the host of “NE2000 compatible” cards that appeared over the decade as that magic phrase became a key selling point at the bottom end of the market. Sure they might contain a DP3890 or its clones, but even minor differences in behaviour would cause them not to work with all drivers, and thus they gained a bad name. The piece reveals the original card as one that might have been slow and outdated towards the end of its reign as a standard card, but maybe one not deserving of the ire directed at it.

If ancient networking kit is your thing, we’ve got some far more obscure stuff to show you.

Wed, 12 Oct 2022 12:00:00 -0500 Jenny List en-US text/html https://hackaday.com/2021/04/24/was-novells-ne2000-really-that-bad/
Killexams : Best Learning Management Systems (LMS) Of 2022

Docebo is one of the best learning management systems for corporations, thanks to features such as social learning, Salesforce integration, mobile learning, e-commerce, free extensions, custom domains and artificial intelligence. Its more than 400 integrations include Adobe Connect, Confluence, Dropbox, Evernote, Facebook, G2, GitHub, Google Analytics, PayPal, Stripe, Trello and WordPress.

Who should use it:

Businesses that need social learning features will appreciate Docebo.

Fri, 30 Sep 2022 10:03:00 -0500 Laura Hennigan en-US text/html https://www.forbes.com/advisor/business/best-learning-management-systems/
Killexams : The 4 types of learners—and how to know which you are Stacker Logo By Bekah Wright of Stacker | Slide 1 of 5: Have you ever wondered why some people seem to learn things faster than others? It may not be about being smarter—it could just mean that they process and learn information differently. Determined to help demystify the learning process, Neil Fleming and Colleen Mills, academics from New Zealand's Lincoln University in Canterbury, did a deep dive into the different ways individuals approach learning. They developed the VARK model based on their claim that "learners of all ages have different yet consistent ways of responding in learning situations."  The VARK model is an acronym for visual, auditory,  practicing and writing, and kinesthetic types of learning styles. Neuro-linguistic programming, or NLP, was key to Fleming and Mill's research. Someetimes described as the "users manual for your mind," NLP has also been characterized by the Association for Neuro Linguistic Programming as a combination of theories, models, and techniques that can be used strategically to  Excellerate learning outcomes. It's important to note that not all educators buy into the idea of learning styles—whether VARK or other forms—as a proven teaching technique. Many educators also believe that people can build and strengthen different types of learning styles, even if they may not come naturally at first. From Fleming and Mill's perspective, using the VARK model to understand learning styles would help empower individuals to adjust their behavior to different learning environments. One  accurate example of such an environment occurred during the height of the coronavirus pandemic: remote learning. This form of distance learning—which usually involves listening to lessons through video calls—might speak to certain styles such as auditory or visual learners. But for others, it may require supplemental materials to make the information stick. Keeping online learning varied, relevant, and engaging can keep students attuned in the classroom. What's your VARK style? Citing the VARK model, Tovuti LMS outlined the learning model's four core types of learning styles.

Have you ever wondered why some people seem to learn things faster than others? It may not be about being smarter—it could just mean that they process and learn information differently. Determined to help demystify the learning process, Neil Fleming and Colleen Mills, academics from New Zealand's Lincoln University in Canterbury, did a deep dive into the different ways individuals approach learning. They developed the VARK model based on their claim that "learners of all ages have different yet consistent ways of responding in learning situations." 

The VARK model is an acronym for visual, auditory, practicing and writing, and kinesthetic types of learning styles. Neuro-linguistic programming, or NLP, was key to Fleming and Mill's research. Someetimes described as the "users manual for your mind," NLP has also been characterized by the Association for Neuro Linguistic Programming as a combination of theories, models, and techniques that can be used strategically to Excellerate learning outcomes.

It's important to note that not all educators buy into the idea of learning styles—whether VARK or other forms—as a proven teaching technique. Many educators also believe that people can build and strengthen different types of learning styles, even if they may not come naturally at first.

From Fleming and Mill's perspective, using the VARK model to understand learning styles would help empower individuals to adjust their behavior to different learning environments. One accurate example of such an environment occurred during the height of the coronavirus pandemic: remote learning. This form of distance learning—which usually involves listening to lessons through video calls—might speak to certain styles such as auditory or visual learners. But for others, it may require supplemental materials to make the information stick. Keeping online learning varied, relevant, and engaging can keep students attuned in the classroom.

What's your VARK style? Citing the VARK model, Tovuti LMS outlined the learning model's four core types of learning styles.

© Canva
Tue, 13 Sep 2022 09:07:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://www.msn.com/en-us/news/technology/the-4-types-of-learners-and-how-to-know-which-you-are/ss-AA11N7v8
Killexams : What Do Teachers Want From Learning Management Systems? We Asked

The majority of K-12 school districts use a learning management system, especially after the pandemic forced schools to find tools that would help teachers deliver instruction online.

Many of the educators who spoke to Education Week said they like using their LMS now , even if the implementation during the pandemic was rocky.

In fact, a small majority of educators (52 percent) said the learning management system their district uses makes instruction easier, according to an EdWeek Research Center survey of more than 1,000 district leaders, principals, and teachers conducted in late July through early August.

But even so, some educators and experts told Education Week that there’s not yet an excellent K-12 LMS tool out there.

“In order for any LMS system to be efficient and to be relevant, it needs to continue to evolve,” said Tanna Nicely, the principal at South Knoxville Elementary School in Knoxville, Tenn.

So what would educators like to have in their ideal learning management system? Here’s what they said.

1. Shared or seamless use with other ed-tech tools, also known as interoperability

Almost all educators who spoke with Education Week said they want a learning management system that works smoothly with products that they already use.

They know from experience how problematic it can be when tools don’t interact well with each other. For example, a few teachers said they were disappointed with the LMS their district uses because it didn’t communicate well with their online gradebook.

“We have run into the situation where LMS systems don’t always integrate with other technology, which can be frustrating,” a New York middle school teacher wrote in the open-ended response section of the EdWeek Research Center survey. “So we end up grading everything twice.”

What educators want is a LMS that is a one-stop shop—a system that consolidates all the tools they and their students use.

“One thing I’m hearing out of my teachers and colleagues across the nation is it needs to be an all-in-one [tool],” Nicely said. “We need to have one and done, almost like an Amazon of [learning management systems].”

“From a budget standpoint, that would be a really nice thing and from a teacher-friendly, user-friendly standpoint, instead of having all these different systems to log into,” she added.

Jessica Maynard, a 1st grade teacher at South Knoxville Elementary School, agreed.

“It would be nice if [the LMS] could fully integrate [with other tools] and you could go straight there,” Maynard said. Students “can do their assignments—everything—in one, because a learning management system should be the one stop for everything.”

2. Effective communication and collaboration tools

Another feature that educators want is a more streamlined way to communicate and collaborate, with students, with colleagues, and with parents.

“My ideal learning management system would have a lot more collaboration and [group] editing tools built into the system,” said Ryan Orilio, director of technology and innovation for upstate New York’s Herkimer Central School District. “So if I, as a teacher, want to distribute an image to everybody, and I want everyone to be able to annotate and draw on that image at the same time, I don’t want to have to go into a different platform to do that.”

Dan Weber, the principal of Wilson High School in Reading, Pa., said his ideal LMS would allow parents “to go to one spot and see where everything is” and allow them to participate in their child’s education.

And for Sandra Rose, social studies supervisor for Maryland’s Prince George’s County Public Schools, being able to collaborate and build course curriculum with other staff members simultaneously in the LMS would be a “game changer.”

3. Flexibility and differentiation

More flexibility and differentiation are other features that educators said they would like in a LMS.

“I would like it to be a little bit more pliable, where maybe there’s a version that’s better for younger learners and a more intense version for older learners,” said Heather Lyke, the teaching and learning content lead for the Minneapolis Public Schools.

Lyke would also like the ability to turn features on or off for specific students to help them learn responsible use.

“Right now, the way learning management systems exist, you either can turn a feature on or you can turn the feature off,” she said. “But sometimes, you want to turn the feature on for 92 percent of the kids, but there’s a couple of kids—that 8 percent—that have been misusing it and you want to turn it off just for those kids, so that they can learn and grow and then turn it back on when they’re ready.”

Other features educators want:

  • Student portfolios: “I want to store things for students that want to have a profile,” Weber said. “If a kid is looking at post-secondary school or an internship, they have the ability to just share that resource.”
  • Audio and video capabilities: Teachers said they’d like the ability to do video and audio conferences with students right within the system. They’d also like a way for students to turn in assignments using video or audio tools available within the LMS to accommodate different learning styles.
  • Cost-free: “In education—where we are, in my opinion, underfunded—[in order] to support our youth for the future, free is important,” Lyke said. “Open educational resources are critical. So I would love a learning management to be free.” (Dover-Eyota Public Schools in Minnesota, where Lyke was the teaching and learning director for two years, used Google Classroom as its learning management system, and it was free.)
Fri, 23 Sep 2022 07:03:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.edweek.org/technology/what-do-teachers-want-from-learning-management-systems-we-asked/2022/09
Killexams : What Teachers Really Think About Their Learning Management Systems

Hardly any K-12 school districts were using a learning management system 10 years ago. Now, they’re almost ubiquitous.

But the use of learning management systems —which are essentially software programs that helps educators create, manage, organize, and deliver online learning materials for students—increased dramatically in 2020 and 2021. That’s when many school districts had to scramble to find tools that would help their teachers deliver instruction online and give students easy access to instructional materials while they learned from their homes.

More than two years later, how are teachers feeling about the learning management systems most of them are required to use?

A small majority of educators (52 percent) said the learning management system their district uses makes instruction easier, according to an EdWeek Research Center survey of more than 1,000 district leaders, principals, and teachers conducted in late July through early August.

Many of the educators who spoke to Education Week said they like using their LMS now. But that wasn’t always the case. The hasty adoption of learning managing systems led to a lack of proper training and lack of time to learn how to effectively use the technology. That, in turn, made it harder to get teacher buy-in initially.

Nearly 40 percent of educators said their LMS made teaching neither easier nor harder, and 11 percent said it made it harder. Almost two dozen of the 300-plus comments in the open-ended response section of the EdWeek Research Center survey were critical of how their district handled the transition to a new LMS.

“Our district forced all K-12 teachers to use Canvas,” said an elementary school teacher in Michigan who participated in the survey. “No teachers think it is helpful. NONE. But we are still being told to use it.”

Many school districts weren’t using a learning management system until the pandemic hit

The majority of K-12 school districts use at least one learning management system—only 6 percent of educators said their district doesn’t use one, according to the EdWeek Research Center survey.

Many school districts already had a learning management system before the pandemic hit, and even if the pandemic didn’t happen, some experts say other districts would have implemented one eventually. The pandemic just sped up the timetable.

In fact, between 2013 and now, the year 2020 saw the highest number of new implementations of the technology in school districts or schools across the United States and Canada, according to data provided to Education Week by market research firm ListEdTech .

Some of the most popular ones among K-12 districts are Instructure’s Canvas, PowerSchool’s Schoology, and Google Classroom (even though experts say Google Classroom is not technically a learning management system, many districts still use it as such.)

Representatives from Instructure and PowerSchool told Education Week that they saw an uptick of K-12 districts buying and implementing their LMS when the pandemic forced instruction to happen virtually.

If it weren’t for the pandemic, the pace of implementation would have been a lot slower, according to Adam Garry, Dell Technologies’ senior director of education strategy for North America.

Usually, it would take a full school year to choose a LMS and another year to start implementing the use of it. Most school districts didn’t throw all the teachers in at once and took about three years to fully implement one districtwide.

But that was different in 2020 and 2021.

“During the pandemic, they made decisions and implemented with all teachers in about three months in most new implementations,” Garry said.

That was the case for many of the school districts that spoke with Education Week. Many teachers were testing out different learning management systems before the pandemic, but when the lockdown happened, district leaders had to immediately choose which one would be used districtwide.

In upstate New York’s Herkimer Central School District, a few teachers were already testing out Google Classroom before the pandemic. When the district switched to remote learning, they chose Google Classroom because it was the most accessible, according to Ryan Orilio, director of technology and innovation for the Herkimer district.

“We started going remote and we needed something that we already had access to and we are a Google school [district] anyway—we use Google for email and for Drive,” Orilio said. “Since then, we haven’t even really evaluated other solutions, because this is something that all of our students [and teachers] are familiar with, and it already works with the ecosystem that we have.”

There was high anxiety because we were panicked about learning how to use the program, getting everything in there quickly.

In other districts, such as Clark County School District, the largest district in Nevada, a learning management system was already available for several years but it wasn’t until the pandemic that all teachers were required to use it. One Clark County teacher said she hadn’t even heard of Canvas—the Clark County’s LMS—until her district shifted to remote learning.

And some districts that didn’t implement a new learning management system during the pandemic are doing so now. For example, Maryland’s Prince George’s County Public Schools are fully implementing Canvas during the 2022-23 school year, after a soft launch last year. Prior to Canvas, many district teachers were using Google Classroom.

“The pandemic revealed the need for us to coordinate a lot of our instructional materials and digital materials in one place to streamline how our teachers and our students can access resources,” said Sandra Rose, social studies supervisor for the district and the liaison from the academics division for the district’s implementation of Canvas.

For some teachers, using the technology for the first time was ‘extremely intimidating’

Now that teachers have had more time with their learning management system, a majority of educators (53 percent) surveyed by the EdWeek Research Center said they would describe themselves as “very” or “extremely” proficient, 34 percent said “somewhat proficient,” and 13 percent said they’re a “complete beginner” or “minimally proficient.”

But in the beginning, there was a big learning curve, according to educators who spoke with Education Week.

“I remember it was extremely intimidating,” said Vanessa Piper, a learning strategist and English teacher at Legacy High School in Las Vegas, which is in the Clark County district. “There was high anxiety because we were panicked about learning how to use the program, getting everything in there quickly. Once teachers were trained and we started getting our hands dirty in it, we were OK and the anxiety subsided and we felt a lot more comfortable.”

Jessica Maynard, a 1st grade teacher at South Knoxville Elementary School in Knoxville, Tenn., felt the same about her experience with Canvas, the LMS her district uses.

“I honestly love it now that I’m into it and really used it a bit,” she said. “When I first started learning it, it took a little while to get used to.”

Lack of quality professional development is a problem

Some educators said the transition to using a learning management system would’ve been easier if there was more effective professional development.

“The transition would have been more comfortable had we had the on-site training,” Piper said. “They used Canvas to teach us about Canvas, which was useful because we could see it as students [were using it] while we were learning how to use it as teachers. But that personal touch—you couldn’t ask the questions or you couldn’t make the comparisons or learn from other people—it wasn’t there, but they did the best they could with what we were given at the time. We were on lockdown.”

In the EdWeek Research Center survey, only 15 percent of educators said the professional development they received to use their learning management system was “very effective,” 48 percent said “somewhat effective,” 17 percent said “somewhat ineffective,” and 6 percent said “very ineffective.”

“We received next to NO training on Schoology and were mostly left to figure it out on our own,” a Massachusetts high school teacher wrote in the open-ended response section of the survey.

Teachers also said they just needed more time to play around with the tool so that they could use it more effectively in the classroom. Oftentimes, what worked best for them was learning from and collaborating with their colleagues.

A Maryland high school teacher who responded to the EdWeek Research Center’s survey said that because the LMS is new to him, he’s just going to do “bare bones stuff,” so that he could “check off the box and appease the powers that be.”

A middle school teacher in Virginia also mentioned doing the “bare minimum.”

“Most teachers simply did the bare minimum (myself included) because we had very little training, confusing materials for self-study, and as usual, very little time to spend creating content,” the teacher said.

There’s no going back

Looking ahead, educators who spoke with Education Week said that learning management systems are here to stay but the levels of use of the technology may vary considerably. While 38 percent of educators surveyed by the EdWeek Research Center said they plan to use more of their learning management system during the 2022-23 school year than they did during the last two school years, others said they’ll use it less or in a different way.

“I do not see teachers going back to not using it,” said Heather Lyke, who was the teaching and learning director for Dover-Eyota Public Schools in Minnesota for two years. She’s now the teaching and learning 6-12 content lead for Minneapolis Public Schools. “I really see that teachers—whether they like technology or not—have seen the benefits of those learning management systems.”

“There are certainly benefits to things that you can’t get on a computer: annotating a text online is very different from highlighting the text and circling the words and writing in the margins,” Lyke said. “So will teachers and have teachers already gone back to doing some of those good practices that don’t require technology? Absolutely. And I hope they continue to do that. But they also now have this technology tool and a comfort level with the technology tool that they have a wider expanse of best practices at their fingertips.”

Blake Julian, who taught high school science at Dover-Eyota for five years, said he feels “a little bit empowered now” after having to recreate his curriculum so that every lesson could be done using Google Classroom and other Google features.

The pandemic “forced me to look at the technology in a different way and learn how to utilize it in a more educational way,” Julian said. “Now, it’s just so easy to make in-person learning so much more engaging because you found the things that worked. I can make assignments asynchronous now, so if kids miss a day, they’re covered.”

“What would have felt like a mountain of work before is now just built into my normal prep, so it’s a piece of cake,” he added.

Other teachers agreed that they like that they have another tool in the instructional toolbox.

Educators also mentioned that they’ve seen how learning management systems can make learning more accessible. A student can always be on the same page as their classmates even if they had to miss a class because of an illness or other circumstances.

“With a learning management system that’s used appropriately, there will be a lot less of a disconnect,” said Orilio, tech director for the Herkimer Central School District. “The student who’s not there will still know everything that’s going on in class, have all the documents and things that are required, and sometimes even be able to follow along live.

“It’s important to have and use tools that remove roadblocks for teachers and make teachers’ lives easier, but I think that the first priority of a learning management system is to make our learning accessible to all students, regardless of where they are.”

Tue, 20 Sep 2022 16:00:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.edweek.org/technology/what-teachers-really-think-about-their-learning-management-systems/2022/09
Killexams : Can You Get Car Insurance With A Learner’s Permit?

Editorial Note: We earn a commission from partner links on Forbes Advisor. Commissions do not affect our editors' opinions or evaluations.

New drivers with a learner’s permit should have car insurance while learning to drive, even though they are not yet fully licensed.

The good news is that teenage drivers with a permit may already be covered by a parent’s car insurance policy. If you are the parent of a freshly minted driver with a permit, adding them to your policy likely will not cost you anything. The rate increase will come later when the young driver gets their license.

Do You Need Auto Insurance With a Learner’s Permit?

Every driver on the road should have car insurance, including those driving with a learner’s permit.

Depending on the state, a teenager with a learner’s permit may not be legally required to have car insurance. But insurers typically require all drivers in your household to be listed on your insurance policy.

If someone with a learner’s permit is driving your car, it’s best to inform your insurance company. If you don’t inform your insurer and your teen gets in an accident, the insurance company could deny your claim.

When your child is ready to get their learner’s permit, call your insurance company to let them know. If, however, you do not want your teen on your policy, you should exclude the driver from coverage.

How Can You Get Insurance with a Permit?

Drivers with a permit can be added to a parent’s car insurance policy or they can buy their own.

Adding a permit holder to a parent policy

If your teen is a new driver who still lives at home, adding them to your car insurance policy is the easiest way to secure coverage.

Adding a driver with a permit to your existing policy likely won’t cost you anything until the driver gets their license. So, if your teen takes two years to learn how to drive with a permit, you can enjoy that time without an increase in your car insurance rate.

Related: Best cheap car insurance for teens

Buying your own car insurance policy

First-time drivers can buy their own car insurance policy, but this is usually more expensive than adding them to an existing parent’s policy.

Buying your own car insurance policy may be your only option if:

  • You are an adult driver with a permit
  • You are a teenage driver whose parents do not have car insurance
  • You are a young driver who does not share a permanent address with your parents
  • You are an emancipated minor
  • You’ve bought your own car

How Much Car Insurance Do Learner’s Permit Drivers Need?

Drivers who are learning with a permit will need to meet state minimum car insurance requirements, either through their parent’s policy or their own. Most states require a minimum amount of liability auto insurance, and some have additional requirements, such as personal injury protection coverage.

For instance, Florida requires drivers to have at least:

  • $10,000 in liability coverage for bodily injury damages for one person
  • $20,000 in bodily injury coverage per accident
  • $10,000 in liability coverage for property damage
  • $10,000 in personal injury protection coverage

If a new driver causes an accident, having only the state minimum amount of car insurance will likely not be enough. As a good rule of thumb, you should make sure to have enough liability insurance to cover what you could lose in a lawsuit after a car accident.

Related: How much car insurance do I need?

How Much Is Car Insurance for New Drivers with a Permit?

If you’re a parent, it likely won’t cost anything to add a new driver with a permit to your car insurance policy. But, once the driver becomes fully licensed, your car insurance premium will increase significantly.

Average rate increase to add a teen driver to a parent policy

How Can Parents Save on Car Insurance?

Parents adding a teen driver to their policy can save on car insurance by:

  • Shopping around. To find the best deal, take the time to compare auto insurance quotes from at least three or four different companies.
  • Signing up for a driver’s education program. Some insurers offer programs that help teen drivers and offer discounts for the teens who complete them.
  • Checking for discounts. Many insurers offer car insurance discounts that apply to teen drivers, such as good grade discounts and student away from home discounts.
  • Bundling your policies. You could save on premiums by buying auto insurance and homeowners insurance (or renter’s insurance) from the same insurer.
  • Driving safely. Insurance rates tend to go up after a speeding ticket or accident, so encourage safe driving habits for the whole family.

Best Car Insurance Companies 2022

With so many choices for car insurance companies, it can be hard to know where to start to find the right car insurance. We've evaluated insurers to find the best car insurance companies, so you don't have to.

Car Insurance for Permit Drivers FAQ

Does it make sense for a permit holder to buy their own car insurance?

No, it does not make sense for a permit holder to buy their own car insurance unless they have to.

Scenarios where a permit holder may be required to buy their own policy include if they don’t have a parent or guardian with auto insurance, they no longer live with a parent or they buy their own car.

Related: Tips for first-time car insurance buyers

When should a permit holder be added to a parent’s car insurance policy?

When your child gets their learner’s permit, you should notify your insurance company. As a driver using your car with your permission, they may be covered under your policy at no charge.

Once your child gets their driver’s license, you can add them to your car insurance policy as a listed operator. At that point, your insurance rate will increase.

Related: Best car insurance for teens

How much will a policy increase by adding a teen driver?

The average cost of adding a young driver—age 16 to 21—to a married couple’s car insurance policy is $1,951 a year, according to a Forbes Advisor analysis of rates from top 11 insurance companies across the nation.

With that in mind, those hoping to find the best cheap car insurance for teens should shop around and compare premiums with at least three or four different insurance companies.

Tue, 11 Oct 2022 01:52:00 -0500 Holly Johnson en-US text/html https://www.forbes.com/advisor/car-insurance/can-you-get-insurance-with-a-permit/
Killexams : How online Math learning can make Math more fun for early learners How online Math learning can make Math more fun for early learners How online Math learning can make Math more fun for early learners

There are hardly any kids who have Math as their favourite subject as it can be quite daunting, especially in K5 learning. Many adults share experiencing nightmares of failing their math exams even long after school. Some even use fear before the math exam or its results as a reference for different life situations. That is the scare math children experience from a very young age. However, there are ways to make the subject more interesting for them and less scary.

One way is to find out what type of math they are interested in and then focus on that area. For example, some kids might be interested in learning about geometry, while others might be more interested in solving puzzles. Once you know what type of math your child is interested in, you can find ways to make it more fun. Online math learning is a great way to do this. You can also help them see math's relevance in their everyday lives by showing them how to use it to solve real-world problems.

WHY IS MATH LEARNING IMPORTANT FOR YOUR CHILD?

Introducing math as a core subject in K5 learning puts children well on the path to academic success in primary school and beyond. According to the India Early Childhood Education Impact Study, 2021, math learning is one of the key school readiness competencies that influences a child's early grade learning outcomes.

Math has been acknowledged as one of the most important foundational skills for building critical and logical thinking. Eventually, this transforms into the overall cognitive development of a child.

APPLICATION OF MATH LEARNING IN DAILY LIFE

Many might question the application of online math learning in daily life. But math is a skill that is intricately connected to other important development aspects of a child's growth.

Math teaches logical thinking

Mathematics, as a subject, follows logic. Any mathematical equation will have a predictable outcome. And to reach that outcome, the learner has to execute a sequential set of steps. This follows logic, and the child learns to think logically.

Math teaches critical thinking

Through learning math, you can develop critical thinking skills for your child. For example, ask a student to describe analytically the steps they followed to arrive at a particular mathematical outcome. Math learning centres encourage learners to ask critical questions to bring out analytical thoughts.

Math teaches life skills

One of the most important reasons learning math is a compulsory element of early childhood education is its obvious connection with financial literacy. With the help of math learning, children start getting familiar with the concept of money, and its related calculations.

Other mathematical concepts like percentages or fractions help them to make important decisions later on in life, like investments or starting a new business.

Math facilitates education in continuum

Most careers today rely on skills such as analytics, counting, or geometrical calculations. All these are founded on your basic math skills. Many job roles that are seemingly unrelated to math, like curating a program for online math learning, require you to have foundational skills in the subject.

5 EFFECTIVE WAYS TO INCREASE YOUR CHILD'S INTEREST IN LEARNING MATH

Online math learning is one of the many ways to increase your child's engagement with the math subject.

Here are some very effective methods to ensure your child is engaged in math learning with interest:

1. USE TLM TO TEACH MATH:

The use of Teaching Learning Materials (TLM) inevitably increases a kid's interest. A subject like math relies heavily on abstract concepts, so using toys and other aids to explain numbers and representation can be extremely beneficial.

2. INTRODUCE GAMES TO TEACHING:

Many board games or other activities like quizzes or mental games require the knowledge of Mathematics. You can engage your child in games that require problem-solving or decision-making skills based on mathematical concepts like addition or subtraction.

3. LEVERAGE ONLINE MATH LEARNING:

Generally, using technology in the 21st century to facilitate K5 learning is a great idea to familiarize your child with both abstract concepts and technology.

4. SUPPLEMENT LEARNING WITH REAL EXAMPLES:

It is important to establish from an early age that math is an integral part of everyday life. It is present in simple, daily chores like grocery shopping to more advanced activities like planning a holiday.

5. ESTABLISH MATH AS A FOUNDATIONAL CAREER SKILL:

While you don't want to pressure your child with career goals from an early age, it is important to underline the role of math and its related skills to make professional progress.

Online math learning can be hard for kids. That's why parents are looking for new ways to help their children understand. Edtech startups such as Convegenius, offer adaptive and personalised learning tools designed to help kids learn math through interactive media and make it fun for them.

That way, the subject doesn't appear daunting eventually, allowing the child to embrace the concepts more seamlessly.

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Thu, 22 Sep 2022 18:01:00 -0500 en-IN text/html https://www.msn.com/en-in/news/techandscience/how-online-math-learning-can-make-math-more-fun-for-early-learners/ar-AA129nOG
Killexams : Using Apache With Novell NetWare

This document explains how to install, configure and run Apache 2.0 under Novell NetWare 6.0 and above. If you find any bugs, or wish to contribute in other ways, please use our bug reporting page.

The bug reporting page and dev-httpd mailing list are not provided to answer questions about configuration or running Apache. Before you submit a bug report or request, first consult this document, the Frequently Asked Questions page and the other relevant documentation topics. If you still have a question or problem, post it to the novell.devsup.webserver newsgroup, where many Apache users are more than willing to answer new and obscure questions about using Apache on NetWare.

Most of this document assumes that you are installing Apache from a binary distribution. If you want to compile Apache yourself (possibly to help with development, or to track down bugs), see the section on Compiling Apache for NetWare below.

Apache 2.0 is designed to run on NetWare 6.0 service pack 3 and above. If you are running a service pack less than SP3, you must install the latest NetWare Libraries for C (LibC).

NetWare service packs are available here.

Apache 2.0 for NetWare can also be run in a NetWare 5.1 environment as long as the latest service pack or the latest version of the NetWare Libraries for C (LibC) has been installed . WARNING: Apache 2.0 for NetWare has not been targeted for or tested in this environment.

Information on the latest version of Apache can be found on the Apache web server at http://www.apache.org/. This will list the current release, any more accurate alpha or beta-test releases, together with details of mirror web and anonymous ftp sites. Binary builds of the latest releases of Apache 2.0 for NetWare can be downloaded from here.

There is no Apache install program for NetWare currently. If you are building Apache 2.0 for NetWare from source, you will need to copy the files over to the server manually.

Follow these steps to install Apache on NetWare from the binary download (assuming you will install to sys:/apache2):

  • Unzip the binary download file to the root of the SYS: volume (may be installed to any volume)
  • Edit the apache2.conf file setting ServerRoot and ServerName along with any file path values to reflect your correct server settings
  • Add SYS:/APACHE2 to the search path, for example:

Follow these steps to install Apache on NetWare manually from your own build source (assuming you will install to sys:/apache2):

  • Create a directory called Apache2 on a NetWare volume
  • Copy APACHE2.NLM, APRLIB.NLM to SYS:/APACHE2
  • Create a directory under SYS:/APACHE2 called BIN
  • Copy HTDIGEST.NLM, HTPASSWD.NLM, HTDBM.NLM, LOGRES.NLM, ROTLOGS.NLM to SYS:/APACHE2/BIN
  • Create a directory under SYS:/APACHE2 called CONF
  • Copy the HTTPD-STD.CONF file to the SYS:/APACHE2/CONF directory and rename to HTTPD.CONF
  • Copy the MIME.TYPES, CHARSET.CONV and MAGIC files to SYS:/APACHE2/CONF directory
  • Copy all files and subdirectories in \HTTPD-2.0\DOCS\ICONS to SYS:/APACHE2/ICONS
  • Copy all files and subdirectories in \HTTPD-2.0\DOCS\MANUAL to SYS:/APACHE2/MANUAL
  • Copy all files and subdirectories in \HTTPD-2.0\DOCS\ERROR to SYS:/APACHE2/ERROR
  • Copy all files and subdirectories in \HTTPD-2.0\DOCS\DOCROOT to SYS:/APACHE2/HTDOCS
  • Create the directory SYS:/APACHE2/LOGS on the server
  • Create the directory SYS:/APACHE2/CGI-BIN on the server
  • Create the directory SYS:/APACHE2/MODULES and copy all nlm modules into the modules directory
  • Edit the HTTPD.CONF file searching for all @@Value@@ markers and replacing them with the appropriate setting
  • Add SYS:/APACHE2 to the search path, for example:

Apache may be installed to other volumes besides the default SYS volume.

During the build process, adding the keyword "install" to the makefile command line will automatically produce a complete distribution package under the subdirectory DIST. Install Apache by simply copying the distribution that was produced by the makfiles to the root of a NetWare volume (see: Compiling Apache for NetWare below).

To start Apache just type apache at the console. This will load apache in the OS address space. If you prefer to load Apache in a protected address space you may specify the address space with the load statement as follows:

load address space = apache2 apache2

This will load Apache into an address space called apache2. Running multiple instances of Apache concurrently on NetWare is possible by loading each instance into its own protected address space.

After starting Apache, it will be listening to port 80 (unless you changed the Listen directive in the configuration files). To connect to the server and access the default page, launch a browser and enter the server's name or address. This should respond with a welcome page, and a link to the Apache manual. If nothing happens or you get an error, look in the error_log file in the logs directory.

Once your basic installation is working, you should configure it properly by editing the files in the conf directory.

To unload Apache running in the OS address space just type the following at the console:

or

If apache is running in a protected address space specify the address space in the unload statement:

unload address space = apache2 apache2

When working with Apache it is important to know how it will find the configuration files. You can specify a configuration file on the command line in two ways:

  • -f specifies a path to a particular configuration file

apache2 -f "vol:/my server/conf/my.conf"

In these cases, the proper ServerRoot should be set in the configuration file.

If you don't specify a configuration file name with -f, Apache will use the file name compiled into the server, usually conf/apache2.conf. Invoking Apache with the -V switch will display this value labeled as SERVER_CONFIG_FILE. Apache will then determine its ServerRoot by trying the following, in this order:

  • A ServerRoot directive via a -C switch.
  • The -d switch on the command line.
  • Current working directory
  • The server root compiled into the server.

The server root compiled into the server is usually sys:/apache2. invoking apache with the -V switch will display this value labeled as HTTPD_ROOT.

Apache 2.0 for NetWare includes a set of command line directives that can be used to modify or display information about the running instance of the web server. These directives are only available while Apache is running. Each of these directives must be preceded by the keyword APACHE2.

RESTART
Instructs Apache to terminate all running worker threads as they become idle, reread the configuration file and restart each worker thread based on the new configuration.
VERSION
Displays version information about the currently running instance of Apache.
MODULES
Displays a list of loaded modules both built-in and external.
DIRECTIVES
Displays a list of all available directives.
SETTINGS
Enables or disables the thread status display on the console. When enabled, the state of each running threads is displayed on the Apache console screen.
SHUTDOWN
Terminates the running instance of the Apache web server.
HELP
Describes each of the runtime directives.

By default these directives are issued against the instance of Apache running in the OS address space. To issue a directive against a specific instance running in a protected address space, include the -p parameter along with the name of the address space. For more information type "apache2 Help" on the command line.

Apache is configured by practicing configuration files usually stored in the conf directory. These are the same as files used to configure the Unix version, but there are a few different directives for Apache on NetWare. See the Apache module documentation for all the available directives.

The main differences in Apache for NetWare are:

  • Because Apache for NetWare is multithreaded, it does not use a separate process for each request, as Apache does on some Unix implementations. Instead there are only threads running: a parent thread, and multiple child or worker threads which handle the requests.

    Therefore the "process"-management directives are different:

    MaxConnectionsPerChild - Like the Unix directive, this controls how many connections a worker thread will serve before exiting. The recommended default, MaxConnectionsPerChild 0, causes the thread to continue servicing request indefinitely. It is recommended on NetWare, unless there is some specific reason, that this directive always remain set to 0.

    StartThreads - This directive tells the server how many threads it should start initially. The recommended default is StartThreads 50.

    MinSpareThreads - This directive instructs the server to spawn additional worker threads if the number of idle threads ever falls below this value. The recommended default is MinSpareThreads 10.

    MaxSpareThreads - This directive instructs the server to begin terminating worker threads if the number of idle threads ever exceeds this value. The recommended default is MaxSpareThreads 100.

    MaxThreads - This directive limits the total number of work threads to a maximum value. The recommended default is ThreadsPerChild 250.

    ThreadStackSize - This directive tells the server what size of stack to use for the individual worker thread. The recommended default is ThreadStackSize 65536.

  • The directives that accept filenames as arguments must use NetWare filenames instead of Unix names. However, because Apache uses Unix-style names internally, forward slashes must be used rather than backslashes. It is recommended that all rooted file paths begin with a volume name. If omitted, Apache will assume the SYS: volume which may not be correct.

  • Apache for NetWare has the ability to load modules at runtime, without recompiling the server. If Apache is compiled normally, it will install a number of optional modules in the \Apache2\modules directory. To activate these, or other modules, the LoadModule directive must be used. For example, to active the status module, use the following:

    LoadModule status_module modules/status.nlm

    Information on creating loadable modules is also available.

Additional NetWare specific directives:

  • CGIMapExtension - This directive maps a CGI file extension to a script interpreter.
  • NWSSLTrustedCerts - Adds trusted certificates that are used to create secure connections to proxied servers.
  • NWSSLUpgradeable - Allow a connection created on the specified address/port to be upgraded to an SSL connection.

Compiling Apache requires MetroWerks CodeWarrior 6.x or higher. Once Apache has been built, it can be installed to the root of any NetWare volume. The default is the sys:/Apache2 directory.

Before running the server you must fill out the conf directory. Copy the file HTTPD-STD.CONF from the distribution conf directory and rename it to HTTPD.CONF. Edit the HTTPD.CONF file searching for all @@Value@@ markers and replacing them with the appropriate setting. Copy over the conf/magic and conf/mime.types files as well. Alternatively, a complete distribution can be built by including the keyword install when invoking the makefiles.

Requirements:

The following development tools are required to build Apache 2.0 for NetWare:

Building Apache using the NetWare makefiles:

  • Set the environment variable NOVELLLIBC to the location of the NetWare Libraries for C SDK, for example:

    Set NOVELLLIBC=c:\novell\ndk\libc

  • Set the environment variable METROWERKS to the location where you installed the Metrowerks CodeWarrior compiler, for example:

    Set METROWERKS=C:\Program Files\Metrowerks\CodeWarrior

    If you installed to the default location C:\Program Files\Metrowerks\CodeWarrior, you don't need to set this.
  • Set the environment variable LDAPSDK to the location where you installed the LDAP Libraries for C, for example:

    Set LDAPSDK=c:\Novell\NDK\cldapsdk\NetWare\libc

  • Set the environment variable ZLIBSDK to the location where you installed the source code for the ZLib Library, for example:

    Set ZLIBSDK=D:\NOVELL\zlib

  • Set the environment variable PCRESDK to the location where you installed the source code for the PCRE Library, for example:

    Set PCRESDK=D:\NOVELL\pcre

  • Set the environment variable AP_WORK to the full path of the httpd source code directory.

    Set AP_WORK=D:\httpd-2.0.x

  • Set the environment variable APR_WORK to the full path of the apr source code directory. Typically \httpd\srclib\apr but the APR project can be outside of the httpd directory structure.

    Set APR_WORK=D:\apr-1.x.x

  • Set the environment variable APU_WORK to the full path of the apr-util source code directory. Typically \httpd\srclib\apr-util but the APR-UTIL project can be outside of the httpd directory structure.

    Set APU_WORK=D:\apr-util-1.x.x

  • Make sure that the path to the AWK utility and the GNU make utility (gmake.exe) have been included in the system's PATH environment variable.
  • Download the source code and unzip to an appropriate directory on your workstation.
  • Change directory to \httpd-2.0 and build the prebuild utilities by running "gmake -f nwgnumakefile prebuild". This target will create the directory \httpd-2.0\nwprebuild and copy each of the utilities to this location that are necessary to complete the following build steps.
  • Copy the files \httpd-2.0\nwprebuild\GENCHARS.nlm and \httpd-2.0\nwprebuild\DFTABLES.nlm to the SYS: volume of a NetWare server and run them using the following commands:

    SYS:\genchars > sys:\test_char.h
    SYS:\dftables sys:\chartables.c

  • Copy the files test_char.h and chartables.c to the directory \httpd-2.0\os\netware on the build machine.
  • Change directory to \httpd-2.0 and build Apache by running "gmake -f nwgnumakefile". You can create a distribution directory by adding an install parameter to the command, for example:

    gmake -f nwgnumakefile install

Additional make options

  • gmake -f nwgnumakefile

    Builds release versions of all of the binaries and copies them to a \release destination directory.

  • gmake -f nwgnumakefile DEBUG=1

    Builds debug versions of all of the binaries and copies them to a \debug destination directory.

  • gmake -f nwgnumakefile install

    Creates a complete Apache distribution with binaries, docs and additional support files in a \dist\Apache2 directory.

  • gmake -f nwgnumakefile prebuild

    Builds all of the prebuild utilities and copies them to the \nwprebuild directory.

  • gmake -f nwgnumakefile installdev

    Same as install but also creates a \lib and \include directory in the destination directory and copies headers and import files.

  • gmake -f nwgnumakefile clean

    Cleans all object files and binaries from the \release.o or \debug.o build areas depending on whether DEBUG has been defined.

  • gmake -f nwgnumakefile clobber_all

    Same as clean and also deletes the distribution directory if it exists.

Additional environment variable options

  • To build all of the experimental modules, set the environment variable EXPERIMENTAL:
  • To build Apache using standard BSD style sockets rather than Winsock, set the environment variable USE_STDSOCKETS:

Building mod_ssl for the NetWare platform

By default Apache for NetWare uses the built-in module mod_nw_ssl to provide SSL services. This module simply enables the native SSL services implemented in NetWare OS to handle all encryption for a given port. Alternatively, mod_ssl can also be used in the same manner as on other platforms.

Before mod_ssl can be built for the NetWare platform, the OpenSSL libraries must be provided. This can be done through the following steps:

  • Download the accurate OpenSSL 0.9.8 release source code from the OpenSSL Source page (older 0.9.7 versions need to be patched and are therefore not recommended).
  • Edit the file NetWare/set_env.bat and modify any tools and utilities paths so that they correspond to your build environment.
  • From the root of the OpenSSL source directory, run the following scripts:

    Netware\set_env netware-libc
    Netware\build netware-libc

    For performance reasons you should enable to build with ASM code. download NASM from the SF site. Then configure OpenSSL to use ASM code:

    Netware\build netware-libc nw-nasm enable-mdc2 enable-md5

    Warning: dont use the CodeWarrior Assembler - it produces broken code!
  • Before building Apache, set the environment variable OSSLSDK to the full path to the root of the openssl source code directory, and set WITH_MOD_SSL to 1.

    Set OSSLSDK=d:\openssl-0.9.8x
    Set WITH_MOD_SSL=1

Mon, 11 Jul 2022 14:17:00 -0500 en text/html https://jobb.dn.se/manual/en/platform/netware.html
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