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Exam Code: HPE2-CP02 Practice test 2022 by team
HPE2-CP02 Implementing SAP HANA Solutions

Exam ID : HPE2-CP02
Exam type : Web based
Exam duration : 1 hour 10 minutes
Exam length : 50 questions
Passing score : 50%
Delivery languages : English
Supporting resources These recommended resources help you prepare for the exam:
Implementing SAP HANA Solutions Reference Materials

This test tests knowledge and skills to design, recommend, and implement the appropriate HPE solutions for SAP HANA, including sizing, TDI vs appliance, high availability, backup and recovery, storage, networking, servers and scale out vs scale up. This test assesses the candidate’s ability to perform sizing and solution design activities to respond to a customer RFP or RFI for an HPE solution for SAP HANA.

Typical candidates are senior level individuals with five or more years of experience implementing, proposing and validating HPE solutions for SAP HANA technology and/or managing individuals who implement and propose HPE SAP HANA solutions. Candidates possess a deep understanding of HPE solutions for SAP HANA technology and have knowledge of HPE storage, backup and recovery, high availability solutions, networking, and server solutions.

59% Plan and design HPE solutions for SAP HANA customers.
Perform sizing and solution design activities to respond to a customer RFP or RFI for an HPE solution for SAP HANA. (sizing, TDI vs appliance, HA/DR, backup and recovery, storage, networking, servers, scale out vs scale up deployments, clustering).
Identify and describe appropriate use cases - on premise, cloud - to implement the HPE solution for SAP HANA (scale-up/scale-out & Dual purpose.
Identify and describe storage solutions for HPE SAP HANA (including installation and implementation).
Identify and describe backup and recovery options for HPE SAP HANA.
Identify and describe high availability options for HPE SAP HANA. (SGeSAP).

15% Recommend and upsell HPE solutions for SAP HANA.
Given a customer scenario, recommend the appropriate HPE solutions for SAP HANA.

26% Install, configure, and set up HPE solutions for SAP HANA.
Identify and compare hardware and software used in the HPE Converged System for SAP HANA portfolio.
Describe the fundamental concepts of HPEs solution for SAP HANA Vora.
Locate appropriate resources and tools for the recommended HPE for SAP HANA solutions (e.g., quick specs, ordering guide, installation and configuration tool, CID / Smart CD tools).

Implementing SAP HANA Solutions
HP Implementing test format
Killexams : HP Implementing test format - BingNews Search results Killexams : HP Implementing test format - BingNews Killexams : 30-Plus Certifications to Advance Your Networking Career

Aruba Networks certifications

Aruba Certified Switching Professional (ACSP)

Aruba Certified Mobility Associate (ACMA)

Aruba Certified Mobility Professional (ACMP)

Established program with various learning tracks and a range of certifications.

Certifications identify technical knowledge and skills, design, deployment, and management in complex settings. 

BICSI certifications

BICSI Technician (TECH)

Focused on supporting information technology systems, BICSI is a professional association with more than 26,000 members in approximately 100 countries.

The TECH credential is a midlevel certification targeting those with 1-3 years of documented industry experience.

The credential identifies professionals who understand and can apply installation-specific information, lead installation teams, perform testing and troubleshooting on copper and optical fiber installations, evaluate applications of cabling installation, make recommendations regarding codes and standards, and perform retrofits and upgrades for existing infrastructures.

Cisco certifications

Cisco Certified Network Associate Routing and Switching (CCNA)

Cisco Certified Network Professional Enterprise Certification and Training (CCNP Enterprise)

CCIE Enterprise Infrastructure Certification and Training

CCIE Enterprise Wireless Certification and Training

Cisco has a well-known and highly developed certification portfolio.

Certifications in this category are aimed at candidates interested in building careers in wired and wireless networking techniques and technologies, network design, or routing and switching technologies.

Certification paths range from entry level to expert.

Certifications are targeted to network specialists, administrators, support engineers and design engineers. 

CIW (Certified Internet Web Professional) 

CIW Network Technology Associate

Entry-level certification developed by CIW (formerly called Certification Partners).

The target audience includes technical sales, support engineers, network administrators, product managers and engineers.

Content focuses on mastering the basics of networking and exploring key concepts, skills and core terms to prepare candidates for job readiness in networking, internet protocols, network security, and more.

CompTIA certifications

CompTIA Network+

This is one of the most popular general networking certifications in the world.

It targets candidates seeking careers as network administrators, technicians or installers, help desk technicians, and IT cable installers.

Recognized or required by the Department of Defense, Dell, HP, Ricoh, Sharp and Xerox. Also required for Apple Consultants Network membership.

Certified Wireless Network Professional (CWNP)

Certified Wireless Network Administrator (CWNA)

Certified Wireless Design Professional (CWDP)

Certified Wireless Analysis Professional (CWAP)

Certified Wireless Network Expert (CWNE)

Established certification program offering a full complement of certifications ranging from entry-level to professional career certifications.

Certifications focus on enterprise Wi-Fi skills.

CWNP also offers Certified Wireless Security Professional (CWSP) and Certified Wireless Network Trainer (CWNT) credentials.

Electronics Technicians Association (ETA) International certifications

Computer Service Technician (CST)

Information Technology Security (ITS)

Network Computer Technician (NCT)

Network Systems Technician (NST)

Wireless Network Technician (WNT)

ETA offers more than 90 certifications targeting electronics professionals.

ETA is accredited by the International Certification Accreditation Council and has issued more than 180,000 certifications.

Extreme Networks certifications

Extreme Networks Certified Specialist (ECS)

Extreme Networks Sales Specialist (ESS)

​​Extreme Networks Design Specialist (EDS)

These technical certifications focus on practical, hands-on training to support and optimize an organization’s networks.

Multiple concentrations are available.

Hurricane Electric Internet Services certifications

Hurricane Electric IPv6 Certification

This free online certification project validates skills in basic IPv6 concepts.

Certification test includes IP address format, reverse DNS, localhost address, default routing, documentation prefix, link-local prefix, multicast prefix, traceroute, and IPv6 server configuration.

IPv6 Forum certifications

IPv6 Forum Silver or Gold Certified Engineer

The IPv6 Education Certification Logo Program promotes IPv6 education and helps candidates build skills to foster swifter adoption of IPv6.

Courses focus on practical application and consist of both instructor-led and hands-on lab instruction.

Juniper Networks certifications

Juniper Networks Certified Specialist Enterprise Routing and Switching (JNCIS-ENT)

Juniper Networks Certified Professional Enterprise Routing and Switching (JNCIP-ENT)

Juniper Networks Certified Expert Enterprise Routing and Switching (JNCIE-ENT)

JNCIS-ENT, JNCIP-ENT and JNCIE-ENT are vendor-specific credentials that address installation and support of LAN/WAN routers and switches in Juniper Networks’ technology-based networks.

Credential holders possess skills necessary to support large enterprise environments.

Nokia certifications

Nokia Network Routing Specialist II (NRS II)

This certification is for intermediate network professionals experienced with IP and Ethernet technologies.

NRS II certification recognizes advanced networking and service offerings that build on core aspects of Nokia service routing. The certification covers internet routing protocols, IP/MPLS networks, and implementing Nokia Layer 2 and Layer 3 services.

Note that Alcatel-Lucent operates as part of the Nokia Group. This certification was known as the Alcatel-Lucent Network Routing Specialist II (NRS II), and some study guides still refer to it as such.

Oracle certifications

Oracle Certified Expert, Oracle Solaris 11 Network Administrator 

Oracle has a well-established vendor-specific certification program. This certification validates the technical skills of system administrators who work with LANs and the Oracle Solaris operating system (Oracle Solaris OS).

The credential was formerly Sun Certified Network Administrator (SCNA).

Palo Alto certifications

Palo Alto Networks Certified Network Security Engineer (PCNSE)

PCNSE credential holders possess knowledge and technical skills necessary to install, configure and implement Palo Alto Networks technologies at the advanced engineering level.

The credential is targeted to partners, system engineers, system integrators, support engineers, pre-sales system engineers, support staff or anyone using Palo Alto Network technologies.

Riverbed Professional Services (RPS) certifications

Riverbed Certified Performance Engineering (RCPE)

The Riverbed Certified Performance Engineering (RCPE) program has several tracks, including WAN optimization, network and infrastructure visibility, network configuration, and more. Courses span foundational, associate and professional levels. 

RPS changed its education program from product-focused how-tos to a learning environment that teaches how to consider business needs, obstacles and solutions.

SolarWinds certifications

SolarWinds Certified Professional (SCP)

Credential validates skills in networking management fundamentals, network management planning, network management operations, network fault and performance troubleshooting, and Orion NPM administration.

The SCP is an accredited certification.

Wireshark certifications

WCNA Certification

Vendor-specific credential for professionals who use Wireshark to analyze network traffic and then use that information to troubleshoot, optimize and secure networks.

Wireshark is considered the de facto open-source product for network protocol analysis, with more than 400,000 downloads per month.

The WCNA test was certified by the U.S. Army in 2009 and covers Wireshark functionality, TCP/IP network communications, and network troubleshooting and security.

Tue, 28 Jun 2022 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : HR Policy Training

Tara Duggan is a Project Management Professional (PMP) specializing in knowledge management and instructional design. For over 25 years she has developed quality training materials for a variety of products and services supporting such companies as Digital Equipment Corporation, Compaq and HP. Her freelance work is published on various websites.

Sat, 22 Jan 2022 00:36:00 -0600 en-US text/html
Killexams : Hardware “Security” And A DMCA Takedown Notice

tektronix-autoLast week we published a post about how it was discovered through trial and error that Tektronix application modules are designed with laughable security. We’ll get to that part of it in a minute. We received a DMCA Takedown Notice from Tektronix (which you can read after the break) demanding that we remove the post. We have altered the original post, but we believe our coverage of this story is valid and we don’t agree that the post should be completely removed.

First off, Tektronix sells the modules to unlock the features already present on the Oscilloscope in questions. We’re operating on the moral assumption that using these features without paying their asking price is wrong. If you want the features they’ve developed you should pay for them.

The real story here is that Tektronix designed a woefully weak system for unlocking these modules. Learn from this. If you’re ever designing a hardware key, don’t do it like this!

An EEPROM, a connector, and a plain text string of characters which is already published publicly on their website is all that is necessary to unlock these “crippled” features. Let’s just say that again: apparently every hardware key is the same and just uses a plain-text string found on their website which is not encrypted or obfuscated. If you were selling these keys for $2.99 perhaps this would be adequate, but Tek values these modules at $500 apiece.

If you were designing this system wouldn’t it be worth using an encryption key pair based on the serial number or some other piece of unique information? How do you think this should have been done? Leave your comment below.

  I am the Chief Intellectual Property Counsel at Test & Measurement group of companies including Tektronix, Inc.

I have been notified of a posting on the “Hack A Day” website concerning hacking of Tektronix’ copyrighted modules for use in oscilloscopes.  Hacking those modules permits unauthorized access to and use of Tektronix’ copyrighted software by means of copying of Tektronix’ copyrighted code in those modules.

A copy of the offending posting is attached for your reference.

<Copied text removed>

The posting includes instructions for how to hack our modules and thereby violate Tektronix’ copyrights.

Tektronix has a good faith belief that there is no legal basis for this individual to provide such instructions to anyone, much less on a public forum.

I hereby submit that the above statements are true and accurate, and under penalty of perjury state that I am authorized to act on Tektronix’ behalf.

In view of the above, Tektronix demands that the posting identified above be expeditiously removed from the  website.

Very Truly Yours,

Thu, 14 Jul 2022 12:01:00 -0500 Mike Szczys en-US text/html

21st Century Classroom: Transforming the Textbook

In 21st century classrooms, blackboard chalk is on the endangered list, the pop quiz has been replaced with clicker questions, and bowling alley technology (overhead projector transparencies) has disappeared, thanks to digital projectors and document cameras.

But if you’re going to point to any aspect of the classroom that still hasn’t covered much ground on its trip into the 21st century, it has to be the textbook. This ubiquitous accessory has been beset by editorial controversy as we have seen recently in Texas; has seen consistently high price increases of an average of six percent per year; and still inspires parental derision for the outdated information often portrayed.

And then there’s the matter of weight. The heft of textbooks was the subject of a 21-page report written in 2004 in California for the state’s board of education. According to researchers, the combined weight of textbooks in the four “core” subjects (social studies, math, reading/ language arts, and science) ran, on average, from eight pounds at the first grade level to 20 pounds at the 11th grade level. Legislation to mandate weight limitations quickly followed in that state.

As this comparison of two school districts on opposite sides of the country and economic spectrum illustrates, in a world rich with alternative methods of delivery of content exemplified by digitized conversation, Google books, the Kindle and iPad, the textbook is the next classroom object worthy of transformation.

Realigning the Budget with Netbooks

“Everyone has a different 1:1 approach,” says Gary Brantley, chief information systems officer for the Lorain City School District. “Ours was to eliminate the books.”

Lorain City Schools is located in a city 35 miles from Cleveland. The district has 18 schools and 8,400 students. By moving to digital delivery of textbooks Superintendent Cheryl Atkinson saw an opportunity to address several larger district challenges than simply replacing outdated texts. A majority of families are low-income; its schools were struggling to meet yearly academic progress measures; and the district had just come out from under a state-mandated “fiscal watch.”

And, recalls Brantley, Atkinson was sincerely concerned about the weight of the textbooks being hauled around by the kids in her schools.

That was the atmosphere under which initial discussions began, he says. The district quickly realized that adopting a 1:1 program with digital textooks at the heart of the initiative could reduce textbook expenses and help bring students into the 21st century. “We’re an inner city school district,” says Brantley. “We saw this as a way to level the playing field for our kids and give them equal access and opportunities with technology.”

After a pilot program in 2007 and 2008, the district went after a federal grant to partially fund a full rollout to 9th and 10th graders for the following year. In January 2009, the district used federal Title 1 and Ohio state educational technology grant funds to lease Dell Inspiron 910 netbooks. The following year that program was expanded to 6th, 7th, 8th, and 11th grades, and the district switched to Acer Aspire One AOD150-1577 netbooks. This fall the district hopes to add 12th graders to the program.

The publishers the district is working with on the program are the traditional ones: Pearson Prentice Hall; Holt McDougal; and McGraw-Hill/Glencoe. They have provided versions of the texts, Brantley says, that go beyond simply being a PDF of the book. “It’s interactive. For example, if you have someone like Martin Luther King or John F. Kennedy in a history book, you can click on a picture, and it will tell you information about [that person] or [you can] do a search from the book to get more information about that particular person.”

Brantley is quick with numbers. He says that for 2,600 math books—the number of texts needed for grades nine through 12—the cost was going to be about $182,000. That’s $70 per book. The e-book edition for that same math book was about $15,000. The savings on that one text alone covered a large part of the expense of that first rollout of digital textbooks. The savings don’t stop there. An English textbook was priced at $163,673.05 for 2,475 books—about $66 per book. The digital version of the same volume was a fourth of the cost—$36,554.45.

Explains Brantley, Superintendent Atkinson “was very persistent” that the district find a content supplier for the program, even if it wasn’t one of the three or four big textbook publishers. The publishers were willing to try the program in pilot mode. “A lot of trust was built on both sides to make this happen,” he says.

Now, says Brantley, students don’t have to travel to labs to gain access to computers. “Basically, there’s a lab in every classroom. Every kid is using that netbook as a textbook and as a computer.”

Brantley knows the technology is making an impact. “I think it’s pushed us a long way. It’s allowing the students to become a lot more creative in what they do and how they do it. It’s also leveled the playing field. A lot of these kids don’t have computers or internet access at home. Because the books are loaded on the hard drive, [Superintendent Atkinson] has given kids the ability to work on things they’d only have access to in a limited time within the classroom or in the lab.”

Although Brantley says student testing scores have gone up, he can’t confidently point to quantifiable results tied directly to the digital textbooks. “We brought different pieces of technology into the district in the same period, so we have to let the program run for a little while,” he explains.

“But Why Do We Care?”

The Campbell Union High School District, next door to San Jose in California’s Silicon Valley consists of six sites, five of which have been designated by the state as excellent. During the 2009-2010 school year, they performed a pilot program to experiment with the replacement of textbooks with e-readers. Director of Technology Charles Kanavel and his IT team of five distributed 270 Sony Reader Touch model PRS-600s into English classes across the district’s sites.

“These kids get technology. They go home and look at YouTube all day. An e-reader isn’t that hard for them,” Kanavel explains. The goal of the pilot was to get a “true sense of what’s it like for the everyday student to use one of these things in terms of wear and tear and what they wanted to see on the device.”

The effort was spurred by the Williams Settlement, Kanavel says. That California statute calls for California schools to have sufficient educational materials and conditions to meet curriculum standards. In order to meet standards of currency, textbooks need to be replaced every seven years—an expensive proposition in a district with 8,000 students. “It’s $180 for a biology textbook. That’s just one. With e-readers and how ubiquitous they’ve become,” Kanavel recalls asking, “Why do they need to carry 80 pounds worth of books around, when we have the technology to do this differently?”

But that initial test might never have come about if Kanavel hadn’t persisted in trying to woo Sony to participate in the proof of concept, a process that took seven months. The Campbell director focused on Sony because of its durability, price, and open platform. “Kindle, if you drop it, it’s game over,” he says. “With the Nook you have to buy everything from Barnes & Noble. The [Apple] iPad with 32 or 64 Gb, that’s $600 to $800. With one iPad, I can get four e-readers from Sony at around $200 each.”

But persuading the manufacturer to pay attention to education’s needs wasn’t an easy sell. Kanavel, who has a background in investment banking, studied the company’s financial reports and figured out how many e-readers had probably been sold through its nearby Silicon Valley area store, the largest Sony store in the United States.

When he approached the company about doing a test, it replied, “Yeah, yeah, yeah, interesting. But why do we care?” In response, he used this argument: “You sold 14,000 at the Valley Fair store in a three month period. Those are respectable numbers. But realistically, our district is 8,000 kids. You’d sell me 8,000 units. Then I’d have to buy a quarter of that every year forever. Once I start on it, I can’t get off.” He also pointed out that Campbell was only a medium-sized district. “Take San Jose Unified —55,000 students right next door. That would make your store numbers look like nothing. And there are 32 districts in Santa Clara County alone. Think of the entire country. Then they started caring.”

Once Sony was on board, the next hurdle was the textbook publishers trying to safeguard the pricing model, according to Kanavel. He estimates that a single school might have 300 copies of a particular book. On average the textbook will cost $120 on the low side and $180 on the high side. That’s a total outlay of $36,000 to $54,000 for a single textbook in a single school in the Campbell district.

For English classes, however, many of the books contained classic works of literature that are now in the public domain and available on various digital book websites. “Shakespeare is Shakespeare. The guy’s not writing a new version,” Kanavel says. He has been able to make a deal with Houghton Mifflin Harcourt for some digital textbooks in PDF format; but others—particularly novels —came from the Sony Reader Store; on Project Gutenberg (a good source for Shakespeare, he says); and via the OverDrive School obtain Library.

The challenge faced by textbook publishers, he points out, is that they have to change their business model. Kanavel wants to set up a site license with the publishers, but so far those negotiations are still on-going, and, besides, many still have to convert their textbooks into the epub format.

But the financials, as this former numbers guy points out, still work out nicely for the district. “For example, historically we have paid $9 a book for paperback copies of Macbeth and 70 to 80 percent of them come back unusable at the end of the year. Now with the e-reader, that replacement cost goes to zero.”

On average 15 out of every 100 books in the district need to be replaced because they’re damaged, lost, or stolen. Often, the same student loses multiple books when he or she loses a backpack. “If you’re a parent, you have to pay to replace all of those books. If your student loses a history book, biology book, math book, and English book, that’s about $600,” Kanavel says. “If they lose an e-reader or it breaks, you pay for the replacement cost of the e-reader —$200 -- then we just obtain the content.” This, he adds, “has long-term implications for budgeting and funding.”

So far, Kanavel says, the pilot has been successful with students. “They’ve taken good care of them. I’ve only had three break out of 270, which is pretty good.” He plans to add an additional 200 e-readers to the district for the next school year. “One thing I’ve been very focused on with this pilot is offsetting the cost of textbook replacement with this device and making it easier on the kids.” He believes the district is on the right track.

Teachers and students are discovering other advantages. The e-readers have built-in dictionaries. If a reader has a visual impairment, text can be upsized quickly. Users can annotate, draw, and take notes—something that’s forbidden with traditional textbooks. When the year is over, the kids will return the devices, and that added material can be wiped from the hard disk.

But e-readers still aren’t perfect, he adds. First, not every book is available in a digital format. He cites a high school classic, Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart, as an example. Many textbooks have already been put on CD, but those are designed to be used in a PC. Publishers haven’t made huge inroads into converting their materials into the standard epub format that works with the major e-readers. But Kanaval is hopeful those gaps will diminish with time.

With the expected expansion of the pilot, negotiations with Sony continue. “We’ve proven that the kids can take care of them. The technology does work,” Kanavel says. “The next thing is to get Sony to build something bigger—an eight and a half by 11 inch format. And there are a lot of features that we don’t use. We’ve given them feedback on those things. There may be ways to cut cost by eliminating feature sets that can help them balance the cost of manufacturing.”

Textbook Smackdown

So given the experiences of these two districts—and others—how does a standard textbook stack up against an e-book? If a publisher needs to repair the mistakes introduced in the text, as happened with math books issued in Sacramento County in spring 2010, it won’t have to arrange to destroy the outdated books and incur shipping costs for the new ones; it can correct the errors and electronically distribute new versions of the content. In the face of a quickly evolving business model, publishers will be forced to adjust their pricing schemes—no doubt, to the advantage of the districts. In the matter of weight— well, the Acer netbook comes in under three pounds, and the Sony device is a little over 10 ounces. Those are metrics anyone can use no matter how much digital content sits on the devices.

Building the E-Book Structure

Although every e-book initiative shares common aspects—hardware, bandwidth, content, and professional development—how the program unfolds in your district will be unique. For example, should you connect e-readers to the internet?

In order to have a successful 1:1 implementation, you need hardware, bandwidth, content, and teacher professional development and buy in. But each district will be unique in its approach to implementing each aspect and the entire program. The question of when in implementation a district allows connection to the internet is a case in point. Campbell Union High School District in Silicon Valley wants students to stay on task as it implements e-books. Therefore, the Sony Reader Touch devices being used there don’t include web access. Although Sony does make a model of its e-reader that includes WiFi, according to Director of Technology Charles Kanavel, the decision to leave that feature out helps simplify the transition teachers have to make in integrating the device in the classroom.

“If I’m a teacher and I have these new devices in class, it affects my lesson planning,” he explains. “Without administrative control of access to the internet, some smart kid will make the thing text another e-reader. Then once that kid knows, all the kids will know. In class, instead of reading, they’re texting each other, surfing MySpace, and doing everything else. Have I just disrupted an entire class with this device? So let’s get the adoption in first. Let’s get the hurdles out of the way surrounding usage of content, usage of technology, and how it integrates into your standards in the classroom. Once that’s outlined, then we’ll figure out how to do WiFi.”

That absence of web access has also streamlined professional development. The district had 270 devices, which it handed out in English classes spread fairly evenly across its six sites. To ensure that the pilot wouldn’t get put on the back-burner by teachers uninterested in using the ereader, Kanavel had the principals at those sites nominate teachers to participate who were a “little bit tech savvy.”

From there, his IT team called teachers in for a demonstration of the Sony product they’d be using with their students. “That was it,” he says. “Maybe 30 minutes of Q&A with teachers, and off we went. The devices aren’t that complicated. You turn it on, pick your book, turn to the page, and that’s it.”

To make sure the program is on track, Kanavel has been doing evaluation of it in “real time.” “It’s not something we threw out there and said we’ll come back to you in six months. Every couple of weeks I’m pinging these teachers. They have direct lines back to me. As they’ve noticed things, they’ve emailed me.” Along with that, device maker Sony has put out surveys for the users too.

It’s Complicated

What complicates implementation of digital content in a 1:1 program is when the device being deployed is used for other purposes too. That’s the case at Lorain City School District in Ohio, which has distributed Acer netbooks to 9th, 10th, and 11th grade students. The goal there is to give its students access to technology and the wider world it can deliver. Many don’t have computers or an internet connection at home. Therefore, Chief Information Systems Officer Gary Brantley has chosen to implement WiFi on the devices.

The devices, which cost about $300 with software and maintenance, are loaded with a gigabyte of RAM, a 150 Gb or 160 Gb hard drive, an Intel Atom processor, a webcam, Windows XP Professional, Microsoft Office, a couple of calculators, 802.11 b/g WiFi, and, of course, digital textbooks.

Teachers have an interest in educating students about social networking, so, although access to the internet is filtered, the devices do allow access to sites such as Twitter, and Facebook. But that, says Brantley, “is being carefully monitored.”

Also, connectivity is necessary for implementation of CompuTrace, a program from Absolute Software that provides a service for tracking down lost, stolen, or missing devices. “We were finding that we were spending a lot of money replacing textbooks,” Brantley explains. “Now, we actually are spending less. If CompuTrace doesn’t find the netbook within 60 or 90 days, they pay for it. I can tell you they have found every single one.”

To simplify operations, the district uses only two images for the netbooks. Every middle school book in use is on every middle school netbook; and the same with all high school books. That approach, says Brantley, makes IT’s work easier since they don’t have to worry about granular inventory or “fool around” with what books any given student should be able to access.

The district has tackled the challenge of teacher acceptance from multiple sides. First, there was a teachers’ union aspect. Would it promote the change in teaching approaches necessary for success? To gain support, Brantley took the head of the union to a 1:1 conference to show her what could be done. After that, he says, “She came on board for the professional development piece.”

The next aspect was putting together programs and teams for professional development. Since the district has an “early release” day once a week, “that’s the block of time that increasingly is being dedicated to helping teachers learn how to integrate the technology into their classes. Gaining traction in that area is a longer haul,” Brantley admits. “It takes a while to get teachers on board with this.”

Next up for the Lorain district: implementation of a teacher recognition program and some type of graduate credit to motivate the teachers to try out new methods of instruction.

An area where Brantley has seen success is having the kids teaching the teachers. “That’s one thing that we’ve been trying to push,” he says. “Don’t be afraid to let the kids show you something as well. It becomes a collaborative effort.”

Challenges have surfaced in two IT areas. First, the sheer number of new devices has put a strain on Brantley’s department, which has 10 employees. “We’ve doubled the number of computers in the district but didn’t add one staff member,” he says. Second, IT has to be able to supply technical support to students in a timely manner. “Turnaround can’t be longer than a day. Even though we have spares, we still have to turn around these machines really quickly, so kids aren’t left without their books.”

But these burdens aren’t slowing down the district’s dreams. Brantley says eventually the netbook and digital textbook program could be expanded to every student in the district, from the fourth grade up.

Sat, 09 Jul 2022 04:48:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : SAS Certification Guide: Overview and Career Paths

What first began as an agricultural research project at North Carolina State University eventually grew into a full-fledged software and services company by 1976. SAS has gone on to develop a solid customer base in the banking and pharmaceutical industries as well as in academia and at numerous agencies at all levels of government. Today, SAS is a leader in business analytics, data warehousing and data mining.

SAS has been recognized as one of the best places to work by organizations like Fortune and the Great Place to Work Institute. Coming in at No. 37, SAS made its 21st appearance in Fortune’s list of 100 best companies to work for in 2017 and No. 23 in Fortune’s list of top 100 best workplaces for millennials in 2018. Indeed, the company’s low turnover rate (4 percent in 2016) is an indicator of its commitment to its employees and, indirectly, to its customers as well.

Of the top 100 Fortune Global 500 companies, 96 are SAS customers. SAS customers span the globe with more than 83,000 instances installed in 144 countries.

SAS certification program overview

SAS has awarded more than 100,000 certifications since the program’s introduction in 1999, according to Brightcove. Today, the SAS Global Certification Program offers 23 credentials across seven categories:

  • Foundation Tools
  • Advanced Analytics
  • Business Intelligence and Analytics
  • Data Management
  • Administration
  • JMP
  • Partners

SAS certifications, along with required exams and costs, are described in more detail in the following sections. Although experience levels aren’t specifically indicated for each certification, a good rule of thumb is a minimum of eight months of experience on the base SAS system for Base Programmers and two to three years of relevant, hands-on experience for all other certifications before candidates tackle their respective exams. 

All exams are administered by Pearson VUE or through a SAS-sponsored certification test session (typically in conjunction with a training course). SAS also offers online proctored exams for all certification credentials through their partnership with Pearson VUE. Note that all certifications covered below are based on SAS 9.4.

Foundation Tools credentials aim at SAS professionals whose workdays revolve around writing and managing SAS programs. The company currently offers three Foundation Tools certifications:

  • SAS Certified Base Programmer for SAS 9: The Base Programmer knows how to query databases and perform analyses, including importing and exporting raw data files, manipulating data, combining SAS data sets and creating reports. The certification test features 50 to 55 multiple-choice questions, a 100-minute time limit, and candidates must answer at least a 70 percent of the questions correctly to pass the exam.
  • SAS Certified Advanced Programmer for SAS 9: The Advanced Programmer must be skilled in writing advanced DATA step programming statements and solving complex problems as well as interpreting SAS SQL code and writing SAS macros. The certification test features 60 to 65 multiple-choice questions, a 100-minute time limit and candidates must answer at least 65 percent of the questions correctly to pass the exam.
  • SAS Certified Clinical Trials Programmer Using SAS 9: This programmer works exclusively with clinical trials data, transforming raw data into polished, validated reports. There are two different paths to achieving this certification:
    • Clinical Trial Programmer Exam: The certification test features 90 to100 multiple-choice questions, a three-hour time limit and candidates must answer at least a 70 percent of the questions correctly to pass the exam. There are no prerequisites required to take this exam.
    • Clinical Trial Programmer – Accelerated Exam: The certification test features 70 to 75 multiple-choice questions, a 120-minute time limit, and candidates must answer at least a 70 percent of the questions correctly to pass the exam. Candidates must already have completed the SAS Base Programmer certification before they can sit for this accelerated exam.


Required Exam(s)

Exam Cost*

SAS Certified Base Programmer for SAS 9

SAS Base Programming for SAS 9 test (A00-211)


SAS Certified Advanced Programmer for SAS 9

SAS Advanced Programming for SAS 9 test (A00-212)

Must possess SAS Certified Base Programmer for SAS 9 credential


SAS Certified Clinical Trials Programmer Using SAS 9

Clinical Trials Programming Using SAS 9 test (A00-280)

Clinical Trials Programming Using SAS 9 – Accelerated Version test (A00-281)

Requires the SAS Certified Base Programmer for SAS 9 credential

$180 each exam

* SAS offers a 50 percent discount on the cost of all exams to instructors, students, faculty and staff at schools and higher education institutions as well as to SAS employees. See the SAS FAQs for details.

SAS Advanced Analytics certifications

The Advanced Analytics credentials are designed for SAS professionals who gather, manipulate and analyze big data using SAS tools, run reports and make business recommendations based on complex models. The certifications in this category include:

  • SAS Certified Data Scientist Using SAS 9: Data scientists can use both open source and SAS tools to manipulate data, form conclusions and make recommendations, and deploy SAS solutions. Rather than being a stand-alone certification, the Certified Data Scientist credential is attained by completing the Certified Big Data Professional and Certified Advanced Analytics Professional credentials.
  • SAS Certified Advanced Analytics Professional Using SAS 9: An Advanced Analytics Professional uses predictive modeling and statistical analysis methods and techniques to analyze big data sets. Candidates must pass three exams to complete this certification:
    • Predictive Monitoring Using SAS Enterprise Miner 7, 13 or 14
    • Advanced Predictive Modeling
    • Text Analytics, Time Series, Experimentation and Optimization
  • SAS Certified Predictive Modeler Using SAS Enterprise Miner 14: A Predictive Modeler prepares data and then builds, assesses, and implements predictive models. The certification test features 55 to 60 multiple choice and short-answer questions, a 165-minute time limit, and candidates must achieve a score of at least 725 points from a possible point range of 200 to 1,000 points to pass the exam. Find out more about scaled scores via the test FAQs. There are no credential prerequisites required to take this exam, though a thorough knowledge of a number of related skills and techniques is required.
  • SAS Certified Statistical Business Analyst Using SAS 9 Regression and Modeling: The Statistical Business Analyst uses SAS software to perform statistical analyses and predictive modeling, including linear and logistic regression, variance analysis and model performance measurements. The certification test features 60 multiple-choice and short-answer questions, a two-hour time limit, and candidates must answer at least 68 percent of the questions correctly to pass the exam. There are no credential prerequisites required to take this exam, though a thorough knowledge of a number of related skills and techniques is required.


Required Exam(s)

Exam Cost

SAS Certified Data Scientist Using SAS 9

No test is required. Credential is awarded to candidates who possess the following two certifications:

SAS Certified Big Data Professional Using SAS 9 (2 exams, $180 each, $360 total)

SAS Certified Advanced Analytics Professional Using SAS 9 (3 exams, $610 total)


SAS Certified Advanced Analytics Professional Using SAS 9

Predictive Modeling Using SAS Enterprise Miner 13 (Candidates with SAS Certified Predictive Modeler Using SAS Enterprise Miner 7, 13 or 14 do not need to take this exam.), $250

SAS Advanced Predictive Modeling (A00-225), $180

SAS Text Analytics, Time Series, Experimentation and Optimization (A00-226), $180


SAS Certified Predictive Modeler Using SAS Enterprise Miner 14

Predictive Modeling using SAS Enterprise Miner 14 exam


SAS Certified Statistical Business Analyst Using SAS 9: Regression and Modeling

SAS Statistical Business Analysis Using SAS 9: Regression and Modeling test (A00-240)


SAS Business Intelligence and Analytics certifications

The Business Intelligence and Analytics credentials are designed for IT professionals who create interfaces and reports for SAS 9 or who use SAS Visual Analytics routinely. For the following certifications, there are no credential prerequisites required to take these exams, though a thorough knowledge of a number of related skills and techniques is required. The three certifications in this category are:

  • SAS Certified BI Content Developer for SAS 9: The BI Content Developer focuses mainly on creating, implementing and customizing SAS interface applications (such as reporting applications), including data management and dashboard creation. The certification test features 60 to 65 multiple-choice questions, a two-hour time limit, and candidates must answer at least 70 percent of the questions correctly to pass the exam.
  • SAS Certified Visual Business Analyst Exploration and Design Using SAS Visual Analytics: This credential targets analysts who use SAS Visual Analytics, Visual Analytics Explorer, and Visual Analytics Designer to add, manipulate and explore data, and create reports. The certification test features 60 to 65 multiple-choice questions, a 100-minute time limit, and candidates must answer at least 68 percent of the questions correctly to pass the exam.
  • SAS Certified Visual Modeler Using SAS Visual Statistics 7.4:  The Certified Visual Modeler targets analysts who perform model fitting and analysis as well as predictive and exploratory modeling in business environments using SAS Visual Statistics. The certification test features 50 multiple-choice, short-answer and interactive questions, a 90-minute time limit and candidates must answer at least 68 percent of the questions correctly to pass the exam.


Required Exam(s)

Exam Cost

SAS Certified BI Content Developer for SAS 9

SAS BI Content Development for SAS 9 test (A00-270)


SAS Certified Visual Business Analyst: Exploration and Design Using SAS Visual Analytics

SAS Visual Analytics 7.4 Exploration and Design test (A00-277)


SAS Certified Visual Modeler Using SAS Visual Statistics 7.4

SAS Interactive Model Building and Exploration Using SAS Visual Statistics 7.4 test (A00-272)


SAS Data Management certifications

Professionals whose workdays (or career aspirations) revolve more around managing data and platforms rather than deep statistics, analysis and modeling will gravitate to data management credentials. For the following certifications, there are no credential prerequisites required to take these exams, though a thorough knowledge of a number of related skills and techniques is required. The three certifications in this category are:

  • SAS Certified Big Data Professional Using SAS 9: The Big Data credential is designed for professionals who conduct statistical analyses using SAS and open source data-management tools. This credential is comprised of two separate exams:
    • Big Data Preparation, Statistics and Visual Exploration
    • SAS Big Data Programming and Loading
  • SAS Certified Data Integration Developer for SAS 9: The Data Integration Developer works with data to prepare it for analysis and reporting. Candidates must know how to define the platform architecture for SAS Business Analytics as well as create metadata, transform data and tables, and run jobs. The certification test features 76 multiple-choice questions, a 105-minute time limit, and candidates must answer at least 70 percent of the questions correctly to pass the exam.
  • SAS Certified Data Quality Steward for SAS 9: The Data Quality Steward validates the skills of professionals who use the SAS DataFlux Data Management Studio. The certification test features 75 multiple-choice questions, a 110-minute time limit, and candidates must answer at least 68 percent of the questions correctly to pass the exam.


Required Exam(s)

Exam Cost

SAS Certified Big Data Professional Using SAS 9

SAS Big Data Preparation, Statistics, and Visual Exploration test (A00-220)

SAS Big Data Programming and Loading test (A00-221)

$180 each, $360 total

SAS Certified Data Integration Developer for SAS 9

SAS Data Integration Development for SAS 9 test (A00-260)


SAS Certified Data Quality Steward for SAS 9

SAS Data Quality using DataFlux Data Management Studio test (A00-262)


SAS Administration certifications

The administration category has a single credential – the SAS Certified Platform Administrator for SAS 9 – designed for professionals responsible for supporting the SAS Business Analytics platform from installation through day-to-day maintenance. Candidates must know how to set up folders, manage user accounts, monitor system performance, apply security techniques, perform backups and complete other administrative tasks. The certification test features 70 multiple-choice questions, a 110-minute time limit, and candidates must answer at least 70 percent of the questions correctly to pass the exam.


Required Exam(s)

Exam Cost

SAS Certified Platform Administrator for SAS 9

SAS Platform Administration for SAS 9 test (A00-250)


JMP certifications

SAS JMP is data analysis and visualization software that allows users to explore, mine and share data analyses in a graphical format. The JMP credential includes two exams:

  • JMP Certified Specialist – JMP Scripting Using JMP 14: Using the JMP Scripting Language (JSL), candidates will demonstrate their proficiency in completing various programming and scripting tasks.
  • JMP Certified Specialist – Design and Analysis of Experiments Using JMP 14: Successful candidates will demonstrate their abilities and skills in designing and analyzing various industrial experiments, including evaluating model assumptions and process optimization.

Both of these certification exams feature 50 to 60 multiple-choice and short-answer questions, a 150-minute time limit, and candidates must achieve a score of at least 725 points from the possible point range of 200 to 1,000 points. Find out more about scaled scores via the test FAQ.


Required Exam(s)

Exam Cost

JMP Certified Specialist: JMP Scripting Using JMP 14

JMP Scripting Using JMP 14 test (A00-908)


JMP Certified Specialist: Design and Analysis of Experiments Using JMP 14

Design and Analysis of Experiments Using JMP 14 (A00-909)


Partner certifications

SAS offers credential programs for certified SAS resellers, VARs, and consultants though its partner program. There are six partner credentials available to SAS partners:

Access to the Partner credentialing portal is restricted to authorized SAS partners only. As a result, some details of the partner test process are hidden from public view. If you work for a SAS partner, ask your company SAS liaison or your SAS sales team for more details about partner certifications.

Why get SAS certified? More demonstrated knowledge typically means more earning power. A quick search for SAS programmer on major job posting sites returns hundreds, if not thousands, of open positions across the United States, most with starting salaries in a range from $52,000 to $126,000.

While salaries vary depending on industry, experience, certifications achieved and other factors, average SAS programmer earnings are almost $81,038 nationally, per SimplyHired. The average earnings in SAS statistical modeling careers are almost $110,000, topping out around $200,000.

Tip: To make the hiring process easier, employers can verify a candidate’s credentials by searching the SAS Global Certified Professional Directory.

Suffice it to say, a SAS certification can pay off quickly. Couple that with an outstanding company culture, achieving a SAS credential and working for SAS is a smart career move for anyone with programming chops and a desire for longevity with a single company.

SAS careers are plentiful and vary depending on your goals and career aspirations. Some SAS careers naturally gravitate toward one or more certification categories. Some examples of common job roles by certification category include:

  • Foundation Tools: Analysts, programmers and data managers
  • Advanced Analytics: Technical analysts, statisticians and data scientists
  • Business Intelligence and Analytics: Content developers and analysts
  • Data Management: Analysts, programmers and data managers
  • Administration: Platform administrators

Regardless of your area(s) of interest, you’ll find a plethora of SAS careers available.

Training and resources

SAS offers links to SAS classroom and eLearning courses, trial test questions and full practice exams. Refer to the test Preparation tab for each certification on the SAS Certification website. Candidates can purchase certification packages that include training courses, preparation materials and test vouchers with typical discounts of 35 to 40 percent.

SAS training can be pricey, depending on factors such as delivery method and class length.

Individual courses range from lows around $1,100 to highs of $4,000. Candidates should be sure to check out the SAS Discounts web page for information on current discount programs, best value deals, veteran’s discounts and more before enrolling.

The SAS Training and Books webpage provides links to certification prep books, training courses, eLearning opportunities (SAS onDemand) and the SAS Global Academic Program. SAS also offers trial test questions and training software may be accessed through the SAS University Edition.

Many colleges and universities, such as Philadelphia UniversityFlorida State University and the University of Missouri, to name just a few, also offer SAS certificate programs to their undergraduate and graduate students. If you’re in (or thinking of going to) getting SAS certified as part of your degree program, it pays to check out your SAS certification options before choosing an institution of higher learning.

Credit: Ed Tittel

Ed Tittel

Ed is a 30-year-plus veteran of the computing industry, who has worked as a programmer, a technical manager, a classroom instructor, a network consultant and a technical evangelist for companies that include Burroughs, Schlumberger, Novell, IBM/Tivoli and NetQoS. He has written for numerous publications, including Tom’s IT Pro, and is the author of more than 100 computing books on information security, web markup languages and development tools, and Windows operating systems.

Credit: Earl Follis

Earl Follis
Earl is also a 30-year veteran of the computer industry, who worked in IT training, marketing, technical evangelism and market analysis in the areas of networking and systems technology and management. Ed and Earl met in the late 1980s when Ed hired Earl as a trainer at an Austin-area networking company that’s now part of HP. The two of them have written numerous books together on NetWare, Windows Server and other topics. Earl is also a regular writer for the computer trade press with many e-books, white papers and articles to his credit.

Tue, 28 Jun 2022 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : 2 MP students ‘Zoom-bombed’ online college exam, played obscene video; arrested

BHOPAL: A college student and his cousin in Madhya Pradesh have been arrested on charges that they ‘Zoom-bombed’ an online college examination and shared their obscene videos to force authorities to cancel the exam, police said on Thursday.

Zoom bombing is the practice of uninvited users hijacking Zoom video calls with disturbing or distracting content including some form of nudity.

Madhya Pradesh cyber cell, additional superintendent of police (Addl SP) Vaibhav Shrivastava said the two, Aniket Singh, 22, and his cousin Aditya Singh, have been arrested under sections 294 (obscene acts and songs), 354 (assault or criminal force to woman with intent to outrage her modesty) and 509 (word, gesture or act intended to insult the modesty of a woman) of IPC apart from provisions of the IT Act.

Aniket is enrolled in a Bachelor of Business Administration programme at the college. His cousin is preparing for the medical entrance test NEET.

Shrivastava said the incident took place on June 3 when the college teachers were holding an online examination. Suddenly, everyone noticed that an obscene video of two boys standing on a roof.

“The online test had to be cancelled. Later, the principal and other female teachers of the college started receiving obscene messages on their WhatsApp,” he said.

This wasn’t the first time that the college’s online classes were zoom bombed. There had been instances when someone would play porn videos to disrupt the online classes since February but the teachers took a lenient view.

On June 3, the teachers decided that they have had enough and along with the principal, filed a complaint with MP’s cyber cell, Shrivastava said.

Additional director general of police, cyber cell Yogesh Deshmukh said the students were connecting to the Internet via a pre-paid SIM card so it was difficult to trace them. Then, officers started analysing the background of the videos where they exposed themselves and were able to track them down. One particular shot on the roof helped police officers identify the area.

A pair of slippers seen in the nude videos was also seized from them.

Thu, 23 Jun 2022 06:20:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Heat stress does not exacerbate tennis-induced alterations in physical performance


Objectives To assess the time course of changes in physical performance in response to match-play tennis under heat stress.

Methods Two matches consisting of 20 min of effective playing time (2×10 min segments) were played in COOL (∼102 min; ∼22°C and 70% relative humidity (RH)) and HOT (∼119 min; ∼36°C and 35% RH) environments. Repeated-sprint ability (3×15 m, 15 s rest), 15 m sprint time with a direction change (180°), vertical jump height (squat and countermovement jumps) and leg stiffness (multirebound jumps) were assessed in 12 competitive male players prematch, midmatch and postmatch, and 24 and 48 h after match completion.

Results During the repeated-sprint ability test, initial (+2.3% and +3.1%) and cumulated sprint (+1.5% and +2.8%) times increased from prematch to midmatch and postmatch, respectively (p<0.001), while the sprint decrement score did not change. Match-play tennis induced a slowing (average of both conditions: +1.1% and +1.3% at midmatch and postmatch time points; p=0.05) of 15 m sprint time with direction change. Compared with prematch, leg stiffness (−6.4% and −6.5%; p<0.001) and squat jump height (−1.5% and −2.4%; p=0.05), but not countermovement jump height (−0.7% and −1.3%; p>0.05), decreased midmatch and postmatch, respectively, regardless of the condition. Complete recovery in all physical performance markers occurred within 24 h.

Conclusions In tennis, match-related fatigue is characterised by impaired repeated-sprint ability, explosive power and leg stiffness at midmatch and postmatch, with values restored to prematch baseline 24 h into recovery. In addition, physical performance responses (match and recovery kinetics) are identical when competing in cool and hot environments.

  • Adaptations of skeletal muscle to exercise and altered neuromuscular activity
  • Biomechanics
  • Dehydration
  • Fatigue
  • Thermoregulation

This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 3.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See:


Over the course of a tennis match, players repeatedly execute forceful lower-limb actions to produce explosive strokes and rapid on-court movements (eg, accelerations, decelerations and multidirectional displacements). As the intensity and/or the duration of matches increase, these movements lead to exercise-induced fatigue,1–3 which can eventually be manifested as a decline of match-related physical performance.4–6 In the coaching community, there is significant interest in assessing change of direction, (repeated) sprinting and/or jumping abilities with the prospect of identifying young and talented tennis players and/or evaluating the effects of various training and rehabilitation interventions.

Success in a tennis tournament requires winning several consecutive matches often separated by less than 24 h, leaving limited time for full recovery before the next competitive event. With a modern game that is played with increasing physical demands, recovery of optimal musculoskeletal function for tennis play is vital to ensure optimal on-court performance, health and safety. Limited data exist concerning physical performance and recovery following one-off tennis matches, with assessments so far restricted to 90 min into the recovery period.4 ,7 When several matches are played (ie, tournament format), the available literature indicates that a 24–48 h recovery period may be sufficient for explosive power (ie, vertical jump ability tests) to recover.6 ,8 In an intermittent sport like football, complete recovery of physical performance markers (eg, jump ability, sprint speed) can take up to 96 h.9 To date, however, no studies have comprehensively documented the acute and delayed manifestations of match-related fatigue on tennis-specific running performance, including change-of-direction (COD) manoeuvres and repeated-sprint ability (RSA).

Playing tennis in hot ambient conditions for extended periods of time (1–3 h) increases the predisposition to exertional heat-illness, a potential health-threatening and performance-impairing condition, especially if fluid and electrolyte losses become excessive.2 ,10 Despite the prevalence of this situation in competitive players during tennis practice and competition,10 ,11 the majority of tennis-related research has failed to explore the role of hyperthermia (ie, a state in which body core temperature is elevated >38.5°C) on physical performance. In one laboratory-based study, earlier and larger reductions in power output occurred during five, 15 s maximal efforts on a cycle ergometer when core and muscle temperature were elevated before the RSA test following the completion of a 40 min intermittent exercise bout leading to hyperthermia.12 Conversely, intermittent-sprint13 or repeated-sprint14 performance was not impaired in hot ambient conditions when athletes remained normothermic (<38.5°C). Realistic field-based simulations are required to satisfy external validity, especially with regard to match-play tennis, since the severity of fatigue measures obtained after simulated-tennis activities are generally greater than during genuine competition.15

The aim of this study was to assess the time course (prematch, midmatch, postmatch and 24 h, 48 h into recovery) of changes in physical performance responses to match-play tennis in temperate and hot environments. It was hypothesised that the development of hyperthermia during match-play tennis in the heat would exacerbate fatigue-induced impairments in jumping and sprinting abilities and delay the recovery process, compared with a match undertaken in temperate conditions.



Twelve male players with an International Tennis Federation (ITF) number of 1–3 participated in the study. Mean age, height, body mass, weekly training volume and years of practice were 22.0±4.4 years, 183.5±7.7 cm, 80.8±9.5 kg, 13.0±5.9 h/week and 16.4±3.6 years, respectively. They played an average of 17±10 tournaments and 65±23 matches/year. They were informed of the study aims, requirements and risks before providing written informed consent.

Study design

Players completed two counter-balanced simulated matches on hard-court surfaces separated by 72 h or 144 h. They were paired according to level of play and competed against the same opponent in each match. One match was played indoors in temperate conditions (COOL: 21.8±0.1°C air temperature, 72.3±3.2% relative humidity, 22.3±0.2°C globe temperature and 19.4±0.3°C Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT)) and the other outside in hot conditions (HOT: 36.8±1.5°C air temperature, 36.1±11.3% relative humidity, 47.5±3.5°C globe temperature and 33.6±0.9°C WBGT) under the sun. Wind velocity during the HOT matches was 0.7±0.2 m/s. The matches consisted of 20 min (2×10 min) of standardised effective playing time (ie, the proportion of match time spent in play) equivalent to ∼2 h total time or a typical three-set match. To calculate the effective playing time, each rally duration was measured with a stopwatch from the start (ie, ball leaving the hand of the serving player) to the end of the rally (ie, ball into the net or called out) and summed until the total duration reached 10 and 20 min (midmatch and postmatch, respectively).4 ,16 ,17 First serve faults and double faults were not counted for point duration. One to three days prior to the start of the experiment, participants visited the testing and playing venue where they were thoroughly familiarised and accustomed to the performance test protocols. The coefficient of variation during three successive trials was <2%. During subsequent prematch testing sessions, if performance during sprinting or jumping efforts was 2.5% lower than the familiarisation session (eg, an increase in time in the first sprint of the repeated-sprint ability test),18 the test was immediately terminated and repeated after 2–3 min of rest (this occurred two times).

Experimental protocol

On arrival during match days (9:00h), participants voided and inserted a telemetric thermometer pill (VitalSense, Mini Mitter, Respironics, Herrsching, Germany) in the rectum (the length of a gloved index finger beyond the anal sphincter) for the measurement of core temperature. Body mass was measured to the nearest 0.1 kg before and after the matches using a calibrated balance (Seca 769, Hamburg, Germany). Details pertaining to the methods of these experimental procedures have been described elsewhere.19 In all experimental trials (prematch, midmatch, postmatch and 24 h and 48 h after the matches), the testing sessions were performed (ie, 3–5 min after midmatch and postmatch time points) in the HOT environment, directly on the tennis court in the same order (repeated-sprint ability, sprint time with COD, vertical jump height and leg stiffness). At baseline prematch and at 24 and 48 h postmatch, the testing session was preceded by a standardised warm-up. It consisted of 5 min of running at 9 km/h on the indoor court, followed by ∼5 min of athletic drills (ie, heel flicks, high knee runs, coordination skips and hopping), five progressive accelerations and two maximal 15 m sprints interspersed by 2 min of passive recovery on the outdoor court.

Performance tests

For the RSA and COD tests, time was measured using two photocells connected to an electronic timer and placed 1 m above the ground level (Polifemo Radio Light, Microgate, Bolzano, Italy). During the tests, the participants were verbally encouraged to produce maximal efforts.

Repeated sprinting

The participants underwent a RSA test consisting of three 15 m sprints departing every 15 s. The sprints were performed in a back and forth format to allow for passive recovery during the short rest period. Participants had to complete the distance in a straight line alongside the tennis court as fast as possible. Three seconds prior to the start of each sprint, they were asked to assume the ready position and await the start signal. Each sprint was initiated from an individually chosen standing position, 50 cm behind the photocell gate, which started a digital timer. Three scores were calculated during the RSA test: the initial sprint time, the cumulated sprint time and the percent sprint decrement calculated as follows: {(cumulated time)/(initial sprint time×3)−1}×100.20

Direction change sprint

For the 15 m COD sprint assessment, markers were set at 0, 5 and 10 m from the extended baseline alongside the tennis court. Participants ran from 0 m towards the centre of the court through the 10 m mark, turned (with the opportunity to slide) on the mark (180°) and ran back through the 5 m mark. Each player performed two trials interspersed by 1 min of passive recovery, and only the fastest time achieved was recorded.

Vertical jumps

Participants performed the following vertical jump tests with the hands kept on the hips to eliminate any influence of arm swing: (1) squat jump (SJ) starting from a static semisquatting position (∼90° of flexion) maintained for ∼1 s and without any preliminary movement, (2) countermovement jump (CMJ) starting from a standing position, squatting down and then extending the knee in one continuous movement and (3) one set of multirebound jumps (MRJ) with rebounds to the highest possible point six times. For SJ and CMJ, participants were asked to perform two maximal trials and the highest jump was recorded. During MRJ, they were instructed to keep their knees as stiff as possible (‘ankle jumps’) and to have as brief a contact time as possible. Ground contact (MRJ) and flight times (SJ, CMJ and MRJ) were recorded using an optical measuring apparatus (Optojump, Microgate, Bolzano, Italy). From the flight times, jump height in the SJ and CMJ tests was calculated.21 From the flight and contact times, leg stiffness (kN/m) in the MRJ test was calculated.22

Statistical analysis

Values are expressed as means±SD. Two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVAs) (Time (prematch, midmatch, postmatch, 24 vs 48 h postmatch)×condition (COOL vs HOT))were used to compare physical performance data. ANOVA assumptions were Verified preceding all statistical analyses; logarithmic transformations and Greenhouse-Geisser corrections were applied where appropriate. Pairwise differences were identified using the Bonferroni post hoc analysis procedure adjusted for multiple comparisons. All statistical calculations were performed using PASW software V.21.0 (SPSS, Chicago, Illinois, USA). The significance level was set at p<0.05.


Match-play responses

Match duration, the time to complete 20 min of effective play, was longer in the HOT (119.2±9.6 min) than in the COOL condition (102.1±19.0 min; p<0.05). The increase in core temperature from start (37.6±0.3 and 37.5±0.3°C) to midmatch (39.2±0.5 and 38.6±0.1°C) and postmatch (39.4±0.5 and 38.7±0.2°C) was greater in the HOT than in the COOL condition (p<0.05). A comprehensive description of thermal, physiological and perceptual responses has been presented in a companion paper.19 From prematch to postmatch, body mass loss was similar between conditions (COOL: 81.2±9.6 to 80.9±9.8 kg and HOT: 80.7±9.6 to 80.2±10.3 kg).

Physical performance

None of the physical performance variables displayed a main effect of condition or any significant interaction between time and condition. In the HOT and COOL conditions, sprinting and jumping abilities returned to prematch levels within 24 h of recovery.

Running tests

During the RSA test, initial (average of both conditions: +2.3% and +3.1%) and cumulated sprint (average of both conditions: +1.5% and +2.8%) times increased from prematch to midmatch and postmatch, respectively (p<0.001), while the sprint decrement score did not change (figure 1). Match-play tennis induced a slowing (average of both conditions: +1.1% and +1.3% at midmatch and postmatch time points; p=0.05) of 15 m sprint time with COD (figure 2). The relative difference between straight-line and direction change in 15 m sprint times remained constant throughout the protocol (range: 133±2%–138±2%; p>0.05).

Figure 1

First sprint time (A), cumulated sprint times (B) and sprint decrement score (C) during the repeated-sprint ability (3×15 m—15 s passive recovery) test. Measurements were taken prior to (Pre), during (Mid) and following (Post, 24 and 48 h) 20 min of effective match-play tennis in COOL and HOT conditions. T, C and I for time, condition and interaction effects. *Significantly different from Pre p<0.05.

Figure 2

Sprint time during a 15 m sprint test with change of direction. Measurements were taken prior to (Pre), during (Mid) and following (Post, 24 and 48 h) 20 min of effective match-play tennis in COOL and HOT conditions. T, C and I for time, condition and interaction effects. *Significantly different from Pre p<0.05.

Vertical jump tests

Compared with prematch, SJ height (average of both conditions: −1.5% and −2.4%; p=0.05), but not CMJ height (−0.7% and −1.3%), decreased significantly midmatch and postmatch, irrespective of the condition (figure 3). Leg stiffness was similarly reduced midmatch and postmatch in both conditions compared with prematch (average of both conditions: −6.4% and −6.5%; p<0.001), with complete recovery within 24 h (figure 3).

Figure 3

Squat jump height (A), countermovement jump height (B) and leg stiffness (C). Measurements were taken prior to (Pre), during (Mid) and following (Post, 24 and 48 h) 20 min of effective match-play tennis in COOL and HOT conditions. T, C and I for time, condition and interaction effects. *Significantly different from Pre, p<0.05.


To our knowledge, this is the first study directly comparing the acute and delayed (up to 48 h) effects of 20 min of effective match-play tennis (∼2 h) in COOL versus HOT conditions on physical performance in high-standard players. Our results indicate that the physical performance parameters (ie, sprinting and jumping) associated with match-related fatigue were primarily impaired midmatch (ie, after 10 min of effective playing time) with limited additional reductions postmatch, and were fully recovered within 24 h. Another novel finding was that the additional increase in core temperature noted in the HOT compared with the COOL match did not exacerbate the reduction in physical performance.

Sprinting tests

Repeated sprinting ability

RSA tests are used to assess team23–25 and racquet26 sport athletes’ abilities to reproduce efforts at maximal intensity with limited recovery. Similar to accurate football findings using a very similar test format,25 our participants’ RSA decreased comparably during the two matches (figure 1). The decrement observed is supported by the concurrently slower initial sprint time and longer cumulated sprint time to perform the RSA test postmatch, together with an unchanged sprint decrement. A possible explanation for the apparent match-induced decrease in RSA is an impairment in neuromuscular function,27 and in musculoskeletal compliance, in particular, a reduced ability to tolerate impact forces or stretch load after short exhaustive runs.28 In basketball players tested on a non-motorised treadmill before and immediately after an official match, impaired RSA (6×4–21 s of passive recovery) was associated with less efficient stride mechanics, which related to the specificity of the activities performed (eg, sprint, jump and shuffle frequencies).23 From a tennis perspective, a decrease in (repeated) sprint ability when fatigued may lengthen the time required to achieve whole body stability and control during stroke execution, which may be expected to cause less accurate or less powerful strokes and/or enhance error rate.29

Muscle soreness4 and serum creatine kinase levels,2 a marker of muscle damage, have been reported to increase in response to match-play tennis, remaining elevated for at least 24 h relative to resting levels.6 In the available tennis literature, there is no published data of the development and recovery of muscle damage markers from match-play tennis in a hot environment. In well-trained football players, neither markers of muscle damage nor recovery of repeated sprinting performance was aggravated by completing a competitive soccer match under heat stress, as compared with a control match (ie, same absolute duration: 90 min plus extratime) in a temperate environment.25 It was concluded that the muscle damage and subsequent slow recovery of match-related physical performance were related to exercise-induced factors, rather than heat-induced muscle injury. While substantial amounts of tissue disruption may have persisted 24–48 h into recovery (with or without intensified changes following the hot match) in the current test protocol (ie, strict control of the effective playing time, while total playing time was longer in the heat), there was no difference across trials and after 24 h of recovery, as RSA was similar to prematch.

Direction changes

In addition to elementary speed, on-court displacements with COD manoeuvres, often executed under pressure (ie, time constraints), represent key movement patterns in tennis.30 Following a 2 h strenuous training session, 70.5 m shuttle run time was increased by ∼0.5 s.31 In the current study, 15 m sprint times (∼0.05 s) as well as COD times (∼0.08 s) increased during the matches, which, to our knowledge, is the first time that a reduced COD ability associated with tennis play has been demonstrated, regardless of environmental conditions (figure 2). Such an increase in time during a competitive match, although fractional, may represent the difference between a properly and improperly (ie, precipitated) executed groundstroke. When accelerating, the orientation of the total force applied to the ground is more important to sprint performance than its magnitude.32 As such, it may be argued that in addition to reductions in maximal or explosive strength per se (ie, reduced SJ height or leg stiffness, both in the vertical plane), a less efficient ground force application may have contributed to decrease linear sprinting and COD performances. This may be particularly true for high-speed COD movements, which require complex motor control and coordination (ie, mediolateral combined with braking and propulsive forces) between several muscle groups. Given the complexity of COD determinants,33 it has been argued that results reported for straight-line sprints may not be applicable to COD performances.34 Interestingly, however, following both matches, our data indicate that the impairment in 15 m linear sprint time was almost identical to that of the sprint with COD.

Leg power tests

Vertical jump height

Explosive power was evaluated using squat (concentric-only action) and countermovement (stretch-shortening cycle) jump tests (figure 3). Whether in COOL or HOT conditions, no effect of match-play tennis was found in CMJ performance. Similar CMJ results have previously been reported during prolonged match-play tennis (>2 h) in temperate conditions.4 ,6 Unchanged CMJ performance is possibly a consequence of movement reorganisation via compensatory strategies. However, because previous research has observed that inter-individual coordinative changes accompany fatiguing exercise,35 it is possible that some form of coordinative variability obscured mean changes across time. Consequently, future studies should determine how this might be brought about biomechanically.

In the current study, SJ performance was reduced as the match progressed. This may reflect a reduction of explosive strength in the lower limbs, as jumping ability with a longer active state (CMJ) was not distorted.36 This result corroborates those of Robineau et al37 who reported that SJ height was reduced at halftime (∼5%) and match-end (∼8%), while CMJ was unaffected in eight amateurs performing a 90 min soccer game simulation. A novel finding of our study is that a 24 h period was long enough for the explosive attributes of leg extensor muscles to fully recover, irrespective of match conditions. In highly competitive National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division 1 women tennis player, no physical performance fatigue (vertical jumps) lasting longer than 24 h was observed after 2 days of match-play.38 This indicates that brief explosiveness is compromised in response to match-play tennis in HOT and COOL conditions, but that reorganisation strategies during movements with longer active states may compensate for this impairment.

Leg stiffness

At present, the optimal mechanical stiffness required for sport movements remains a subject of debate in the scientific community.33 Nonetheless, the leg stiffness values (∼25 kN/m) obtained in the current study are in the range of those previously reported (18.2–27.5 kN/m) in tennis players of different competitive standards.4 ,39 ,40 It is generally accepted that the ability to produce and maintain ‘optimal’ levels of leg stiffness is beneficial for performance enhancement in explosive-type movements (eg, sprint running)41 and/or injury prevention (eg, increased joint stability).42 Interestingly, a positive correlation between leg stiffness and 20 m sprint performance in competitive players has previously been reported.43

In match-play tennis, decreased leg stiffness values may result in worse positioning to the ball and/or slower on-court movements during intense, successive rallies or as the match progresses. We have previously reported that leg stiffness progressively decreases throughout a 3 h tennis match in temperate conditions, with the decrement persisting 30 min into recovery.4 We now extend those findings by demonstrating that a period of 24 h is sufficient to fully recover leg stiffness values to prematch level; furthermore, that reductions in leg stiffness during match-play are not exacerbated by heat stress, despite the viscoelastic behaviour of the musculoskeletal complex being temperature-dependent (ie, higher temperatures increasing elasticity).44 ,45 Taken as a whole, our data indicate that competing under severe heat stress does not accentuate impairments in the mechanical characteristics of the muscle-tendon complex during prolonged match-play tennis.

Additional considerations

Competing under severe heat stress does not alter acute (match) or delayed (recovery dynamics) physical performance responses, despite a ∼0.7°C core temperature difference between conditions. Total fluid losses as small as 2% of body mass are associated with decrements in endurance-like performance.46 In tennis, a reduction in body mass <3% is known to negatively affect 5 and 10 m sprint times after competing for 120 min in a warm environment (∼31°C and ∼75% RH).7 However, in our study, dehydration levels remained relatively modest (ie, decrease in body mass <1%),19 highlighting that the typical in-match hydration habits of experienced tennis players were sufficient in minimising dehydration. Apart from the detrimental ‘physical’ effects that dehydration has on tennis players, their cognitive function, decision-making and proper execution of complex skills (ie, a global phenomenon known as ‘perceptual’ fatigue) can also be negatively affected.47 ,48 For example, technical proficiency has been suggested to suffer during closely contested or extended 3-set to 5-set matches in challenging ambient conditions (and correspondingly worsened hydration states).2 Therefore, testing the relationships between physical performance attributes and strokes proficiency in fatigued players competing in challenging environmental conditions deserves further investigation.

In this study, physical assessments were conducted in HOT outdoor conditions during which core and skin temperature were ∼38.5°C and ∼36°C (HOT) and ∼38.2°C and ∼33.5°C (COOL), respectively (temperature data presented in Périard et al19). Interestingly, it has been suggested that an elevated skin temperature may mediate self-paced exercise performance in the heat via changes in perception49 and through related increases in skin blood flow when the core-to-skin temperature gradient narrows, reducing central blood volume.50 ,51 To our knowledge, there is no published evidence to suggest that skin temperature elevations would result in such impairments during brief explosive efforts (ie, 15 m sprints and jumps), especially when given the opportunity to recover between bouts. Consequently, it does not appear that the lack of difference in physical performance between the HOT and COOL conditions was related to physical assessments having been performed in similarly hot ambient conditions.


The study has revealed that, after 20 min of effective match-play tennis (∼2 h total time), acute reductions occurred in the ability to perform 15 m repeated sprints and a 15 m sprint with one direction change, as well as in leg ability factors (eg, leg stiffness, SJ height). These were developed primarily by midmatch, as only small additional reductions were incurred postmatch. Interestingly, neither the time course of physical performance changes during the match nor the subsequent recovery responses (ie, complete recovery within 24 h) were adversely affected when playing in a HOT (36°C) compared with a COOL (22°C) environment. As such, it appears that competing in ambient temperatures close to that of body temperature does not exacerbate impairments in the mechanical characteristics of the muscle-tendon complex induced by prolonged match-play tennis.

What are the new findings?

  • Physical performance deteriorates when playing tennis for ∼2 h, as evidenced by reductions in musculoskeletal stiffness, explosive power and repeated-sprint ability.

  • Impairments primarily occur at midmatch with only small additional reductions at postmatch.

  • Physical performance recovers 24 h into recovery after play in cool and hot environmental conditions.

  • Match-related fatigue and recovery responses display similar patterns between the two environments.

How might the findings impact on clinical practice in the near future?

  • Resistance training strategies (eg, plyometric or eccentric regimens) may limit premature or excessive match-induced neuromuscular load imposed to the musculoskeletal system induced by tennis match-play through an upregulation of leg ability factors.


The authors thank all the players for their efforts. They are very grateful to Tim Colijn and Samuel Rota for their help in implementing the protocol. They also thank the staff from Research and Education Centre (Aspetar) for their valuable assistance with data collection and statistical analyses.

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