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Exam Code: 1Y0-403 Practice exam 2023 by Killexams.com team
1Y0-403 Citrix Virtual Apps and Desktops 7 Assessment, Design and Advanced Configurations

Exam Code : 1Y0-403

Exam Name : Citrix Virtual Apps and Desktops 7 Assessment, Design and Advanced Configurations (CCE-V)

Duration : 120 minutes

Questions : 61

Passing Score : 51%

Methodology and Assessment 7.5%

- Determine the design decisions that should be made based on given business drivers.

- Determine how to complete the user segmentation process for a given environment.

- Determine how to categorize applications based on a scenario.

- Assess a given environment to determine the capabilities of that environment.

User Layer 7.5%

- Determine the appropriate endpoint type and peripherals required for a given environment.

- Determine how to appropriately deploy Citrix Workspace app based on a list of requirements.

- Determine the network connectivity and graphics requirements for a design.

Access Layer 11%

- Determine the appropriate settings and configurations to make when designing an access deployment strategy for Citrix Gateway and StoreFront/Workspace.

- Determine the architectural needs of an environment when designing StoreFront stores.

- Determine access layer scalability for Citrix Gateway and StoreFront in a given environment.

Resource Layer – Images 11% - Determine how to appropriately scale the infrastructure for Virtual Delivery Agent Machines in a given environment.

- Determine how to secure the Virtual Delivery Agent Machines based on a scenario.

- Determine how to design the appropriate image provisioning strategy for a given environment.

Resource Layer - Applications and Personalization 9% - Determine the appropriate delivery options for Application deployment based on the analysis of the given environment.

- Determine the appropriate profile strategy to use in a given environment.

- Determine the appropriate policies to implement in a given environment.

Control Layer 9%

- Determine the appropriate delivery method to recommend when designing a Site for a given environment.

- Determine the appropriate management and administration design based on given requirements.

- Determine the appropriate site design and baseline specifications to ensure performance and stability in the given environment.

- Determine the Control Layer security requirements and features necessary to secure a given environment.

Hardware/Compute Layer 19%

- Determine the appropriate hardware or hypervisor to implement based on a given design.

- Determine the appropriate resource pool strategy for a given environment.

- Determine the appropriate hardware sizing based on a scenario.

- Determine the appropriate storage allocations to ensure optimization in a given environment.

- Determine the appropriate Datacenter configurations for network traffic in a given environment.

- Determine how to meet the security objectives and best practices for a given environment.

High Availability and Multiple Location Environments 20%

- Determine Multi-location architecture requirements and business considerations in a given environment.

- Determine the appropriate access configurations to recommend when designing a multi-site environment.

- Determine the appropriate Image Management requirements in a given environment.

- Determine the requirements for profiles and data in a multi-location environment.

- Determine the appropriate strategy to support printing in a multi-location solution.

- Determine how to design a site and FMA zones to ensure users have continuous access to resources in a multi-location solution.

Disaster Recovery 6%

- Determine the appropriate Disaster Recovery Strategy for a given environment.

- Determine how to recover a primary datacenter in the disaster recovery datacenter given a scenario.

- Network systems Including security, implementation and administration

- Citrix methodology and best practices for analysis and design

- Core design principles

- Installing Citrix technologies associated with app and desktop virtualization

- Configuring Citrix technologies associated with app and desktop virtualization

- Administering an app and desktop virtualization environment

- Maintaining an app and desktop virtualization environment

- Backing up components of an app and desktop virtualization environment

- Updating an app and desktop virtualization environment

- Monitoring an app and desktop virtualization environment

- Creating reports for trend analysis in environments that include a Citrix app and desktop virtualization solution

- Troubleshooting environments that include a Citrix app and desktop virtualization solution

- Cloud concepts such as private, public and hybrid clouds

- Storage concepts

Citrix Virtual Apps and Desktops 7 Assessment, Design and Advanced Configurations
Citrix Configurations outline
Killexams : Citrix Configurations outline - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/1Y0-403 Search results Killexams : Citrix Configurations outline - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/1Y0-403 https://killexams.com/exam_list/Citrix Killexams : Initial Citrix ShareFile RCE exploitation commences
Attacks leveraging a critical remote code execution bug in Citrix ShareFile, tracked as CVE-2023-24489, were observed by GreyNoise to have begun earlier last week, SecurityWeek reports. "GreyNoise has observed IPs attempting to exploit this vulnerability. Two have never seen GreyNoise before this activity," said GreyNoise. Such a flaw, which has already been patched in June, could be exploited to enable total application compromise, according to Citrix. Meanwhile, Assetnote, which identified and reported the flaw, said that the bug stemmed from various errors that cause unauthenticated file uploads. "Although the [vulnerable] endpoint is not enabled in all configurations, it has been common amongst the hosts we have tested. Given the number of instances online and the reliability of the exploit, we have already seen a big impact from this vulnerability," said Assetnote, which initially released a proof-of-concept code earlier this month before publishing more PoC exploits. Immediate application of updates has been urged for Citrix FileShare users.
Mon, 31 Jul 2023 05:28:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.scmagazine.com/brief/initial-citrix-sharefile-rce-exploitation-commences
Killexams : Hundreds of Citrix Endpoints Compromised With Webshells

Around 600 global Citrix servers have been compromised by a zero-day exploit enabling webshells to be installed, according to a non-profit tracking the ongoing campaign.

The Shadowserver Foundation tweeted on 2 August that the number of impacted endpoints stood at 581, but the figure is thought to be just the tip of the iceberg.

The biggest number of impacted IPs are based in Germany, followed by France and Switzerland.

As reported by Infosecurity last week, the malicious campaign exploits zero-day vulnerability CVE-2023-3519 to compromise NetScaler ADC (formerly Citrix ADC) and NetScaler Gateway servers.

Subscribe to the Infosecurity Magazine newsletter here. 

Vulnerability Patching 

The unauthenticated remote code execution vulnerability was patched by Citrix on July 15 and has a CVSS score of 9.8.

“Exploits of CVE-2023-3519 on unmitigated appliances have been observed,” Citrix warned at the time. “Cloud Software Group strongly urges affected customers of NetScaler ADC and NetScaler Gateway to install the relevant updated versions as soon as possible.”

At the time, Citrix also patched two other vulnerabilities: reflected cross-site scripting bug CVE-2023-3466, and CVE-2023-3467, which enables privilege escalation to root administrator.

Warning from Shadowserver 

The Shadowserver Foundation, which monitors malicious internet activity across the globe, alerted Citrix users to the campaign last week. It warned that over 15,000 NetScaler ADC and NetScaler Gateway servers were at risk of compromise, with the biggest number based in the US, followed by Germany, the UK and Australia.

Read more on Citrix vulnerabilities: Citrix Admins Urged to Act as PoC Exploits Surface

The zero-day was originally exploited to drop webshells onto an unnamed US critical infrastructure organization’s non-production environment, according to the US Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA).

“The webshell enabled the actors to perform discovery on the victim’s active directory (AD) and collect and exfiltrate AD data,” it continued. “The actors attempted to move laterally to a domain controller but network segmentation controls for the appliance blocked movement.”

That attack happened back in June 2023.

Editorial image credit: Ken Wolter / Shutterstock.com

Wed, 02 Aug 2023 21:00:00 -0500 en-gb text/html https://www.infosecurity-magazine.com/news/hundreds-citrix-compromised/
Killexams : About 2000 Citrix NetScalers Were Compromised in Massive Attack Campaigns

About 2,000 Citrix NetScalers were compromised in automated massive attack campaigns. Find out more about the threat actors and how to protect from them.

A lock in a room full of interlocking tiles has been unlocked.
Image: CROCOTHERY/Adobe Stock

Threat actors have been exploiting a NetScaler appliance vulnerability to get persistent access to the compromised systems. Find out which NetScaler systems are affected, how attackers are hitting vulnerable systems worldwide and how to protect your business from this cybersecurity attack.

Jump to:

Exploited Citrix NetScaler vulnerability

Citrix published a security bulletin on July 18, 2023 about three vulnerabilities in NetScaler ADC and NetScaler Gateway: CVE-2023-3519, CVE-2023-3466 and CVE-2023-3467. This bulletin detailed exploits on CVE-2023-3519 observed in the wild on unmitigated appliances. Affected systems are:

  • NetScaler ADC and NetScaler Gateway 13.1-49.13 and later, 13.0-91.13 and later.
  • NetScaler ADC 13.1-FIPS 12.1-37.159 and later.
  • NetScaler ADC 12.1-FIPS 12.1-55.297 and later.
  • NetScaler ADC 12.1-NDcPP 12.1-55.297 and later.

ZScaler, a cloud security company, provided more details on how the NetScaler vulnerability can be triggered and allow an unauthenticated attacker to execute arbitrary code as the root user. A specially crafted HTTP GET request can be used to trigger a stack buffer overflow in the NetScaler Packet Processing Engine, which runs as root (Figure A). A proof of concept is available on GitHub.

Figure A

Example of a crafted packet containing shell code.
Example of a crafted packet containing shell code. Image: ZScaler

Exposed NetScaler appliances backdoored with web shells

Fox-IT, part of the information assurance firm NCC Group based in the U.K., responded to several incidents related to the vulnerability in July and August 2023, with several web shells found during the investigations. This is consistent with other reports such as the one from the nonprofit organization Shadowserver Foundation and trusted partners making the internet more secure.

Following those discoveries, Fox-IT scanned accessible NetScalers on the internet for known web shell paths. The researchers found that approximately 2,000 unique IP addresses were probably backdoored with a webshell as of Aug. 9, 2023. Fox-IT’s discoveries were shared with the Dutch Institute for Vulnerability Disclosure, which notified administrators of the vulnerable systems.

SEE: get TechRepublic Premium’s network and systems security checklist.

Shadowserver reported the U.S. is the country with the most unique IPs of unpatched systems, with more than 2,600 unique IPs being vulnerable to CVE-2023-3519 (Figure B).

Figure B

Unpatched NetScaler appliances vulnerable to CVE-2023-3519 as of Aug. 5, 2023.
Unpatched NetScaler appliances vulnerable to CVE-2023-3519 as of Aug. 5, 2023. Image: Shadowserver Foundation

Fox-IT reported that approximately 69% of the NetScalers that currently contain a web shell backdoor are not vulnerable anymore to CVE-2023-3519; this means that, while most administrators have deployed the fixes, they have not carefully checked the systems for signs of successful exploitation and are still compromised. The company provides a map of compromised NetScaler appliances by country (Figure C).

Figure C

Compromised NetScaler appliances per country.
Compromised NetScaler appliances per country. Image: Fox-IT

Most compromised NetScalers are located in Europe. Fox-IT researchers stated that “there are stark differences between countries in terms of what percentage of their NetScalers were compromised. For example, while Canada, Russia and the United States of America all had thousands of vulnerable NetScalers on July 21, virtually none of these NetScalers were found to have a webshell on them. As of now, we have no clear explanation for these differences, nor do we have a confident hypothesis to explain which NetScalers were targeted by the adversary and which ones were not.”

Successful exploitation may lead to more than just planting web shells

In addition, the Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency reported web shell implants exploiting CVE-2023-3519. The report noted that attackers exploited the vulnerability as early as June 2023 and used the web shell to extend their compromise and exfiltrate the Active Directory of a critical infrastructure organization. The threat actor managed to access NetScale configuration files and decryption keys and used the decrypted AD credential to query the AD and exfiltrate the collected data.

While this critical infrastructure used segmentation that did not allow attackers to move further with their attacks, it is possible that other organizations might be fully compromised by threat actors using the same methods.

Dave Mitchell, chief technical officer at cybersecurity company HYAS, stated that “unfortunately, this is far from the first time this has happened in latest memory. In previous campaigns, attackers gained footholds within F5, Fortinet and VMware appliances through exposed management interfaces in order to avoid detection by EDR software. Regardless if the exploit is already in the wild, customers are expected to monitor their devices for the IOCs before and after the patch is applied — which is obviously not at an acceptable level. The reason for this gap may be education, outsourced managed devices or division of security labor within an organization, but I do not expect attacks on network devices to stop anytime soon.”

How to protect your business from this cybersecurity threat

  • Patch and update vulnerable Citrix NetScaler appliances now.
  • Check for compromises in the affected systems because, if a threat actor has successfully compromised the system, the person might be able to access it even though the patch has been deployed. Shadowserver provided command lines to detect typical web shell components in web-exposed folders of the appliances, together with binaries with higher privileges. CISA provided command lines to check for files created after the last installation on the appliance.
  • Analyze all HTTP log files carefully. Network log files such as DNS logs and AD/LDAP/LDAPS logs should be analyzed for any anomalies or traffic spikes.
  • Deploy security solutions on all systems to try to detect potential malware resulting from the attack.
  • Keep all appliances and systems up to date and patched with multifactor authentication enabled where possible to prevent attackers from exploiting common vulnerabilities and stolen credentials.

Disclosure: I work for Trend Micro, but the views expressed in this article are mine.

Fri, 18 Aug 2023 14:28:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://www.techrepublic.com/article/citrix-netscalers-compromised/
Killexams : Hackers exploit Citrix zero-day to target US critical infrastructure

Thousands of companies could be at risk from an actively exploited Citrix zero-day that hackers have already abused to target at least one critical infrastructure organization in the United States.

Citrix last week sounded the alarm about the critical-rated flaw, tracked as CVE-2023-3519 with a severity rating of 9.8 out of 10, which impacts NetScaler ADC and NetScaler Gateway devices. These enterprise-facing products are designed for secure application delivery and providing VPN connectivity, and are used extensively worldwide, particularly within critical infrastructure organizations.

Citrix warned that the zero-day could allow an unauthenticated, remote attacker to run arbitrary code on a device and said it has evidence that the vulnerability was exploited in the wild. Citrix released security updates to the vulnerability on July 18 and is urging customers to install the patches as soon as possible.

Days after Citrix’s warning, U.S. cybersecurity agency CISA revealed that the vulnerability had been exploited against a U.S. critical infrastructure organization in June, and was reported to the agency earlier in July.

CISA said that hackers exploited the flaw to drop a webshell on the organization’s NetScaler ADC appliance, enabling them to collect and exfiltrate data from the organization’s Active Directory, including information about users, groups, applications and devices on the network. But because the targeted appliance was isolated within the organization’s network, the hackers were unable to move laterally and compromise the domain controller.

While this organization successfully managed to ward off the hackers targeting its systems, thousands of other organizations could be at risk. The Shadowserver Foundation, a nonprofit organization that works to make the internet more secure, said it has found more than 15,000 Citrix servers worldwide at risk of compromise unless patches are applied.

The largest number of unpatched servers are based in the U.S. (5,700), followed by Germany (1,500), the U.K. (1,000) and Australia (582), according to their analysis.

It’s not yet known who is behind the exploitation of this vulnerability, but Citrix vulnerabilities have been known to be exploited by both financially motivated cybercriminals and state-sponsored threat actors, including groups linked to China.

In a blog post published over the weekend, researchers at Mandiant said that while they cannot yet attribute the intrusions to any known threat group, the activity is “consistent with previous operations by China-nexus actors based on known capabilities and actions against Citrix ADC’s in 2022.” Mandiant added that the intrusions are likely part of an intelligence-gathering campaign, noting that espionage-motivated threat actors continue to target technologies that do not support endpoint detection and response solutions, such as firewalls, IoT devices, hypervisors and VPNs.

“Mandiant has investigated dozens of intrusions at defense industrial base (DIB), government, technology, and telecommunications organizations over the years where suspected China-nexus groups have exploited zero-day vulnerabilities and deployed custom malware to steal user credentials and maintain long-term access to the victim environments,” the researchers said.

Mon, 24 Jul 2023 03:08:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://techcrunch.com/2023/07/24/citrix-zero-day-critical-infrastructure/
Killexams : How to Insert Word Art in Powerpoint

Ryan Menezes is a professional writer and blogger. He has a Bachelor of Science in journalism from Boston University and has written for the American Civil Liberties Union, the marketing firm InSegment and the project management service Assembla. He is also a member of Mensa and the American Parliamentary Debate Association.

Tue, 24 Jul 2018 14:32:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://smallbusiness.chron.com/insert-word-art-powerpoint-40098.html
Killexams : Citrix NetScaler users told to patch new zero-day urgently

A zero-day vulnerability in Citrix NetScaler Application Delivery Controller (ADC) and Citrix NetScaler Gateway appears to be being exploited by an unspecified advanced persistent threat (APT) actor backed by the Chinese government and should be patched immediately.

Per Citrix’s initial advisory released on Tuesday 18 July, the three vulnerabilities patched by Citrix affect multiple versions of the NetScaler ADC (previously Citrix ADC) and NetScaler Gateway (previously Citrix Gateway) lines.

They are tracked as CVE-2023-3466, a reflected cross-site scripting flaw; CVE-2023-3467, a privilege escalation vulnerability; and CVE-2023-3519, an unauthenticated remote code execution (RCE) bug.

Of these, the issue of concern is the RCE vulnerability, CVE-2023-3519, which carries a CVSS score of 9.8, and it is this bug that was added to the US Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency’s (CISA’s) Known Exploited Vulnerabilities (KEV) list on 20 July.

The addition of a vulnerability to the KEV list mandates that US government bodies must address it by a set date. It carries no weight beyond this, but inclusion on this list is a sure sign that attention should be paid by all organisations.

According to the CISA, the threat actor exploited CVE-2023-3519 to drop a webshell on a non-production environment NetScaler ADC appliance owned by an operator of critical national infrastructure (CNI).

The RCE vulnerability, CVE-2023-3519, carries a CVSS score of 9.8 and was added to the US CISA’s Known Exploited Vulnerabilities list on 20 July. Inclusion on this list is a sure sign that attention should be paid by all organisations

Using this webshell, the actor then attempted to perform discovery actions on the victim’s active directory (AD) and exfiltrate data from it. They then tried to move laterally to a domain controller, but were thwarted in this instance when the appliance’s network-segmentation controls kicked in.

In this instance, the victim organisation was able to swiftly identify the compromise and duly reported the incident to both CISA and Citrix.

Assessing the impact of CVE-2023-3519, researchers at Mandiant, which played a key role in the initial investigation, said that because ADC devices are predominantly used in the IT sector and form a vital component of enterprise cloud datacentres, when it comes to ensuring the optimal delivery of enterprise applications, they present a tempting target.

However, wrote the analyst team, comprising James Nugent, Foti Castelan, Doug Bienstock, Justin Moore and Josh Murchie, Chinese threat actors often target devices that sit at the edge of the network because they can be harder to monitor, and very often don’t support intrusion detection solutions.

“Mandiant cannot attribute this activity based on the evidence collected thus far,” the team wrote. “However, this type of activity is consistent with previous operations by China-nexus actors based on known capabilities and actions against Citrix ADCs in 2022.

“The evolution of the China-nexus cyber threat landscape has evolved to such an extent that its ecosystem mirrors more closely that of financial crime clusters, with connections and code overlap not necessarily offering the comprehensive picture.”

Beyond applying the patch, Mandiant is additionally recommending that if any affected appliances are found to have been exploited, they should be rebuilt immediately. This upgrade process will overwrite some, but not all, of the directories where threat actors may drop webshells.

Security teams may also wish to re-evaluate whether or not their ADC or Gateway appliances’ management ports need unrestricted internet access, and limit access to only necessary IP addresses, which would make post-exploitation activities harder going forward.

Based on some of the other tactics, techniques and procedures (TTPs) outlined in Mandiant’s write-up, the research team is also recommending that affected organisations rotate all secrets stored in the configuration file, and any private keys or certificates useable for transport layer security (TLS) connections.

They may also wish to harden susceptible accounts in the domain to protect against credential exposure and limit a threat actor’s ability to obtain credentials for lateral movement.

Mon, 24 Jul 2023 06:38:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.computerweekly.com/news/366545494/Citrix-NetScaler-users-told-to-patch-new-zero-day-urgently
Killexams : Citrix Endpoint Management MDM review

Formerly known as Xenmobile, Citrix Endpoint Manager is a unified device management system that provides a simplified platform for IT departments to monitor and administer hardware of all types.

With features beyond the scope of standard Mobile Device Management (MDM) products, Citrix Endpoint Manager supports all commercially available mobile operating systems and desktop OSs. Offered stand-alone or as part of a more comprehensive selection of Citrix business software, Citrix Endpoint Manager aims to be seamless for the end user and effortless for the IT department to manage. 


Citrix Endpoint Management is a feature-packed MDM solution (Image credit: Citrix)