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050-890 Advanced Novell Network Management;Netware 6.5 testing |

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Exam Code: 050-890 Advanced Novell Network Management;Netware 6.5 testing January 2024 by team
Advanced Novell Network Management;Netware 6.5
Novell Management;Netware testing

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Advanced Novell Network Management;Netware 6.5
D. Primary Server
E. Preferred Server
Answer: E
Question: 182
By default, which statement is true regarding the UAL licensing model in NetWare 6.5?
A. NDPS printers use a user or connection license.
B. The license is released from the user immediately when the user logs out.
C. The search for the license starts at the users context and goes up the tree.
D. A different license is required for each NetWare 6.5 server that a user authenticates to.
Answer: C
Question: 183
Which platforms are supported by the NFS component of Native File Access Protocols
service on a NetWare 6.5 server? (Choose 2)
B. Linux
E. Windows 95
F. Windows XP
G. Windows 2000
Answer: A, B
Question: 184
A secondary server is not synchronized to a single reference time server. During the next
polling process, what percent of the time difference does the secondary time server adjust?
A. 1%
B. 16%
C. 25%
D. 50%
E. 75%
F. 100%
G. A secondary server doesnt adjust its clock
Answer: F
Question: 185
What are advantages of using configured lists for time synchronization? (Choose 2)
A. Reduces network SLP and SAP traffic
B. Easier to implement and manage than using SLP and SAP
C. Allows you to specify which time server a server should contact
D. Allows servers to be synchronized in a mixed IP/IPX environment
E. Allows single reference and primary time servers to reside in the same tree
Answer: A, C
Question: 186
Which tasks must you always perform when implementing DHCP? (Choose 3)
A. Create a subnet
B. Create a Zone object
C. Create a DHCP server
D. Configure a NAT router
E. Configure an address range
F. Create the SOOTP.MDB tile
G. Import a DHCP configuration
H. Export the DHCP configuration
Answer: A,?,?
Question: 187
When should an SLP DA be configured? (Choose 2)
A. When SLPv2 is being used
B. When a DEFAULT scope exists
C. When SLP is running on a large network
D. When backward compatibility is needed with SLPv1
E. When environments need to keep SLP network traffic to a minimum
Answer: C, E
Question: 188
Which activities are appropriate to help you be better prepared for recurring network
problems? (Choose 3)
A. Maintain an updated network map.
B. Remove unnecessary components.
C. Perform regular network health checks.
D. Keep documentation available for reference.
E. Open an electronic incident with Novell support.
Answer: A, C, D
Question: 189
Youve just completed a Remote Upgrade to NetWare 6.5 on a NetWare 5.1 server. The
server you upgraded resides in a multi-server tree. Which DSRE PAIR operations should
you run on the upgraded server? (Choose 3)
A. Import Remote Schema
B. Time Synchronization
C. Unattended Full Repair
D. Delete Unknown Leaf Objects
E. Post NetWare 5 Schema Update
F. Report Synchronization Status
G. Repair Time Stamps and Declare a New Epoch
H. Designate This Server as the New Master Replica
Answer: B, C, F
Question: 190
What complimentary resources are available online through the Novell web pages?
(Choose 3)
A. Product documentation
B. Product support forums
C. Incident-based electronic support
D. Novell Software Evaluation Library
E. Limited access to Abend Analysis System
Answer: A, B, E
Question: 191
Which NLM acts as a relay agent to forward DHCP requests from one network segment to
Answer: Pending. Please Send your suggestions to feedback@
Question: 192
NAT provides protection at the _____ layer of the OSI model.
A. Network
B. Physical
C. Data Link
D. Transport
Answer: A
Question: 193
Your NetWare 6.5 servers IP address is To access Remote Manager on your
server, what URL would you use?
Answer: HTPP://;HTTPS://
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Novell Management;Netware testing - BingNews Search results Novell Management;Netware testing - BingNews Novell Gives Sneak Peek Of NetWare 6.5

NetWare 6.5, code-named Nakoma and currently in closed beta testing, offers a new Virtual Office interface that consolidates the existing iFolder and iPrint Web services with new portal and team workspace capabilities, executives said during a preview of the forthcoming upgrade this week. It is due to move into open beta testing this spring and ship in mid-2003, executives said during an interview with CRN Monday.

Some of the new features allow solution providers to offer their clients a more robust product than past generations, Novell executives said.

For example, Virtual Office, which is far more extensible than the existing NetWare Web Access capabilities, will allow solution providers to build a fully customized, browser-based desktop that enables users to print, access and manage all documents and to collaborate from a browser, said Rob Seely, NetWare product line manager.

The new "virtual teams" feature, which is similar to Microsoft's SharePoint Team Services, enables users to collaborate on the same files from a browser. In addition, the advanced portal capabilities let users create a Web-based desktop that exposes print, file, team services, calendar, news, chat and discussions, and project management from a single interface.

The eGuide 2.1 capabilities allow developers to expose all directory information to the browser.

"The browser becomes the workplace of the future," said Seely. "From a channel standpoint, there's tremendous value they can add in a single upgrade."

But the Virtual Office is just one major aspect of the upgrade, which was first discussed at Novell's annual Brainshare conference last March.

NetWare 6.5 also offers support for Web services, new business-continuity features, support for Microsoft's PocketPC, synchronization for all folders via the iFolder feature as well as increased scalability of the iFolder feature, now enabling support for as many as 100,000 users from a single server. Previously, iFolder served up to 10,000 users per server, executives said.

The company also integrated Silverstream ExteNd application server, which will deliver customers an enterprise J2EE-based application server for deploying Web services out of the box, Seely said.

The upgrade also features support for important Web services standards, including SOAP and UDDI.

Novell, which made moves toward open source by integrating the Apache Web server in its last NetWare upgrade, has enhanced that support by adding mySQL database, Tomcat open-source servelet engine as well as the upgraded Apache, PHP and Perl open-source tools and Java Virtual Machine 1.4.1 code.

Novell also worked to Excellerate the business-continuity features as well as server consolidation. The NetWare Server Consolidation Utility, for example, allows users to consolidate all data in a centralized environment and gives them the ability to drag and drop files, directories and data onto a new SAN. Uses can create a clustered SAN environment and cache all data from branch offices to a centralized location via an open-source synchronization tool Novell integrated into the product.

NetWare 6.5 also will offer a snapshot backup utility that essentially takes a snapshot of corporate data and backs up those volumes of data to centralized storage. This will enable users to access copies of their files, executives added.

Built-in support for iSCSI, an Internet standard that enables the creation of full-featured SANs on commodity hardware, will appeal to solution providers, Seely said. For example, resellers and partners can create a low-cost SAN for small- and midsize-business customers by using legacy Intel hardware and create a clustered SAN with as many as 32 nodes. It eliminates the neeed for a WAN, he added.

The cluster will extend multisite failover and mirroring capabilities to a new class of cost-conscious customers, he said. It can be offered at a fraction of the cost of Fibre Channel. No additional management training is required. "This a complete disaster-recovery system and offers resellers the opportunity to offer a full solution," Seely said. "

The upgrade's new iManage capabilities include intrusion-detection features, enhanced server diagnostics, improved reporting and auditing of printer use. It also allows IT administrators to remotely upgrade servers. Moreover, the integration of Novell's dirXML connectors enable built-in synchronization of Novell's eDirectory with Microsoft's Active Directory and NT directory, executives said.

This will allow for single sign-on capabilities for all users, even if a corporation has two separate directories. The enhanced management features also include a dashboardlike, browser-based console and the ability to drag and drop servers and network resources using color-coded mapping capabilities.

The NetWare 6.5 servers can be a single additive to an existing network of older NetWare servers and can extend its Virtual Office services to any browser-based user.

Partners can also deploy NetWare 6.5 as a single-purpose server. For example, executives envision customers and partners deploying Nakoma as a network operating system upgrade or as a dedicated, single-purpose server including J2EE Web services server, LDAP Identity Management server, Apache server, iFolder server, a SAN server or an iPrint server.

Pricing has not yet been announced, but it will fall "in the same neighborhood" as the existing NetWare 6.0 server, executives said

Novell's channel lauds significant strides made by the company over the past year to regain support of partners, including handing over some of its direct accounts to Platinum partners, launching a demand agent program and reducing conflict with Novell's consulting arms and sales force.

While Microsoft continues to gain ground with Windows 2000 and Linux advances as the No. 2 operating system, Novell, once thought bound for extinction, continues to enjoy strong support from its most loyal installed base, observers said. In 2001, NetWare represented 11 percent of all new server OS units shipped, according to research firm IDC.

While the client operating system market is dominated by one vendor, there's plenty of room for competition on the server operating system side, one analyst said.

"It's ridiculous to think that one operating system would be considered the best platform for all applications, all functions, on all hardware platforms, by everyone, everywhere," said Dan Kusnetzky, vice president of system software at IDC. "Windows, Linux, Unix, z/OS and NetWare will each be part of large organizations' IT infrastructure for the foreseeable future."

Mon, 03 Feb 2003 21:05:00 -0600 text/html
Using Apache With Novell NetWare

This document explains how to install, configure and run Apache 2.0 under Novell NetWare 6.0 and above. If you find any bugs, or wish to contribute in other ways, please use our bug reporting page.

The bug reporting page and dev-httpd mailing list are not provided to answer questions about configuration or running Apache. Before you submit a bug report or request, first consult this document, the Frequently Asked Questions page and the other relevant documentation topics. If you still have a question or problem, post it to the novell.devsup.webserver newsgroup, where many Apache users are more than willing to answer new and obscure questions about using Apache on NetWare.

Most of this document assumes that you are installing Apache from a binary distribution. If you want to compile Apache yourself (possibly to help with development, or to track down bugs), see the section on Compiling Apache for NetWare below.

Apache 2.0 is designed to run on NetWare 6.0 service pack 3 and above. If you are running a service pack less than SP3, you must install the latest NetWare Libraries for C (LibC).

NetWare service packs are available here.

Apache 2.0 for NetWare can also be run in a NetWare 5.1 environment as long as the latest service pack or the latest version of the NetWare Libraries for C (LibC) has been installed . WARNING: Apache 2.0 for NetWare has not been targeted for or tested in this environment.

Information on the latest version of Apache can be found on the Apache web server at This will list the current release, any more latest alpha or beta-test releases, together with details of mirror web and anonymous ftp sites. Binary builds of the latest releases of Apache 2.0 for NetWare can be downloaded from here.

There is no Apache install program for NetWare currently. If you are building Apache 2.0 for NetWare from source, you will need to copy the files over to the server manually.

Follow these steps to install Apache on NetWare from the binary obtain (assuming you will install to sys:/apache2):

  • Unzip the binary obtain file to the root of the SYS: volume (may be installed to any volume)
  • Edit the httpd.conf file setting ServerRoot and ServerName along with any file path values to reflect your correct server settings
  • Add SYS:/APACHE2 to the search path, for example:

Follow these steps to install Apache on NetWare manually from your own build source (assuming you will install to sys:/apache2):

  • Create a directory called Apache2 on a NetWare volume
  • Create a directory under SYS:/APACHE2 called BIN
  • Create a directory under SYS:/APACHE2 called CONF
  • Copy the HTTPD-STD.CONF file to the SYS:/APACHE2/CONF directory and rename to HTTPD.CONF
  • Copy the MIME.TYPES, CHARSET.CONV and MAGIC files to SYS:/APACHE2/CONF directory
  • Copy all files and subdirectories in \HTTPD-2.0\DOCS\ICONS to SYS:/APACHE2/ICONS
  • Copy all files and subdirectories in \HTTPD-2.0\DOCS\MANUAL to SYS:/APACHE2/MANUAL
  • Copy all files and subdirectories in \HTTPD-2.0\DOCS\ERROR to SYS:/APACHE2/ERROR
  • Copy all files and subdirectories in \HTTPD-2.0\DOCS\DOCROOT to SYS:/APACHE2/HTDOCS
  • Create the directory SYS:/APACHE2/LOGS on the server
  • Create the directory SYS:/APACHE2/CGI-BIN on the server
  • Create the directory SYS:/APACHE2/MODULES and copy all nlm modules into the modules directory
  • Edit the HTTPD.CONF file searching for all @@Value@@ markers and replacing them with the appropriate setting
  • Add SYS:/APACHE2 to the search path, for example:

Apache may be installed to other volumes besides the default SYS volume.

During the build process, adding the keyword "install" to the makefile command line will automatically produce a complete distribution package under the subdirectory DIST. Install Apache by simply copying the distribution that was produced by the makfiles to the root of a NetWare volume (see: Compiling Apache for NetWare below).

To start Apache just type apache at the console. This will load apache in the OS address space. If you prefer to load Apache in a protected address space you may specify the address space with the load statement as follows:

load address space = apache2 apache2

This will load Apache into an address space called apache2. Running multiple instances of Apache concurrently on NetWare is possible by loading each instance into its own protected address space.

After starting Apache, it will be listening to port 80 (unless you changed the Listen directive in the configuration files). To connect to the server and access the default page, launch a browser and enter the server's name or address. This should respond with a welcome page, and a link to the Apache manual. If nothing happens or you get an error, look in the error_log file in the logs directory.

Once your basic installation is working, you should configure it properly by editing the files in the conf directory.

To unload Apache running in the OS address space just type the following at the console:


If apache is running in a protected address space specify the address space in the unload statement:

unload address space = apache2 apache2

When working with Apache it is important to know how it will find the configuration files. You can specify a configuration file on the command line in two ways:

  • -f specifies a path to a particular configuration file

apache2 -f "vol:/my server/conf/my.conf"

In these cases, the proper ServerRoot should be set in the configuration file.

If you don't specify a configuration file name with -f, Apache will use the file name compiled into the server, usually conf/httpd.conf. Invoking Apache with the -V switch will display this value labeled as SERVER_CONFIG_FILE. Apache will then determine its ServerRoot by trying the following, in this order:

  • A ServerRoot directive via a -C switch.
  • The -d switch on the command line.
  • Current working directory
  • The server root compiled into the server.

The server root compiled into the server is usually sys:/apache2. invoking apache with the -V switch will display this value labeled as HTTPD_ROOT.

Apache 2.0 for NetWare includes a set of command line directives that can be used to modify or display information about the running instance of the web server. These directives are only available while Apache is running. Each of these directives must be preceded by the keyword APACHE2.

Instructs Apache to terminate all running worker threads as they become idle, reread the configuration file and restart each worker thread based on the new configuration.
Displays version information about the currently running instance of Apache.
Displays a list of loaded modules both built-in and external.
Displays a list of all available directives.
Enables or disables the thread status display on the console. When enabled, the state of each running threads is displayed on the Apache console screen.
Terminates the running instance of the Apache web server.
Describes each of the runtime directives.

By default these directives are issued against the instance of Apache running in the OS address space. To issue a directive against a specific instance running in a protected address space, include the -p parameter along with the name of the address space. For more information type "apache2 Help" on the command line.

Apache is configured by studying configuration files usually stored in the conf directory. These are the same as files used to configure the Unix version, but there are a few different directives for Apache on NetWare. See the Apache documentation for all the available directives.

The main differences in Apache for NetWare are:

  • Because Apache for NetWare is multithreaded, it does not use a separate process for each request, as Apache does on some Unix implementations. Instead there are only threads running: a parent thread, and multiple child or worker threads which handle the requests.

    Therefore the "process"-management directives are different:

    MaxRequestsPerChild - Like the Unix directive, this controls how many requests a worker thread will serve before exiting. The recommended default, MaxRequestsPerChild 0, causes the thread to continue servicing request indefinitely. It is recommended on NetWare, unless there is some specific reason, that this directive always remain set to 0.

    StartThreads - This directive tells the server how many threads it should start initially. The recommended default is StartThreads 50.

    MinSpareThreads - This directive instructs the server to spawn additional worker threads if the number of idle threads ever falls below this value. The recommended default is MinSpareThreads 10.

    MaxSpareThreads - This directive instructs the server to begin terminating worker threads if the number of idle threads ever exceeds this value. The recommended default is MaxSpareThreads 100.

    MaxThreads - This directive limits the total number of work threads to a maximum value. The recommended default is ThreadsPerChild 250.

    ThreadStackSize - This directive tells the server what size of stack to use for the individual worker thread. The recommended default is ThreadStackSize 65536.

  • The directives that accept filenames as arguments must use NetWare filenames instead of Unix names. However, because Apache uses Unix-style names internally, forward slashes must be used rather than backslashes. It is recommended that all rooted file paths begin with a volume name. If omitted, Apache will assume the SYS: volume which may not be correct.

  • Apache for NetWare has the ability to load modules at runtime, without recompiling the server. If Apache is compiled normally, it will install a number of optional modules in the \Apache2\modules directory. To activate these, or other modules, the LoadModule directive must be used. For example, to active the status module, use the following:

    LoadModule status_module modules/status.nlm

    Information on creating loadable modules is also available.

Additional NetWare specific directives:

  • CGIMapExtension - This directive maps a CGI file extension to a script interpreter.
  • NWSSLTrustedCerts - Adds trusted certificates that are used to create secure connections to proxied servers.
  • NWSSLUpgradeable - Allow a connection created on the specified address/port to be upgraded to an SSL connection.

Compiling Apache requires MetroWerks CodeWarrior 6.x or higher. Once Apache has been built, it can be installed to the root of any NetWare volume. The default is the sys:/Apache2 directory.

Before running the server you must fill out the conf directory. Copy the file HTTPD-STD.CONF from the distribution conf directory and rename it to HTTPD.CONF. Edit the HTTPD.CONF file searching for all @@Value@@ markers and replacing them with the appropriate setting. Copy over the conf/magic and conf/mime.types files as well. Alternatively, a complete distribution can be built by including the keyword install when invoking the makefiles.


The following development tools are required to build Apache 2.0 for NetWare:

Building Apache using the NetWare makefiles:

  • Set the environment variable NOVELLLIBC to the location of the NetWare Libraries for C SDK, for example:

    Set NOVELLLIBC=c:\novell\ndk\libc

  • Set the environment variable METROWERKS to the location where you installed the Metrowerks CodeWarrior compiler, for example:

    Set METROWERKS=C:\Program Files\Metrowerks\CodeWarrior

    If you installed to the default location C:\Program Files\Metrowerks\CodeWarrior, you don't need to set this.
  • Set the environment variable LDAPSDK to the location where you installed the LDAP Libraries for C, for example:

    Set LDAPSDK=c:\Novell\NDK\cldapsdk\NetWare\libc

  • Set the environment variable ZLIBSDK to the location where you installed the source code for the ZLib Library, for example:

    Set ZLIBSDK=D:\NOVELL\zlib

  • Set the environment variable AP_WORK to the full path of the httpd source code directory.

    Set AP_WORK=D:\httpd-2.0.x

  • Set the environment variable APR_WORK to the full path of the apr source code directory. Typically \httpd\srclib\apr but the APR project can be outside of the httpd directory structure.

    Set APR_WORK=D:\apr-1.x.x

  • Set the environment variable APU_WORK to the full path of the apr-util source code directory. Typically \httpd\srclib\apr-util but the APR-UTIL project can be outside of the httpd directory structure.

    Set APU_WORK=D:\apr-util-1.x.x

  • Make sure that the path to the AWK utility and the GNU make utility (gmake.exe) have been included in the system's PATH environment variable.
  • Download the source code and unzip to an appropriate directory on your workstation.
  • Change directory to \httpd-2.0 and build the prebuild utilities by running "gmake -f nwgnumakefile prebuild". This target will create the directory \httpd-2.0\nwprebuild and copy each of the utilities to this location that are necessary to complete the following build steps.
  • Copy the files \httpd-2.0\nwprebuild\GENCHARS.nlm and \httpd-2.0\nwprebuild\DFTABLES.nlm to the SYS: volume of a NetWare server and run them using the following commands:

    SYS:\genchars > sys:\test_char.h
    SYS:\dftables sys:\chartables.c

  • Copy the files test_char.h and chartables.c to the directory \httpd-2.0\os\netware on the build machine.
  • Change directory to \httpd-2.0 and build Apache by running "gmake -f nwgnumakefile". You can create a distribution directory by adding an install parameter to the command, for example:

    gmake -f nwgnumakefile install

Additional make options

  • gmake -f nwgnumakefile

    Builds release versions of all of the binaries and copies them to a \release destination directory.

  • gmake -f nwgnumakefile DEBUG=1

    Builds debug versions of all of the binaries and copies them to a \debug destination directory.

  • gmake -f nwgnumakefile install

    Creates a complete Apache distribution with binaries, docs and additional support files in a \dist\Apache2 directory.

  • gmake -f nwgnumakefile prebuild

    Builds all of the prebuild utilities and copies them to the \nwprebuild directory.

  • gmake -f nwgnumakefile installdev

    Same as install but also creates a \lib and \include directory in the destination directory and copies headers and import files.

  • gmake -f nwgnumakefile clean

    Cleans all object files and binaries from the \release.o or \debug.o build areas depending on whether DEBUG has been defined.

  • gmake -f nwgnumakefile clobber_all

    Same as clean and also deletes the distribution directory if it exists.

Additional environment variable options

  • To build all of the experimental modules, set the environment variable EXPERIMENTAL:
  • To build Apache using standard BSD style sockets rather than Winsock, set the environment variable USE_STDSOCKETS:

Building mod_ssl for the NetWare platform

By default Apache for NetWare uses the built-in module mod_nw_ssl to provide SSL services. This module simply enables the native SSL services implemented in NetWare OS to handle all encryption for a given port. Alternatively, mod_ssl can also be used in the same manner as on other platforms.

Before mod_ssl can be built for the NetWare platform, the OpenSSL libraries must be provided. This can be done through the following steps:

  • Download the latest OpenSSL 0.9.8 release source code from the OpenSSL Source page (older 0.9.7 versions need to be patched and are therefore not recommended).
  • Edit the file NetWare/set_env.bat and modify any tools and utilities paths so that they correspond to your build environment.
  • From the root of the OpenSSL source directory, run the following scripts:

    Netware\set_env netware-libc
    Netware\build netware-libc

    For performance reasons you should enable to build with ASM code. obtain NASM from the SF site. Then configure OpenSSL to use ASM code:

    Netware\build netware-libc nw-nasm enable-mdc2 enable-md5

    Warning: dont use the CodeWarrior Assembler - it produces broken code!
  • Before building Apache, set the environment variable OSSLSDK to the full path to the root of the openssl source code directory, and set WITH_MOD_SSL to 1.

    Set OSSLSDK=d:\openssl-0.9.8x
    Set WITH_MOD_SSL=1

Sat, 02 Oct 2021 15:29:00 -0500 en text/html
Novell Days Away From Offering Enterprise Server Beta


On Thursday, the Cambridge, Mass., company said the server -- which combines the proprietary NetWare kernel and recently released Suse Enterprise Linux 9 distribution -- will be released for widespread testing by Monday at the latest.

Novell expects to ship the final software in February 2005. In addition, the company plans to offer a common management interface -- iManager for NetWare -- that will let customers choose the services they deploy.

Viewed as an ideal option for NetWare customers thinking about switching to Linux, OES provides numerous services on top of the two kernels. These services include Novell's enhanced Nterprise Linux Services 1.0, Novell Storage Services on Linux, mapped drive support for Linux from a Novell client, clustering on NetWare or Linux , and migration tools and upgrade utilities for NetWare, Microsoft and Linux.

The server will also offer customers an iPrint client for the Novell Linux Desktop or any Linux desktop, enhanced Virtual Office management features and shared iFolder capabilities between Windows and Linux clients, Novell said.

With this release, NetWare will no longer be sold as a separate product. The proprietary kernel and system services will continue to be enhanced, however, as part of Open Enterprise Services.

Sun, 10 Dec 2023 22:35:00 -0600 text/html
Plutora announces new CD Pipeline for test management

The continuous delivery management company Plutora wants to streamline enterprise test environment management in its latest release. The company announced the new CD Pipeline functionality as part of its Plutora Environments solution.

Plutora Environments is a pre-production environment management solution for enterprise IT. The new functionality enables teams to manage multiple test environments as well as provide visibility, traceability and control.

According to the company, many businesses are wasting billions of dollars due to poor test environment management. Software is changing the world of enterprise, meaning businesses who are not traditionally software companies have to now balance a mixture of technology and software development methodologies as well as speed and control, Plutora explained. What ends up happening is a lack of visibility into specialized tools that results in an inability to assess and reduce schedule risk across multiple pipelines. This leads to an inability to identify new code changes, and inefficient handoffs from development to test.

“Enterprise test environment management encompasses a complex range of components and architectures, but traditionally there has not been a solution that provides a consolidated view of environment availability, usage and configuration detail. Without this view, large enterprise customers who can have up to thousands of test environments, struggled to avoid conflicts and mis-configurations, leading to significant financial loss for the business, which can total billions of dollars yearly,” the company said in a statement.

The new CD Pipeline functionality is designed for quality assurance teams, test environment managers and release managers.

For QA teams and test environment managers, the solution enables teams to associate new code commits with features or fixes; ensure accuracy to test coverage; trace updated code to fix defects; assign test cases; and automatically link change requests to test cases.

For release managers, CD Pipeline provides the ability to monitor product quality, highlights how new code is progressing, and provides traceability of test cases and results.

Wed, 10 Jan 2018 10:00:00 -0600 en-US text/html
Risk management for stress-testing models

About the course

Deep dive into modelling stress-testing to optimise your risk management framework with leading industry experts.

Sessions will focus on integrating model risk management and providing best practices for implementation into each step of the stress-testing process. Attendees will learn how to develop models for scenario design to address the impact of sudden regime changes, as well as integrating key tools for model validation for stress-testing models. Learn how regulatory requirements are evolving and practical implementation to reduce the impact on risk departments and applying AI and ML to develop the efficiency of these models.

Each 60-minute live session allows participants maximum engagement with the detailed content, as well as the opportunity to interact with speakers through live Q&A and polls.

Sun, 14 Aug 2022 01:17:00 -0500 en text/html
Best Task Management Software: 2024 Results

The best task management software you can currently buy is either ClickUp or Wrike, which both score 4.7/5 for task management in our most latest round of project management software testing.

Wrike and ClickUp will provide you with multiple ways to view your tasks, including Kanban boards and Gantt charts, plus features like sub-tasks and time tracking that ensure you’re able to stay organized, no matter how complex your project is. The raft of features they offer means you'll be able to leave the days of hopping between apps behind and centralize your workplace operations around them – they are complete Work OS programs.

Hot on their heels is, however, which scores 4.5/5 for task management and is our top-rated provider overall – plus, it’s easier to use than ClickUp and Wrike. In this guide:

Need a Platform to Manage Your Tasks?

Our tests confirmed that is the easiest to use task management tool

The Best Task Management Software: Comparison Table

As we've covered, the best task management software is ClickUp or Wrike. Overall, the top five are:

ClickUp – the best overall & great for collaboration
Wrike – the best for large companies & organizations – the easiest to use software
Teamwork – the most value for the least money
Asana – the best for tracking budgets & displaying project data

If you’ve not got much time on your hands, check out the table below for a whistlestop tour of the providers, or alternatively, read on for more in-depth task management software reviews.

Note: All the images used in this article were taken during's project management user testing series. For more information on how we test project management tools, as well as other products, visit our product research page.

What Is Task Management Software?

Task Management Software is any software that facilitates one of the key components of managing a project – managing tasks through their various stages from beginning to end. This includes project management software tools.

Task management software will typically allow you to input all of your project’s tasks, order and organize them, and display them in different ways, helping you understand how they interact with one another.

Task management software tools such as include features like sub-tasks for splitting up your largest core tasks into smaller components, task dependencies that will illuminate your project’s critical path and features like milestones that mark the most important stages of your project's life cycle.

I’ve tested 10 major task management software tools and I found ClickUp to be the most capable one when it comes to complex task management. There are so many ways to view all the tasks in your project that you can simply choose the one that’s best for you. I personally prefer the simple list view and the Kanban board because I’m used to it – but not everyone on my team feels the same.

Although not quite as impressive as ClickUp in other aspects, Wrike’s task management tools gave ClickUp a run for their money. I found the time-tracking feature is really easy to use and incredibly useful for breaking down how long different phases of your project will take.

It's also worth mentioning that is much simpler to use and I found it less cluttered and intimidating than Wrike and ClickUp – the task management features were easier to access and the general user experience was more welcoming. I felt much more organized after using

Aaron Drapkin Lead Writer & Project Management Software Specialist

The Best Task Management Software: Reviews

Here, we've put together reviews of the best task management software available. Read on to find out more:


Price From: $7 per user, per month
Best task management software for: Overall functionality
Task management score: 4.7/5

ClickUp is our top-rated task management tool overall, and it's packed with useful features for managing tasks, even on its cheapest plans.

Best task management software overall, with great collaboration tools


  • Genuinely impressive free plan
  • 15+ ways to view project progress and data
  • Useful "Chat" view for collaboration
  • Team view for organizing tasks by team member
  • Cheaper than & Wrike
  • Agile project management features
  • Vast number of features, even on cheap plans


  • Customizability can be overwhelming to new users
  • Not great at compiling project feedback
  • Comparatively clunky automation builder
  • Slow to load on our tests
  • Fewer integrations than competitors

ClickUp can handle complex task management thanks to sub-tasks and custom fields and has a color-coded “priorities” function which is helpful for understanding the most important tasks in your project.

Although features like this helped ClickUp score highly for task management, it only scored 3.9/5 on our latest ease-of-use tests. The sheer number of features can actually be a little overwhelming at first, and some members of our testing group experienced long loading times and screen freezes. It was quicker to set up with and Asana.

Adding a due date to a sub-task in ClickUp. Image:'s Testing Process.

Like its rival Wrike, ClickUp provides all the basics needed to visualize the progression of your tasks, including a Gantt chart and Kanban board. There are also 13 additional views, giving you the freedom to find one that works for you – a privilege you won’t have when using Basecamp. ClickUp’s spreadsheet view supports formulas, although the “Team view” isn't available on the free plan.

Users will be able to track the time it takes to complete tasks with a time-tracking feature, and you can attach comments to tasks that require feedback or input from multiple team members. ClickUp has one of the most comprehensive resource management tools on the market. It can provide a comparative overview of each team member's resources, including month-by-month and week-by-week breakdowns. You’ll also get a Gantt-style view of each of your team member's assigned tasks.

ClickUp pricing

ClickUp offers a free plan and three paid plans. The Unlimited plan costs $7 per user, per month when billed annually and is highly capable considering its price – it’s a lot more powerful than Smartsheet’s Pro plan, which costs the same.

ClickUp’s Business plan costs $12 per user, per month, while the Enterprise plan – which is only really suitable for very large businesses – doesn’t have public pricing available at present. Check out our ClickUp pricing page for more information.


Price From: $9.80 per user, per month
Best for: Large businesses
Task management score: 4.7/5

Wrike scores the same as ClickUp for task management – but it’s not quite as good in other areas and doesn’t offer that many task management features on its free and first paid plan, so comes in second place on this list. However, it does have a great range of integrations and two plans geared towards large businesses.

The best task management software for large businesses, with excellent integrations


  • No-nonsense, robust feature catalog
  • Lots of customizability
  • Strong task management and data tools
  • Huge integrations library


  • Not entirely easy to use
  • Difficult to use automation builder
  • Not the best for collaboration

All of the project views in Wrike are really easy to navigate between, and the platform will auto-populate them all with the information you initially input into your first view.

Essential task management tools and features, such as a Gantt chart, a calendar, a milestones function, and custom fields are included in the Team plan and upwards.

The free plan is missing a few things – such as the calendar – but it's got no user limit and would still suit a small team that needs somewhere to track their day-to-day work. A resource management tool and time-tracking feature, on the other hand, is reserved for Business plan customers with larger teams.

When I tested Wrike, I found the setup to be really smooth – there was a lot of guidance provided which meant that by the time I was eventually let loose on the software myself, a lot of the things I needed to set up were already set up. It scored 4.1/5 on our latest ease-of-use tests, which is a slight improvement on its previous result for this assessment area and a better score than ClickUp. The layout is very similar to Asana's and Teamwork's, and it's not hard to get to grips with.

Wrike's Table view. Image:'s Testing Process.

Like ClickUp and, Wrike has AI capabilities that can help you automate many of your task management processes – and it’s available on all plans. Wrike’s AI text tool can provide AI-based task prioritization recommendations, turn unstructured text into action items, voice notes into actions and proactively identify project risks based on historical data.

Wrike pricing

Like ClickUp, Wrike has a free plan, but it’s quite limited and doesn’t include task management features like a Gantt chart task dependencies, or a calendar view.

The Team plan is available for $9.80 per user, per month, which is more expensive than’s and ClickUp’s first paid plans. Strangely, although the free plan is unlimited, there's a user limit of 25 on this plan.

Wrike Business plan costs $24.80 per user, per month and includes the provider’s full suite of task management tools. Wrike has two plans without public pricing – the Enterprise plan and the Pinnacle plan – which have advanced security features geared toward large businesses such as “Locked spaces”. Head over to our Wrike pricing page for more information.

Price from: $8 per user, per month
Best for: Ease of use
Task management score: 4.5/5 is the easiest-to-use task management tool we’ve tested, utilizing a minimalistic layout that’s significantly less intimidating than the raft of features that appear on your screen when you log into Wrike and ClickUp.

The easiest to use task management software


  • Highly customizable platform
  • Custom fields feature available on all plans (including the free plan)
  • Rule-based automation can be used to complete simple tasks, like archiving items


  • Free plan has 2-person user limit
  • Limited third party integrations
  • Higher tiers required for basic features

Despite not looking complicated, has a range of task management features, including a spreadsheet that supports conditional formatting on all plans, and a custom fields function for storing different types of data there isn't a dedicated field for already.’s Kanban board was one of my favorites to use – it was really straightforward to drag cards around, which could be edited at the click of a button. Again, the inviting and unintimidating layout made the task-editing process significantly less stressful.

Using's Kanban board. Image:'s Testing Process. has a more capable task commenting feature than most competitors and will let you tag users in comments as well as assign users to comments (Teamwork will only let you do the first of these two actions). This is really useful to have if you're expecting a lot of back on forth on tasks between team members, like you might while implementing a content strategy for a website. pricing has five plans, which is one more than both Wrike and ClickUp. There’s a free plan that has a decent range of task management tools but a user limit of two, so it won’t be suitable for your team if it’s larger than that.

The Basic projects plan is available for $8 per user, per month, but in terms of task management tools, it’s just as limited as the free plan – there’s a Kanban board but no Gantt chart, calendar view, or task dependencies.

The Standard Projects plan is just $2 more expensive, retailing at $10 per user, per month, and for that little bit extra you’ll have access to a calendar view, a milestones function, and a Gantt chart.

The Pro Projects plan ($19 per user, per month) adds in a task dependencies function and a time-tracking feature so you can plan better with regard to how long tasks may actually take. also has an Enterprise plan (custom pricing) which is the only plan with onboarding assistance available.

Creating a task dependency in Image:'s Testing Process.


Price From: $5.99 per user, per month
Best Task Management Software: Value for money
Task Management Score: 4.3/5

Teamwork came second overall in our last round of project management testing, and joint third when it comes to task management, scoring the same as Asana.

The best value task management software, with a great automation builder


  • Lots of collaboration tools
  • Kanban-style boards and Gantt charts available
  • Affordable pricing and solid free option
  • Great security options


  • Limited built-in integrations
  • Data visualization isn't the easiest

Teamwork is our best value task management plan because almost all of its task management tools are available on its free plan and $5.99 per user, per month Starter plan. This is quite different from and Wrike, who lock away some task management tools on their more expensive plans.

Teamwork will let you manage intricate tasks without paying a penny, and although it might not have brought out an AI tool to assist you, that is unlikely to concern those on a tight budget. Most importantly, all the basics are covered – there are sub-tasks and task dependencies to help with the finer details, and a sufficient number of views are offered up for keeping track of the progress of your project.

Along with solid task management options, Teamwork provides an excellent automation builder, which you'll enjoy using if you feel like you're always bogged down by little administrative tasks that have to be done throughout your day. Along with its wide range of preset project templates, this helped teamwork to a 4.2/5 for workflow creation, second only to ClickUp.

Teamwork's Table view. Image:'s Testing Process.

Like Wrike, when I tested Teamwork, I found the onboarding really helpful and assuring – it set me up for success from the word go, leaving nothing to chance.

Teamwork is a really easy-to-use platform, and it actually came second on our ease-of-use tests (4.3/5), beaten only by The only downside to Teamwork is that it limits the number of custom fields you can create – there's a limit of two on the free and first paid plan and a limit of three on the Grow plan.

Teamwork pricing

Teamwork is the best value provider on this list, with a highly capable free plan with a 3-person limit. Despite this low user cap, it offers more task management tools than any other free plan other than ClickUp’s – including a Gantt chart and custom fields.

The aforementioned Starter plan is available for just $5.99 per user, per month, and has an impressive range of task management features considering it's the cheapest first paid plan on this list.

The Deliver ($9.99 per user, per month) and the Grow ($19.99 per user, per month) plans might have similar offerings when it comes to task management.


Price from: $10.99 per user, per month
Best for: Tracking budgets and displaying project data
Task Management Score: 4.3/5

Asana is one of the most widely task management tools in the world, with at least 139,000 paying customers.

the best task management tool for tracking budgets and displaying project data


  • Unlimited storage
  • Plenty of third-party integrations
  • Incredible clean and intuitive interface
  • Easy to use dashboards and chart builder


  • Most key features require a Premium plan
  • Very high prices for larger teams
  • No phone-based support

Asana offers a raft of useful task management features, including classic project views (Gantt, Kanban, etc.) and all the task management fundamentals, such as task dependencies. You'll also be able to attach files and documents to tasks, comment on them, and add tasks to multiple projects.

Asana is one of your best options if you want to track the budgets of individual tasks – Teamwork only lets you do this on its most expensive plans, and although offers this as an option, I found it much, much trickier than I did in Asana.

Asana is a really easy-to-use program and scored 4.2/5 on our ease-of-use tests, meaning it's not far off and Teamwork. Although I found the interface looks a little cluttered when you open up a task to edit it, it’s all pretty intuitive – especially compared to the likes of Jira.

Creating a custom field in Asana. Image:'s testing process.

Like Wrike and, Asana has been working on an AI assistant that can make task prioritization recommendations and an AI text tool that can turn unstructured text into actions. However, this hasn’t been released just yet, so you'll have to wait a little longer to find out how it actually functions.

Asana pricing

Asana has four plans, including a basic free plan, but as we've covered, it doesn’t have many features – milestones, task dependencies, a Gantt chart and custom fields aren't included. It also has a user limit of 15 so it definitely isn't suitable for teams larger than that.

The paid plans offered by Asana are quite expensive – the first paid plan costs $10.99 per user, per month, almost double the price of Teamwork’s first paid plan. However, it does add the features listed above missing from the free plan.

The Business plan costs $24.99 per user, per month, and this is the first plan with time-tracking and resource management features.

There’s an Enterprise plan with no public pricing, but it offers virtually the same collection of task management features as the Business plan. For more information, visit our Asana pricing guide.

Key Features to Look for in Task Management Software

In 2024, although most task and project management tools offer a wide range of features, there are some core ones you should be on the lookout for because they provide essential functionality. Here are a few to keep in mind:

Project views

The different “Views” provided by task management software providers like will help you understand how the different tasks that make up your project slot together.

For example, a Kanban board, which is provided by all the top project management software brands, focuses on the status of your tasks.  They could be “in progress”, “completed” or “blocked”. Gantt charts, on the other hand, show tasks displayed against time.

Tools like ClickUp also provide over 15 project views, including a “List” view, which is just a simple board showing a list of your project tasks and the most straightforward way to see what you have to complete.

Setting a task duration time in ClickUp. Image:'s testing process.

Most project management tools also offer a calendar view and a spreadsheet-style view, as well as a “team view”, which lets you see tasks organized by the team members assigned to them.


Sub-tasks are a key component of granular task management, and they’re exactly how they sound. They’re the smaller, secondary tasks that every larger, core task in your project will be made up of.

For example, if you’re building a website, one of your tasks may be “Design a Website Logo” – but this might be broken up into sub-tasks such as “background research”, “competitor analysis” and “submit designs to graphics team”.

Sub-tasks ensure you're not forced to oversimplify tasks just to input them into your project management software or deal with an unmanageably large task list.


Task management software tools that have a time-tracking feature, such as Asana and Teamwork, will let you track how long tasks are taking to complete. If you're trying to Excellerate the efficiency of your team, this can be an important metric to have.

Some time-tracking tools will also let you attach time estimates for specific tasks, which can help with mid-project planning. Others, such as the one included in, will let you add billing amounts to time spent on tasks.

AI work assistance

As you’re probably aware, since the rise of ChatGPT, businesses have been finding inventive ways to use AI to save themselves time with increasing frequency – and more and more companies have started to build AI capabilities into their software.

Task management software tools and ClickUp both have AI assistants –’s is currently in Beta and is gradually released to the platform’s users, while ClickUp’s costs $5 per workspace per month.

ClickUp’s AI tool will soon be able to autogenerate tasks and sub-tasks, while’s can already do this as well as summarize and rephrase documents and text.

ClickUp's list view with AI chatbot. Image:'s Testing process.

Custom fields

Project and task management software tools have a variety of different “fields” that allow you to input different types of information. For example, there might be a field in your list view that lets you input the status of a task – another may before for the task assignee.

However, custom fields are fields where you can input any information you want,.They come in handy when your task management software doesn’t have a dedicated field for a specific type of information, such as budget data.

About Our Research

At, we conduct research into all of the products, services, and software we write about. This includes extensive market research to scout out the major players in every vertical we cover, and instigating conversations with businesses that have to make difficult buying decisions every day in the name of improving efficiency, organization, and their top line. Everything we learn from this work is then fed into our unique user testing criteria.

To find out what the best task management software tool is, our research team naturally focused on providers that offer a selection of fundamental features that are required to manage tasks effectively, and how easy they are to use. This became one aspect of a broader series of project management software and Work OS platform tests, as these are the tools that are the most effective at task management.

During the testing series, we focused on six different areas: Security, Integrations, Pricing, Customer Support, Functionality, and  Ease of Use. “Functionality” is broken down into four subsequent assessment areas: task management, data visualization, workflow creation, and collaboration.

Although we have commercial partnerships with some of the providers we write about, this never impacts how we rank products, services, and software that appear on our site. In fact, it's our research that allows us to remain editorially independent.

Verdict: Why ClickUp is the Best Task Management Software

ClickUp is the best task management software we've tested, scoring higher than 9 other providers including and Teamwork. There are more than 15 different ways to view your projects and enough that can bring a real sense of clarity to your most complex tasks. Importantly, ClickUp also has a wide range of collaboration and data display tools, plus a custom automation builder, also available on all of its plans. That's why it narrowly beat Wrike, which also scores 4.7/5 for task management.

Wrike's Business plan ($24.90 per user, per month) is just as capable when it comes to complex task management as ClickUp's counterpart, but Wrike locks away features like time tracking and a resource management tool on this plan, rather than providing them for you at a cheaper price – so it'll be a more attractive proposition if you're part of a large business with a considerable software budget.

If ease of use is your priority, however, will be your top choice for task management software.  Much like Wrike, the key difference between and ClickUp is that some of's task management features are only available if you pay for the Standard or Pro projects plan, which are both more than $10 per user, per month.

Task Management Software: Frequently Asked Questions

The biggest difference is how powerful the software actually is. Most companies, like and Wrike, offer limited free plans that are designed for solo users or very small teams and therefore don't include features required for managing complex tasks, collaborating, or visualizing large amounts of data.

The best free task management software is ClickUp – considering it's a free program, an impressive number of features are included. For example, a calendar view, a Gantt chart, and a task dependency feature aren't included in's free plan, but they are in Clickup's. enforces a two-user limit on its free plan, while ClickUp doesn't enforce any user limit.

Yes – the top task management tools, like, integrate with a range of software you're probably already using. For example, when you use, you can integrate with Slack, Microsoft Teams, Zoom, Google Drive, Google Calendar, Dropbox, OneDrive, Outlook and a variety of other programs.

Yes – if you use a reputable provider. Task management tools like Wrike offer features like two-factor authentication so that businesses can ensure all user accounts are kept secure, and many offer features like IP restriction on their enterprise-focused plans. Big names like encrypt data-at-rest using the AES-256 standard, ensuring that customers can manage your confidential and sensitive data with ease.

Some task management software can be confusing to use at first, especially if it's packed full of features like ClickUp. If you opt for Basecamp, however, you might run into the opposite problem – not having enough features to manage your tasks. Others may struggle to see the benefits if they don't have a secure, stable internet connection, as this will impact loading times on software that already takes up a lot of computing power.
Mon, 30 Oct 2023 01:19:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Anger Management Test

Do you have difficulty controlling your temper? Does your anger come out in unhealthy ways that could hurt others as well as yourself? Anger is a powerful emotion that can lead to serious problems in your relationships and career if left unbridled. Learn more about your ability to manage it by taking this anger management test. It's designed to evaluate the manner in which you approach and handle anger-inducing situations.

Examine the following statements and choose the answer option that best applies to you. There may be some questions describing situations that may not be relevant to you. In such cases, select the answer you would most likely choose if you ever found yourself in that type of situation. In order to receive the most accurate results, please answer as truthfully as possible.

After finishing this test you will receive a FREE snapshot report with a summary evaluation and graph. You will then have the option to purchase the full results for $6.95

This test is intended for informational and entertainment purposes only. It is not a substitute for professional diagnosis or for the treatment of any health condition. If you would like to seek the advice of a licensed mental health professional you can search Psychology Today's directory here.

Sun, 18 Jun 2023 04:53:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Time Management Skills Test

Are you constantly at war with deadlines? Do you procrastinate? Maybe you underestimate the amount of time a task will take to complete? Perhaps the way you manage your time is the problem. Learning this skill can save you a lifetime of headaches by allowing you to prioritize and plan tasks efficiently. Find out how well you organize your day by taking this test.

Examine the following statements and indicate how often or to what degree you agree with the statement. In order to receive the most accurate results, please answer each question as honestly as possible.

After finishing this test you will receive a FREE snapshot report with a summary evaluation and graph. You will then have the option to purchase the full results for $6.95

This test is intended for informational and entertainment purposes only. It is not a substitute for professional diagnosis or for the treatment of any health condition. If you would like to seek the advice of a licensed mental health professional you can search Psychology Today's directory here.

Fri, 03 Mar 2017 04:55:00 -0600 en-US text/html
Test environment management an obstacle to continuous testing, report finds

Companies may be shifting testing left, but lack of access to internal services as well as external services can delay testing and cause unnecessary bottlenecks.

According to the Sogeti 2019 Continuous Testing report, test environments are one of the biggest bottlenecks to achieving continuous testing. The survey results reveal the inordinate amount of time that organizations spend on test environment management as well as some of the key challenges in this area.

Time came up as a key issue when respondents were asked about – “test environment-related challenges that impeded efforts to Excellerate the software development lifecycle (SDLC).” Participants gave the highest weighting to “wait times and cost for environment provisioning” (36% of respondents) and “complexity of needed applications” (36%), followed by “inability to identify defects early in the testing process” (33%).

Don’t become a statistic: How to save your failing software development initiatives 
Facing the challenges of continuous testing

This is where service virtualization can come in.

Service virtualization (SV) simulates or “mocks” unavailable systems by emulating their dynamic behavior, data, and performance. This means that teams can work in parallel for faster delivery. 

Mock services or service virtualization are critical for when the application or module you are developing and testing is dependent on the other services or systems regardless whether external or internal. Such dependencies could cause major testing bottlenecks, as they may not be easily available when you need them, or they may have constraints like costs or limited control over data it returns.

Mock services remove these dependencies and also help to control the behavior of the dependencies by simulating the service using the endpoint provisioned by you – and this moves your testing to the next level. You can read this blog post on the benefits and concepts behind Mock services and service virtualization concept in general.

The Sogeti report continues, “We have also seen a few positive developments in terms of the adoption of virtualization, containerization, and tool-based automation. These trends are likely to strengthen in the future as organizations realize that virtualization and containerization are absolutely necessary to meet the demands of Agile and DevOps on a limited budget. The next two to three years are also likely to see organizations opting for increased levels of automation, particularly for solutions that automatically tell them about the impact that changes in functional requirements will have on test cases.”

Service virtualization shifts left 
As continuous testing becomes the norm for successful application delivery, service virtualization is shifting left and becoming more available to developers who want to test earlier in the testing cycle. 

Rather than waiting for the end of the testing cycle, and relying on service virtualization as a pre-production only tool, SV has become democratized, with developers creating mock environments for smaller unit tests, throughout the SDLC.

Tools like WireMock and CodeSV can help developers to create mock services so they are not reliant on enterprise service virtualization support, and users can even integrate enterprise service virtualization capabilities with BlazeMeter, so that developers across all teams can create virtual services to test faster and more effectively. 

Sign up for our webinar here to learn more about service virtualization and how it can help you test faster, and with less bottlenecks in 2020.

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Wed, 11 Dec 2019 15:00:00 -0600 en-US text/html
Management of Bleeding Hemorrhage and Coagulopathy Tests Used to Establish Presence of Coagulopathies Interpreting PT and PTT Results in Combination PTT Mixing Study Treating Multiple Factor Deficiencies with Fresh Frozen Plasma (FFP) Treating Fibrinogen and Factor XIII Deficiency with Cryoprecipitate (CRYO) Diagnosing Scurvy and Treating with Vitamin C Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC) Profile Von Willebrand Disease Primary vWD Laboratory Profile VWD Follow-up Testing VWD Treatment Options Congenital Single Factor Deficiencies (Hemophilias) Factor VIII Concentrates Factor IX Concentrates Activated Prothrombin Complex Products: FEIBA FHÒ, Autoplex TÒ Activated Recombinant Factor VII (NovoSevenÒ) Other Congenital Single Factor Deficiencies Prothrombin Complex Concentrates (PCCs) Steps in Dispensing Factor Concentrates (Summary)

   Hemorrhage and Coagulopathy

Most bleeding episodes stem from local tissue injuries, not coagulopathies. A coagulopathy may be suspected when bleeds issue from multiple sites, are spontaneous, inappropriately excessive, or recurrent.

Systemic (mucocutaneous) bleeding

Petechiae, easy bruising, epistaxis, hematemesis, or menorrhagia characterize systemic mucocutaneous bleeds. Systemic bleeds usually imply a defect in primary hemostasis: thrombocytopenia, a platelet qualitative abnormality, von Willebrand disease, or a vascular disease such as scurvy.

Anatomic (soft tissue) bleeding

Anatomic bleeds occur into joints, muscles, the peritoneum, or the central nervous system. Anatomic bleeds usually imply the impairment of secondary hemostasis: coagulation factor deficiencies.

Many patients have more than one defect or are taking medications that interfere with hemostasis. Most coagulopathies of primary or secondary hemostasis are acquired due to an underlying systemic disorder.

Acquired Vs. congenital bleeding

Most coagulopathies are acquired, a few are congenital. Acquired bleeds are seen most often in adults, follow identifiable events or an underlying disorder, and show no familial pattern. Congenital bleeds, with the classic example of hemophilia, usually occur in children, may be spontaneous, recurrent, or have a positive family history.

When a coagulation disorder is suspected, treatment may include fresh frozen plasma, cryoprecipitate, platelet transfusion, or specific coagulation factor concentrates.


Tests Used to Establish Presence of Coagulopathies

Perform these tests in the absence of anticoagulant therapy but when bleeding suggests a coagulopathy.

Prothrombin time (PT)

If the PT is over 1.5   the mean of the reference interval, suspect single or multiple deficiencies of the "extrinsic" and "common" factors prothrombin, fibrinogen, V, VII, or X. The factor with the greatest impact on the PT is VII.

Partial thromboplastin time (PTT)

If the PTT is over 1.5  the mean of the reference interval, suspect single or multiple deficiencies of the "intrinsic" and "common" factors prothrombin, fibrinogen, V, VIII, IX, X, or XI. Deficiencies of the "contact" factors XII, Fletcher (prekallikrein), or Fitzgerald (high molecular weight kininogen, HMWK) also prolong the PTT but are not associated with bleeding. Very prolonged PTT results (> 200 s) are due to heparin until proven otherwise.


Interpreting PT and PTT Results in Combination 

Useful when anticoagulant therapy has been ruled out and when bleeding suggests a coagulopathy. Unreported heparin may be ruled out in the laboratory using the thrombin time, which is prolonged to > 21 seconds when heparin is present.
PT PTT Acquired Disorder Congenital Disorder
Long Normal Liver disease or vitamin K deficiency Factor VII deficiency
Normal Long Acquired factor VIII inhibitor Factor VIII, IX, or XI deficiency
Long Long DIC, liver disease, Lupus anticoagulant (LA) Fibrinogen, prothrombin, factor V or X deficiency
Normal Normal Thrombocytopenia, qualitative platelet disorder Mild factor deficiency, mild von Willebrand disease, factor XIII deficiency
  1. To distinguish liver disease from vitamin K deficiency, assay factors V and VII. If only VII is deficient, suspect vitamin K deficiency; however if both are deficient, suspect liver disease.
  2. Congenital factor VII deficiency is rare and causes bleeding in childhood. Further, there is no direct correlation between factor level and bleeding.
  3. Acquired factor VIII inhibitor is rare, causes "acquired hemophilia" with severe bleeding. The inhibitor is first identified using the PTT mixing study and the factor VIII assay and measured using the Bethesda titer.
  4. Factor VIII and IX deficiencies are X-linked and are diagnosed in childhood. They are called hemophilia A and hemophilia B, respectively. Factor XI deficiency (hemophilia C) is autosomal recessive, is more common is Jewish patients, and the factor level is not directly associated with bleeding.
  5. LA is seldom associated with bleeding, unless it binds to prothrombin and causes deficiency of this factor.
  6. Fibrinogen deficiency prolongs both PT and PTT only when < 100 mg/dL.
  7. Factor XIII deficiency is established using the urea solubility test

PTT Mixing Study 

When the PTT is prolonged at least 5 seconds beyond the upper limit of the refer-ence interval, the patient's plasma is mixed 1:1 with normal plasma and the PTT is repeated:
  • If the PTT corrects to within 10% of the normal plasma PTT and the patient is bleeding, suspect a coagulation factor deficiency. Proceed with factor levels, assaying the most likely one first.
  • If the PTT fails to correct, and the patient is not bleeding, suspect a lupus anticoagulant. Proceed with lupus anticoagulant confirmation as detailed under "Thrombophilia."
  • Some specific LAs and factor inhibitors (such as factor VIII) are time- and temperature-dependent. If the PTT corrects to within 10% of the normal plasma PTT, repeat the mixing study by incubating the mixture for one to two hours at 37ºC. If the incubated PTT fails to correct, the presence of an inhibitor is determined.
Heparin interferes with mixing studies. Unreported heparin may be ruled out using the thrombin time, which is prolonged > 20a when heparin is present.


Donor Blood Components 

Treating multiple factor deficiencies with fresh frozen plasma (FFP)

FFP is the plasma from a unit of whole blood separated by centrifugation and frozen within 8 hours of collection. It is stored at -18ºC or colder for up to 12 months, thawed at 30-37ºC and kept at 1-6ºC for no longer than 24 hours after thawing. FFP contains an average of 1 IU/mL of each coagulation factor, including the labile factors V and VIII.

FFP is primarily used to treat bleeding due to acquired multiple factor deficiencies that occur in liver disease, vitamin K deficiency, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), and massive transfusion. Less frequently, it may be used to treat the rare congenital single factor deficiencies of II, V, VII, X, or XI, or deficiencies of proteins C or S.

FFP may be used for immediate short-term reversal of over-anticoagulation with Coumadin . However, because of its short half-life of 3-5 hours, factor VII is difficult to replace with FFP without volume overload. Thus, vitamin K and FFP are indicated in patients who have a high INR and are bleeding.

FFP is the replacement fluid of choice in therapeutic plasma exchange for thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS).

A dose of 10-20 mL of FFP/kg of body weight will increases any factor level by 20-30%. Frequency of transfusion depends on the half-life of the deficient factor(s). FFP is not indicated unless the PT or PTT is >1.5 x  the mean of the normal range.  FFP should not be used as a volume expander, or to "correct" a mildly prolonged PT or PTT. A patient may have a mildly prolonged PT or PTT and yet have hemostatically stable levels of coagulation factors.


Treating Fibrinogen and Factor XIII deficiency with Cryoprecipitate (CRYO)

CRYO is the protein precipitate left after FFP is thawed at 4oC and the supernatant liquid plasma is removed. CRYO is refrozen and stored at -18oC or lower for up to 12 months. After thawing at 30-37oC, it is kept at 20-24oC for no longer than 6 hours, or if pooled, no longer than 4 hours. A unit contains at least 80 IU of factor VIII, 150-250 mg of fibrinogen, 50-75 IU of factor XIII, and vWF.

CRYO is most commonly transfused to replace fibrinogen due to acquired deficien-cies either due to DIC or thrombolytic therapy, or for congenital hypofibrinogenemia or dysfibrinogenemia. CRYO is the only source of concentrated fibrinogen available. A fibrinogen level of 50-100mg/dL is considered hemostatically effective, and can be achieved using a general guideline of infusing one unit CRYO/7 kg of body weight. Fibrinogen has a half-life of 100-150 hours. CRYO is also used to treat the rare congenital or acquired deficiency of factor XIII. Factor XIII has a long half-life, 7-12 days, so the recommended treatment for factor XIII deficiency is one unit of CRYO/10 kg every 7 days.


DiagnosingScurvy and Treating with Vitamin C

The diagnosis of scurvy requires a high index of suspicion. In western countries, the incidence appears to be on the rise. Populations at least include the elderly, chronic alcoholics, diet faddists, the mentally ill, and patients with cancer, malabsorption, or who are on renal dialysis.

The symptoms of scurvy are weakness, lassitude, depression, arthralgias, petechiae, perifollicular hemorrhage (corkscrew hairs), follicular hyperkeratosis, purpura, ecchymoses, gingival swelling, hemorrhage, halitosis, poor wound healing, and loss of teeth. Typical plaque-like ecchymoses of the lower extremities may also be present.

Adults should receive 100 mg of vitamin C 3-5  x a day up to 4 grams followed by 100 mg/day. Infants and children should receive 10-25 mg 3 x a day. Symptoms disappear within 3-5 days.


Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC) Profile 

DIC is generalized activation of coagulation secondary to systemic conditions such as septicemia, carcinoma, and severe inflammation or pregnancy complications. The presence of high concentrations of D-dimer, often > 20,000 ng/ml, is the sine qua non criterion of DIC, as it reflects increased fibrin production and breakdown. In acute DIC, activation of the tissue factor (intrinsic) pathway results in a decrease in factors II, VII, IX and X, prolonging the PT and PTT. However, an increase in factor VIII production coupled with von Willebrand factor released from the endothelium may make the PTT less useful than the PT in laboratory diagnosis of DIC. The PT is also expected to be abnormal before the PTT because it is highly dependent on factor VII level, which has a very short half-life of 3-5 hours.
Assay Expected Results in DIC
PT Usually prolonged (even before PTT becomes prolonged)
PTT Usually prolonged above upper limit of reference interval
Fibrinogen Low; but may be normal or high due to acute phase reaction; sequential measurements are helpful
Quantitative D-dimer Significantly above the limit of reference interval

·        Single most important assay to establish DIC

·        In compensated DIC, D-dimer may be the only abnormal test

Complete blood count with platelet count Anemia with schistocytes

Low platelet count reflects significant consumption but count may be near normal due to marrow response


DIC treatment issues

The most important aspect of treating DIC is to remove the underlying cause of the syndrome. Secondly, it is key to maintain the blood pressure and to correct electrolyte imbalances to Excellerate tissue oxygenation. Transfuse FFP, CRYO and platelets if there are signs of ineffective hemostasis, such as profuse oozing or frank bleeding. The PT, PTT, fibrinogen and or platelet count suggest the cause of the abnormal coagulation. High D-dimer levels suppress platelet function.


Von Willebrand Disease 

Von Willebrand disease (vWD) is a deficiency or abnormality of plasma von Wille-brand factor (vWF), a 5-20 million Dalton multimeric protein essential to platelet adhesion. VWF is also the plasma carrier of coagulation factor VIII. VWD affects 1 to 2 % of the general population. Clinicians must differentiate the various types and subtypes of vWD before establishing treatment.

VWD type 1

Type 1 vWD is a mild to moderate quantitative vWF deficiency in 80% of vWD patients. It varies in severity among patients and over time in individual patients, and may cause systemic mucocutaneous (platelet-type) bleeding.

VWD type 3

Type 3 vWD is caused by the homozygous absence of vWF. Type 3 is rare but causes severe systemic and anatomic bleeding because factor VIII is also low.

VWD type 2

Type 2 vWD is a moderate to severe qualitative vWF deficiency in 15 to 20% of vWD patients. There are four subtypes.

  • Type 2A vWD: Absence of intermediate and large vWF multimers caused by increased proteolysis which cause decreased hemostatic efficiency.
  • Type 2B vWD: Absence of large vWF multimers in plasma caused by in-creased platelet binding. This is a "gain of function" mutation affecting vWF affinity for platelet receptors. "Pseudo-vWD" or "platelet-type vWD" is a plate-let membrane receptor mutation that causes excessive vWF binding. In both instances, the platelet count may be reduced.
  • Type 2N vWD: "Normandy type" or "autosomal hemophilia" is due to a vWF mutation which reduces its capability for carrying factor VIII.
  • Type 2M vWD: Normal appearing vWF multimers but with a mutation that reduces their ability to bind platelets. Often mistaken for type 1. 
Acquired vWD

Acquired vWD is multifactorial and may arise as a consequence of an anti-vWF autoantibody, reduced vWF production, or increased turnover. It is associated with monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS), non-Hodgkin lymphoma, multiple myeloma, solid tumors, hypothyroidism, and sodium valproate and ciprofloxacin.


Primary VWD Laboratory Profile 

  • VWF functional assay (also called ristocetin cofactor)
  • VWF antigen assay
  • Factor VIII activity
VWD primary profile interpretation (expected)
VWD Type Functional Antigen Factor VIII
1 Mildly decreased Mildly decreased Mildly decreased
3 Severely decreased (< 10%) Severely decreased (< 10%) Severely decreased (< 10%)
2A Lower than antigen Mildly decreased

or normal

Mildly decreased

or normal

2B Lower than antigen Mildly decreased

or normal

Mildly decreased

or normal

2N Normal Normal Decreased
2M Lower than antigen Mildly decreased Normal

VWD primary profile limitations

  • VWF is an acute phase reactant that rises during stress, pregnancy, hemorrhage, acute infection, estrogen therapy and exercise. Negative must be repeated if there is strong clinical suspicion based on personal or family history of bleeding.
  • Some experts test women between the 5th and the 7th day of the menstrual cycle, the "vWF nadir"
  • The vWF level varies by blood group :
Blood Group Mean vWF Reference Interval
O 75% 36-157%
A 105% 48-234%
B 117% 57-241%
AB 123% 64-238%

VWD Follow-up Testing 

  • Ristocetin induced platelet aggregation (RIPA), also called the ristocetin response curve, is used when vWD type 2B is suspected (disproportional decrease in vWF activity). Platelets in type 2B vWD aggregate in response to low concentrations of ristocetin.
  • VWF multimeric analysis is a specialized assay requiring SDS-polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis. Multimeric patterns distinguish among qualitative defects such as subtypes 2A and 2B. Multimeric analysis is unnecessary when type 1 or type 3 vWD are apparent from the primary profile.
  • There is no effective laboratory method to distinguish type 2M from type 1.

VWD Treatment Options 

Desmopressin (DDAVP)
  • Useful in types 1, 2A and 2M, since it releases intracellular stores of vWF from platelets and endothelial cells, increasing its plasma concentration
  • Optimal dose of DDAVP is 0.3  micrograms/kg-up to 28 micrograms total dose-in 15 to 30 mL of saline
  • Given by slow IV push or drip over 15 to 30 minutes
  • Peak vWF release effect of DDAVP is achieved in 30 to 60 minutes
  • Half life of released vWF is 12 hours
Fibrinolysis inhibitors
  • EACA (Amicar) and Tranexamic acid
  • Useful in dental and urinary tract procedures as topical therapy
Plasma-derived factor concentrates
  • Humate-P  (most commonly used); Alphanate
  • These are labeled with the number of units of factor VIII and vWF
Calculating factor concentrate dose

The normal level of vWF is roughly 50-150%, or 0.5 to 1.5 IU (see effect of blood type above). A level of 50% is regarded as effectively hemostatic under normal conditions, although for major surgery one may aim for a higher level. The formula for computing the first, or loading dose, is:

Dose in IU = (desired activity – current activity) x PV


·        IU is international units, defined as amount per mL of plasma. 1 IU= 100%

·        Desired activity is therapeutic level to be achieved

·        Current activity is measured using the vWF activity assay

·        PV is plasma volume in mL computed as follows:

PV = Blood volume x (1-hematocrit)


·       Blood volume based upon patient weight in kilograms (1 lb. = 0.453 kg)

Blood Volume Multiplier Body Type
70 mL/kg Slim
60 mL/kg Obese
50 mL/kg Morbidly obese

The maintenance dosage is 50% of the loading or initial dosage and is administered 12 hours after the first dosage. Subsequent dosages are administered at 12-hour intervals and are monitored by repeat vWF antigen assays collected just prior to the next dose (through level).

Example for calculating factor concentrate dosage

A woman with type 3 vWD arrives with an acute abdominal bleed. Her initial laboratory results are:

vWF activity <1%
vWF antigen <1%
Factor VIII activity <1%
HCT 30%

She weighs 132 lbs and is 4’11” tall, moderately obese, blood volume multiplier is 60 mg/kg.

1.   Compute blood volume:

132 lb x 0.453 lb/kg = 60 kg

BV = 60 kg x 60 mL/kg = 3600 mL

2.   Compute plasma volume:

PV = 3600 mL x (1-.30) = 2520 mL

3.   Compute dosage:

Dose in IU = (0.5 IU – 0 IU) x 2520 Dose = 1260 IU

4.   She is given an initial dose of 1260 IU of vWF in the form of Humate-PÒ and subsequent maintenance doses of 630 IU every twelve hours. VWF activity should remain between 25% and 50% and dosage adjustments should follow factor levels.


Congenital Single Factor Deficiencies (Hemophilias) 

Calculating factor VIII concentrate dosage

The normal level of factor VIII is 50-186% (or 0.5 to 1.86 IU/ml). Effective therapeutic levels vary from 30% to 100% depending on clinical condition of the patient. The formula for computing the first or loading dose of factor is the same as that for vWF:

Dose in IU = (desired activity – current activity) x PV


·        IU is international units, defined as amount per mL of plasma. 1 IU= 100%

·        Desired activity is therapeutic level to be achieved

·        Current activity is measured using the vWF activity assay

·        PV is plasma volume in mL computed as follows:

PV = Blood volume x (1-hematocrit)


·       Blood volume based upon patient weight in kilograms (1 lb. = 0.453 kg)

Blood Volume Multiplier Body Type
70 mL/kg Slim
60 mL/kg Obese
50 mL/kg Morbidly obese

It is advisable to check the peak factor VIII level after the loading dose by collecting a sample approximately 15 minutes after the infusion of the factor. If the desired activity was achieved, 50% of the initial dose should be administered 8-12 hours later. Immediately prior to the second dose another factor level will be helpful to estimate the in vivo half-life of factor VIII and will guide calculation of subsequent doses. A bleeding patient is likely to require larger doses than someone who is clinically stable. Changes in hematocrit will also affect the appropriate dose at any given time.


Factor VIII Concentrates

Plasma-derived products
  • Indicated for patients who have previously received plasma products or who have HBV, HCV, or HIV infection or positive serology
  • After millions of units used, no evidence of viral transmission - very safe!
  • Choices include: Alphanate, Monarc-M , Hemofil-M , Monoclate-P , Koate-HP.  These should be considered equivalent and are labeled with factor VIII IU per vial.
Products prepared using recombinant technology
  • Indicated for previously untreated patients (PUPs), those who have never been exposed to plasma products or whose previous treatment is unknown 
  • Choices include: Kogenate , Helixate , Recombinate , Bioclate  and should be considered equivalent - labeled with factor VIII IU per vial
Calculating factor IX concentrate dosage
  • Compute as for vWF and factor VIII but double the initial dosage because 50% of factor IX distributes to tissue fluid. 
  • The maintenance dosage is 50% of the loading or initial dosage and is administered 24 hours after the first dose, reflecting the half-life of factor IX. Factor levels should be monitored as described for factor VIII above.

Factor IX Concentrates 

Plasma-derived products
  • Indicated for patients who have previously received plasma products or who have HBV, HCV, or HIV infection or positive serology
  • Very safe
  • Choices include: Alpha Nine SD ; Mononine , and should be considered equivalent - labeled with factor IX IU per vial
Products prepared using recombinant technology
  • Indicated for previously untreated patients (PUPs), those who have never been exposed to plasma products, or whose previous treatment is unknown BeneFIX  (not stocked at UAB)
Determining the plasma factor level from the PTT

When the factor assay is unavailable, such as during nights and weekends, plasma factor VIII or IX levels may be estimated using the PTT. The PTT is correlated to factor VIII or IX sensitivity curves, and these correlations are specific for each reagent used for the assays; thus it varies among laboratories. PTT estimation of the degree of factor deficiency is valid only when the PT is normal, ruling out the presence of vitamin K deficiency or liver disease. The PTT is seldom prolonged beyond 80 seconds in a single factor deficiency when the PT is normal. On the other hand, if the PTT is normal, the patient has been treated and the bleeding may be related to another cause.   Factor inhibitors (two therapy options described below)

Up to 30% of severe hemophilia A patients develop factor VIII inhibitors after a few doses of factor VIII (alloantibodies), rendering concentrate therapy ineffective. Adults who have never had a detectable inhibitor are unlikely to develop one. An inhibitor is suspected when the response to factor VIII concentrates is much less than predicted by the dose calculation. Among hemophilia B patients, only 2-3% develop anti-IX inhibitors. In rare instances, non-hemophilics may develop autoimmune factor VIII inhibitors, causing acquired hemophilia. To establish the presence of a factor inhibitor, order a PTT mixing study (see "Management of Bleeding"). If there is no correction in the mixing study, a quantitative Bethesda assay will determine the relative concentration of inhibitor.


Activated Prothombin Complex Products (APCCs): FEIBA FHÒ, Autoplex TÒ

FEIBA dosages in IU/kg (per manufacturer recommendations)
  • Joint bleeding: 50 IU/kg q 12 h
  • Mucous membrane bleeding: 50 IU/kg q 6h
  • Muscle bleeding: 100 IU/kg q 12h
FEIBA may induce DIC, therefore…
  • May not exceed 200 IU/kg/24 hours
  • Infusion or injection rate must not exceed 2 IU/kg/minute
  • There is no test to monitor FEIBA. The patient's clinical response is the only guide; for example, monitor the size of the hematoma

Activated Recombinant Factor VII (NovoSevenÒ)

  • Effective alternative for inhibitor patients who do not respond to FEIBA
  • Cost is ~ $ 1/ microgram
  • May be useful in patients with major bleeding associated with warfarin overdose or liver failure who require fast hemostasis
  • For patients with factor VIII inhibitor: 80-120 micrograms/kg every 2-3 hours
  • For other indications: 25-35 micrograms/kg once or every 6 hours (empiric dose-not scientifically determined).
[top] Other Congenital Single Factor Deficiencies
Rare patients with deficiencies of prothrombin or factors VII and X may also present with bleeding or require invasive procedures. Plasma level of factor VII do not correlate with risk of bleeding, but those of prothrombin and factor X do. Besides FFP as a source of these factors, two types of concentrates are available for these patients and are the products of choice.[top]

Prothrombin Complex Concentrates (PCCs)

Amount of each factor per vial is relative to the number of units of factor IX. For example, there are 148 units of prothrombin per 100 units of factor IX in Profilnine HT. The vials are labeled with factor IX units only.


Factor II Factor VII Factor IX Factor X
Profilnine HTÒ 148 11 100 64
BebulinÒ 120 13 100 139

   Steps in Dispensing Factor Concentrates (Summary)

Confirm coagulopathy diagnosis
Confirm current indication for factor replacement
Select product:

·              Plasma-derived factors VIII or IX

·              Recombinant factors VIII or IX

·              Bypass products for patients with factor VIII inhibitors

·              von Willebrand factor

Assess availability of product in inventory
Calculate dosage based on clinical indication
Establish treatment frequency (dosing interval)
Establish expected number of repeat treatments required
Establish laboratory monitoring by plasma factor level

·              Precise time interval

·              Frequency of testing


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