As an educator for nearly five decades, I am on multiple school education-related Whatsapp groups which are currently awash with posters, images, success stories and forwards of newspaper cuttings. Teachers, principals and other educationists are taking great pride in describing the achievements of their schools in the recently-declared board examination results for Class X and XII.
One principal writes, “I speak straight from my heart, an overwhelming majority of students have secured 100 per cent”. Another points out, “the remarkable feature of our result is the breathless number of centum (sic)”. I fail to comprehend what that means. All I know is that the board examinations have become a national obsession.
Parents, principals, educationists and education ministers of states — in fact, society itself — have become judges in this competition that resembles a beauty contest at times. The winner takes all and the loser stands small. The child is made to believe that more the marks, more the intelligence quotient.
The board examination results are all about comparison, about numbers that peg one student higher or lower than the other. In the process, they end up changing the self-expectations of many.
Many students have done well solely because of the higher internal marks awarded by their schools. If this disparity is indeed a result of the different marking methodologies/standards of schools, it is prudent to have conversations about the criteria that level the playing field.
In contrast, some students fare extremely well in the boards and do poorly in the internal assessments. This paradox needs immediate attention.
One of the leading education thinkers of our time, Elliot Eisner, once said, “not everything important is measurable and not everything measurable is important”. The problem with our boards is that they are not improving the culture of education but they are becoming synonymous with education itself – the pendulum swings from academic posturing to self-flagellation and depression.
As parents, we must understand that intelligence assumes multiple forms and each child has natural strengths and weaknesses. We have to find ways to nurture their individuality. Many of us wrongly assume that the board examination results provide a neutral assessment of a child’s intellectual ability. A low score does not indicate a lack of knowledge about a subject. A student who is an excellent writer, for instance, might struggle to pick the right answer in a multiple choice grammar test. Similarly, it is easy to assume that students who score high in maths are good at processing information, reasoning and abstraction. But that’s not always the case. It is often seen that there is no correlation between memorising, attention span and the speed of processing information. Most times, high test scores simply mean excellence at rote memorisation and solving multiple choice questions. A board result should, therefore, be only seen as an additional data point on student learning; it should not occasion value judgements.
We have become more focused on competing against each other rather than providing children with what they need. Our socialisation makes us applaud only certain types of achievement — we don’t even look for other things our children may be good at. But when a system defines successes narrowly, it leaves out a huge number of youngsters. How can a handful of educationists who frame test papers know what will be truly useful to students in a fast-changing world. Can we, at least, pause and reflect on the damage such a system does to our children?
Parents tend to worry about the rising costs of coaching during and after school, the rising costs of college fees, whether their children will find a livelihood and most of all how will they live up to their own and societal expectations. They often end up feeling helpless, with the child becoming the victim of their frustrations.
More than eight out of 10 teenagers experience moderate to extensive pressure during the final school year – headaches, loss of sleep, anger, irritability and anxiety about academic performance. Many times, these results arrive after delays, often when students have moved on to another class.
We need a more expansive evaluation criteria for a student’s performance. As the American systems scientist Peter Senge points out, “We need assessments that are designed for learning not used for blaming, ranking and certifying. The 21st-century parent, educator and students themselves need to develop a growth mindset, a deep shift in attitudes about testing and learning”.
The world of work is changing rapidly. Employers say they need young adults who can take on new tasks and challenges, be innovative and collaborative and come up with ideas for new products and processes. Market players often complain that a large number of people seeking jobs with conventional academic qualifications are not good team players or they are not creative enough. But why blame these young aspirants? They have spent years learning that the system encourages competition and rewards conformity and compliance.
The World Economic Forum has published a report on the key skills that workers around the world will need — creativity, flexibility, collaboration, teamwork and emotional intelligence. The forum has recognised that these skills have to be cultivated in education. The emphasis on academic tests has also squeezed out vocational courses, which used to be a valuable route to employment for many young people whose interests and capacities are now neglected in schools.
The British educator Ken Robinson, who passed away two years ago once wrote, “One of the perils of standardised education is the idea that one size fits all and that life is linear. The truth is that there are many routes to fulfillment. The lives of most people have not followed a standard course… It’s important at school not to limit your children’s future by assuming that the sort of education that you had will inevitably be right for them”.
In order to nurture and challenge students’ intellect and imaginative capacities, we need to break out of minimalistic expectations and not masquerade recycled worksheets and standardised tests as pedagogical tools. Progress in learning should be related to developing sensitivities. We need to encourage students to engage and explore.
The writer is chairperson and executive director, Education, Innovations and Training, DLF Foundation Schools and Scholarship Programmes
Questioning the educational value of assigning grades is one of the hottest syllabus in higher education. Professors have always felt strongly about grading, and perhaps even more so about its latest alternative: “ungrading.”
A recent collection on the subject, edited by Susan D. Blum, a professor of anthropology at the University of Notre Dame, features lively essays by teachers who’ve all put their particular stamp on the practice of de-emphasizing or abolishing grades. Its appeal is not hard to understand when you consider that:
For all of those reasons, plenty of academics are now on board — at least in part — with the “why” of ungrading, but lots of questions remain about the “how.” Faculty questions about this approach range from the elementary (How do you summarize a student’s performance at the end of a semester?) to the advanced (How does ungrading work in a science course with fairly fixed learning goals? How do you mesh ungrading with specifications grading?) And most everyone wonders about the amount of time involved, which could be prohibitive for all instructors except those with the smallest classes and lightest teaching loads.
More than most teaching innovations, ungrading immediately gets faculty members wondering how to pull off such a drastic change. Hence this essay, which offers four simple, moderate ways to start de-emphasizing grades in your courses and putting the focus squarely on learning.
Design some required assignments for which the score is irrelevant. Some activities are important for students to do for their own learning, but their actual performance on the work is less important. Can you design meaningful assignments and offer full credit to any student who makes a good-faith effort?
This is something I’ve been doing in my own courses with gamified Kahoot quizzes. Each week students play along in class — something they’ve enthusiastically endorsed as a helpful and engaging way to master the material. It’s a worthwhile activity, and required. But I have zero interest in the stressful and time-consuming enterprise of handing out more or fewer points based on how they scored.
So instead, I require students to turn in a short assignment with enough information to document that they did, in fact, take the quiz. They also have to write — and this is key — a few sentences reflecting on their own performance. They tell me how they think they did, whether they were surprised (pleasantly or unpleasantly) by their performance, and what they plan to do differently next time.
Drop your penalties for late work. Try retiring punitive, points-based policies in favor of giving students reasonable amounts of extra time to turn in assignments.
For some time now, I’ve been disenchanted with enforcing deadlines through grades. The traditional approach — a 10-percent penalty for each day that an assignment is late, zero points for anything submitted online more than five minutes late, and so on — encourages students to engage in elaborate cost-benefit analyses to try to figure out what to tackle next. All of that cognitive effort would be much better spent on doing quality work in the first place. After all, the main purpose of the work is their own learning.
If we want students to approach assignments in a spirit of deliberate, thoughtful effort — as opposed to grade-obsessed frenzy — we need to set the conditions for that to happen. In my courses, I’ve been explicitly stating that my deadline policy prioritizes two things:
But could a no-penalty policy favoring communication and flexibility result in chaos — with some students falling so far behind that they fail?
Possibly. However, that has not been my experience. A flexible policy for late work means that even students who really are struggling have a better chance of making it across the finish line, given that they’re not facing an increasing drain of unrecoverable points once they start falling behind.
And again, the goal here is to make grades and points much less of an all-consuming concern. Most students are perfectly willing and able to finish their work without the constant threat of grade-based punishment, once you put a better system in place and take the time to explain it.
Offer two-stage exams. Nothing about a course is more entangled with grades than the traditional, closed-book exam. I’m not arguing that we get rid of such tests — in fact, I give formal graded tests in my courses. But I am a strong advocate of extending learning through a two-stage exam. It’s a productive way for students to go back over test material, with a focus on improving their understanding rather than bickering over points.
Briefly, a two-stage test involves having students redo an test in small groups, during the first class period after they individually take the test. You can pull this off in different ways, but I like to randomly assign students to groups. During the second stage of the exam, each group has to reach a consensus on the correct response for each test question before writing down a group answer. I then offer a modest amount of extra credit (that goes toward each student’s individual test score) based on how well the group does on this new, collaborative exam.
The value of this method of revisiting the material is head and shoulders above the traditional practice of “going over the exam” by practicing off correct answers in class. It exploits the value of tests as learning experiences in themselves, ones that help reinforce knowledge. Most important, with respect to ungrading, a two-stage test shifts the focus off individual points gained or lost and onto the reasoning behind the answers. Students get to hear and discuss how others thought about the test questions, work through the evidence, and find a factual basis for each answer. That kind of substantive reflection is the antithesis of grade-driven cramming.
Tellingly, in the five years I’ve been doing two-stage exams, not a single student has challenged the validity of one of my test questions. Such challenges used to happen all the time. That approach has transformed the post-test class period from an atmosphere of tense negotiation to one of open discussion of ideas — nicely capturing the spirit of ungrading.
Practice “maximal availability” (within reason). give your students ways to reach you quickly with questions and problems about coursework, instead of getting stuck and making excuses later for why they didn’t finish an assignment. During the pandemic, I started experimenting with new avenues for students to ask for help, mostly because a lot of them seemed to need extra support. Here’s what I did:
Giving students my personal phone number might seem a bit far afield from ungrading, so let me explain the connection. One of the drivers behind students’ stalled progress and ensuing panic over grades is hitting a roadblock while doing work outside of class. Until they get an answer to their question, they can’t finish the assignment. And that tends to pull the students and me down into a spiral of grade-focused excuses and blame.
Yes, students shouldn’t wait until the last minute to do their work. Yes, they should make sure they know how to complete their assignments before they exit the classroom. But procrastination isn’t always the culprit here. Students with multiple commitments and tight schedules (i.e., most students today) don’t have the flexibility to just set aside an assignment until I can get back to them hours later or the next day. This might be the only window they have to do the work. Personally, I’ve found that it’s the early-starters — not the last-minute crowd — who are most likely to send me quick texts between classes. They’re not grubbing for grades; they want clarification about something because they’re eager to do a good job, which is exactly the kind of mentality I’m trying to nurture.
For years I avoided making myself too available to students outside of class, on the assumption that the sky would certainly fall. Students would see it as an invitation to communicate unprofessionally, or worse: They’d send incessant demands, maybe even stalk or harass me. None of that has happened — at least not yet. And I do want to be clear that being able to share a personal cellphone number is a reflection of my privilege and status. As a white tenured faculty member, I’m less of a target for abuse and unreasonable demands than the untenured or than faculty of color, and as a middle-aged woman, I am less likely than younger instructors to get overly personal texts from college-age students.
So this might not be a good idea for everyone. Fortunately there are other ways to accomplish the same ends. Platforms such as Remind allow you to send and receive messages without sharing your cell number, and set times when you’re officially unavailable. Even a class Slack channel could be a workable solution.
To be clear: I am not saying that faculty members should be perpetually on duty and constantly working. I don’t — and no one else should — agree to answer students’ messages instantly or around the clock. My students get this, and don’t have a problem waiting for an answer to a question that came in at midnight, or in the middle of a faculty meeting for that matter. But students see texts as better and quicker than email, and better still than waiting for a chance to raise their hand or pull the professor aside after class.
I’ve also found that being more available via my phone hasn’t added much to my net workload. If anything, it’s easier to handle quick questions with a text message than to have them all end up sitting in my email or lobbed unpredictably into an already-busy class period.
What’s next for ungrading? Inevitably, more and better ideas are going to come along for putting ungrading into practice. Lots of faculty members will be trying — and improving upon — the smart ideas that are already out there. And as we get additional data on the actual impacts of these changes, we’ll know how to better direct our efforts.
Just as important as the techniques, though, is the change in focus and mentality associated with ungrading — the shift away from points and toward purpose. This is why we need to put wide boundaries around the concept, as I do with the ungrading-adjacent ideas I’ve offered here. I agree with Robert Talbert, a professor of mathematics at Grand Valley State University, when he characterizes ungrading more as a philosophical framework than a specific set of practices. Likewise, the pedagogy activist Jesse Stommel nails it when he writes: “Ungrading works best when it’s part of a more holistic pedagogical practice — when we also rethink due dates, policies, syllabi, and assignments — when we ask students to do work that has intrinsic value and authentic audiences.”
Reorienting our own attention is where ungrading really starts. Once we’ve done that, our students will follow.
Questions about Roe v. Wade won’t be included on next year’s Advanced Placement U.S. Government and Politics exam, following the U.S. Supreme Court’s overturning of the ruling in June.
The College Board, the organization that runs the AP program, announced the decision in a message to AP U.S. Government and Politics teachers in July. Roe has been a required case in the course framework since the 2018-19 school year.
In the message, the College Board explained that the choice to remove questions about Roe has to do with how the AP tests are created. The exams are written years in advance, so questions about Roe as a legal precedent slated for the 2023 test “are at risk of becoming inaccurate and confusing to students,” the message reads.
The College Board plans to evaluate whether and how Roe will be included in future exams and provide an update to teachers in the fall.
The organization’s decision is just one example of how the Supreme Court’s ruling in Dobbs v. Jackson Women’s Health Organization, which ruled that the U.S. Constitution does not protect a right to abortion, will change the way that social studies and government teachers discuss certain constitutional issues. Teachers and curriculum writers will need to shape new lessons on the right to privacy—and on the way that the court uses precedent to inform its judgments.
“It’s such a big shift,” said Kerry Sautner, the chief learning officer at the National Constitution Center, which provides resources and lessons for teachers.
In government or social studies classes, Roe is typically taught as an example of precedent, Sautner said. But now that precedent has been overturned.
That’s also what happened with the AP course. As part of its framework for AP U.S. Government and Politics, released for the 2018-19 school year, the College Board named 15 Supreme Court cases that students must know to understand significant legal precedents. Questions about these cases are fair game for the AP test.
Roe was on that list—one of three cases included to illustrate how certain rights, like the right to privacy or the right to an attorney, have been “selectively incorporated by way of the Fourteenth Amendment’s due process clause to prevent state infringement of basic liberties,” according to a statement from the College Board.
Allison Cohen, an AP government teacher at Langley High School in McLean, Va., said that she still plans to cover Roe and Dobbs in class, even if they won’t be on the AP test. But she understands the College Board’s decision.
“With something that’s this raw and new, I’m sympathetic to them not wanting to write questions that might be confusing to students a year from now,” she said.
It’s possible that not all AP teachers will take this route, though. State legislation restricting how teachers can discuss race, sex, and gender has put a spotlight on teachers who cover anything that could be deemed “controversial” in their classes. AP teachers in other social studies subjects have said they’re rethinking how they connect course content to current events. The College Board has maintained that none of its course standards run afoul of new state legislation.
Cohen, though, said that this new environment hasn’t changed the way she teaches about the Constitution and court cases.
She’s always talked with her students about the idea of constitutional originalism—meaning that the Constitution should be interpreted as fixed, having the same meaning that it did when written—vs. the idea of living constitutionalism, that interpretation of the document can change as circumstances and social attitudes do. She plans to use Dobbs and Roe to talk about these ideas this year.
And the cases are still relevant to the idea of precedent—they just raise new questions about when and why it’s appropriate to overturn precedent, and how that might affect other cases that were decided around a right to privacy, Cohen said.
“It really is about digging a little bit deeper into these fundamental questions of our constitutional democracy,” she said. “How do we go about determining what rights should be judicially recognized? How do we protect those rights? How should this document be interpreted in light of changes that have occurred over the centuries? And what is the proper vehicle to do that?”
Importantly, she wants students to come away from these discussions with the understanding that they can agree or disagree with Supreme Court decisions and that they can advocate for changes they want to see in the process or the outcomes—“that they are active players in this democratic republic,” Cohen said.
“The Supreme Court doesn’t provide the ‘right’ answer to a particular question. It produces finality—a final answer, or a final-for-now answer,” she said. “Students have this default ... respect for authority. And it’s kind of an opportunity to say, ‘No, no, no, maybe your arguments are better.’”
Students planning to take the Aug. 27 SAT exam, or a PSAT or SAT test in the fall, should go into the test with knowledge of the key strategies so they can reach their potential on these all-important tests. Many top public high schools in Central Jersey report average SAT scores above 600 in both Evidence-based practicing & Writing and Math. A couple of high schools even reached or topped 1500 for combined scores. So the bar is set high for local students.
The current SAT test focuses on three areas: critical reading, grammar, and math. A key strategy, that is relevant on all areas of the test, is for students to answer each question (even if it’s a guess) as there’s not a penalty for wrong answers.
On the practicing section, students should pay extra attention to the “duo” questions where two points are at stake. One question asks about an aspect of the passage, and the following question asks which lines in the passage support the answer. It’s often easier to do the second question first, and then back into the first question.
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Students should likewise carefully consider the “vocabulary in context” questions where they choose a word that most closely resembles the meaning of a word included in the story. For example, students may need to choose a word to replace “to leave” with the options being “retire,” “evacuate,” “vacate,” or “depart.” Students need to carefully consider the context of the sentence as these words all mean to leave, but they are not interchangeable.
On the grammar section that is titled, “Writing and Language,” it’s vital that students know the proper use of the comma, semi-colon, colon, and hyphen. It’s also important for students to examine each sentence for correct tense, agreement and parallel sentence structure.
On the two math sections, one of which allows the use of a calculator, students should use their test booklet as scrap paper and remember to refer to the box of math formulas that is provided. The math questions increase in difficulty from easy to hard, on both the multiple-choice and open-ended questions, so students should solve the easier questions first and then use their remaining time to work on the harder questions. The same amount of credit is awarded for each correct answer, regardless of the difficulty of the question.
The best overall strategy is to prepare, well in advance of test day, with actual College Board written tests in order to be proficient in the material tested and knowledgeable of the directions for each test section.
To obtain a free Strategy Guide, with detailed advice and examples for each test section, visit CollegeboundReview.com
Susan Alaimo is the founder and director of Collegebound Review which, for the past 25 years, has offered PSAT/SAT® preparation and private college advising by Ivy League educated instructors. Visit CollegeboundReview.com or call 908-369-5362
This article originally appeared on MyCentralJersey.com: Strategies to score high on August and future SATs | College Connection
CBSE Board test 2023: From this session 2022-2023 onwards, the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) will be conducting a single board test for Classes 10th and 12th. As per media reports, the CBSE test Controller Sanyam Bhardwaj informed that the CBSE board exams 2023 will be held from 15th February onwards in 2023. This was announced along with the release of CBSE class 10th and 12th board test results 2022.
Unlike 2022, there will be only one board test next year. Apart from this, CBSE has made a few more changes in the evaluation scheme that includes marks weightage and alternation in weightage to be given to different types of questions. Students who will be appearing for CBSE board exams 2023 can check below some of the key changes here.
The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) has confirmed that in 2023 there will only be one exam, in addition to some other changes compared to this exam. As per media reports, CBSE test Controller Sanyam Bhardwaj stated that, “CBSE has decided to go back to the conventional practice of holding board exams once a year. In 2022, in view of Covid-19, these exams were conducted in two terms.”
He also said, “In light of the lessening of impact of the Covid pandemic across the globe, the board has decided to conduct the 2023 examination from 15 February 2023.” Hence, students should note that there will be changes in the overall marking scheme for board test 2023.
As per the recently announced assessment policy of board exams 2022-23, there will be at least 40% competency-based questions in classes 9th and 10th. These questions can be multiple-choice questions, case-based, source-based integrated questions or any other type of questions. In addition, 20% of the questions will be objective-type and the remaining 40% will be short answer or long answer type in the 2022-23 CBSE class 10th final exams.
In CBSE class 12 exams, a minimum of 30% of questions will be competency-based in form of multiple-choice questions, case-based, source-based integrated questions or any other type of questions. Also, the objective-type questions will carry 20% weightage and the remaining 50% will be short or long answer-type questions.
Along with conducting only 1 board exam, CBSE has also reduced the 30% syllabus for class 9th to 12th students for the 2023 session. Students can check the CBSE Board test curriculum for next year's board exams at cbseacademic.nic.in. The demo question paper, marking scheme, a question bank, etc., will be uploaded to the official website of CBSE.
Also Read: CBSE Result 2022 Revaluation Window for Verification of Marks To Close Today at cbse.gov.in, Get Details Here
Florida high schoolers attending a public college are required to meet civic literacy requirements.
Academics in the Sunshine State are unsure if Donald Trump could pass the exam.
Several jurisdictions are questioning Trump's understanding of, and adherence to, US laws and norms.
Answer the following question:
Which phrase best describes the power of impeachment?
A. the ability of the US House to charge federal officers with a crime or violation
B. the ability of the US Supreme Court to determine constitutionality of laws
C. the power of the US Senate to remove federal officers for a crime or violation
D. the power of the US President to enforce decisions of federal courts
The answer to the question is A.
But former President Donald Trump might offer an alternative answer — "witch hunt," his favored description of the process he twice endured and twice survived.
Trump is widely expected to run for a nonconsecutive second term in 2024 even while facing several local, state, and federal investigations, including for his role in the January 6, 2021 Capitol attack. As he ponders a presidential comeback, here's another question:
Could Trump, Florida's most famous resident, pass a civics test championed by Gov. Ron DeSantis — a potential political rival — and administered to Sunshine State high school students?
Insider asked four college professors whether they think Trump could pass the test. Most were doubtful and one suggested a similar version of the test should be given to people running for office to assist voters in picking the best candidates.
Iqbal Akhtbar, an associate professor in the Department of Politics and International Relations at Florida International University was among those who were uncertain of Trump's ability to pass the test.
"I don't know if he [Trump] would pass the exam," Akhtbar said. "It does seem that he's not clear on many very basic points of American history in our democracy."
Akhtbar thinks President Joe Biden would pass the exam, saying that "he's served in the Senate for many years, and he has a good sense of how the federal government works."
Sean Freeder, an assistant professor of political science at the University of North Florida said of Trump passing the test: "Perhaps he could, perhaps he couldn't."
"He's the only post-World War II president I can think of that I would not confidently tell you that I think he could pass it," Freeder said.
Peter Bergerson, who's taught political science courses and is a professor at Florida Gulf Coast University for more than 30 years, was reluctant to pass judgment on Trump's test-taking skills.
"I'm just not in a position to know whether he would or not," he said. "I mean my instinct and my gut feeling is probably not."
Trump's team did not respond to Insider's request for comment.
Since 2019, many future college students in Florida are required to take the Florida Civic Literacy Examination — a test modeled after the US Citizenship and Immigration Services Naturalization Test to encourage civic literacy in the Sunshine State.
DeSantis commissioned the testing requirement in 2019. Along with other civic education initiatives in Florida, the test is a response to what DeSantis calls an attempt by the Biden administration to "devolve history into squishy theory," so students can learn "real history and civic responsibility."
"The sad reality is that only two in five Americans can correctly name the three branches of government, and more than a third of Americans cannot name any of the rights guaranteed by the First Amendment," DeSantis said in a 2021 press release.
According to the Florida Board of Governors, high school graduates planning to attend a public college/university must demonstrate: an understanding of the Constitution, the basic principles of American democracy and how they are applied in republican forms of government, landmark Supreme Court cases and their impact, and the founding documents like the Declaration of Independence and the Bill of Rights, and how these shaped the country's self-governance.
A sample version of the Florida civics test includes numerous questions about syllabus Trump has proven to misunderstand in his public statements.
An Insider review of Trump's public statements indicates he might struggle with some of them.
Take Watergate, for example.
Question: Which of the following reflects the most important consequence of the Watergate break-in?
A. legalization of capital punishment
B. creation of levees around coastal cities
C. resignation of the president of the United States
D. integration of surveillance technology in society
The answer is C.
Question: Use the passage below, from an exchange between former president Nixon and a television interviewer, to answer the question that follows. "Well, when the president does it, that means that it is not illegal" — Richard M. Nixon. Which constitutional principle does the statement from President Nixon contradict?
A. separation of powers
C. rule of law
The answer, again, is C.
Political observers frequently compared the events of Trump's presidency to Watergate, a scandal that led to Nixon's resignation.
Trump also frequently name-checked Watergate, accusing Democrats of various misdeeds — usually against Trump himself — he says eclipse Watergate in their severity.
For example, Trump said that a scandal involving former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton's private email server was "worse than Watergate." He later revised his statement and said it was "magnitudes worse than Watergate."
Trump also offered a rosy assessment of Nixon's presidency, telling the New York Times in 2016: "I think what Nixon understood is that when the world is falling apart, people want a strong leader whose highest priority is protecting America first … The '60s were bad, really bad. And it's really bad now. Americans feel like it's chaos again."
Trump's comments have previously shown a lack of proper understanding about how the US government works. He made that clear when he declared the 2020 election a fraud, demanding Vice President Mike Pence to invoke the 25th amendment.
The ex-president's counsel told him that wasn't how the amendment worked, as revealed by the January 6 committee.
Separately, the Cato Institute published a litany of "constitutional misdeeds" in which author Ilya Shapiro said Trump and his administration engaged, including Trump stating that Article II of the Constitution gives him the "right to do whatever I want as president."
In this regard, one Constitution-focused query stands to stump Trump.
Question: What is the principal function of a written Constitution?
A. resolving disagreements between competing parties
B. confirming resistance to civil disobedience
C. declaring the independence of a state
D. outlining the structure and powers of a government
The answer is D.
Trump has even been publicly challenged over whether he has read the Constitution, such as when Khzir Khan, a Muslim-American lawyer and father of a US solider killed in Iraq, waved a pocket Constitution in the air while speaking at the 2016 Democratic National Convention.
"Have you even read the United States Constitution?" Khan asked of Trump. "I will gladly lend you my copy. In this document, look for the words 'liberty' and 'equal protection of the law.'"
Trump retorted in a statement: "Mr. Khan, who has never met me, has no right to stand in front of millions of people and claim I have never read the Constitution, which is false."
One question Trump might answer with greater ease involves the media and defamation laws.
Question: Laws against defamation, including libel and slander, property damage and breach of contract represent which legal concern underlying most Western nations?
A. criminal law
B. military law
C. civil law
D. juvenile law
The answer is C.
Trump has frequently touted the concept of defamation because he has both sued people for defamation — and been sued for it.
Trump recently filed a 282-page report threatening to sue CNN because they said his voter fraud claims were "baseless." As recently as Friday, Trump sent a fundraising email via his Save America political action committee stating: "I have notified CNN of my intent to file a lawsuit over their repeated defamatory statements against me. I will also be commencing actions against other media outlets that have defamed me and defrauded the public."
Trump also lost a bid to counter-sue E. Jean Carroll, a New York advice columnist, who sued him for defamation in 2019 after he denied raping her over two decades ago.
These civic literacy benchmarks required by the state can be reached by receiving a 60% on the Florida Civic Literacy Examination, passing an Advanced Placement or International Baccalaureate test or completing certain civics classes.
To pass the Florida Civic Literacy Examination specifically, students must answer 48 out of 80 questions correctly — 60% or higher.
Lonna Atkeson, director of the Leroy Collins Institute, a public think tank based out of Florida State University in Tallahassee, says many people "don't understand" how certain aspects of the government work.
"We hope that our elected leaders have some understanding of government, but sometimes that's certainly not the case," Atkeson said.
However, Atkeson said she thinks Trump could get a passing grade, especially after already serving a term as president.
"I think he could pass the test. I mean, he's lived here a long time. He understands things," Atkeson said.
She did not say the same for Biden.
"Cognitively, you know, maybe he [Biden] might have some cognitive difficulties right now, so I'm not sure. Maybe at one point ... I don't know about right now, wouldn't that be an interesting test?" Atkeson said.
Politicians, of course, only need to pass one kind of test — an election — to win a seat in Congress, or even the White House.
Bergerson said he wouldn't give a student a test "designed to stump them," and therefore, he wouldn't do that to a president either.
Based on Biden's congressional background, Bergerson said he thought Biden could pass.
Freeder suggested a test for politicians could help voters with choosing who they elect to lead them.
"I think that when the American people vote, that should be one additional piece of information that they should have sitting there whether or not it seems like these people know their stuff about basic aspects of American politics," Freeder said. "I'd love to see a better version of this test more extensively applied to people running for office."
For Trump, Bergerson added there "is a difference between knowing the literacy and practicing the literacy.
"I wonder whether President Trump, if he knows there's a big difference between knowing them being exposed to them, a man once in office in a position to understand that people are sovereign; the constitution is the governing body," Bergerson said.
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While results from Pennsylvania’s first time using the Uniform Bar Examination (UBE) remain to be seen, the exam’s high minimum pass score and surprise inclusion of archaic topics threaten to continue the state’s trend of low pass rates, according to interviews with legal educators.
Bar applicants who took the July test faced not only a new format to contend with in the UBE, but also an education system that was forced to switch to remote learning during their first year of law school in 2020, when classes covered the lion’s share of test content.
In a meeting that lasted well into the night, Delhi University (DU) on Wednesday approved a new process for admission to its undergraduate programmes based on Common University Entrance Test (CUET) scores. Here’s everything you need to know about the changes introduced:
Q. Where do I apply to programmes in colleges affiliated to DU?
This year, admission to DU colleges and programmes will be through a common portal called the ‘Common Seat Allocation System’ (CSAS-2022). The application form will be available on this portal.
Q. What are the different steps to admission this time?
The entire process will be conducted in three phases.
— The first phase will entail applying through the CSAS-2022 application form available on the common portal. Students must make a one-time (non-refundable) payment at the application stage. Students applying under the Extracurricular Activities (ECA) or Sports supernumerary quota will have to pay a little more.
— In the second phase, the applicant will have to select the programme and college combination she prefers on the centralised CSAS portal. This phase will start only after the CUET results have been announced. If, based on the candidate’s CUET score, she is eligible for admission to a programme, she will be required to “fill in the preferences” for the programme and college combinations. The university advises students to choose multiple programmes and college combinations, but the order of preference has to be carefully selected as this will determine seat allotment in the next phase. To confirm the order of preference for the college and programme combination, a candidate must click on the “submit” tab before the deadline ends. Once submitted, the preference order is set in stone and cannot be changed. If the candidate does not hit the submit button, the last saved preference order will lock automatically once the deadline ends.
— In the third phase, the allotment of seats will begin. This phase will have multiple rounds of allotment and admission. A candidate will have to check the seat and college allotted to her on the common admission portal. The allotment by DU will be based on a number of factors — combination of college and programmes chosen, position of the candidate on the merit list, category (SC/ST/OBC/EWS/UR) of the candidate and availability of seats.
Q. What happens after a candidate is allotted a seat?
Once seats have been allocated to candidates, they must “accept” it within a specific time. The provision for acceptance will only be valid to the round in which they have been offered a seat.
Once the candidate has accepted the provisional allocation, the university will check the applicant’s eligibility and verify documents. During this process, the college may raise a query to the candidate for further clarification.
The colleges will either “approve” or “reject” the provisionally allocated seat of a candidate. Once the approval is granted, the applicant must pay a fee to confirm admission.
The provisional allotment of seats in a particular round can be cancelled if the student:
a. hasn’t “accepted” the allotment within the deadline.
b. failed to pay the admission fee on time
c. failed to reply to a query raised by the college
d. has provided invalid or fraudulent documents
e. does not meet the minimum eligibility criteria announced by DU
Q. How many rounds of seat allotment will take place?
The exact count of rounds is unclear at this moment. We know that DU, “based on the availability of seats that arise due to cancellations and withdrawals, ” may conduct multiple rounds of allocation. The university will display the number of vacant seats before every allocation round.
It’s important to note that after the completion of an allotment round and the opening of the next round, a candidate who has already secured admission will have the opportunity to either “freeze” admission or remain open to an “upgrade”. The latter means she has the option to upgrade to a higher or better programme and college preference indicated by her during the second phase. However, the upgrade option will not be available to an applicant who has already been allotted a seat as per her first preference.
Once the regular rounds of allotment and admission are over, and seats are still vacant, DU may announce a spot round(s) of admission. Everyone who had applied on the common portal but could not secure a seat can participate in the spot round.
Q. Will students who didn’t apply during the first phase get a second chance after the allotment of seats has begun?
DU has introduced the option of “mid-entry” before the announcement of every admission round. Those who didn’t apply on the common admission portal can exercise this option against a mid-entry fee of Rs 1,000. However, these candidates will only be considered for seat allotment after all those who applied before them and scored more than them. A mid-entry candidate cannot challenge admission granted to someone who had applied on the common portal on time.
Q. How can one withdraw admission?
An applicant can do so by selecting the “withdraw” option on the common admission portal and paying a fee of Rs 1,000. However, remember that once you have cancelled your admission by exercising the “withdraw” option, you will not be allowed to participate in any further rounds of admission/allotment.
Q. What will the DU’s merit list for a programme, based on the candidate’s CUET score, look like?
The unreserved category (UR) or general seats will comprise all the candidates in order of merit. In other words, the merit list for this category will also include SC / ST / OBC-NCl/ Minority/ EWS candidates, irrespective of category, if they meet the criterion of merit for the UR category.
Candidates from reserved categories will only be considered for allocation in their category if valid documents for the same are provided at the time of application to the CSAS-2022. In case a candidate offered a seat under the reserved category is rejected based on insufficient documents, she may be considered for allocation in the subsequent round(s).
Suppose the total number of ST category candidates applying for a particular program is exhausted. In that case, the remaining seats under this category will be allocated to eligible SC category candidates and vice versa.
Q. What will DU do in the event of a tie, where two or more applicants have the same CUET score and have also chosen the same programme and college combination?
In such an event, the university will use the following (in descending order) criteria as tie-breaker:
a. The candidate who has scored more in the best three subjects of the Class 12 Board test will be given preference.
b. The candidate who has scored more in the best four subjects of the Class 12 Board test will be given preference.
c. The candidate who has scored more in the best five subjects of the Class 12 Board test will be given preference.
d. If all of the above fails, then the older candidate, as per the date of birth mentioned on the Class 10 certificate, will be given preference
Aug 04, 2022 06:03 PM IST
NEET UG result expected soon
National Testing Agency (NTA) will be announce the NEET UG result in due course of time. Ahead of NEET results, NTA will publish answer key, OMR response sheets and question papers on neet.nta.nic.in.
Aug 04, 2022 04:34 PM IST
NEET result 2022: test was held on July 17
NTA conducted NEET 2022, the undergraduate medical entrance examination on July 17 at test centres across the country and overseas.
Aug 04, 2022 01:42 PM IST
NEET result 2022: List of top colleges in Delhi
AIIMS, New Delhi
Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences
Vardhman Mahavir Medical College (VMMC) & Safdarjung Hospital
Maulana Azad Medical College
University College of Medical Sciences
Lady Hardinge Medical College
Aug 04, 2022 01:07 PM IST
JEE Mains session 2 result expected soon
Joint Entrance Examination (JEE) Mains 2022 session 2 results are likely to be released by National Testing Agency (NTA) on or before August 7, 2022.
Aug 04, 2022 11:17 AM IST
While NTA has released JEE Main answer key within a week of conducting the exam, there is still no update about NEET UG answer key. The test was held on July 17.
Aug 04, 2022 09:54 AM IST
NEET 2022 answer key: How to calculate marks
NEET marks = (4 x number of correct attempts) - (number of incorrect attempts)
Aug 04, 2022 08:34 AM IST
How to obtain NEET UG 2022 answer key
Aug 04, 2022 08:33 AM IST
Login credentials required to obtain JEE Main answer key
Candidates can obtain JEE Main session 2 answer key using application number and date of birth or application number and password.
Aug 04, 2022 07:40 AM IST
JEE Main 2022 session 2 answer key out, NEET answer key awaited
NTA has released JEE Main session 2 answer key. Answer key of NEET 2022 is awaited at neet.nta.nic.in.
Aug 03, 2022 10:54 PM IST
JEE main session to answer key: Challenge before 5pm on August 5
The provisional answer keys for JEE main session 2 exams can be challenged before 5pm on August 5, 2022. No challenge will be accepted after that.
Aug 03, 2022 10:48 PM IST
JEE main answer key challenge fee
Candidates can challenge the JEE main answer keys by paying ₹200 per question challenged as a non-refundable processing fee.
Aug 03, 2022 10:45 PM IST
NTA conducted JEE main exams for 6.29 lakh candidates
The JEE (Main) 2022 Session 2 (July 2022) test were conducted throughout the Country and abroad for 6.29 lakh candidates.
Aug 03, 2022 10:32 PM IST
JEE main session 2 answer keys released for these exams
NTA has released the Provisional Answer Keys for Paper 1 (B.E./B.Tech.), Paper 2A (B.Arch.), and Paper 2B (B. Planning) exams for candidates to challenge.
Aug 03, 2022 10:28 PM IST
JEE main session 2 answer keys: Direct link to check
Here is the direct link to check the answer keys, question paper and recorded responses of JEE main paper 2 exams.
Aug 03, 2022 10:26 PM IST
JEE main Session 2 answer keys released
The National Testing Agency has released answer keys, question paper with recorded responses of Joint Entrance Examination (JEE) Main 2022 session 2.
Aug 03, 2022 06:55 PM IST
JEE Result 2022: This weekend
JEE Result 2022 will be announced this weekend. The NTA JEE results will be declared by the Agency on August 5 or August 6, 2022.
Aug 03, 2022 05:34 PM IST
NEET test 2022 was conducted on July 17, 2022. The test was conducted in 497 Cities throughout the country including 14 Cities Outside India.
Aug 03, 2022 03:59 PM IST
JEE Result 2022: test dates
JEE Main 2022 session 2 test was started on July 25, 2022 ended on July 30 in which over 6 lakh candidates had appeared. The test was conducted as per NTA guidelines.
Aug 03, 2022 02:13 PM IST
NEET Result 2022: Provisional answer key to release first
NEET Result 2022 will be announced in due course of time. But before that provisional answer key will be released by the Agency. The answer key will be available to candidates on the official site of NTA NEET on neet.nta.nic.in.
Aug 03, 2022 12:54 PM IST
JEE Answer Key 2022: How to download
Aug 03, 2022 12:08 PM IST
JEE Result 2022: Session 2 result on August 5 or 6
JEE Result 2022 session 2 will be declared by National Testing Agency, NTA on August 5 or 6, as informed to HT Digital by the Agency officials.
Aug 03, 2022 10:42 AM IST
JEE Main 2022: What happens if questions are dropped from answer key
In JEE Main 2022 session 1, NTA had dropped 4 questions, asked in different shifts, from the answer key and said one question has more than one correct answer.
As per NTA's policy, if a question is dropped, percent equivalence is calculated considering the remaining questions, not taking into account the dropped question.
“If none of the options is found correct or a question is found to be wrong or a question is dropped then percent equivalence is to be established on the remaining questions whether attempted or not attempted,” NTA said.
However, for the question that has 2 correct answers, if a candidate has written either one as his/her answer, full marks are awarded in both cases.
Aug 03, 2022 10:40 AM IST
NEET, JEE Main 2022: Provisional answer key first
First, NTA will release provisional answer keys of JEE Main session 2 and NEET 2022, followed by final answer keys.
Aug 03, 2022 09:23 AM IST
JEE, NEET result 2022: All India rank list
NEET and JEE scorecards mention candidates' all India ranks. NTA sends candidates' ranks to respective counselling authorities who then begins the medical and engineering admission process based on it.
Aug 03, 2022 08:28 AM IST
NEET 2022 answer key live updates
NEET UG 2022 took place on July 17 and NTA will soon publish preliminary answer keys on neet.nta.nic.in.
Aug 03, 2022 08:21 AM IST
JEE Main 2022 answer key session 2
If JEE Main session 2 results are to be announced on August 5 or 6, answer keys will be released shortly as NTA has to give candidates a few days to raise objections to the preliminary key.
Aug 03, 2022 08:04 AM IST
JEE Main 2022 result date
JEE Main 2022 session 2 results are expected on August 5 or 6, officials at NTA have said. Ahead of results, answer keys will be published on jeemain.nta.nic.in.
Aug 02, 2022 03:29 PM IST
JEE, NEET 2022 answer key release date
There is no confirmation on JEE Main, NEET 2022 answer key release date. When announced, direct links will be added here.
Aug 02, 2022 02:49 PM IST
NEET 2022: AIQ and state counselling
NEET ranks are used by central and state bodies to hole 15% all India quota and 85% state quota counselling. In the case of MBBS, Medical Counselling Committee (MCC) hosts AIQ NEET counselling on mcc.nic.in.
Aug 02, 2022 02:29 PM IST
JEE Main, NEET rank lists
Along with NEET and JEE Main results, NTA will also announce ranks secured by candidates overall and within their categories. Ranks play an important roll in counselling and admissions. In the case of JEE Main, those who are within top 2.5 lakh candidates can appear for IIT JEE Advanced.
Aug 02, 2022 01:56 PM IST
JEE Main, NEET answer key: When can candidates expect results
JEE Mains and NEET results will be published soon after the final answer keys are released.
Aug 02, 2022 01:25 PM IST
What is NEET percentile score
NEET Percentile = 100 x Number of candidates appeared with raw score less than the candidate/ Total number of candidates appeared
Aug 02, 2022 01:23 PM IST
How to calculate JEE Main/NEET marks
JEE Main/NEET marks = (4 x number of correct answers) - (number of incorrect answers)
Aug 02, 2022 01:20 PM IST
How to get JEE Main/NEET answer key
Aug 02, 2022 01:08 PM IST
NEET, JEE Main 2022: Question papers, candidates' responses to be released along with preliminary key
Along with preliminary answer keys, NTA will also publish question papers and candidates' responses of NEET and JEE.
Aug 02, 2022 12:44 PM IST
NEET, JEE Main 2022: Provisional answer keys first
NTA will first publish provisional answer keys of NEET UG and JEE Mains session 2. Candidates can then submit their objections by paying a non-refundable fee. Objections will be Tested by a committee set-up by NTA and any necessary change(s) will be reflected in the final version of the answer keys.
Aug 02, 2022 12:42 PM IST
Where to check JEE Mains session 2 and NEET answer keys
NEET UG answer key: neet.nta.nic.in
JEE Main answer key: jeemain.nta.nic.in
Aug 02, 2022 12:41 PM IST
NEET, JEE Main 2022 session 2 answer keys awaited
Answer keys of NEET UG 2022 and JEE Main 2022 session 2 exams are expected soon.