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CIMA Fundamentals testing
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Doctor of Philosophy Programs

  • Doctor of Philosophy Program in Electrical Engineering (EE)
  • Doctor of Philosophy Program in Computer Engineering (CP)
Admission Requirements
Plan of Study
Program Duration
Transfer Credit
ECE Qualifier Exam
Candidacy Requirements
Academic Requirements


The primary goal of the Ph.D. in Electrical and Computer Engineering is to provide a research intensive program with the rigorous course work to strengthen the student's knowledge in the fundamentals of Electrical and Computer Engineering.  The programs include advanced graduate coursework in Electrical/Computer Engineering and allied subjects and research culminating in a doctoral dissertation.

A complete description of the doctoral programs are found in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Doctoral Student Handbook which is updated annually and available from the department office.

ADMISSIONAdmission Requirements

Applicants must have a BS or MS degree in Electrical Engineering or Computer Engineering or their equivalent from a recognized college or university with an acceptable quality of prior academic work. Applicants must submit official transcripts of all prior undergraduate and graduate courses. Each applicant must submit an official report of Graduate Record Examination (GRE) General Test scores. The TOEFL test is required for students from abroad whose native language is not English.

PLANPlan of Study

Each student entering the program must develop a plan of study in consultation with his/her advisor.

Visit the ECE Graduate Website.

Transfer Credit

  1. A student with a master’s degree in Electrical Engineering / Computer Engineering or a closely related field may apply to have all coursework and thesis for the master's degree up to a total of 30 credits. Please consult with your PhD advisor and Associate Chair responsible for the Doctoral Programs (PhD program coordinator) and fill out the required petition form (link given below) for course transfer requests. This form is to be submitted to the Associate Chair for the Doctoral Programs for approval.  (
  2. A student with graduate-level course work earned (but not completed a degree program and graduated) at an accredited US or Canadian university may apply for transfer of up to 24 semester credits in acceptable graduate engineering courses (with grade of B or better) towards the doctoral program, upon approval by the Associate Chair responsible from the Doctoral Programs (PhD program coordinator).
  3. Students may be required to make up prerequisites which they lack in comparison to the equivalent Engineering curriculum at the University of Massachusetts Lowell.
  4. Course transfers are initially handled by the Graduate Program Coordinator (Associate Chair for the Doctoral Program). Course transfer will follow the steps below:

                           i.           Student’s previous institution must send student’s official transcript to UML Registrar through an email ( The official transcript should only be send by the previous institution directly to UML’s Registrar.

                           ii.           Course Transfer petition form filled out completely and signed/dated (student to submit to the Associate Chair for the Doctoral Program),

                          iii.           Unofficial transcript from the past institution that you are trying to transfer credit from (student to submit to the Associate Chair for the Doctoral Program),

                          iv.           Information on the accreditation (ABET or similar) for your department/institution (student to submit to the Associate Chair for the Doctoral Program),

                           v.           Course description, credit and course number for each course being intended to transfer (student to submit to the Associate Chair for the Doctoral Program).

                          vi.           Associate Chair for the Doctoral Program) will evaluate and approve the courses that can be transferred, and will make a request to the Associate Dean to do a final evaluation and approval. Dean’s office requests registrar to complete the course transfer process.

Course transfers are not allowed for the BS to PhD program. In other words, students who are admitted into our PhD program student directly after completing their BS degrees cannot transfer any MS/PhD level technical elective courses they have taken as part of their BS degree pathway or for their minor. However, those courses may be transferred into the MS program, if student choses to do MS first. 

ECE DEPARTMENT ece-department-qualifier-examQUALIFIER EXAM

The Qualifier test (QE) consists of three parts: i) course requirement; ii) oral presentation on a selected topic; and iii) written documentation on the same topic. Please see details below.

Qualifier test Committee

The QE Committee consists of three ECE faculty. One member is the faculty advisor. An additional member is selected by the student and the advisor. The 3rd member will be assigned by the ECE Qualifier test Sub-Committee (QESC**) and can be from ECE or non-ECE Dept. Selection of a non-ECE member shall be made only with the approval of the student’s advisor.  If the student of a QESC member will be taking the exam, he/she must recuse themselves from the QESC for their student’s exam. To allow sufficient time for the QESC to add the 3rd member, the ECE Request for Approval of PhD Qualifying Examination Committee form must be submitted to the graduate program coordinator at least one month prior to the anticipated QE date. The Chair of the committee can be either the advisor/student selected committee member or the third member, at the committee's discretion. A fourth member can be added at the discretion of the advisor. 

** The QESC will be comprised of 7 members: 6 elected plus the Doctoral coordinator. Yearly elections will be held for the 6 members from the ECE Faculty. 

Qualifier test Course Requirements

The student must complete two graduate ECE courses in their primary research area and one additional graduate ECE core course by the term the QE is scheduled. One of the three required courses may be taken during the semester when the QE is administered. The student must receive an average GPA of at least 3.300 for these courses. 

Failure to do so will be considered a failed attempt.

Qualifier test Policies and Procedures:

• The purpose of the Qualifier test (QE) is to test the fundamental knowledge acquired by the student over prior coursework and assess the ability to apply this fundamental knowledge to approach research questions/problems.

• The student must take the qualifier test within the first 3 semesters of their entrance into the doctoral program. If taken in the Fall semester, the test must be administered by mid-November and by mid-April in the Spring semester. If the student fails, then an advisor-led appeal may be submitted to the QESC and if approved, must be scheduled for a date within the following semester of the failed attempt. If the appeal is not approved, then the student fails and is no longer in the PhD program.

If the appeal is granted, the QE committee remains the same for the second attempt. If the advisor changes between the first and second attempts (if appeal is approved), the two other committee members remain the same. If a student fails the second time (if appeal is granted) the student is no longer in the PhD program. 

If the student does not take the QE during the semester he/she is required to take it, this will be considered a failed attempt. Any extenuating circumstances may be brought up to the QESC by the advisor. 

Qualifier test Format: 


The test will be 90 minutes long. The student will be asked to deliver a short presentation (20-30 minutes) on a research syllabu chosen by the advisor and the student. This research syllabu should be submitted to the QESC within the first semester of the student’s entrance into the program to make sure that the student progress is on a timeline.  The presentation will be a literature survey of the particular syllabu based on latest (<5 years) high impact publications. It cannot be a conference paper submitted by the student AND it cannot have any author other than the student taking the exam.

The presentation will be followed by 15 minutes of questioning by each member, followed by a second round of final questions. The committee will ask questions: (a) directly about the research syllabu presented (as would be typical at a conference), and (b) in the general area of the research syllabu (to test the student's grasp of the problem area) and will be on fundamentals testing the student's ability to integrate the material learned in the courses they took, the ability to apply their knowledge to solve research problems; and these questions do not have to be associated with the presentation. The student will supply 3 undergraduate courses most aligned with their research syllabu they are presenting when they submit their QE registration form.

It is expected that the student answers the questions on their own without the assistance of the advisor. The advisor should not assist the student in preparation of the presentation and the paper (see below)


At least one week prior to the oral presentation, the student will provide a four-page two-column document, in the standard format for conferences in their area, to all committee members. This write-up will be a written version of the oral presentation. The student will also provide a copy of this document to the ECE Qual test Subcommittee. The quality of the written component is expected to be ready for submission and should be clear, well organized, and free of spelling and grammar errors. The advisor should not assist the student in preparation of the paper –it should be independent work. The paper cannot be a conference paper or journal publication the student has prepared and there should only be ONE author ( the student who is taking the qualifying exam).

iii. RESULTS: 

When the committee is finished asking questions, the committee members will meet in closed session to discuss and vote on whether the student passed the oral exam. During the exam, there will be a form filled out by the committee members which will be used to discuss the results of the exam. The student is considered to have passed the oral test with a unanimous vote from the committee.  

If the decision is not unanimous, then the following procedure will be followed:

i. The person or persons who do not agree with the decision to pass the student will write a detailed reason for why they believe they do not agree and present to the QE Subcommittee. The QESC will then make a decision.
ii. If a unanimous vote is not obtained as a result of the QESC decision, and the student is deemed to fail the exam, then advisor can appeal for a second chance as written above. 

CANDIDACYCandidacy Requirements

  1. Thesis Proposal and Oral test - Having passed the qualifying examination, a student may submit his/her dissertation proposal and defend the proposal before the Doctoral Committee (minimum of 3 members, including the Thesis Advisor). The proposal examination will also include an oral examination on courses connected with the student’s area of research. It is highly recommended that there is a minimum of 6 months between the proposal defense and the PhD final defense. On passing this examination, the student’s name will be submitted to the College Doctoral Committee and the Registrar's Office for acceptance as a candidate for the Doctor of Philosophy Degree. Admission to candidacy status does not certain the obtaining of the degree.
  2. Final Defense of Dissertation  - This is the final oral examination, conducted by the Doctoral Committee. The membership of the committee may be augmented by non-voting faculty. The candidate has to submit a written Dissertation based on the research during the period of the Ph.D. degree. After receiving the approval of the advisor and the Doctoral Committee, the final oral examination shall be conducted. In order to pass, the candidate may not receive more than one dissenting vote from the membership of the examination committee.

At least two weeks (14 days) prior to the date of the presentation of the dissertation proposal AND the final defense, an announcement document must be submitted to the Associate Chair for the Doctoral Program and the Associate Dean of Graduate Studies in the College of Engineering. After the committee members and the posting is approved by the Associate Dean for Graduate studies, posting will be forwarded to the UML News by the Dean’s Office. The template for posting thesis and dissertation announcement can be found at defense announcement template.

The dissertation proposal is open to the public. The proposal will outline the motivation for the research, deliver a summary of the related past work in the area and present the scope of the proposed dissertation research. The proposal should clearly articulate the proposed contribution of the student to the knowledge base and how it differs from the past work. The examinee will be expected to answer questions from the audience to demonstrate his/her understanding of the proposed research, as well as his/her proficiency in the general research field related to the dissertation proposal. The dissertation committee may require the candidate to retake the proposal defense after additional work.

The final defense entails a PhD student defending their doctoral dissertation and is expected to utilize the same committee that was put together by the advisor for the dissertation proposal defense. Any changes to the committee must be approved by the Associate Chair for the Doctoral Program. Upon a successful presentation and submission of a high quality doctoral dissertation students will become eligible to graduate if they have completed all of the required credits (course, dissertation and seminar credits). Student must file a Declaration of Intent to Graduate Form (pdf) (aka DIG form) with the Registrar's Office. Deadlines can be found on the University’s Academic Calendar. The Registrar's Office will verify course credit, grade and GPA requirements, and submission of dissertation prior to the awarding the degree.

 Academic Requirements

1. Credit Requirement

The Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) degree requires completion of a minimum of 63 semester hours of academic credit beyond the Bachelor of Science degree. A typical program consists of the following:

  • A minimum of 30 approved credit hours of graduate-level engineering courses (10 courses), including associated science and math courses.
  • A minimum of 21 credit hours of doctoral dissertation.
  • The balance of the remaining 12 credits can be a mix of graduate-level engineering courses including associated science and math coursework and dissertation credits at the discretion of the department, faculty advisor and dissertation committee.

2. Core Requirement

The core courses are beginning graduate courses. They emphasize the fundamentals, concepts, and analytical techniques relevant to Electrical/Computer Engineering. They also help the student prepare for the qualifying examination.

Required Core Courses for Ph.D. degree in Electrical Engineering: (choose three courses)

Students in Electrical Engineering must take three courses of the above courses.

Required Core Courses for Ph.D. degree in Computer Engineering: 

3. Grade-Point Average (GPA) Requirement

To successfully complete the program, a student must achieve a cumulative grade-point average (GPA) of at least 3.25 in all course work.

Sat, 23 Jan 2016 11:00:00 -0600 en text/html
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Art 236 Digital Photography (3)

An introduction to digital photography. A fine arts approach to the use of the digital
camera, including its potential for creating art, and methods for adjusting and enhancing
images on the computer. (Satisfies Visual & Performing Arts Requirement)

Art 342 Art and Psychology (3)

This course is offered in the Art and Psychology departments for those students who are interested in the synergy between art and psychology. It satisfies the CORE 21 Participatory Art requirement. It is especially relevant for students with majors in art or psychology or both who are interested in an MFT/ATR (registered art therapist) graduate program. For all others, the course provides an overview of art history, design, production and aesthetics with an emphasis on psychological theories and current neuroscience research. Child development and family systems are addressed in relation to therapeutic uses of art. Visual thinking and creativity are explored and utilized in the production of self-expressive art works. (Cross-listed with PSYC 342, Satisfies Visual & Performing Arts Requirement)


BUS 251 Principles of Accounting (4)

An introduction to the basic assumptions that underlie modern accounting: the principles, procedures and methods applied in the preparation of financial statements.

BUS 252 Managerial Accounting (4)

An examination of how accounting data is used, communicated and interpreted for internal use. Emphasis is placed on planning, control and decision making, particularly in a manufacturing setting. This course will include instruction in and application of computer spreadsheet programs. The student will be required to use word-processing and spreadsheet programs for work submitted during this course. In addition, an introduction to and use of Internet research resources are included in the course syllabus. Prerequisite: BUS 251

BUS 253 Accounting and Financial Information in Business Organization (4)

This course is designed for non-business majors who are not required to take Principles of Accounting or Managerial Accounting. The intent of the course is to provide students with sufficient background in accounting and finance to allow them to function more effectively in their chosen careers. To that end, the course will cover the basics of financial accounting and managerial accounting, with some additional material typically covered in finance and economics courses.

BUS 257 Practicum in Accounting (2)

Basic principles of accounting will be presented as a review for a solid foundation in GAAP and accounting. The course will include theory, as well as the completion of hands on financial statements using Excel and other software.

BUS 301 Communication for Managers (4)

The study of business communication methods with emphasis on planning organizing, preparing and presenting major reports. Significant use of computer skills will be included as well as design and structure of communication materials for the highest level of impact. (Satisfies Speaking Intensive Requirement)

BUS 352A Intermediate Accounting (4)

Includes detailed coverage of accounting theory and practice as applied to the corporate form of business. courses include income statement, earnings per share, income tax allocation, compound interest, revenue recognition, price-level accounting, an introduction to fund accounting and a thorough treatment of balance sheet accounts. Prerequisite: BUS 251

BUS 352B Intermediate Accounting II (4)

Includes detailed coverage of accounting theory and practice as applied to the corporate form of business. courses include income statement, earnings per share, income tax allocation, compound interest, revenue recognition, price-level accounting, an introduction to fund accounting and a thorough treatment of balance sheet accounts. Prerequisite: BUS 352A

BUS 354 Theology and Business Ethics (4)

This course applies ethical theory to business decisions within the context of theological reflection. With a strategic focus, the course will investigate the relationship between theological ethics and the economic concerns of managers. The course is particularly designed to help students become effective ethical agents by developing the skills to apply ethical principle to strategic business decisions. (Cross-listed with RLTH 354, Satisfies Religion Requirement)

BUS 367 Behavior in Organizations (4)

An introduction to the methods and findings of the behavioral sciences on the persisting human problems of organizations. Attention is given to the roles of individual attributes, group dynamics and organizational structure in determining levels of performance at work. Prerequisite: Junior standing

BUS 368 Human Resource Management (4)

(Formerly BUS 361) A study of the use of the human resources within the organization. Includes recruiting, selecting and training employees, wage administration and union relations. Focus is on government regulation of employment practices, including equal opportunity employment and affirmative action. Prerequisite: BUS 367

BUS 374 Business Law (4)

The study of law as it relates to Business. courses include contracts, agencies, commercial paper, personal property, sales, real property and insurance.

BUS 375 Principles of Marketing (4)

The study of marketing methods and practices. courses include policies and problems related to consumers, pricing, advertising, management information systems and distribution and management of the marketing function. (Cross-listed with COMM 375)

BUS 381 Information, Systems, and Organizational Design (4)

This course investigates the nature and uses of various types of information systems in business organizations, including decision support systems, expert systems, executive and management information systems, and communication systems. Examines the relationships between information system use and business strategy and the applications of information systems in the development of competitive advantage. Surveys the major components of business information systems (hardware, networks, data and applications) and investigates the interrelationships between information, systems, organizational structure, processes and strategy.

BUS 391 Principles of Finance (4)

Introduces students to the field of finance through an applied conceptual framework using problem sets and computer software to analyze various financial dilemmas. courses include security valuation, risk analysis, working capital management, financial budgeting and planning, time value of money concepts, financial ratio analysis and capital budgeting. Prerequisites: BUS 252; MATH 145 or equivalent

BUS 429 Executive Roundtable (4)

This course is designed to provide students with an appreciation of how management and finance theory are integrated into the strategies of the modern corporation. Each week, a different company executive provides a real-world perspective on how decisions are made and strategies are implemented in the modern corporation.

BUS 446 Theories and Practice of Leadership (4)

Examines leadership from theoretical, historical and practical perspectives. Includes courses of trait, behavioral and contingency theories; the influence process; management vs. leadership, leadership and followership. Survey of leadership theory and research; characteristics of leaders, theories of leadership origins and psychological and social correlates. Interaction of personal and organizational factors in determining leadership effectiveness.

BUS 448 Organization Development (4)

The study of planned change in organizations including diagnosis of the organization and implementation of Organizational Development interventions. Emphasis on teamwork in organizations and survey development. Prerequisite: Senior standing

BUS 449 Managerial Leadership: Core Competencies and Skills (4) (Capstone)

Focuses on the development of the core competencies and skills needed for effective managerial leadership at all levels of the organization. Each skill component will follow a five-step developmental pedagogy: (1) Assessment, (2) Learning, (3) Analysis, (4) Practice and (5) Application. Prerequisite: Senior standing (Satisfies Writing Intensive Requirement)

BUS 451 Cost Accounting (4) 

Advanced study of the procedures used to determine costs for manufacturing operations. Includes process and differential costing, overhead allocation, profit-volume analysis, joint products and by-products and responsibility accounting. Emphasis is placed on making informed business decisions based on quantifiable data. Prerequisites: BUS 252; Junior standing

BUS 452 Tax I (4)

A study of current federal tax laws and issues as they pertain to the individual taxpayer. Cases are used to provide practical experience in implementation of tax law interpretations; emphasis is placed on the evolution of the philosophy that drives development of the federal tax code. Prerequisite: BUS 251

BUS 453 Auditing (4)

Covers the legal responsibilities, theory and procedures in the conduct of an audit and the making of an audit report. Prerequisite: BUS 352B

BUS 454 Advanced Accounting (4)

Accounting for business combinations and the preparation of consolidated financial statements. Also includes accounting for partnerships, consignments, foreign currency translation, fund accounting and international accounting. Prerequisite: BUS 352B

BUS 460 Leadership Development (Capstone) (4)

Focuses on developing and identifying the contributors to and need for individual leadership competencies. Provides an overview of specific leadership development instruments, psychological contributors to leadership effectiveness, and introspective evaluation of current leadership application. Prerequisite: Senior standing

BUS 462 Tax II (4)

A study of tax laws and issues pertaining to business entities such as partnerships, C-corporations and S-corporations. Focuses on the taxation of estates and trusts and expands the study of personal taxation introduced in Tax I. Prerequisite: BUS 452

BUS 469 Strategic Management (Capstone) (4) 

Complex business cases integrating the fields of marketing, finance, law, accounting, economics and industrial management provide a realistic view of how general managers deal with conceptual business problems. Cases include analysis of strategic, interpersonal business problems. Prerequisites: Senior standing; BUS 391 (Satisfies Writing Intensive Requirement)

BUS 476 International Business Behavior (4)

A review of current organizational development approaches developed in the United States for possible international application. Cultural influences fostering or hindering the development of effective humanistic organizations are explored.

BUS 482 Accounting Ethics (4)

This course will be an immersive and interactive look into the ethical standards of the accounting profession with emphasis on contemporary issues confronting accountants and auditors including their social and ethical responsibilities. Students planning to sit for the CPA test should take this course.

BUS 484 Senior Seminar in Accounting (Capstone) (4) 

In this rigorous course, the emphasis will be on the application of GAAP and OCBOA rules and regulations in the preparation of financial statements using a variety of software application. There will be numerous situations where students will use their analytical skills and prepare written documents used by CPAs and accountants. Prerequisites: BUS 453, BUS 454 (Satisfies Writing Intensive Requirement)


COMM 101 Introduction to Mass Communication (4)

A preliminary study of communication theory with particular emphasis on mediated communication, including Internet, television, radio, film and print. (Satisfies Speaking Intensive Requirement)

COMM 231 Writing for the Mass Media (4)

Instruction and practice in reporting varied news stories for print and electronic media; a writing-intensive introduction to reporting; techniques of interviewing news sources; story structure, consistent/concise editing style with clarity and speed; and writing with accuracy and fairness. Prerequisite: ENGL 111

COMM 300 Research Methods (4)

This course is designed to introduce research methods used in the field of communication and in social science in general. It examines how research is planned & designed, explores both quantative & qualitative methods, introduces students to processes of data collection & analysis, & gives them experience in conduction original research. (Satisfies Social Sciences Requirement)

COMM 301 Persuasive Communication Campaigns (4)

A study of the principles of persuasive communication including an analysis of factors influencing persuasion in platform address, advertising argumentation, interpersonal and mediated communication including historical developments in theories applicable to the field and techniques adapted to the Internet. Students learn techniques of planning, implementation and evaluation of commercial, political and social/public service campaigns.

COMM 306 Business and Professional Communication (4)

A study of the principles involved in communicating in a professional environment. Includes techniques of interviewing, small-group communication, role playing and exercises designed to Boost communication skills. Students have several opportunities for practical application of oral communication principles in simulated settings. (Satisfies Speaking Intensive Requirement)

COMM 308 Politics in Cinema (4)

Explores the political nature of cinema and the ways in which political culture, issues and themes are expressed in and through cinema. Particular emphasis is placed on American political culture and practices. (Satisfies Social Sciences Requirement)

COMM 375 Principles of Marketing (4)

The study of marketing methods and practices. courses include policies and problems related to consumers, pricing, advertising, management information systems and distribution and management of the marketing function. (Cross-listed with BUS 375)

COMM 401 Communication Theories (Capstone) (4)

An advanced study of communication theories based on professional literature. Theories are drawn from a variety of disciplines, including psychology, sociology, linguistics and anthropology, which allow the student to study communication phenomena from a variety of competing and complementary perspectives. Students also study the scientific method and the relationship between theory and research. Course assignments include completion of a major research paper and presentation of portfolio project. (Satisfies Social Sciences & Writing Intensive Requirements)

COMM 402 Film Theory (4)

An advanced study of film theory based on professional literature. The course teaches students to analyze and understand cinema in terms of classical film theories as well as structuralism, semiotics, narrative theory, cognitive theory, feminism, postmodernism and queer theory, among others. Course assignments include completion of a major research paper. (Satisfies Diversity & Writing Intensive Requirements)

COMM 405 Freedom of Communication (4)

A study of the limits placed on freedom of expression in the United States. Through examining leading U.S. court decisions and relevant statutes, students will learn the broad principles and legal reasoning underlying First Amendment jurisprudence, including the legal, philosophical and political issues entailed in the rights of free expression. Students will then examine how these principles have been applied to the regulation of the various communication industries including the print media, broadcasting and cable television.

COMM 490 Independent Study (1-4)

This course is used to evaluate a senior project if an appropriate internship is unavailable.


Computer Science

CSC 110 Concepts of Programming (4)

Introduction of logic concepts in programming. Breadth approach to essential elements of computer programming. Text based operating systems such as DOS will be discussed. courses covered are problem solving concepts, computer systems, disk operating systems, computer programming languages, programming fundamentals, testing and debugging, conditions and branching, loops, flowcharts, compound statements, non-compound statements, top-down program design.

CSC 210 Introduction to Computer Programming (4)

First-semester computer programming course. This course introduces the principles of computer science, problem-solving methods and algorithm development using a high-level language. This is a programming class primarily for computer science, computer information systems, mathematics, and science majors. The ability to use a computer is essential. Prerequisites: CSC 110; MATH 110 or equivalent

CSC 220 Advanced Computer Programming (4)

A second-semester computer programming course. This course takes a state-of-the-art approach to software design/development with object-oriented techniques. courses include algorithm analysis, string processing, internal search/sort methods, complex data structures, design strategies, and code reusability. Prerequisite: CSC 210

CSC 300 Visual Programming (4)

Advanced programming course which focuses on the design of visual user-interface in the Windows environment. courses include basic forms, simple structures, variables, control mechanism, types and expressions, complex data structure, looping, functions, procedures, selections, multiple forms, files and arrays. Prerequisite: CSC 210

CSC 310 Algorithms (4)

Continues the study of the design and analysis of algorithms, particularly those handling complex data structures and non-numeric processes. Includes an introduction to algorithm design techniques, algorithm verification and the impact of parallel computation on algorithms, operating systems and architectures. A brief introduction is given to artificial intelligence focusing on data representation and heuristic search methods. Prerequisites: CSC 210, MATH 241

CSC 315 Object Oriented Design and Analysis (4)

Discusses the features and advantages of an object-oriented approach to problem solving. courses include abstraction, inheritance, polymorphism, object-oriented design, analysis, implementation and testing. Prerequisite: CSC 210

CSC 321 Computer Organization and Architecture (4)

Principles of computer organization and architecture are introduced from a layered point of view, beginning at data representation and progressing through the machine language execution cycle. Representative software-hardware tradeoffs in the implementation of various computer system components will be presented. The design and interface to a variety of peripheral devices will also be discussed. The emphasis will be on the hardware aspects of a computer system. Prerequisites: CSC 210, MATH 241

CSC 322 Introduction to Robotics (4)

An introductory study of the field of robotics-devices designed and programmed to perform various tasks. courses include; hardware design (mechanical and electronic); software design; power subsystems; sensors; actuators; effectors; applications; comparison to biological systems; safety; societal impact and ethics. Student will study theory (lecture component) and build/program a robot (laboratory component). Prerequisite: MATH 151 or instructor permission (Satisfies Natural Sciences Requirement)

CSC 331 Systems Analysis (4)

This is the first course in system engineering that stresses the system development life cycle. Students learn ways of organizing the structure and process of building very large-scale systems that may or may not involve computers. Includes information gathering, design tradeoffs, implementation strategies, product liability, acceptable risk analysis and project follow-up. Prerequisites: CSC 210, MATH 241 (Satisfies Writing Intensive Requirement)

CSC 335 Software Engineering (4)

Presents a formal approach to state-of-the-art techniques for software design and development, involving students in a team approach to organizing, managing and developing software. Prerequisites: CSC 210, MATH 241 (Satisfies Writing Intensive Requirement)

CSC 340 Operating Systems (4)

Discusses the major functionality and principles behind all major operating systems tasks, including user interface, hardware sharing among users, data sharing among processes, user protections, resources scheduling among users, multi-user environment, multi-processing and real-time systems. Prerequisites: CSC 210, MATH 241

CSC 350 Introduction to Data Communications and Networks (4)

Includes discussion of distributed data processing, communication techniques, wide-area and local-area networks, integrated services digital network, open-systems interconnection, security and network management. Prerequisites: CSC 210, MATH 241

CSC 360 Computer System Security (4)

An introduction of security issues in computer system and data communications, including Data Encryption Standard, public-key systems, digital signatures, ciphers, data compression, data manipulation and supporting techniques. Prerequisites: CSC 210, MATH 241

CSC 370 Multimedia Technology (4)

Introduces modern multimedia technologies. courses include basic concepts, principles, sound, image, animation, standards, hardware and software requirements, new technologies, current research and practice, and future directions. Prerequisites: CSC 210, MATH 151 or equivalent

CSC 400 Graphical User Interface (4)

An introductory course to user interface design fundamentals. courses include development methodologies, evaluation techniques, user-interface building tools, considerations in the design phase, identification of applicable design rules, and successful delivery of the design. Prerequisite: CSC 210

CSC 410 Database Management Systems (4)

Studies the concepts and structures necessary to design and operate a database management system. courses include data modeling, relational database design, and database querying. Prerequisites: CSC 210, MATH 241

CSC 499 Senior Capstone Project (4)

Undergraduate research or development project. The exact nature of the project is negotiated with the sponsoring professor. Prerequisite: See Advisor (Satisfies Writing Intensive Requirement)


Criminology & Criminal Justice

CRIM 101 Introduction to Criminal Justice (4)

Introduces the student to the fundamental concepts, institutions, and formal and informal structures of American criminal justice. Includes a description and analysis of standard measures of criminal justice activity, crime reduction strategies and contemporary suggestions for improving criminal justice. (Satisfies the Social Sciences Requirement)

CRIM 276 Criminal and Procedural Law (4)

A study of the concepts of criminal and procedural law as a social force; the historical development of law and constitutional provisions, legal definitions, classification of crime, case law and methodology of the study of law. (Satisfies the Social Sciences Requirement)

CRIM 320 Critical Issues in Policing (4)

Examines the social, legal and political issues affecting policing in a democratic society, including police accountability, responsibility, community policing, individual and organizational deviance, civil liability and the role of technology. Students analyze contemporary research as related to the police role. Prerequisite: CRIM 101

CRIM 330 Contemporary Corrections (4)

Examines current correctional practices (diversion, community supervision, institutionalization and special problems confronting correctional efforts) in light of historical, philosophical and social developments. Prerequisites: CRIM 101 and sophomore standing

CRIM 335 Criminology (4)

The analysis of the nature, causes and distribution of crime, with an emphasis on the relationship between theoretical explanations of crime and contemporary social responses. Contemporary research supporting crime control/prevention efforts is examined. Prerequisite: CRIM 101 (Satisfies the Writing Intensive Requirement)

CRIM 340 Violence & Victimization (4)

Victimology addresses the sources of violence, the relationships between victims and offenders, the interactions between victims and the criminal justice system, and the social, legal and institutional responses to violence and victimization. There is specific focus on the victims of violent crimes such as spousal abuse, workplace violence, predatory crime, and terrorism. Prerequisite: junior standing

CRIM 341 Criminal Psychology (4)

Students examine theory, research, law and case studies to gain an understanding of the behavior of violent offenders. Research into biological, psychological and social causes is examined and evaluated. Additional courses include the role of the forensic psychologist, the science of profiling and the definitions and use of the insanity defense. Prerequisites: CRIM 101 and junior standing

CRIM 410 Substance Abuse (4)

An overview of drug use in a historical and social context, primarily in the United States. The course covers alcohol and other controlled substances, paying particular attention to the implications of past and current drug use practices and policies for criminal justice agencies. Prerequisites: CRIM 101 and junior standing

CRIM 412 Methods of Research and Statistics (4)

The study of the major methods of research used in social inquiry. Emphasis is on the use of social surveys, qualitative interviews, data analysis and interpretation. The students will also make use of the computer by applying statistical software to data entry and analysis, finding patterns in the data, testing hypotheses and presenting findings using tables and graphs. Prerequisites: CRIM 101 and junior standing

CRIM 430 Gender, Race, Ethnicity, and Crime (4)

This course critically examines the impact of gender, race, ethnicity and class on crime and how the criminal justice system operates within these contexts. Also examines the impact of perception, stigmatization, theory, law and social policy on minorities and women as offenders, victims, and practitioners. (Satisfies the Diversity Requirement)

CRIM 460 Senior Seminar: Criminal Justice Philosophy and Practice (4)

A social, political, legal and philosophical examination of contemporary criminal justice policy. Includes analysis of ethical issues confronting the police, courts and corrections and their impact on criminal justice practitioners, clients and the public. Prerequisites: senior standing and completion of all required major courses

CRIM 492 Internship (2-4)

Criminal justice majors are required to complete an internship in a criminal justice agency or related area. (Graded P/NC only).



ECON 200 Introduction to Microeconomics (3)

The study of principles of economics on the firm level, including resource pricing and allocation, market structures, supply and demand. (Satisfies Social Sciences Requirement)

ECON 201 Introduction to Macroeconomics (3)

The study of principles of economics on the national level, including the role of government and Business, national income, employment, and monetary and fiscal policy. (Satisfies Social Sciences Requirement)

ECON 311 Statistical Methods (4)

The basic methods in analysis of central tendency, dispersion and probability distributions. Prerequisite: MATH 145 or equivalent


ENGL 111 Critical memorizing and Writing (3)

English 111 offers continued practice with college-level reading, writing, and critical thinking practices and beyond, with individual sections organized around themes or topics. Instruction emphasizes writing as a process of drafting, peer review, and revision. Writing assignments emphasize the synthesis and analysis sources, and the development of original arguments. latest English 111 course courses include the Vietnam War in Literature, Deviance in Literature, and Writing in (Urban) Space. English 111 is a prerequisite for all other English courses and a requirement for graduation, therefore it should be taken during the first year of enrollment. (Satisfies Written Communication Requirement)

ENGL 350 Studies in African-American Literature (4)

With an emphasis on literary works by African-American writers, this course explores race in the American context. Each semester offers a different focus based on culture, genre, or theme. For example: Race and Ethnicity in the 19th Century, Modernism and the Harlem Renaissance, or Representations of Race in African-American Literature. Prerequisite: ENGL 111 (Satisfies Diversity & Humanities Requirements)


MATH 110 Intermediate Algebra (4)

This course covers equations and inequalities, polynomials, rational and radical expressions, exponents, graphing linear equations and inequalities, linear systems, exponential and logarithmic functions, and places extensive emphasis on word problems. Prerequisite: Math placement test or elementary algebra

MATH 115 Finite Mathematics (4)

This course studies mathematics and models in the social sciences including logic, sets, families of functions, and an introduction to descriptive and inferential statistics. Recommended for social science majors. Prerequisite: Math 110 or SAT 500 or above (Satisfies Mathematical Reasoning Requirement)

MATH 145 Business Mathematics (4)

This course studies the elementary models of mathematics in business settings including the use of functions to model concepts such as revenue and profit, as well as interest and annuities. Additional courses include linear regression, decision trees, and an introduction to probability and statistics. Recommended for Business majors. Prerequisite: MATH 110 or SAT 500 or above (Satisfies Mathematical Reasoning Requirement)

MATH 151 Precalculus (4)

This course studies real numbers, equations, inequalities and polynomial, rational, exponential, logarithmic and trigonometric functions. Prerequisite: MATH 110 or SAT 510 or above (Satisfies Mathematical Reasoning Requirement)

MATH 241 Discrete Mathematics (4)

Topics include set theory, number systems, the nature of proofs, recursion, algorithms, graph theory and problem solving. This course is required for computer science and computer information systems majors. Prerequisite: MATH 151 or SAT 600 or above (Satisfies Mathematical Reasoning Requirement)

MATH 245 Applied Calculus (4)

This course examines methods of mathematics used in business and economics, with a focus on problem solving and applications. It includes the ideas of differential calculus, including applications to marginal analysis (cost, revenue, profit), the elasticity of demand, and optimization. Concepts of integration up through substitution are included. Optimization is further examined through systems of linear equations and matrices, linear programming and a brief introduction to game theory. Required for Business Majors. Prerequisite: MATH 145 or SAT 600 or above (Satisfies Mathematical Reasoning Requirement)


MUS 101 Music and Culture (3)

A music appreciation course designed to cultivate perceptive listening of the music of all stylistic periods with emphasis on the role of music within its cultural history. (Satisfies Visual & Performing Arts Requirement)


PHIL 315 Social Ethics (4)

The analysis of contemporary social issues such as abortion, capital punishment, affirmative action, multiculturalism, the environment, euthanasia and world hunger from a moral and philosophical perspective. (Satisfies Humanities Requirement)

PHIL 350 Technology and Value (4)

A study of moral issues raised by the latest development of technology, including those related to computers, genetic engineering and the environment. The course examines how current technological achievements profoundly change our social, cultural and moral life, and how they create moral dilemmas in our society at the same time. (Satisfies Humanities Requirement)


PHYS 100 Introduction to Astronomy (3)

An introduction to the solar and stellar objects in our visible universe.

PHYS 100L Astronomy Laboratory (1)

Includes identification of constellations and planets, use of telescopes, analysis of astronomical data and field trips. Laboratory, 2 hours/week. Prerequisite or corequisite: PHYS 100 (PHYS 100 & 100L satisfies the Natural Sciences Requirement)


PSYC 200 General Psychology (4)

Covers the concepts and principles pertinent to psychological processes as social behavior, development, perception, thinking and symbolic processes, physiology, personality and psychological disorders. Introduces students to the empirical foundation of the discipline of psychology. Prerequisite to all courses in Psychology except PSYC 215 & 342 (Satisfies the Social Sciences Requirement)

PSYC 215 The Psychology of Sex and Gender (4)

An exploration of research and issues surrounding gender from a psychosocial perspective, with an emphasis on the interaction between biological and social theories.  The implications of social roles, status, and gender-related traits on relationships and health that are central to students' daily lives are emphasized throughout.  Methodological flaws that may impact the observance of sex differences are also examined. (Satisfies the Diversity & Social Sciences Requirements)

PSYC 222 Abnormal Psychology (4)

A survey and critique of traditional diagnostic categories of mental illness, plus an introduction to treatment approaches based on psychoanalytic, behavioral and humanistic models. Prerequisite: PSYC 200 (Satisfies the Social Sciences Requirement)

PSYC 304 Child and Adolescent Development (4)

Study of theories and principles pertaining to the developmental characteristics of children and adolescents in terms of the physical, mental, emotional and social development of the individual. Meets the gender/ethnic studies requirement. Prerequisite: PSYC 200 (Satisfies the Diversity & Social Sciences Requirement)

PSYC 312 Research Design and Statistics I (4)

Research Design and Statistics I is the first of a two course sequence in Psychology designed to prepare undergraduate psychology majors to develop the knowledge and skills needed to design, implement and analyze psychological research. Students will develop knowledge about ethical issues related to psychological research. Students will develop skill in critical memorizing and analyzing peer reviewed published research. This course will also introduce students to a variety of research designs and statistical analyses including qualitative, descriptive and correlation methodologies. Prerequisites: PSYC 200, MATH 115 or equivalent

PSYC 313 Research Design and Statistics II (4)

Research Design and Statistics II is the second course in a two course sequence designed to assist undergraduate psychology majors in developing the knowledge and skills needed to design, implement and analyze psychological research. Building on the skills learned in PSYC 312, students will continue to develop knowledge about psychological research with a focus on experimental designs, quasi-experimental designs and inferential statistics. Students are required to design and implement an original research project using an experimental design. This course is a writing intensive course. Prerequisite: PSYC 312 (Satisfies the Writing Intensive Requirement)

PSYC 315 Principles of Learning & Memory (4)

An overview of the major principles of learning and memory. Includes Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning as well as verbal learning and memory. Includes an examination of topical issues and areas of research in learning theory. Prerequisite: PSYC 200 (Satisfies the Social Sciences Requirement)

PSYC 325 Theories of Personality (4)

The analysis of the theories of personality in terms of structure, dynamics and development. Biological, social and cultural determination of personality are considered, as well as characteristic research and research methods. Prerequisite: PSYC 200 (Satisfies the Social Sciences Requirement)

PSYC 331 Physiological Psychology (4)

Studies the physiological aspects of human behavior, with special emphasis on neurological structure and functions as related to sensation, psychopathology, and other psychological processes. Prerequisite: PSYC 200

PSYC 340 History and Systems of Psychology (4)

An overview of the historical foundations of contemporary psychology, including an examination of major systems of thought and theoretical applications of each in the areas of sensation, perception, learning, motivation, emotion, personality and social behavior. Prerequisite: PSYC 200 (Satisfies the Social Sciences Requirement)

PSYC 342 Art and Psychology (3)

This course is offered in the Art and Psychology departments for those students who are interested in the synergy between art and psychology. It satisfies the CORE 21 Participatory Art requirement. It is especially relevant for students with majors in art or psychology or both who are interested in an MFT/ATR (registered art therapist) graduate program. For all others, the course provides an overview of art history, design, production and aesthetics with an emphasis on psychological theories and current neuroscience research. Child development and family systems are addressed in relation to therapeutic uses of art. Visual thinking and creativity are explored and utilized in the production of self-expressive art works. (Cross-listed with ART 342, Satisfies the Visual & Performing Arts Requirement)

PSYC 401 Social Psychology (4)

Studies the influence of personal, group and social systems on individual attitudes and behavior. Includes socialization, social perception, attraction, aggression, prejudice, conformity, altruism and related topics, as well as the discussion of theories, methods and contemporary research. Prerequisite: PSYC 200

PSYC 416 Human Behavior: Principles & Application (4)

Covers the basic principles and procedures of behavior modification and learning theory as they apply to areas such as child and classroom management, behavioral self-change projects, medical psychology, developmental disabilities and mental health settings. Students read current literature in behavior analysis related to the etiology and treatment of addictive behavior disorders, health psychology, anxiety disorders and behavioral disorders. Prerequisite: PSYC 200

PSYC 435 Counseling and Psychotherapy: Theory and Practice (Capstone) (4)

An introduction to the theories, problems and techniques of counseling and therapy. Prerequisites: PSYC 222, PSYC 325 (Satisfies the Social Sciences Requirement)


RLTH 300 Religion, Identity, and Vocation (4)

This course introduces the study of religion. It pursues questions concerning the history, meaning and interpretation of religious texts and action, and the broader contexts in which religion evolves. In addition to selective focus on the Christian tradition, this course considers core values of Lutheran higher education such as pluralism, interfaith cooperation and sustainability. Additional religious traditions may be included. (Satisfies the Humanities, Religion, & Speaking Intensive Requirements)

RLTH 334 The American Religious Experience (4)

The course traces the historical role(s) of religion in the United States of America from Native American religious traditions, through the dominance of Christianity in its multiple expressions, to the modern-day reality of pluralism. Themes include but are not limited to the relationship between religion and politics; the importance of the U.S. as a land of (religious) opportunity; religion and money; pluralism as a religious idea and/or challenge; and social frameworks such as class, sports, gender and sexuality. (Satisfies the Diversity, Humanities, & Religion Requirements)

RLTH 350 Contemporary Christian Ethics (4)

An introduction to contemporary Christian ethics; its relationship to the Bible and Christian communities; and thinking on such important personal and social issues as sexual behavior, human reproduction, racial and ethnic relations, the taking of human life, poverty and economic issues, and the environment. (Satisfies the Humanities & Religion Requirements)

RLTH 354 Theology and Business Ethics (4)

This course applies ethical theory to business decisions within the context of theological reflection. With a strategic focus, the course will investigate the relationship between theological ethics and the economic concerns of managers. The course is particularly designed to help students become effective ethical agents by developing the skills to apply ethical principle to strategic business decisions. (Cross-listed with BUS 354, Satisfies the Humanities & Religion Requirements)

RLTH 384 Religion and Ecological Ethics (4)

Religion and ecological ethics is the challenging work of 1) gaining clarity about our positions, attitudes, and assumptions with respect to "the environment" by drawing from the disciplines of both religious and philosophical ethics; 2) developing rigorous ways to think about complex issues such as climate change, environmental injustice, ethical treatment of animals, farming and food justice, and others; and 3) outlining practical approaches to local/global issues and short/long term actions. It also demands that we think carefully about how our conceptions of "nature," "environment," "wilderness," etc. shape our attitudes and practices. (Satisfies the Humanities & Religion Requirements)

Tue, 15 Aug 2023 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Fundamentals of cyber security - AQA test questions - AQA No result found, try new keyword!Which piece of software is not malware? A form of software testing used to simulate an external hacking attempt A form of software testing used to simulate an internal hacking attempt A form of ... Thu, 16 Mar 2023 07:02:00 -0500 en-GB text/html Killexams : Oil Price Forecast: Crude Catches Resistance Near Six-Year-Highs

WTI Crude Oil Talking Points:

  • The bullish trend has continued in Oil, with prices jumping up to a key zone of resistance.
  • So far that resistance has held but bullish momentum has been impressive, might buyers have enough left in the tank to take out this key zone?
  • The analysis contained in article relies on price action and chart formations. To learn more about price action or chart patterns, check out our DailyFX Education section.

While many commodities have been heavily on offer of recent, the bullish trend in crude oil has continued and prices are threatening to break out to a fresh six-year-high. But, to put this in context, we are now seeing crude oil prices testing a big batch of resistance on the chart that may carry some bigger-picture implications.

I had looked into the potential for a breakout in Oil in late May, and then again last month as it appeared that a bigger breakout may be afoot.

At this point, oil prices have run into a big area of resistance, taken from a confluent area on the chart with quite a bit going on. First, we have the psychological level at $75, after which we’re looking at the 61.8% Fibonacci retracement of the 2001-2008 major move. Just beyond that is the six-year-high, which on the CL2 chart below is plotted at 76.72.

Collectively, this confluent spot offers a zone of resistance that’s represented in the below chart with a blue box.

To learn more about psychological levels or Fibonacci, check out DailyFX Education

Crude Oil Monthly Price Chart (CL2)

crude oil monthly price chart

Chart prepared by James Stanley; CL2 on Tradingview

Crude Oil Priming for Pullback?

When I had looked into the matter in May, it was the weekly chart that was really compelling as this is what showed buyers stepping in after resistance had shown around the $67-level. The initial zone of resistance that was encountered in this latest breakout was not new; as this same spot had helped to mark the highs in both 2019 and 2020. And for a while, this statement held true for 2021, as prices pushed up for a test in March but failed.

It was what happened after that that made this interesting. Buyers stepped in around a trendline projection and for five straight weeks, from mid-March into early-April, helped to hold the lows on the basis of that prior resistance trendline. Prices soon returned to the resistance zone and, in early-June, broke out.

But now there’s another item taken from the weekly chart, and that’s diverging RSI indicating that this trend may be long-in-the-tooth and prime for a pullback. This doesn’t necessarily obviate the trend but, it does make for a more difficult bullish case in the immediate future.

Recommended by James Stanley

Download our Q3 Oil Forecast

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Crude Oil Weekly Price Chart

crude oil weekly price chart

Chart prepared by James Stanley; CL2 on Tradingview

Crude Oil Strategy Near-Term

At this point, bullish continuation strategies can become difficult given the area of resistance that’s in-play; and reversal strategies could equally be challenged as all that we’ve seen thus far is a simple hold of resistance. The trend, at this point, remains undeniably bullish but the big question is whether this zone can elicit enough sellers to keep a cap on price and, if so, for how long that might last?

This could be enough to encourage a bit of patience for those looking to trade crude higher and, rather than chasing the trend, traders may want to wait for prices to settle in the effort of catching higher-low support.

From the Daily chart below, we can see a few different points of interest for support potential. There’s a nearby price swing around 71.28, and this nearby spot could be looked to as an ‘s1’ area of support. A bit deeper, we have the $70 psychological level, which exhibited both resistance on the way up and support after the break; and this can be looked at as an ‘s2’ level. And below that, we have the big batch of prior resistance that hasn’t yet seen a support test. This zone held the highs over a three-year-period before the breakout, so it would be surprising (at least to me) if bulls were to just completely leave this zone behind without so much as checking back for support at some point. This could be classified as an ‘s3’ zone of support, and spans from 64.31-67.19.

Recommended by James Stanley

Understanding the Core Fundamentals of Oil Trading

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Crude Oil Daily Price Chart

crude oil daily price chart

Chart prepared by James Stanley; CL2 on Tradingview

--- Written by James Stanley, Senior Strategist for

Contact and follow James on Twitter: @JStanleyFX

Wed, 07 Jul 2021 02:01:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Latest Gold Price Forecast & Predictions

gold coinsSince my last article from late-June, Gold has seen the anticipated bottom - with its next upward phase currently deemed to be in force. The current rally should have further to run, though is anticipated to end up as an eventual countertrend affair.

From the comments made in latest articles, the last key low was due to form for Gold - expected to come from our 72-day time cycle, shown again below:

From my 6/25/23 article: "our detrend analysis with this (72-day) wave suggested that it would be headed lower into mid-June or later, where its next low should try to form. Adding to the above, our 72-day 'oversold' indicator has recently spiked above its upper reference line, which is something we would expect to see on or before this wave bottoms out."

As mentioned above, the last trough for our 72-day wave was originally projected for the mid-June timeframe, but with a decent plus or minus variance in either direction - simply due to the size of this cyclical component.

In terms of price, it was the subsequent reversal back above the 1952.00 figure (August, 2023 contract) which told us that our 72-day wave had likely bottomed out - and with that was headed higher into the late-July to mid-August timeframe.

In terms of price, the latest rally has easily made it back to the 72-day moving average - which is always our minimum assumption. Having said that, a the greater-majority of the upward phases of this wave - when coming off a 'higher-low' - have seen rallies of 8.1% off the bottom, which should favor...

Sun, 20 Sep 2020 05:26:00 -0500 en text/html
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