All pharmacists provide some level of drug information, whether to other clinicians or to patients. In fact, a latest survey found that 96.4% of 491 hospitals have staff pharmacists who routinely answer drug information questions, and a separate survey of colleges of pharmacy showed that 89% of first professional pharmacy degree programs require at least one didactic course in drug information. While most pharmacists are equipped with knowledge regarding the practice of drug information, the ever-expanding list of pharmaceuticals, as well as the overwhelming amount of clinical data, makes it difficult for practitioners to stay current with latest developments. This also results in the need for more advanced problem-solving skills in order to answer the more complex questions that challenge practitioners today.
Drug information certified are pharmacists whose primary responsibility is the provision of drug information. As with any specialty, formalized training beyond that received in pharmacy school is not required; however, this focused training does Excellerate the practitioner's clinical credibility and ability to compete with others for employment opportunities. These two intangible attributes may also be obtained with time and experience.
The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) provides residency accreditation in drug information. There are currently 31 ASHP-accredited drug information specialty residencies located throughout the United States. These residency programs are housed in community, academic, and industrial settings and offer a variety of learning opportunities. Although there are additional drug information residency programs that are not ASHP accredited, the standards and objectives for such accreditation may be used to describe the clinical skills set of the drug information specialist which go beyond the minimum standards required of all pharmacists.
Most drug information residency programs provide the resident with 12 months of directed, postgraduate practical experience in the provision of comprehensive drug information. During this 12-month period, the resident is exposed to various aspects of drug information practice that range in scope and complexity, with the ultimate goal of training the resident to become a competent drug information specialist. Many of the competencies required of a drug information resident are specific to executive issues, such as the development and management of a drug information center, but there are many more competencies that construct the foundation of a drug information specialist's clinical practice. Drug information certified must be up-to-date with relevant drug-related literature in order to provide the most current information. They are often tasked as a pharmacy representative to pharmacy and therapeutics (P&T) committees. Responsibilities may include preparing medication-use policies and procedures, improving a health system's adverse-drug-reaction reporting and medication-use evaluation programs, and creating and distributing newsletters containing pertinent medication-use information. The drug information specialist must have advanced literature search and assessment skills to develop drug monographs. Additional responsibilities often include developing patient safety initiatives, ensuring compliance with Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations's standards, and appropriately utilizing drug-contracting opportunities to decrease drug expenditures. Drug information certified may also work in pharmacy informatics.
As previously mentioned, drug information certified work in a variety of settings, each with its own unique scope of practice. Academic drug information centers staffed by drug information certified offer pharmacy students practical experience in utilizing available medical media and developing literature-search strategies. Of 88 colleges of pharmacy surveyed, 20% require a drug information practice experience and 70% offer the experience as an elective. These centers are often located within colleges of pharmacy or university hospitals. Most offer their services to a limited range of health care professionals, such as those within certain facilities or within the region or state. Others offer their services to community pharmacists and patients. Many health maintenance organizations (HMOs) and group purchasing organizations (GPOs) have contractual relationships with academic drug information centers, which in turn offer their services to the respective members of the organizations. In addition, HMOs, GPOs, and pharmacy benefit management companies (PBMs) have internal drug information departments that assist their members on a grander scale by providing many of the items utilized by P&T committees in making medication-use decisions. Many PBMs also provide consumer-based drug information via the Internet that is prepared by drug information specialists.
Proprietary and generic drug manufacturers are staffed with pharmacists who provide drug information specifically for the drugs manufactured by the respective companies. Although there is some information they cannot legally share and all information received should be critically evaluated, they do maintain a database of clinical studies, both published and unpublished, that provides hard-to-find information. These drug information certified are available to health care professionals and the public and should be contacted if a patient has an unexpected adverse drug reaction. In addition, drug information certified have practical knowledge of clinical trial design and often provide valuable insight as medical writers and in governmental agencies analyzing drug efficacy and safety claims.
Drug information certified are trained to provide clear, concise, and accurate drug information in a variety of settings. Not only do they provide quality service, but pharmacist-provided drug information, adverse-drug-reaction monitoring, and formulary management have been associated with significant reductions in the total cost of care in hospital settings, as well as reductions in patient deaths. The presence of a drug information center providing these services in 232 hospitals reduced total cost of care per hospital by $5,226,128.22 (p = 0.003), including a $391,604.94 reduction in drug costs per hospital, and was associated with a total of 10,463 fewer deaths. Disappointingly, an online survey of health care professionals showed that only 1% of respondents contact a drug information center when the need arises. Another latest survey found that only 5.9% of 491 hospitals have a staff position dedicated to the provision of drug information and 4.1% have a formal drug information center. Granted, contacting a drug information specialist may not be the fastest way to obtain drug information in an emergency situation; nonetheless, this underutilization raises several questions.
Today, the Internet provides a plethora of information for both health care professionals and their patients. Many practitioners probably use the Internet when seeking answers to questions. However, at least one study judged significantly more responses obtained from a drug information center as accurate when compared with those received from a Usenet newsgroup (p = 0.001). Also, there is no quality control for these types of newsgroup services and other similar medical information sources housed on the Internet, and practitioners may be jeopardizing their own credibility when using these resources. Another source of information is facility-housed references, including print and electronic products. Electronic drug information products are becoming increasingly popular. A latest survey showed that 60.4% of 491 hospitals subscribed to some sort of electronic product. Two interesting surveys on drug information references have been conducted.[7,8] In one survey, 40.9% of 22 respondents said they were not satisfied with the drug information resources to which their pharmacy currently subscribed. In another survey, 38% of 71 respondents said they used a drug information reference at least 10 times a day, and another 35.2% used such a reference 3-5 times daily. This discrepancy shows that practitioners regularly use some sort of drug information reference, even though they are not always satisfied with the information obtained.
With so many pharmacists retrieving information from drug information references, the underutilization of drug information certified as a resource cannot be attributed to a lack in the number of questions that need to be answered. Perhaps practitioners do not know how to find drug information specialists. Industry-based certified can be contacted via the manufacturer's Web site, and the Physicians' Desk Reference provides a listing of contact information for drug manufacturers. Drug Topics's Red Book contains a list of academic drug information centers, and many colleges of pharmacy provide these services to the pharmacies in their respective states. It is also worth contacting HMOs or GPOs, where applicable, to learn about the services they provide.
Drug information certified are a valuable resource available to support appropriate drug use and Excellerate quality of patient care. New practitioners are urged to take advantage of the expertise of drug information specialists, either within or outside of their own institutions.
Transparency is critical to our credibility with the public and our subscribers. Whenever possible, we pursue information on the record. When a newsmaker insists on background or off-the-record ground rules, we must adhere to a strict set of guidelines, enforced by AP news managers.
Under AP's rules, material from anonymous sources may be used only if:
1. The material is information and not opinion or speculation, and is vital to the report.
2. The information is not available except under the conditions of anonymity imposed by the source.
3. The source is reliable, and in a position to have direct knowledge of the information.
Reporters who intend to use material from anonymous sources must get approval from their news manager before sending the story to the desk. The manager is responsible for vetting the material and making sure it meets AP guidelines. The manager must know the identity of the source, and is obligated, like the reporter, to keep the source's identity confidential. Only after they are assured that the source material has been vetted by a manager should editors and producers allow it to be used.
Reporters should proceed with interviews on the assumption they are on the record. If the source wants to set conditions, these should be negotiated at the start of the interview. At the end of the interview, the reporter should try once again to move onto the record some or all of the information that was given on a background basis.
The AP routinely seeks and requires more than one source when sourcing is anonymous. Stories should be held while attempts are made to reach additional sources for confirmation or elaboration. In rare cases, one source will be sufficient – when material comes from an authoritative figure who provides information so detailed that there is no question of its accuracy.
We must explain in the story why the source requested anonymity. And, when it’s relevant, we must describe the source's motive for disclosing the information. If the story hinges on documents, as opposed to interviews, the reporter must describe how the documents were obtained, at least to the extent possible.
The story also must provide attribution that establishes the source's credibility; simply quoting "a source" is not allowed. We should be as descriptive as possible: "according to top White House aides" or "a senior official in the British Foreign Office." The description of a source must never be altered without consulting the reporter.
We must not say that a person declined comment when that person the person is already quoted anonymously. And we should not attribute information to anonymous sources when it is obvious or well known. We should just state the information as fact.
Stories that use anonymous sources must carry a reporter's byline. If a reporter other than the bylined staffer contributes anonymous material to a story, that reporter should be given credit as a contributor to the story.
All complaints and questions about the authenticity or veracity of anonymous material – from inside or outside the AP – must be promptly brought to the news manager's attention.
Not everyone understands “off the record” or “on background” to mean the same things. Before any interview in which any degree of anonymity is expected, there should be a discussion in which the ground rules are set explicitly.
These are the AP’s definitions:
On the record. The information can be used with no caveats, quoting the source by name.
Off the record. The information cannot be used for publication. Background. The information can be published but only under conditions negotiated with the source. Generally, the sources do not want their names published but will agree to a description of their position. AP reporters should object vigorously when a source wants to brief a group of reporters on background and try to persuade the source to put the briefing on the record.
Deep background. The information can be used but without attribution. The source does not want to be identified in any way, even on condition of anonymity.
In general, information obtained under any of these circumstances can be pursued with other sources to be placed on the record.
ANONYMOUS SOURCES IN MATERIAL FROM OTHER NEWS SOURCES
Reports from other news organizations based on anonymous sources require the most careful scrutiny when we consider them for our report.
AP's basic rules for anonymous source material apply to material from other news outlets just as they do in our own reporting: The material must be factual and obtainable no other way. The story must be truly significant and newsworthy. Use of anonymous material must be authorized by a manager. The story we produce must be balanced, and comment must be sought.
Further, before picking up such a story we must make a bona fide effort to get it on the record, or, at a minimum, confirm it through our own reporting. We shouldn't hesitate to hold the story if we have any doubts. If another outlet’s anonymous material is ultimately used, it must be attributed to the originating news organization and note its description of the source.
Anything in the AP news report that could reasonably be disputed should be attributed. We should supply the full name of a source and as much information as needed to identify the source and explain why the person s credible. Where appropriate, include a source's age; title; name of company, organization or government department; and hometown. If we quote someone from a written document – a report, email or news release -- we should say so. Information taken from the internet must be vetted according to our standards of accuracy and attributed to the original source. File, library or archive photos, audio or videos must be identified as such. For lengthy stories, attribution can be contained in an extended editor's note detailing interviews, research and methodology.
Lainie Petersen writes about business, real estate and personal finance, drawing on 25 years experience in publishing and education. Petersen's work appears in Money Crashers, Selling to the Masses, and in Walmart News Now, a blog for Walmart suppliers. She holds a master's degree in library science from Dominican University.
Main Purpose of the Job
The Information Security Specialist is responsible for implementing the security and risk management plans to increase cyber and IT security maturity within the organisation; to investigate risks to the security of information and/or data to the organisation and provide security for enterprise assets to alleviate risks to the organisation.
Make recommendations on how to Excellerate the effectiveness, efficiency and delivery of services through the use of technology and best practice methodologies
Manage risks linked to the Client’s network security and by performing backups as per business continuity plans
Design security policies and procedures for the organisation and communicate as required
Conduct periodic threat and vulnerability assessments and prepare quarterly and annual network security reports
Identify potential compliance vulnerabilities and risks and mitigate timeously with no harm to business operations
Confer with business to share business security objectives and concerns to achieve higher levels of business security
Monitor and analyse technology risk trends and advise IT management on appropriate actions to strengthen internal operations and achieve strategic objectives
Expand your IT capabilities by obtaining relevant certification’s and higher levels within DBS beyond your assigned areas of expertise
Perform any other work-related duties and
responsibilities that may be assigned from time-to- time by management.
Knowledge, qualifications and experience
Desired Work Experience:
Desired Qualification Level:
Learn more/Apply for this position
Use this graphic organizer to help students compare and contrast information from different sources of their choosing while researching a relevant topic. Guiding questions help students closely examine each source for credibility and reliability, and reflection questions on the second page get students to dig deeper into similarities and differences between types of sources. This worksheet provides essential practice evaluating sources for research, an important part of a middle school literacy curriculum.
For additional value, check out the accompanying Evaluating Sources for Research lesson plan.
Businesses looking to hire artificial intelligence (AI) certified knowledgeable in the use of OpenAI technologies will be able to use a newly created partnership between OpenAI and Upwork to find workers.
OpenAI, which released ChatGPT last year and has a partnership with Microsoft, is partnering with Upwork – a firm that connects independent freelancers and professionals with businesses looking to hire them – on a new initiative called OpenAI Experts on Upwork that was announced Monday.
The program was co-designed by the companies to feature workers who have shown proficiency in working with OpenAI’s API platform in addition to the 250 unique AI skills that Upwork features on its platform, such as GPT-4, OpenAI Codex and AI model integration.
The two companies see the partnership as a means of helping companies find talent who can work on many of the common projects for which OpenAI customers are hiring – such as building apps powered by large language models (LLMs), fine-tuning models and developing chatbots while ensuring AI is used responsibly. Clients can use the platform to talk to experts through one-on-one consultations or hire them through project-based contracts.
BUSINESS LEADERS PLANNING TO HIRE MORE WORKERS DESPITE RISE OF AI: SURVEY
"Partnering with a pioneer like OpenAI helps us deliver access to the specialized talent that businesses need to achieve their most ambitious AI initiatives," said Dave Bottoms, general manager and VP of product for Upwork Marketplace. "We are thrilled to offer talented professionals on Upwork even more impactful opportunities, and look forward to connecting OpenAI customers with highly skilled talent through OpenAI Experts on Upwork. Through strategic partnerships like this one, we aim to make Upwork the preeminent destination for AI-related talent and work."
"Our aim is for our models to be useful and beneficial for everyone, and we are committed to helping people understand how our technology can impact critical work," added Aliisa Rosenthal, head of sales at OpenAI. "Providing customers with access to a trusted source of highly skilled global talent like Upwork can help ensure AI models are deployed and managed responsibly."
WHAT IS AI?
Upwork’s partnership with OpenAI comes as the company has seen a surge in interest from companies looking to hire workers experienced in working with generative AI. In announcing the OpenAI partnership, Upwork reported "over 450% growth in weekly generative AI job posts vs. last year."
As part of the OpenAI Experts on Upwork initiative, the two companies devised a pre-vetting process to identify AI experts who appear as part of the program to ensure that the independent professionals who are featured have the AI skills that companies need.
WHAT IS CHATGPT?
"Organizations ranging from small start-ups to some of the world’s largest enterprises are turning to independent experts to create new solutions and expand their businesses," said Boris Spiegl, an independent AI and machine learning expert who is participating in OpenAI Experts on Upwork. "Having delivered millions of dollars in value on projects over the course of my career, I’m greatly looking forward to the next big challenges in partnering with OpenAI customers to deliver even more ROI through application of these exciting new technologies."
The partnership program with OpenAI is part of Upwork’s broader AI Services hub, which serves as a platform for independent professionals working with AI to connect with companies.
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Upwork also recently announced beta features that use OpenAI technologies in what the company calls a "more generative AI-infused end-to-end customer experience on its platform, including an AI-powered job post generator, an enhanced Upwork chat experience and proposal tips for talent."
The study of mollusks has captured the interest of amateur and scientist alike for many centuries. The National Museum of Natural History receives numerous requests from the general public for information on mollusks. We hope that the information contained in our new on-line Selected Sources of Information on Mollusks will be of help to the beginning shell collector as well as the amateur conchologist and malacologist. This bibliography is not comprehensive and is meant to serve only as a guide to selected references.
Selected Sources of Information on Mollusks has undergone a substantial change in format as well as a thorough revision to produce a more streamlined publication. To that end we have eliminated several sections and combined others to avoid redundancy in titles. The section listing shell clubs has been deleted because this information is best obtained by writing to one of the national malacological organizations which we are continuing to list or by checking the Internet.
The publications listed may not be obtained from the Smithsonian Institution. Most of the references cited may be consulted at local libraries, requested through an interlibrary loan or purchased through local bookstores. Some books are out of print and would be available only from a secondhand book dealer.
Caldrey, Jennifer. Shells. Eyewitness Explorer Series. New York: DK Publishing, 1993. 64 pp., many illus.
Dudley, Ruth H. Sea Shells. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1953. 149 pp., 62 drawings.
Evans, Eva Knox. The Adventure Book of Shells. Irvington-on-Hudson, NY: Capitol, 1955. 93 pp., many illus.
Farmer, Wesley M. Sea-Slug Gastropods. Tempe, AZ: Wesley M. Farmer Enterprises, 1980. 177 pp. 157 species drawn by author. Identification and coloring book.
Florian, Douglas. Discovering Seashells. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1986. 32 pp., color drawings.
Hansen, Judith. Seashells in My Pocket: A Child's Guide to Exploring the Atlantic Coast from Maine to North Carolina. Boston: Appalachian Mountain Club Books, 1988. 124 pp., illus.
Hunt, Bernice Kohn. The Beachcomber's Book. New York: Viking Press, 1970. 96 pp., illus.
Hutchinson, William M. A Child's Book of Sea Shells. New York: Maxton, 1954. 30 pp., illus. in color and black-and-white.
Low, Donald. The How and Why Wonder Book of Seashells. Los Angeles: Price, Stern, Sloan, 1987. 48 pp., illus.
Myers, Arthur. Sea Creatures Do Amazing Things. New York: Random House, 1981. 70 pp., illus.
Paige, David. A Day in the Life of a Marine Biologist. Mahwah, NJ: Troll Associates, 1981. 32 pp., color photos.
Pallotta, Jerry. The Ocean Alphabet Book. Chicago: Children's Press, 1991. 28 pp., color illus.
Podendorf, Illa. The True Book of Pebbles and Shells. Chicago: Children's Press, 1954. 47 pp., illus.
Sabin, Louis. Wonders of the Sea. Mahwah, NJ: Troll Associates, 1982. 32 pp., color illus.
Whybrow, Solene. The Life of Animals with Shells: A Simple Introduction to the Way in Which Animals with Shells Live and Behave. London: Macdonald Educational, 1975. 63 pp., illus.
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Abbott, R. Tucker. Introducing Sea Shells. Princeton, NJ: D. Van Nostrand, 1955. 10 color and black-and-white plates, text figs.
______. Seashells of North America: A Guide to Field Identification. Under the editorship of Herbert S. Zim. New York: Golden Press, 1968.
______. Seashells of the World. Under the editorship of Herbert S. Zim. 2nd ed. New York: Golden Press, 1987. 48 pp., color illus.
______. Shells: Nature in Photography. New York: Portland House, 1989. 210 pp., 196 color illus.
Cameron, Roderick. Shells. New York: Octopus Books, 1972 (c.1961). 128 pp., 95 figs., 32 color plates.
Cate, Jean M., and Selma Raskin. It's Easy to Say Crepidula! (krehPIDuluh): a phonetic guide to pronunciation of the scientific names of sea shells and a glossary of terms frequently used in malacology. Santa Monica, CA: Pretty Penny Press, 1986. 153 pp.
Fair, Ruth H. Shell Collector's Guide. Rutland, VT: Charles E. Tuttle, 1976. 213 pp.
Harasewych, M.G. Shells: Jewels from the Sea. New York: Rizzoli, 1989. 224 pp., 210 color illus.
Jacobson, Morris K., and William K. Emerson. Wonders of the World of Shells: Sea, Land, and Fresh-water. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1971. 80 pp., illus.
Johns, Veronica P. She Sells Seashells. New York: Funk and Wagnalls, 1968. 198 pp., illus.
Johnstone, Kathleen Y. Sea Treasure: A Guide to Shell Collecting. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1957. 242 pp., 8 color plates, numerous text figs.
Major, Alan P. Collecting World Sea Shells. Edinburgh: J. Bartholomew, 1974. 187 pp., illus.
Melvin, A. Gordon. Seashell Parade: Fascinating Facts, Pictures and Stories. Rutland, VT: Charles E. Tuttle, 1973. 369 pp., 75 illus.
Murray, Sonia. Seashell Collectors' Handbook and Identifier. New York: Sterling, 1975. 240 pp., color plates.
Oliver, Arthur P.H. The Larousse Guide to Shells of the World. New York: Larousse, 1980. 320 pp., color illus.
Sabelli, Bruno. Simon and Schuster's Guide to Shells. Edited by Harold S. Feinberg. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1980. 512 pp., 1,230 color illus.
Saul, Mary. Shells: An Illustrated Guide to a Timeless and Fascinating World. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1974. 192 pp., illus.
Stix, Hugh, Marguerite Stix, and R. Tucker Abbott. The Shell: Five Hundred Million Years of Inspired Design. New York: Abradale Press/H. N. Abrams, 1988. 200 pp., 203 illus., including 82 plates in color.
Travers, Louise A. The Romance of Shells, in Nature and Art. New York: Barrows, 1962. 136 pp., 8 color plates, text figs.
Violette, Paul E. Shelling in the Sea of Cortez. Tucson: Dale Stuart King, 1964. 95 pp., illus.
Zinn, Donald J. The Beach Strollers Handbook, from Maine to Cape Hatteras. 2nd ed. Chester, CT: Globe Pequot, 1985. 246 pp., illus.
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Prepared by the Department of Systematic Biology, Invertebrate Zoology,
National Museum of Natural History, in cooperation with Public Inquiry Services,
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As a Visitor Information Specialist Volunteer, you will engage with visitors and inspire them to plan memorable and exciting experiences across the Smithsonian. Volunteers provide essential services to the Smithsonian by providing a warm welcome and useful information to our visitors about Smithsonian exhibitions, activities, services, and more. If you’re looking for a volunteer role that allows you to meet people from around the world, learn about new and exciting things happening at the Smithsonian, and be at the center of the action, this position is for you!
Dynamic and friendly individuals 18 years or older who have a desire to talk with visitors and share their enthusiasm for the Smithsonian and all that it has to offer. Also looking for people who...
Applicants must be able to volunteer for a minimum of one year, once a week or once every other weekend. Regular shift times are 4 hours in length.
Visitor Information certified serve at Information Desks across the Smithsonian, including:
Training is provided for all Visitor Information certified through the Office of Visitor Services and is a prerequisite to service. Training for the next class of Visitor Information certified will begin in the spring of 2024.
We are not yet accepting applications for this assignment. Once applications are open, the placement process is to:
Please check back in early 2024 for updated information about this assignment. Contact Abbey Earich at EarichA@si.edu with questions about this assignment. Visit https://vol.si.edu/pages/opportunities to find other opportunities that may be recruiting now.