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Key Takeaways

  • API design guidelines are important in an organization's API standardization journey.
  • Design guidelines can help organizations to achieve API standardization and governance.
  • Zally helps organizations to automate their validation of style guidelines against API specifications.
  • A Gradle plugin can help organizations to achieve a shift left approach for their API development process.
  • Shift Left approach helps to increase efficiency in the development and testing process of API development.

There has been a growing trend among the organizations API team to better standardize their API design and development process. With an increased adoption towards micro services, software products being more and more just a bunch of micro-services and third-party APIs mashed together.So, it gets more crucial for us to get API structure in order using the de facto standard like OpenAPI (a.ka. Swagger). To achieve this consistency organizations have started to define their own guidelines for standardizing their API. 

What is API standardization

API design is the creation of an effective interface that allows you to better maintain and implement the API, while enabling consumers to easily use this API.

Consistent API design means, standardizing the design, across all APIs, and the resources they expose, within an organization or team. It is a common blueprint for developers, architects and technical writers to follow, to ensure a consistent brand and experience in the API consumption. Organizations standardize design using Style Guidelines that aim to ensure consistency in the way APIs are designed and implemented. Some popular style guidelines are shared below.

  1. Microsoft REST API Guidelines
  2. Google API Design Guide

I often refer to this stylebook for developing a consistent API for my side projects while following the industry best practices for API development.

Why Standardization

A clear design methodology ensures that APIs align with the business needs. With more standardized API, there’s less ambiguity, there’s more collaboration, quality is more ensured, and API adoption increases.

Having clear and consistent API design standards is the foundation for a good developer and consumer experience. They let developers and consumers understand your APIs in a fast and effective manner, reduces the learning curve, and enables them to build to a set of guidelines.

API standardization can also Excellerate team collaboration, provide the guiding principles to reduce inaccuracies, delays, and contribute to a reduction in overall development costs. Standards are so important to the success of an API strategy that many technology companies – like Microsoft, Google, and IBM as well as industry organization like SWIFT, TMForum and IATA use and support the OpenAPI Specification (OAS) as their foundational standard for defining RESTful APIs.

Without standardization, individual developers are free to make subjective choices during design. While creativity is something to encourage it quickly can become chaos when not appropriately governed by a style guide.

Organizations cannot ensure quality within their API design and delivery process without standardization. Reinforcing design standards improves the ability to predict successful outcomes and contributes to an organization’s ability to scale their API development at speed while ensuring quality.

Journey into API standardization

It wouldn’t be possible to scale your API design and development processes successfully, or comply with regulatory and industry standards, without a formal process to reinforce standardization. Having an API design style guide provides the “guardrails” needed to let internal and external teams collaborate when building API definitions and re-using assets.

Initially, organizations start publishing their API guidelines internally as PDF or wiki for everyone to reference and processes are put in place to make sure teams are following the design guidelines.One solution to develop consistency is providing a manual review during the API development. 

The API’s are specified in OpenAPI format and maintained in version control, we can follow the same review process for API definitions that we follow for other code artifact. Developers can create pull requests for their API changes and have a colleague provide feedback.This manual process can be an effective way to ensure governance and compliance with the API guideline, but like all manual processes it is subject to human error and not always timely.

Waiting for a colleague to review our API change can result in a slow turnaround that hurts developer productivity, especially when it comes to aspects of the review process that can be automated. This process is also not scalable when organization scales and more developers start to develop API. This is where shifting left with automated API reviews is helpful. It’s always better to get feedback early with the help of some automated tools or linters like we do get for our other artifacts. 

What is Shift Left approach

The term “shift left” refers to a practice in software development in which teams begin testing earlier than ever before and help them to focus on quality, work on problem prevention instead of detection. The goal is to increase quality, shorten long test cycles and reduce the possibility of unpleasant surprises at the end of the development cycle—or, worse, in production.

Open API validators

When it comes to OpenAPI linters, I came across a few linters. These linters convert the API style guidelines into a set of rules and validate against the Open API specification. These linters can provide you an option for customizing the rules as per your organization style guide. One tool which caught my attention was linter called Zally which was written using Kotlin and open sourced by Zalando. OpenAPI style guide validators workflow looks like below.

  1. The API standard or style guidelines are expressed as a set of rules. Zalando has one such guideline here.
  2. API Written according to OpenAPI specification
  3. Linting tools such as Zally, sonarQube, Spectral that can validate that the OpenAPI specification the developer has written is complying with the specification’s rules defined in step 1.

What is Zally

Zally is a minimalistic and easy to use API-linter. Its standard configuration will check your APIs against the rules defined in Zalando’s RESTful Guidelines, but anyone can use it out-of-the-box. It’s written in a more extensible way to allow us to add our own set of rules as well. It also provides the following feature.

  • enable/disable rules on the server side based on your needs
  • Accepts both json and yaml format for Swagger V2 and OpenAPI V3 specification
  • Write and plug your own rules
  • Intuitive Web UI that shows implemented rules and result of your spec validation
  • Github integration using web hooks which validates your OpenAPI on each pull request and echo back the violation in the comments

Motivation behind Zally Gradle plugin

Though Zally is written in a more extensible and customizable way, I felt that we can still Excellerate zally current validation workflow further to reduce the developer feedback loop. Since Zally lacks the plugins like checkstyle, ktlint, spot bug etc,. Below are a few pain points I experienced when I used Zally. 

  • Developers need to host the Zally server either locally or in a remote system to use the CLI tool.
  • Developers need to switch context for running CLI tools or some additional work needed to configure the CLI execution as part of the maven/gradle build process with prerequisite of point 1. 
  • Using github integration components to validate our API for each pull request increases the feedback loop time.

All these options are increasing the feedback time for the developers with some manual overhead of hosting the Zally server. So I decided to write my own gradle plugin which can be integrated in the local development environment as well as in the CI tool which helps me to validate and extract the validation result in different formats. .

Custom Zally plugin

zally-gradle-plugin is a gradle plugin which is written in kotlin and can be integrated in the build script. The plugin validates the specification against the set of rules and provides the report in both json and html format.

The project includes an example task configuration:

```
// settings.gradle.kts
pluginManagement {
    repositories {
        gradlePluginPortal()
        mavenLocal()
    }
}

// build.gradke.kts
plugins {
    id("io.github.thiyagu06") version "1.0.2-dev"
}

zallyLint {
    inputSpec = File("${projectDir}/docs/petstore-spec.yml")
    reports {
        json {
            enabled = true
            destination = File("${rootDir}/zally/violation.json")
        }
        rules {
            must {
               max = 10
            }
        }
    }
}

//execute task
./gradlew clean zallyLint

```
```
Run ZallyLint task
./gradlew zallyLint
```

With this gradle plugin I’m able to get real time feedback during API development. This enables me to fix issues with the API before getting into a manual review step. The plugin can also be integrated with the CI jobs to check to validate the style guidelines. Because all development teams use the same rules, the organization can provide a more consistent API for their users. The benefits of the approach are outlined below.

The plugin provides an option to enable exporting violation reports into JSON and HTML format. This also provides an easy way to configure rules to define the max number of violations allowed in the spec for each severity level.

The json format can be parsed and exported into any database to calculate the API design compatibility score and build a dashboard to share it to the wider organization for decision making on the API standardization initiatives. The same way HTML reports can be exported to S3 bucket or google cloud storage and hosted as a website to a broader audience.

Sun, 09 Oct 2022 21:08:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.infoq.com/articles/shift-left-api-standardization/
Killexams : Turning a Node.js Monolith Into a Monorepo Without Disrupting the Team

Key Takeaways

  • To avoid git conflicts or a long code freeze period, develop a migration script.
  • Add a CI job to check that the build and tests still work after the migration.
  • Use Node’s conditional exports, so internal dependencies are resolved according to the environment: TS files during development, JS files at runtime.
  • Extract common TypeScript, ESLint and Prettier configuration as packages, then extend them.
  • Setup Turborepo in order to orchestrate dev workflows and optimize build time.

Splitting monoliths into services creates complexity in maintaining multiple repositories (one per service) with separate (yet interdependent) build processes and versioning history. Monorepos have become a popular solution to reduce that complexity.

Despite what monorepo tool makers sometimes suggest, setting up a monorepo in an existing codebase, especially in a monolithic one, is not easy. And more importantly, migrating to a monorepo can be very disruptive for the developers of that codebase. For instance, it requires moving most files into subdirectories, which causes conflicts with other changes currently being made by the team.

Let’s discuss ways to smoothly turn a monolithic Node.js codebase into a Monorepo, while minimizing disruptions and risks.

Introducing: a monolithic codebase

Let’s consider a repository that contains two Node.js API servers: `api-server` and `back-for-front-server`. They are written in TypeScript and transpiled into JavaScript for their execution in production. These servers share a common set of development tools (for checking, testing, building and deploying servers) and npm dependencies. They are also bundled together using a common Dockerfile, and the API server to run is selected by specifying a different entrypoint.

File structure - before migrating:

├─ .github
│  └─ workflows
│     └─ ci.yml
├─ .yarn
│  └─ ...
├─ node_modules
│  └─ ...
├─ scripts
│  ├─ e2e-tests
│  │  └─ e2e-test-setup.sh
│  └─ ...
├─ src
│  ├─ api-server
│  │  └─ ...
│  ├─ back-for-front-server
│  │  └─ ...
│  └─ common-utils
│     └─ ...
├─ .dockerignore
├─ .eslintrc.js
├─ .prettierrc.js
├─ .yarnrc.yml
├─ docker-compose.yml
├─ Dockerfile
├─ package.json
├─ README.md
├─ tsconfig.json
└─ yarn.lock

(Simplified) Dockerfile - before migrating:

FROM node:16.16-alpine
WORKDIR /backend
COPY . .
COPY .yarnrc.yml .
COPY .yarn/releases/ .yarn/releases/
RUN yarn install
RUN yarn build
RUN chown node /backend
USER node
CMD exec node dist/api-server/start.js

Having several servers maintained together in a shared repository presents several advantages:

  • the configuration of development tools (typescript, eslint, prettier…) and the deployment process are shared, so maintenance is reduced and the practices of all contributing teams remain aligned.
  • it’s easy for developers to reuse modules across servers, e.g. logging module, database client, wrappers to external APIs…
  • versioning is simple because there is just one shared range of versions used by all servers, i.e. any update on any server results in a new version of the Docker image, which includes all servers.
  • it’s also easy to write end-to-end tests that cover more than one server, and include them in the repository, because everything is in the same place.

Unfortunately, the source code of these servers is monolithic. What we mean is that there is no separation between the code of each server. Code that was written for one of them (e.g. SQL adapters), ends up being imported by other servers too. Hence it’s complicated to prevent a change on the code of server A from also impacting server B. Which can result in unexpected regressions, and code that becomes more and more coupled over time, making it more fragile and harder to maintain.

The « monorepo » structure is an interesting compromise: sharing a repository while splitting the codebase into packages. This separation makes the interfaces more explicit, and therefore allows to make conscious choices about dependencies between packages. It also enables several workflow optimisations, e.g. building and running tests only on packages that changed.

Migrating a monolithic codebase into a monorepo quickly gets difficult and iterative if the codebase is large, integrated with a lot of tooling (e.g. linting, transpilation, bundling, automated testing, continuous integration, docker-based deployments…). Also, because of the structural changes necessary in the repository, migrating will cause conflicts with any git branches that are worked on during the migration. Let’s overview the necessary steps to turn our codebase into a monorepo, while keeping disruptions to a minimum.

Overview of changes to make

Migrating our codebase to a monorepo consists of the following steps:

  • File structure: initially, we have to create a unique package that contains our whole source code, so all files will be moved.
  • Configuration of Node.js’ module resolution: we will use Yarn Workspaces to allow packages to import one another.
  • Configuration of the Node.js project and dependencies: package.json (including npm/yarn scripts) will be split: the main one at the root directory, plus one per package.
  • Configuration of development tools: tsconfig.json, .eslintrc.js, .prettierrc.js and jest.config.js will also be split into two: a “base” one, and one that will extend it, for each package.
  • Configuration of our continuous integration workflow: .github/workflows/ci.yml will need several adjustments, e.g. to make sure that steps are run for each package, and that metrics (e.g. test coverage) are consolidated across packages.
  • Configuration of our building and deployment process: Dockerfile can be optimized to only include the files and dependencies required by the server being built.
  • Configuration of cross-package scripts: use of Turborepo to orchestrate the execution of npm scripts that impact several packages. (e.g. build, test, lint…)

File structure - after migrating:

├─ .github
│  └─ workflows
│     └─ ci.yml
├─ .yarn
│  └─ ...
├─ node_modules
│  └─ ...
├─ packages
│  └─ common-utils
│     └─ src
│        └─ ...
├─ servers
│  └─ monolith
│     ├─ src
│     │  ├─ api-server
│     │  │  └─ ...
│     │  └─ back-for-front-server
│     │     └─ ...
│     ├─ scripts
│     │  ├─ e2e-tests
│     │  │  └─ e2e-test-setup.sh
│     │  └─ ...
│     ├─ .eslintrc.js
│     ├─ .prettierrc.js
│     ├─ package.json
│     └─ tsconfig.json
├─ .dockerignore
├─ .yarnrc.yml
├─ docker-compose.yml
├─ Dockerfile
├─ package.json
├─ README.md
├─ turbo.json
└─ yarn.lock

The flexibility of Node.js and its ecosystem of tools makes it complicated to share a one-size-fits-all recipe, so keep in mind that a lot of fine-tuning iterations will be required to keep the developer experience at least as good as it was before migrating.

Planning for low team disruption

Fortunately, despite the fact that fine-tuning iterations may take several weeks to get right, the most disruptive step is the first one: changing the file structure.

If your team uses git branches to work concurrently on the source code, that step will cause these branches to conflict, making them very complicated to resolve and merge to the repository’s main branch.

So our recommendation is threefold, especially if the entire team needs convincing and/or reassuring about migrating to a monorepo:

  • Plan a (short) code freeze in advance: define a date and time when all branches must have been merged, in order to run the migration while preventing conflicts. Plan it ahead so developers can accommodate. But don’t pick the date until you have a working migration plan.
  • Write the most critical parts of the migration plan as a bash script, so you can make sure that development tools work before and after migrating, including on the continuous integration pipeline. This should reassure the skeptics, and give more flexibility on the genuine date and time of the code freeze.
  • With the help of your team, list all the tools, commands and workflows (including features of your IDE such as code navigation, linting and autocompletion) that they need to do their everyday work properly. This list of requirements (or acceptance criteria) will help us check our progress on migrating the developer experience over to the monorepo setup. It will help us make sure that we don’t forget to migrate anything important.

Here’s the list of requirements we decided to comply with:

  • yarn install still installs dependencies
  • all automated tests still run and pass
  • yarn lint still finds coding style violations, if any
  • eslint errors (if any) are still reported in our IDE
  • prettier still reformats files when saving in our IDE
  • our IDE still finds broken imports and/or violations, if any, of TypeScript rules expressed in tsconfig.json files
  • our IDE still suggests the right module to import, when using an symbol exposed by an internal package, given it was declared as a dependency
  • the resulting Docker image still starts and works as expected, when deployed
  • the resulting Docker image still has the same size (approximately)
  • the whole CI workflow passes, and does not take more time to run
  • our 3rd-party code analysis integrations (sonarcloud) still work as expected

Here’s an example of migration script:

# This script turns the repository into a monorepo,
# using Yarn Workspaces and Turborepo

set -e -o pipefail # stop in case of error, including for piped commands

NEW_MONOLITH_DIR="servers/monolith" # path of our first workspace: "monolith"

# Clean up temporary directories, i.e. the ones that are not stored in git
rm -rf ${NEW_MONOLITH_DIR} dist

# Create the target directory
mkdir -p ${NEW_MONOLITH_DIR}

# Move files and directories from root to the ${NEW_MONOLITH_DIR} directory,
# ... except the ones tied to Yarn and to Docker (for now)
mv -f \
    .eslintrc.js \
    .prettierrc.js\
    README.md \
    package.json \
    src \
    scripts \
    tsconfig.json \
    ${NEW_MONOLITH_DIR}

# Copy new files to root level
cp -a migration-files/. . # includes turbo.json, package.json, Dockerfile,
                          # and servers/monolith/tsconfig.json

# Update paths
sed -i.bak 's,docker\-compose\.yml,\.\./\.\./docker\-compose\.yml,g' \
  ${NEW_MONOLITH_DIR}/scripts/e2e-tests/e2e-test-setup.sh
find . -name "*.bak" -type f -delete # delete .bak files created by sed

unset CI # to let yarn modify the yarn.lock file, when script is run on CI
yarn add --dev turbo  # installs Turborepo
rm -rf migration-files/
echo "✅ You can now delete this script"

We add a job to our continuous integration workflow (GitHub Actions), to check that our requirements (e.g. tests and other usual yarn scripts) are still working after applying the migration:

jobs:
  monorepo-migration:
    timeout-minutes: 15
    name: Test Monorepo migration
    runs-on: ubuntu-latest
    steps:
      - uses: actions/checkout@v2
      - run: ./migrate-to-monorepo.sh
        env:
          YARN_ENABLE_IMMUTABLE_INSTALLS: "false" # let yarn.lock change
      - run: yarn lint
      - run: yarn test:unit
      - run: docker build --tag "backend"
      - run: yarn test:e2e

Turn the monolith’s source code into a first package

Let’s see how our single package.json looks life, before migrating:

{
  "name": "backend",
  "version": "0.0.0",
  "private": true,
  "scripts": {
    /* all npm/yarn scripts ... */
  },
  "dependencies": {
    /* all runtime dependencies ... */
  },
  "devDependencies": {
    /* all development dependencies ... */
  }
}

And an excerpt of the tsconfig.json file used to configure TypeScript, still before migrating:

{
    "compilerOptions": {
        "target": "es2020",
        "module": "commonjs",
        "lib": ["es2020"],
        "moduleResolution": "node",
        "esModuleInterop": true,
        /* ... and several rules to make TypeScript more strict */
    },
    "include": ["src/**/*.ts"],
    "exclude": ["node_modules", "dist", "migration-files"]
}

When splitting a monolith into packages, we have to:

  • tell our package manager (yarn, in our case) that our codebase contains multiple packages;
  • and to be more explicit about where these packages can be found.

To allow packages to be imported as dependencies of other packages (a.k.a. workspaces), we recommend using Yarn 3 or another package manager that supports workspaces.

So we added "packageManager": "yarn@3.2.0" to package.json, and created a .yarnrc.yml file next to it:

nodeLinker: node-modules
yarnPath: .yarn/releases/yarn-3.2.0.cjs

As suggested in Yarn’s migration path:

  • we commit the .yarn/releases/yarn-3.2.0.cjs file;
  • and we stick to using node_modules directories, at least for now.

After moving the monolith codebase (including package.json and tsconfig.json) to servers/monolith/, we create a new package.json file at the root project directory, which workspaces property lists where workspaces can be found:

{
  "name": "@myorg/backend",
  "version": "0.0.0",
  "private": true,
  "packageManager": "yarn@3.2.0",
  "workspaces": [
    "servers/*"
  ]
}

From now on, each workspace must have its own package.json file, to specify its package name and dependencies.

So far, the only workspace we have is “monolith”. We make it clear that it’s now a Yarn workspace by prefixing its name with our organization’s scope, in servers/monolith/package.json:

{
  "name": "@myorg/monolith",
  /* ... */
}

After running yarn install and fixing a few paths:

  • yarn build and other npm scripts (when run from servers/monolith/) should still work;
  • the Dockerfile should still produce a working build;
  • all CI checks should still pass.

Extracting a first package: common-utils

So far, we have a monorepo that defines only one “monolith” workspace. Its presence in the servers directory conveys that its modules are not meant to be imported by other workspaces.

Let’s define a package that can be imported by those servers. To better convey this difference, we introduce a packages directory, next to the servers directory. The common-utils directory (from servers/monolith/common-utils) is a good first candidate to be extracted into a package, because its modules are used by several servers from the “monolith” workspace. When we reach the point where each server is defined in its own workspace, the common-utils package will be declared as a dependency of both servers.

For now, we move the common-utils directory from servers/monolith/, to our new packages/ directory.

To turn it into a package, we create the packages/common-utils/package.json file, with its required dependencies and build script(s):

{
  "name": "@myorg/common-utils",
  "version": "0.0.0",
  "private": true,
  "scripts": {
    "build": "swc src --out-dir dist --config module.type=commonjs --config env.targets.node=16",
    /* other scripts ... */
  },
  "dependencies": {
    /* dependencies of common-utils ... */
  },
}

Note: we use swc to transpile TypeScript into JavaScript, but it should work similarly with tsc. Also, we made sure that its configuration (using command-line arguments) is aligned to the one from servers/monolith/package.json.

Let’s make sure that the package builds as expected:

$ cd packages/common-utils/
$ yarn
$ yarn build
$ ls dist/ # should contain the .js build of all the files from src/

Then, we update the root package.json file to declare that all subdirectories of packages/ (including common-utils) are also workspaces:

{
  "name": "@myorg/backend",
  "version": "0.0.0",
  "private": true,
  "packageManager": "yarn@3.2.0",
  "workspaces": [
    "packages/*",
    "servers/*"
  ],
  /* ... */
}

And add common-utils as a dependency of our monolith server package:

$ yarn workspace @myorg/monolith add @myorg/common-utils

You may notice that Yarn created node_modules/@myorg/common-utils as a symbolic link to packages/common-utils/, where its source code is held.

After doing that, we must fix all broken imports to common-utils. A low-diff way to achieve that is to re-introduce a common-utils directory in servers/monolith/, with a file that export functions from our new @myorg/common-utils package:

export { hasOwnProperty } from "@myorg/common-utils/src/index"

Let’s not forget to update the servers’ Dockerfile, so the packages are built and included in the image:

# Build from project root, with:
# $ docker build -t backend -f servers/monolith/Dockerfile .

FROM node:16.16-alpine

WORKDIR /backend
COPY . .
COPY .yarnrc.yml .
COPY .yarn/releases/ .yarn/releases/
RUN yarn install

WORKDIR /backend/packages/common-utils
RUN yarn build

WORKDIR /backend/servers/monolith
RUN yarn build

WORKDIR /backend
RUN chown node /backend
USER node
CMD exec node servers/monolith/dist/api-server/start.js

This Dockerfile must be built from the root directory, so it can access the yarn environment and files that are there.

Note: you can strip development dependencies from the Docker image by replacing yarn install by yarn workspaces focus --production in the Dockerfile, thanks to the plugin-workspace-tools plugin, as explained in Orchestrating and dockerizing a monorepo with Yarn 3 and Turborepo | by Ismayil Khayredinov | Jun, 2022 | Medium.

At this point, we have successfully extracted an importable package from our monolith, but:

  • the production build fails to run, because of Cannot find module errors;
  • and the import path to common-utils is more verbose than necessary.

Fix module resolution for development and production

The way we import functions from @myorg/types-helpers is problematic because Node.js looks from modules in the src/ subdirectory, even though they were transpiled into the dist/ subdirectory.

We would rather import functions in a way that is agnostic to the subdirectory:

import { hasOwnProperty } from "@myorg/common-utils"

If we specify "main": "src/index.ts" in the package.json file of that package, the path would still break when running the transpiled build.

Let’s use Node’s Conditional Exports to the rescue, so the package’s entrypoint adapts to the runtime context:

 {
    "name": "@myorg/common-utils",
    "main": "src/index.ts",
+   "exports": {
+     ".": {
+       "transpiled": "./dist/index.js",
+       "default": "./src/index.ts"
+     }
+   },
    /* ... */
  }

In a nutshell, we add an exports entry that associates two entrypoints to the package’s root directory:

  • the default condition specifies ./src/index.ts as the package’s entrypoint;
  • the transpiled condition specifies ./dist/index.js as the package’s entrypoint.

As specified in Node’s documentation, the default condition should always come last in that list. The transpiled condition is custom, so you can give it the name you want.

For this package to work in a transpiled runtime context, we change the corresponding node commands to specify the custom condition. For instance, in our Dockerfile:

- CMD exec node servers/monolith/dist/api-server/start.js
+ CMD exec node --conditions=transpiled servers/monolith/dist/api-server/start.js

Make sure that development workflows work as before

At this point, we have a monorepo made of two workspaces that can import modules from one another, build and run.

But it still requires us to update our Dockerfile everytime a workspace is added, because the yarn build command must be run manually for each workspace.

That’s where a monorepo orchestrator like Turborepo comes in handy: we can ask it to build packages recursively, based on declared dependencies.

After adding Turborepo as a development dependency of the monorepo (command: $ yarn add turbo --dev), we can define a build pipeline in turbo.json:

{
    "pipeline": {
        "build": {
            "dependsOn": ["^build"]
        }
    }
}

This pipeline definition means that, for any package, $ yarn turbo build will start by building the packages it depends on, recursively.

This allows us to simplify our Dockerfile:

# Build from project root, with:
# $ docker build -t backend -f servers/monolith/Dockerfile .

FROM node:16.16-alpine
WORKDIR /backend
COPY . .
COPY .yarnrc.yml .
COPY .yarn/releases/ .yarn/releases/
RUN yarn install
RUN yarn turbo build # builds packages recursively
RUN chown node /backend
USER node
CMD exec node --conditions=transpiled servers/monolith/dist/api-server/start.js

Note: it’s possible to optimize the build time and size by using Docker stages and turbo prune, but the resulting yarn.lock file was not compatible with Yarn 3, when this article was being written. (see this pull request for accurate progress on this issue)

Thanks to Turborepo, we can also run unit tests of all our packages, in one command: yarn turbo test:unit, after defining a pipeline for it, like we did for build.

That said, most developer workflows rely on dependencies and configuration files that were moved to servers/monolith/, so most of them don’t work anymore.

We could leave these dependencies and files at the root level, so they are shared across all packages. Or worse: duplicate them in every package. There is a better way.

Extract and extend common configuration as packages

Now that our most critical build and development workflows work, let’s make our test runner, linter and formatter work consistently across packages, while leaving room for customization.

One way to achieve that is to create packages that hold base configuration, and let other packages extend them.

Similarly to what we did for common-tools, let’s create the following packages:

├─ packages
│  ├─ config-eslint
│  │  ├─ .eslintrc.js
│  │  └─ package.json
│  ├─ config-jest
│  │  ├─ jest.config.js
│  │  └─ package.json
│  ├─ config-prettier
│  │  ├─ .prettierrc.js
│  │  └─ package.json
│  └─ config-typescript
│     ├─ package.json
│     └─ tsconfig.json
├─ ...

Then, in each package that contains source code, we add those as dependencies, and create configuration files that extend them:

packages/*/.eslintrc.js:

module.exports = {
    extends: ["@myorg/config-eslint/.eslintrc"],
    /* ... */
}

packages/*/jest.config.js:

module.exports = {
    ...require("@myorg/config-jest/jest.config"),
    /* ... */
}

packages/*/.prettierrc.js:

module.exports = {
    ...require("@myorg/config-prettier/.prettierrc.js"),
    /* ... */
}

packages/*/tsconfig.json:

{
    "extends": "@myorg/config-typescript/tsconfig.json",
    "compilerOptions": {
        "baseUrl": ".",
        "outDir": "dist",
        "rootDir": "."
    },
    "include": ["src/**/*.ts"],
    /* ... */
}

To make it easier and quicker to set up new packages with these configuration files, feel free to use a boilerplate generator, e.g. plop.

Next step: one package per server

Now that we have checked off all the requirements listed in the “Planning for low team disruption” section, it’s a good time to actually freeze code contributions, run the migration script, then commit the changes to the source code repository.

From now on, the repository can officially be referred to as “monorepo”! All developers should be able to create their own packages, and to import them from the monolith, instead of adding new code directly into it. And the foundations are solid enough to start splitting the monolith into packages, like we did for common-tools.

We are not going to cover precise steps on how to achieve that, but here are some recommendations on how to prepare for that splitting:

  • start by extracting small utility packages, e.g. type libraries, logging, error reporting, API wrappers, etc…
  • then, extract other parts of the code that are meant to be shared across all servers;
  • finally, duplicate the parts that are not meant to be shared, but are still relied upon by more than one server.

The goal of these recommendations is to decouple servers from each other, progressively. Once this is done, extracting one package per server should be almost as simple as extracting common-utils.

Also, during that process, you should be able to optimize the duration of several build, development and deployment workflows, by leveraging:

Conclusion

We have turned a monolithic Node.js backend into a Monorepo while keeping team disruptions and risks to a minimum:

  • to split the monolith into multiple decoupled packages that can depend on each other;
  • sharing common TypeScript, ESLint, Prettier and Jest configuration across packages;
  • and setting up Turborepo to optimize development and build workflows.

Using a migration script allowed us to avoid code freeze and git conflicts while preparing and testing the migration. We made sure that the migration script did not break the build and development tools by adding a CI job.

I would like to thank Renaud Chaput (Co-Founder, CTO at Notos), Vivien Nolot (Software Engineer at Choose) and Alexis Le Texier (Software Engineer at Choose) for their collaboration on this migration.

Tue, 11 Oct 2022 23:11:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.infoq.com/articles/nodejs-monorepo/
Killexams : Top Crypto Market Making Firms 2022

Cryptocurrency trading continues to break new heights. Since the inception of the first exchanges such as Bitcoin Market and notorious Mt.Gox, the crypto trading sphere has undergone a tremendous transformation, resulting in roughly to 500 centralized and decentralized exchanges to exist today, according to Coinmarketcap. While the concept of trading could be clear enough, it could be unclear how good liquidity – the main criteria for traders – can be maintained. Here comes market making. 

What is crypto market making?

Market making is a way to provide and maintain liquidity on centralized and decentralized cryptocurrency exchanges. The greater liquidity and the less bid-ask spread a certain market has, the more attractive it appears to traders. Simply said, market makers tend to make markets appealing to traders. 

In most cases, market makers are professional companies that have a dedicated experience in trading, deep technical analysis skills, and apply tailor-made automated trading algorithms that maintain market depth and bid-ask spread. Market makers utilize API provided by the exchange platforms in order to perform numerous bid and ask orders placements per minute. By performing these actions, the market becomes attractive to end-users, both buyers and sellers, as the liquidity book becomes strong and mature.

Who are the biggest crypto market makers?

While there are plenty of cryptocurrency market making service providers that can be found on the market, it’s worth noticing a shortlist of market leaders.

Company CEX DEX OTC Online dashboard
Gotbit + + + +
Wintermute + + + +
GSR + + +
Amber + +
Jump Crypto + +

Gotbit

 CEX and DEX market making

Gotbit: CEX and DEX market making service provider

Founded in 2017, Gotbit has significantly transformed from a kind of family office consisted of roughly 10 employees to a trading company with numerous directions. Namely, Gotbit has its own transparent trading platform where end-clients have 24/7 access, full reports and track performance, and full control over the market making treasury. Another Gotbit’s key merit is a diversity of unique CEX and DEX solutions, meaning that trading strategies used by the team are tailored-made, constantly optimized and reviewed by the internal development team. Gotbit provides daily reports and strategic calls to their clients, which makes the MM process look even more transparent and reliable. 

Gotbit’s team has a strong background in the banking industry, as well as investments and consulting. The team now has over 100 members and continues to grow.

Gotbit’s primary approach that differentiates the company from other market making companies is the ability to act as an internal market making team, meaning that the firm will only benefit in the case their end client is profiting. In addition to liquidity management, Gotbit also takes full responsibility for a variety of tasks across crypto markets that tend to facilitate clients’ success.

Wintermute

crypto OTC and AMM

Wintermute: crypto OTC and AMM service provider

Wintermute is an algorithmic market making service provider. It has its own OTC trading desk, NODE, on both spot and derivative markets. NODE can be accessed through the web interface and API, and serves as a professional tool for qualified investors with zero execution fees.

Wintermute often participates in early equity rounds, helping selected cryptocurrency startups to enter the market.

Wintermute has deep experience in DeFi, meaning that they cover DEX markets the same professional way as CEX ones. The company doesn’t have monthly fees, which makes its revenue model attractive to end-clients.

GSR

Cryptocurrency market making

GSR: Cryptocurrency market making operator

Founded back in 2013, GSR now has over 300 employees worldwide. The team consists of executives from traditional financial institutions, namely, Goldman Sachs, Citadel, J.P. Morgan, and Two Sigma. 

The main GSR approach is following the pre-determined bid-ask spread and order book KPIs, meaning that the company guarantees the execution of the market’s characteristics set in the contract. Another GSR’s key point is improvised and intuitive risk management strategies, providing their clients with additional hedging options.

GSR also provides hedging opportunities for large miners, acting as a treasury management solution and providing them with yield enhancement strategies.

Amber

crypto market making firm

Amber: crypto market making firm

Amber is another market making service provider with a strong focus and influence on Asian market. Amber partners with token issuers in order to provide customized liquidity solutions that fulfill clients’ expectations. In addition to that, Amber acts both as a principal and designated market maker for exchanges, making markets more efficient, and, subsequently, more attractive.

Amber has its own digital asset platform built for individuals, WhaleFin. It was designed for customers of all kinds and serves as a digital assets gateway with margin trading and tight spreads. WhaleFin also has a debit card, thanks to the partnership with Mastercard and Unionpay which is accepted by over 50 million merchants around the world.

Jump Crypto

proprietary trading firm

Jump Crypto: proprietary trading firm

Jump Trading is a proprietary trading company founded back in 1999. Over the years, the company utilized and upgraded trading strategies and now focuses on high-frequency trading, resulting in the opening of a cryptocurrency branch in 2021 named Jump Crypto.

Why every project needs a top market maker

The main reason for a crypto project to operate with a designated market making firm is to attract current and potential traders to the market. Wide spreads, insufficient liquidity and unstable depth are the pillars that market makers are fighting with. It’s also worth noticing that stable volumes, low volatility and tight spreads are the keys to further exchange listings and other strategic opportunities, that’s why a wisely-picked market maker strengthens the project’s success.

To sum up, one should consider the following points when choosing the market making company to rely on:

  • Spread tightness;
  • KPIs and SLAs;
  • List of supported exchange platforms;
  • Ease and speed of access to reports;
  • Security aspects;
  • OTC trading desk;
  • Team expertise and proven track record.
Mon, 10 Oct 2022 13:33:00 -0500 Angela Scott-Briggs en-US text/html https://techbullion.com/top-crypto-market-making-firms-2022/
Killexams : University of Miami fraternity kicked off campus after sex chant at party

MIAMI — A week after a fraternity got kicked off the University of Miami campus for chanting at a pool party about having sex with a dead woman, the Sigma Phi Epsilon fraternity brothers apologized Friday for the misogynistic lyrics and denied allegations of drugged drinks.

“The brothers of the former Florida Gamma Chapter of Sigma Phi Epsilon are deeply sorry for the chant prior to the October 1st event,” they said in a statement provided to the Herald about the Oct. 1 pool party that led to the national board suspending the UM chapter last Friday. “Repeating this chant was wholly inappropriate, reprehensible, and does not represent who we are. We apologize in the strongest possible terms to anyone hurt by the lyrics or our actions.”

The fraternity brothers denied accusations that they were drugging women’s drinks. The Miami Hurricane, the student newspaper that broke the story Sunday of the fraternity suspension, ran a video of the chanting and quoted a student, using only her first name, who said she attended the party. She said she and her friends “had like white powder” in their drinks and suspected they were being drugged, although they were not certain and did not get sick or pass out. Another woman, also identified only by her first name, said she had heard similar accounts through her sorority’s group chat.

“We also assert unequivocally that the allegations of drugging drinks are false,” the fraternity brothers said in their statement. “This did not happen. Further, the Dean of Students Office shared with us that the school has not received any named reports or any actionable evidence to investigate or verify these allegations. We understand that the case remains open in the event more information is shared. If you have information, we hope you report it.”

UM has not answered questions from the Herald about the spiked drinks’ allegations. The party was held off campus, at a house about 15 blocks west of the Coral Gables campus on Southwest 62nd Street.

Talk of “white powder” at the party and in drinks may have originated because a white sandy substance was scattered on the ground. The Herald obtained pictures that show Easy Sand 5 sandbags filled with a patching compound used to secure tent poles and to set up a volleyball court.

Some powder fell onto the stacks of red Solo cups used for drinks, and, when the supply of cups ran out, some that had fallen under tables were reused, the fraternity and another student say.

Three security guards — including one off-duty police officer — were hired for the party by the fraternity. Security is required by UM at frat house parties on campus. The guards were visible throughout the afternoon and did not report any problems, the Herald learned.

At least one neighbor called the police describing a rowdy bash where drunk partygoers urinated in people’s yards as music blared and cars blocked the street. Once the video of the chanting was widely circulated, people began criticizing the fraternity on social media, with one post saying “mommas don’t let your babies grow up to be frat boys.” Others have said such behavior is not out of the ordinary at college parties.

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UM, SigEp tight-lipped

UM and the national headquarters of the fraternity, known as SigEp, haven’t provided much detail about what led to the shutdown. Nor have they answered multiple questions from the Herald about it. It’s unknown whether the chapter will return to campus.

In its initial statement, UM said it had received a video on Friday morning, Oct. 7, and ordered the fraternity to stop operating. UM then forwarded the video to the fraternity’s national headquarters, which suspended the UM chapter on Friday afternoon.

SigEp does not have a fraternity house on campus. Like some other UM fraternities and all sororities, it operates out of an office in the Panhellenic Building. Some UM fraternities have houses in and around San Amaro Drive, near Mark Light Field.

Bobby Scottland, a UM SigEp alumnus, class of 1990, said the party incident has been blown out of proportion due to rumors.

“I am upset that the Hurricane and some tabloids ran with the unconfirmed comments about alleged drugs and roofies, which the school found to be untrue,” said Scottland in an interview with the Herald. “The fraternity was not drugging people. I think if, God forbid, someone had been drugged or harmed, that is a totally different situation, and it probably would have come to light by now from the police or a hospital or the school.”

The Daily Beast ran a story saying fraternity “members were accused of drugging women” and said “a slew of young women” told the Hurricane they suspected they were drugged. The NY Post repeated the anonymous quotes from the Hurricane. The Daily Mail said, without any attribution, that “two young female attendees reported noticing white powder in their drinks.”

The Herald has not confirmed any of these allegations. Coral Gables and University of Miami police said they were aware of the story, but had not been contacted by anyone about any possible misconduct.

Scottland acknowledged the chanting, led by a member riling up the crowd, was revolting.

“That disgusting song should never be sung. It does not show SigEp in a good light, and any students who were stupid enough to sing it should be punished,” he said. “As alums, we always counsel the members, ‘What would you do if your mother or father was present? Act accordingly.’”

Investigations likely

UM and SigEp’s minimal communication may be because both the parent organization and the private university are carrying out independent investigations, which could stretch for months, experts on college fraternities say.

The inquiries could lead to disciplinary action against specific students and could also shape the future relationship between both parties. Depending on what they find, the chapter closure could be permanent or be only for a few months or years. Probation, too, is an option.

In 1993, the national board revoked the Sigma Phi Epsilon charter at UM for four years after two frat brothers were arrested on 14 felony counts related to manufacturing fake drivers’ licenses. The fraternity did not return until 2000.

Although the party took place off campus, UM could still sanction them. A university’s student code of conduct usually extend past the campus location, said Matthew Richardson, director of the Center for Fraternal Values and Leadership & Project 168 at West Virginia University in Morgantown.

UM spokeswoman Jacqueline Menendez said the university is investigating and encouraged anyone with information about it to come forward to the administration.

“University staff members have met with student groups throughout the week to address their concerns, and are encouraging students to report any additional information regarding this event, as we continue our investigation,” she said in an email to the Herald.

“If we receive reports of any behavior that violates our code of conduct, we would take immediate action in accordance with published policies and procedures. We strive to provide an educational and professional environment where every member of our community feels respected and safe.”

Scottland, the UM alum, said he is confident the national organization will conduct a thorough review of the incident.

“But do I think the chapter’s charter should be revoked? Over a nasty song? Absolutely not,” said Scottland, who condemned the chanting of “disgusting, horrible” lyrics. “We had some issues in the 1990s when we deserved to be suspended. In this case, those responsible should be held accountable, including the fraternity members and the student newspaper.”

Trying to avoid a PR crisis?

The approximately four-hour window — from the time the national fraternity officials received the video from UM at noon to closing the chapter around 4 p.m. — and the lack of public details have prompted some to speculate whether the fraternity had had a long history of reprimands. Some also have wondered whether UM and the fraternity suspect there’s a more serious allegation. Neither UM nor SigEp have clarified that.

Richardson of West Virginia University said every fraternity and sorority is independently owned and operates with its own polices, so the chapter closing doesn’t necessarily mean a history of misconduct or a specific offense.

“It really does depend on what the behavior was,” Richardson said. “We lack uniform codes of sanctioning. You can’t say if one person does X, that will ultimately result in sanctions A, B, C — that’s not typically how Greek organizations operate; every organization and every situation is different.”

Heather Matthews, the spokeswoman for the national fraternal organization, said the headquarters got the video and that it “showed SigEp members violating alcohol policies and chanting a deeply misogynistic song.”

“The national Fraternity felt the video provided enough information to make the determination that chapter closure was the best course of action,” she said. “Just as we have for the last 73 years, the national Fraternity would work in close partnership with the University of Miami to determine future plans for SigEp at UM.”

Jana Mathews, a professor of English at Rollins College in Winter Park and longtime campus fraternity adviser who recently published a book on fraternities and sororities, “The Benefit of Friends,” said UM and the fraternity’s national board probably moved quickly because both groups tried to avoid a public relations crisis.

“In this case, it was clear that this incident was a public embarrassment and cast the university and the fraternity in a really bad light,” Mathews said. “They wanted to save face, and they would have faced a bigger public outcry if they hadn’t acted in a 12-hour window on this, and they both knew it.”

It’s also in the best interest of all parties to prevent the misdeeds becoming public, which is why, Mathews said, both UM and the fraternity are now being “cagey.”

Pietro Sasso, a professor at the Center for Research Advancing Identities and Student Experiences at the Stephen F. Austin State University in Texas, said the level of secrecy in disciplinary cases with Greek life usually depends on whether a student got hurt.

In cases like hazing, groups tend to be straightforward because of the legal implications. In Florida, hazing that results in seriously body injury or death is a felony that can lead to a five-year prison sentence.

But in other cases, the public reporting is more vague.

“Instances of alcohol and drug policies being broken, like a party, or where they got caught with sexist or racist remarks usually mean less transparency,” Sasso said.

‘Wink, wink, nod, nod’ between frats, schools

Mathews, the Rollins professor who wrote a book on Greek organizations, said the video is problematic mainly because the fraternity members are acting as if they are entitled to women and their bodies.

The yo-ho pirate song, she said, is widespread across college campuses and ingrained in tradition. Universities are generally aware of such behavior and turn a blind eye because they benefit from fraternities.

Fraternities provide housing through their frat houses, even if minimal. They help with recruiting because they’re appealing to freshmen, and provide a social scene in the form of alcohol-fused parties that colleges can’t legally host.

“Also, as a general rule, their students come from the upper middle class — if not upper class — so they bring lots of money to an institution in terms of tuition and alumni giving,” she said.

“It’s sort of this wink, wink, nod, nod,” she said.

Richardson said universities need to take “very strong public stances” to educate and foster meaningful conversations.

At West Virginia University, where he works, five fraternities dissociated from the university in 2018 because they disagreed with official regulations. That, Richardson said, is what strict universities face.

Even so, it’s hard to change the frat culture.

“The reality is until someone in that organization says ‘enough’ and carries enough influence to make it stop, it’s not going to stop,” he said. “It’s not going to stop by some dude sitting in his office writing policy.”

Sat, 15 Oct 2022 02:12:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.tampabay.com/news/florida/2022/10/15/university-miami-fraternity-kicked-off-campus-after-sex-chant-party/?itm_source=parsely-api
Killexams : Docetaxel Anhydrous API Market Intent Data Tools, 2022 To 2028 Standard Version of a Professional Market Research Report.

The MarketWatch News Department was not involved in the creation of this content.

Sep 13, 2022 (Reportmines via Comtex) -- Pre and Post Covid is covered and Report Customization is available.

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  • Latin America Market Analysis
  • Middle East & Africa Market Analysis
  • Key Players Profiles Market Analysis
  • Analysts Viewpoints/Conclusions
  • Appendix

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Killexams : Multi-Asset Risk System (MARS) API No result found, try new keyword!Built on top of Bloomberg’s Server API (SAPI) and B-PIPE platform ... calculation models and produce new rates. See Bloomberg in action For a demonstration of how Bloomberg can help with ... Fri, 18 Jun 2021 00:59:00 -0500 text/html https://www.bloomberg.com/tosv2.html?vid=&uuid=94040f82-4e51-11ed-9cb5-6a434a504b52&url=L3Byb2Zlc3Npb25hbC9wcm9kdWN0L211bHRpLWFzc2V0LXJpc2stc3lzdGVtLW1hcnMtYXBpLw== Killexams : Fivetran introduces Metadata API

Fivetran announced the Metadata API for creating data governance automations and data quality workflows. Fivetran’s Metadata API can track data in-flight as it moves through Fivetran-managed pipelines.

“Every enterprise knows it must be data-driven, but traditional data governance has been a barrier with manual processes and reactive enforcement of policies. That’s not a scalable approach, especially as data infrastructure grows to thousands of pipelines,” said Fraser Harris, the vice president of product at Fivetran. “With Metadata API, our customers get out-of-the box data governance automations and data quality workflows so they can proactively identify and take action on governance issues before they become a problem. Our automated in-flight approach enables data access at scale without increasing risk to the business.”

With the API, data analysts will be able to see where their data is coming from and can then run impact analyses on it. Meanwhile, data stewards will know that all the data they are working with has been handled securely and is compliant with governance requirements. 

The API is currently offered through four Fivetran partners: Atlan, data.world, Alation and Collibra. The combined benefits include the ability to consolidate data into a single data catalog and also gain end-to-end data lineage graphs for data, centralized governance, and the ability to source trace data at a column level back to its origin.

Additional details on the new API are available here.

Tue, 20 Sep 2022 06:41:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://sdtimes.com/api/fivetran-introduces-metadata-api/
Killexams : How to safely dig for gold in Web3 — OKLink Audit secures your exploration

Ambitious miners started their Web3 exploration in pursuit of gold. Using new ways to pull gold out of the world under more uncertainty, the stakes are higher than ever. Will big risks lead to a bigger payout?

Web3 gold rush with risks

Even though global market instability increased, driven by the international macroeconomic downturn, adventurers still gravitate toward the goldfield. Recently, the Ethereum Merge, a historic upgrade casting aside proof-of-work with promises of massive environmental benefits, has brought opportunities for risk-free arbitrage. One of the hacker teams claimed to have made nearly 10,000 ETHPoW (about $0.2 million) in this arbitrage. 

However, it’s just swings and roundabouts. The hacked incident on BNB Token Hub, a cross-chain bridge connecting the BNB Beacon Chain and BNB Chain, resulted in huge losses by issuing 2 million additional BNB (BNB) ($570 million), the entire chain was “paused” before the hacker could make off with their exploits. The hacker only managed to snag around $127 million off the chain.

Regarding both events, OKLink Audit group also provides insights from on-chain data analysis, revealing these mysterious stories. According to an article named “The Crypto World Is on Edge After a String of Hacks” published in The New York Times, more than $2 billion in digital currency has been stolen in hacks this year, shaking faith in the experimental field of decentralized finance, known as DeFi. The vulnerability of the crypto goldfield needs a security guard.

Shield of adventurer — OKLink Audit Tokenscanner 

Besides practicing analysis articles to learn more about the on-chain world, finding some handy tools for general individual investors is not easy. For non-tech investors, user-friendliness and professionalism are two critical elements if they choose a tool to boost their adventure in Web3. OKLink Audit is doubling the security ensure in both on-chain data analysis and code analysis. Tokenscanner, which is a risk-token scanner tool, and ArgusEyes are core products of OKLink Audit. 

With Tokenscanner, users could quickly check risk analysis, token classifiers and security scores with exclusive scoring dimensions based on the massive database from OKLink Explorer. Since Tokenscanner launched, more than 4.2 million tokens have been scanned, and more than 164,000 risky tokens have been found. As OKLink has supported multichains, Tokenscanner also has the multichain check capability. With multi-dimensional analysis, which concludes with swap analysis, holder analysis, contract analysis and liquidity analysis, users can evaluate a token’s risk with the convenience and intuition of operation. 

Put the user first and be professional 

When we check the top 10 blockchain security companies list online, there are only a few tools for individuals. OKLink Security Guard Tokenscanner is one of them. It supports the detection of 30+ risk items, such as honey pot and transaction tax, which, when you swap, you must set a very high slippage tolerance on decentralized exchanges (DEXs). Besides the four dimension analysis, liquidity pairs of top DEXs and token governance can also be easily understood after you click search.

Compared with other token scanners, Security Guard Tokenscanner takes the user-first approach. A fast interface access speed empowered by API achieving interface response under one millisecond and explicit interface structure design ensure the goal of Security Guard: Put the user first and be professional in security based on a massive database. Risk scores can directly help such users have a quick and straightforward knowledge of token risk. The tokens are scored according to 33 detailed rules, and 10,000 samples are subsequently selected for score adjustment.

Onchain data analysis empowers Web3 security

The purpose of a blockchain is to facilitate one shared consensus based on coded rules that we’ve already agreed upon. For every adventurer in Web3, a systemic risk leading to the collapse of the whole world or the loss of trust is something that no one wants to see. 

OKLink Audit safely grows consumer access to cryptocurrency with a handy search tool and one clear score, simple-to-solve comprehensive problems in Web3, getting massive data support from the OKLink Multi-Blockchain Explorer. It’s the key to having outstanding on-chain analytics. 

Being a security guard is not an easy task. With other services such as smart contract audits provided together, OKLink offers further simplicity and transparency to users of the blockchain risk. OKLink Audit makes you go further into the Web3 dark forest. 

About OKLink

As OKLink’s parent company, OKG is one of the earliest blockchain companies founded in China. It has now developed into a conglomerate and a leader in the blockchain industry. Established in 2013, OKG has been committed to blockchain technology’s research, development and commercialization. OKLink has been one of OKG’s subsidiaries dedicated to blockchain data and information services since 2018. Visit the website and Twitter for more information.

This publication is sponsored. Cointelegraph does not endorse and is not responsible for or liable for any content, accuracy, quality, advertising, products, or other materials on this page. Readers should do their own research before taking any actions related to the company. Cointelegraph is not responsible, directly or indirectly, for any damage or loss caused or alleged to be caused by or in connection with the use of or reliance on any content, goods, or services mentioned in the press release.

Sun, 16 Oct 2022 19:35:00 -0500 en text/html https://cointelegraph.com/press-releases/how-to-safely-dig-for-gold-in-web3-oklink-audit-secures-your-exploration
Killexams : How is your credit score calculated and why is it important?

NEW YORK (AP) — You know credit scores exist. You might even know what yours is. But do you know how it’s calculated and why it’s important?

Your credit score affects whether you can get a credit card, rent an apartment, buy a house, start a business, or even get a cell phone contract.

A low credit score can limit your choice of loans or determine if you can get one at all — and if you can, it might have a high interest rate.

“There’s a huge cost to having a low credit score that happens to people, an genuine true financial cost to them, and it’s a shame that people don’t learn about this or know about it or pay attention to it until usually it’s too late,” said Colleen McCreary, consumer financial advocate at Credit Karma.

Here’s a look at how you can create healthy habits to avoid having a low credit score:

WHAT IS A CREDIT SCORE?

A credit score is a mathematical formula that helps lenders determine how likely you are to pay back a loan. Credit scores are based on your credit history and range from 300 to 850.

“It’s a score that is going to determine how comfortable people are to lend you money,” McCreary said.

If your credit score is high, you can borrow more money. But if it’s low, you can borrow less or no money, or borrow money with a high interest rate, which can then create more debt.

Banks, landlords and insurance companies look at your credit score to determine the type of credit card that you can get approved for, whether you are the right fit for an apartment, and your insurance rate, among other things.

“Essentially, the bank will say ‘Hey, you don’t have a great credit score. Instead of a 2% interest rate, we’re going to give you a 3% interest rate,’” said Kristin Myers, editor in chief of The Balance, a personal finance website. “It might mean that you’re paying out more money over the lifetime of a loan every single month.”

HOW IS MY CREDIT SCORE CALCULATED?

While the idea of credit scores is simple, the way they’re determined is more complicated.

Credit scores can come from several credit reporting agencies. The three most used are Experian, Equifax and TransUnion. Each has its own model to calculate credit scores.

While we know generally what factors into the credit scores, the agencies don’t share their specific formulas with the public. But each produces a slightly different score.

“One is scoring like a basketball game, one is like a football game and one is scoring like a hockey game,” said McCreary, who added that you shouldn’t worry if one agency gives you a few points less than others.

Since you don’t know which agency your lender is going to use to check your credit score, McCreary also recommends that you check all three of them before requesting a large amount of credit.

Here are the factors that are frequently used to calculate your credit score:

— Bill payment history

— Length of credit history

— Current unpaid debt

— How much of your available credit you’re using

— New credit requests

— If you have had debt sent to collection, foreclosure, or a bankruptcy

One thing that doesn’t affect your credit score is how much money you make, said McCreary. But you still need to take care to only borrow the amount you can afford to pay back.

Other aspects that don’t affect your credit score include your age, where you live and your demographic information such as race, ethnicity, and gender, according to Experian.

HOW DO I FIND OUT MY CREDIT SCORE FOR FREE?

There are several ways that you can check your credit score for free. A great place to start is to check if your bank offers this service for its customers. Additionally, each of the three credit reporting agencies allows you to check your credit score for free.

Everyone is entitled to one free credit report a year from the three agencies at annualcreditreport.com, according to the federal government.

Other companies such as NerdWallet, Credit Karma and WalletHub also offer this service for free.

WHAT IS A GOOD CREDIT SCORE?

You are considered to have a good credit score if it’s 670 or higher. If your credit score is over 750, you’re considered to have a great credit score, said McCreary.

“There is this sort of dream scenario of having an over 800 credit score, that is a very high credit score and very few people get there,” said McCreary.

“Fair” credit scores are considered to be in the 580-669 range, a credit score below 580 is considered a poor credit score.

HOW CAN I Excellerate MY CREDIT SCORE?

The journey to Excellerate your credit score is different for everyone. But some steps that can help you tackle credit card debt include paying at least the minimum monthly payment and, if you can, paying just a bit more over the minimum so you pay less interest over time.

Additionally, McCreary recommends that you try to keep a balance between your credit or loans and the amount you can afford to pay back.

You can read more experts’ recommendations on how to increase your credit scorehere.

DOES CHECKING MY CREDIT SCORE LOWER IT?

Checking your credit score does not lower it unless you are making a “ hard inquiry,” which is only done when requesting a line of credit.

Soft inquiries, where you want to know your credit score, do not affect your score and it’s a good habit to check your credit often to make sure it’s accurate.

On the other hand, lenders make hard inquiries when you apply for credit like a mortgage or a car loan, and those do show up on your credit report.

McCreary recommends not making several requests for credit at the same time since this could hurt your credit score. It’s best to know beforehand what your credit score is and then apply when you are confident that your loan will get approved.

HOW CAN I CREATE HEALTHY HABITS WITH MY CREDIT SCORE?

The first step is to check at least once a year to make sure you are comfortable with your current credit score.

If you are planning to request a large credit line, you want to check your score a few months prior and see how you can start improving it. If you are currently trying to increase your credit score, it’s recommended that you check it often to see if your actions are making a difference.

If you feel you need help from a professional to Excellerate your credit score, a good place to start is the National Association of Personal Financial Advisors ‘ search engine for registered advisors. If you notice a mistake in your credit report, you can dispute it by contacting the respective credit reporting agencies.

Being aware of your credit score and maintaining healthy habits around it is crucial to having a good credit history. However, it is important for people to know that their financial worth shouldn’t be attached to their credit score, Myers said.

“It doesn’t mean that you’re a bad person or terrible with money and that you need to constantly beat yourself up,” she said.

___

Follow all of AP’s financial wellness coverage at: https://apnews.com/hub/financial-wellness

___

The Associated Press receives support from Charles Schwab Foundation for educational and explanatory reporting to Excellerate financial literacy. The independent foundation is separate from Charles Schwab and Co. Inc. The AP is solely responsible for its journalism.

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Tue, 11 Oct 2022 03:20:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.thespec.com/ts/life/2022/10/11/how-is-your-credit-score-calculated-and-why-is-it-important.html?itm_source=parsely-api
Killexams : Monty Mobile releases new innovative features to their communication platform at GITEX 2022
  • 30% higher value forecasts a revenue of 50 million for Monty Mobile customers

UAE: On the first day of the much-anticipated GITEX 2022, global telecom solutions provider, Monty Mobile, announced the launch of innovative new features to support its communications platform for the first time in the Middle East. The new features will support back-end enhancements to enable a complete digital communication transformation, empowering businesses to increase customer service efficiency and provide a personalized interactive experience embedded directly into brands’ marketing touch points.

This all-in-one communication platform enables enterprises to manage customer communications more seamlessly and efficiently across 20+ channels, within a single cloud-based platform, accelerating real-time communication for 60 million+ users worldwide; Monty Mobile’s analysis of more than 135,000 campaigns launched in 2021, yielded more than 610 million messages. Furthermore, the platform will deliver superior performance at lower costs, enabling the monetization of communication channels and resulting in improved outcomes and new revenue streams. A trial of users reported a 300% increase in ROI and a 55% increase in efficiency and productivity, demonstrating the platform's designed capability.

“With the implementation of these new features, our platform will offer a more streamlined customer journey while guaranteeing communication success. By increasing customer engagement, this conversational messaging platform will help you transform your communication with customers digitally by utilizing the advanced channels and features supported via our solution”, states Hassan Mansour, CEO of Monty Mobile.

“We've seen a 9.5% year over year increase in annual income for businesses that use our platform, compared to a 3.4% increase for companies that don't. After this success, we are now introducing the updated version with up-to-date channels and features where customers can shop and pay via chat just by subscribing and using Monty Communication Platform integrations”, he continues.

Monty Mobile’s communication platform supports all major chat and messaging apps, such as WhatsApp, Facebook Messenger, Apple Chat, Telegram, Instagram, Twitter, Viber Business, Line, along with other channels including emails, and the no-code Chabot which is built over AI and automation easily managed by platform users. Businesses can benefit from added value services such as Video calls, agent management, Call center, and App center where they can integrate multiple apps on the platform like Salesforce, Dynamics 365, Q-ticketing, Zendesk, Teams, YouTube, Tokopedia, Play store and Skype.

Mansour further adds: “our clients can also benefit from our experience in sales, client onboarding, and customer service. They can now bring new communication solutions to their customers and enable their engagement capabilities by collaborating with our top engineers. Not to mention, they can benefit from our global consulting and technical assistance. Our highly professional and dedicated teams will put their enthusiasm and years of industry experience into work to help our clients attract new business prospects”.

The cloud-based user interface platform requires simple API integration, weaving easily into any technology platform and workflow. Monty Mobile’s engineering team maintains over 300 server commands to manage billions of API requests and millions of user traffic.

In today's highly technological world, connecting with customers across multiple platforms is not only necessary but also one of the major driving forces for today's businesses. Monty Mobile’s Communication Platform is a technology designed to meet these requirements and maximize customer engagement, businesses in a variety of industries require cost-effective, simple, and intelligent solutions.

Headquartered in the UK with 11 international offices covering more than 120 countries, Monty Mobile strives to provide the best innovative technology by extending its portfolio towards a wide range of Fintech, Data Monetization, and Mobile Advertising solutions. The company has grown into a key regional player in the telecommunication business, supporting above 500 mobile operators and service providers around the world.

For more details, visit, https://montymobile.com/.

-Ends-

About Monty Mobile:

Monty Mobile is a global fast growing telecommunication company offering innovative technology and communication solutions. We provide cutting-edge digital products and services for mobile network operators, enterprises, and service providers across different industries. Our revolutionary conversational & communication platform, messaging, and network monetization platforms, facilitate the international flow of communication globally, allowing service providers to offer an optimal customer experience while boosting their revenues through a broad variety of in-house developed state-of-the-art products.

Wed, 12 Oct 2022 00:37:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.zawya.com/en/press-release/events-and-conferences/monty-mobile-releases-new-innovative-features-to-their-communication-platform-at-gitex-2022-ktr75zr4
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