CKA study guide taken recently from test centers gives the most recent and 2022 up-to-date cheat sheet with Actual CKA Examination Questions and Solutions for new subjects. Practice our CKA Actual Questions plus Exam Questions to enhance your understanding and pass your own CKA examination with excellent Marks. We assurance your success inside the Test Center, covering up each one regarding the purposes regarding the test and building your Familiarity with typically the CKA exam. Pass with no question with the actual questions.

Exam Code: CKA Practice exam 2023 by team
CKA Certified Kubernetes Administrator

Exam Specification: CKA Certified Kubernetes Administrator

Exam Name: CKA Certified Kubernetes Administrator
Exam Code: CKA
Exam Duration: 2 hours
Passing Score: 74%
Exam Format: Performance-based tasks using a command-line interface
Exam Delivery: Online proctored exam

Course Outline:

1. Introduction to Kubernetes
- Overview of Kubernetes and its role in container orchestration
- Understanding the key components and architecture of Kubernetes
- Exploring the benefits of using Kubernetes for containerized applications

2. Cluster Architecture and Setup
- Installing and configuring Kubernetes clusters
- Understanding the different cluster components (API server, etcd, controller manager, etc.)
- Configuring networking and storage for Kubernetes clusters

3. Application Lifecycle Management
- Deploying applications using Kubernetes manifests and YAML files
- Managing application updates and rollbacks
- Scaling and autoscaling applications in Kubernetes

4. Cluster Maintenance and Troubleshooting
- Performing cluster maintenance tasks (upgrades, node maintenance, etc.)
- Monitoring and troubleshooting Kubernetes clusters
- Implementing best practices for cluster health and performance

5. Security and RBAC
- Configuring authentication and authorization in Kubernetes
- Implementing Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) for cluster resources
- Securing cluster communication and container workloads

6. Storage and Networking
- Configuring persistent storage for applications in Kubernetes
- Implementing networking solutions for cluster communication
- Managing network policies and ingress/egress traffic

Exam Objectives:

1. Understand the architecture and components of Kubernetes.
2. Install and configure Kubernetes clusters.
3. Deploy and manage applications using Kubernetes manifests and YAML files.
4. Perform cluster maintenance tasks and troubleshoot common issues.
5. Configure security measures and RBAC in Kubernetes.
6. Implement storage and networking solutions in Kubernetes.

Exam Syllabus:

Section 1: Introduction to Kubernetes (10%)
- Overview of Kubernetes and its role in container orchestration
- Key components and architecture of Kubernetes
- Benefits of using Kubernetes for containerized applications

Section 2: Cluster Architecture and Setup (20%)
- Installation and configuration of Kubernetes clusters
- Cluster components and their roles (API server, etcd, controller manager, etc.)
- Networking and storage configuration for Kubernetes clusters

Section 3: Application Lifecycle Management (25%)
- Deployment of applications using Kubernetes manifests and YAML files
- Application updates and rollbacks
- Scaling and autoscaling of applications in Kubernetes

Section 4: Cluster Maintenance and Troubleshooting (20%)
- Cluster maintenance tasks (upgrades, node maintenance, etc.)
- Monitoring and troubleshooting Kubernetes clusters
- Best practices for cluster health and performance

Section 5: Security and RBAC (15%)
- Authentication and authorization configuration in Kubernetes
- Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) implementation for cluster resources
- Security measures for cluster communication and container workloads

Section 6: Storage and Networking (10%)
- Configuration of persistent storage for applications in Kubernetes
- Networking solutions for cluster communication
- Network policies and ingress/egress traffic management

Certified Kubernetes Administrator
CNCF Administrator information source
Killexams : CNCF Administrator information source - BingNews Search results Killexams : CNCF Administrator information source - BingNews Killexams : The Importance of Information Sources at the Workplace

Lainie Petersen writes about business, real estate and personal finance, drawing on 25 years experience in publishing and education. Petersen's work appears in Money Crashers, Selling to the Masses, and in Walmart News Now, a blog for Walmart suppliers. She holds a master's degree in library science from Dominican University.

Wed, 18 Jul 2018 17:18:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Killexams : Patient Education: The Nurse as Source of Actionable Information


A patient typically leaves the hospital or clinic with a patient education package that has been vetted by department heads, checked and sanitized by the legal department, trimmed and restricted by finance, and augmented by sponsors. The patient has perhaps also spoken to physicians, radiologists, nurses, and administrative staff. Much of the information given to the patient is intended to educate the patient in self-care following the period of dependence upon hospital staff. How does this information help the patient at home when there is no medical staff on hand? Does it tell the patient how to remove the dressing, what to clean the wound with, or what to do if the drainage tubes seem to be clogged? There are questions the patient will simply not think to ask while still at the hospital.

If all patients were physicians or nurses who belonged to the medical community and all ascribed to common conventions and practices, there would be no difference essentially as to who was on which side of the stethoscope; the patient could reasonably be expected to understand exactly what was going on, and why. Each issue the nurse highlighted would fit neatly into demarcated categories and every significance placed on them would be understood and accepted by the patient. After returning home, there would be nothing that was unfamiliar to them about what to do and when to do it.

However, in reality, patients are bricklayers, plumbers, bankers, welders, accountants, teachers, lawyers, and philosophers. They cannot be expected to understand what it is you are doing or saying in the same way as your fellow physicians and nurses are likely to. These real-life patients may demarcate issues and assign significance differently from how the medical professionals do. The resonance will have been lost, and the information will stand alone without the rich context of mutuality that was shared in the previous scenario.

Just as facts are "theory-laden," so also information does not "speak for itself," it is interpreted and acted on through the spectacles and gloves of our beliefs and view of the world. The nurse needs to impinge on patients' world views, conveying the information to them by resignifying and demarcating it in such a way as to make it actionable by the patient.

As an example, one patient had the experience of being given practical instruction that included taking her physically through many sequences and procedures that would prove to be important to her. Her nurses didn't just tell her how to change a dressing or clean the surgical wound, they showed her, and critiqued her techniques. It was not just this practical, actionable knowledge that was imparted, but also the knowledge of where more knowledge resided. The nurse as an information-source stands out.

As it happened, the patient's nurse was changed and the new nurse did not become familiar with the patient's history and could not answer questions about what to do next when a particular test was returned negative. The flow of information had changed and the patient's experience was altered entirely.

Sun, 20 Aug 2023 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Anonymous Sources

Transparency is critical to our credibility with the public and our subscribers. Whenever possible, we pursue information on the record. When a newsmaker insists on background or off-the-record ground rules, we must adhere to a strict set of guidelines, enforced by AP news managers.

 Under AP's rules, material from anonymous sources may be used only if:

 1. The material is information and not opinion or speculation, and is vital to the report.

 2. The information is not available except under the conditions of anonymity imposed by the source.

 3. The source is reliable, and in a position to have direct knowledge of the information.

 Reporters who intend to use material from anonymous sources must get approval from their news manager before sending the story to the desk. The manager is responsible for vetting the material and making sure it meets AP guidelines. The manager must know the identity of the source, and is obligated, like the reporter, to keep the source's identity confidential. Only after they are assured that the source material has been vetted by a manager should editors and producers allow it to be used.

 Reporters should proceed with interviews on the assumption they are on the record. If the source wants to set conditions, these should be negotiated at the start of the interview. At the end of the interview, the reporter should try once again to move onto the record some or all of the information that was given on a background basis.

 The AP routinely seeks and requires more than one source when sourcing is anonymous. Stories should be held while attempts are made to reach additional sources for confirmation or elaboration. In rare cases, one source will be sufficient – when material comes from an authoritative figure who provides information so detailed that there is no question of its accuracy.

 We must explain in the story why the source requested anonymity. And, when it’s relevant, we must describe the source's motive for disclosing the information. If the story hinges on documents, as opposed to interviews, the reporter must describe how the documents were obtained, at least to the extent possible.

The story also must provide attribution that establishes the source's credibility; simply quoting "a source" is not allowed. We should be as descriptive as possible: "according to top White House aides" or "a senior official in the British Foreign Office." The description of a source must never be altered without consulting the reporter.

 We must not say that a person declined comment when that person the person is already quoted anonymously. And we should not attribute information to anonymous sources when it is obvious or well known. We should just state the information as fact.

Stories that use anonymous sources must carry a reporter's byline. If a reporter other than the bylined staffer contributes anonymous material to a story, that reporter should be given credit as a contributor to the story.

 All complaints and questions about the authenticity or veracity of anonymous material – from inside or outside the AP – must be promptly brought to the news manager's attention.

 Not everyone understands “off the record” or “on background” to mean the same things. Before any interview in which any degree of anonymity is expected, there should be a discussion in which the ground rules are set explicitly.

These are the AP’s definitions:

On the record. The information can be used with no caveats, quoting the source by name.

Off the record. The information cannot be used for publication. Background. The information can be published but only under conditions negotiated with the source. Generally, the sources do not want their names published but will agree to a description of their position. AP reporters should object vigorously when a source wants to brief a group of reporters on background and try to persuade the source to put the briefing on the record.

Deep background. The information can be used but without attribution. The source does not want to be identified in any way, even on condition of anonymity.

In general, information obtained under any of these circumstances can be pursued with other sources to be placed on the record.


Reports from other news organizations based on anonymous sources require the most careful scrutiny when we consider them for our report.

AP's basic rules for anonymous source material apply to material from other news outlets just as they do in our own reporting: The material must be factual and obtainable no other way. The story must be truly significant and newsworthy. Use of anonymous material must be authorized by a manager. The story we produce must be balanced, and comment must be sought.

Further, before picking up such a story we must make a bona fide effort to get it on the record, or, at a minimum, confirm it through our own reporting. We shouldn't hesitate to hold the story if we have any doubts. If another outlet’s anonymous material is ultimately used, it must be attributed to the originating news organization and note its description of the source.


 Anything in the AP news report that could reasonably be disputed should be attributed. We should provide the full name of a source and as much information as needed to identify the source and explain why the person s credible. Where appropriate, include a source's age; title; name of company, organization or government department; and hometown. If we quote someone from a written document – a report, email or news release -- we should say so. Information taken from the internet must be vetted according to our standards of accuracy and attributed to the original source. File, library or archive photos, audio or videos must be identified as such. For lengthy stories, attribution can be contained in an extended editor's note detailing interviews, research and methodology.

Sun, 25 Jun 2023 21:21:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Public Radio Finances

While NPR shares a mission with our stations, we are funded in significantly different but interrelated ways. Get an overview of that system here. NPR's latest financial statements and annual reports are included here too.

NPR Revenues

NPR is an independent, non-profit media organization. We are also a membership organization of separately licensed and operated public radio stations across the United States.

NPR's two largest revenue sources are corporate sponsorships and fees paid by NPR Member organizations to support a suite of programs, tools, and services. Other sources of revenue include institutional grants, individual contributions and fees paid by users of the Public Radio Satellite System (PRSS; i.e. Satellite interconnection and distribution).

NPR's average consolidated revenues from changes in net assets without donor restrictions (FY18-FY22)

NPR's average consolidated revenues from changes in net assets without donor restrictions (FY18-FY22). Corporate sponsorships 39%; Core and other programming fees 31%; Contributions of cash and financial assets 12%; Other revenues 8%; PRSS contract, satellite interconnection and distribution 5%; Endowment and board-designated support 4%; Return on investments 1%

Fees from NPR Member organizations

NPR's Member organizations support NPR financially in two ways:

  • A core fee for the NPR newsmagazines (Morning Edition, All Things Considered, Weekend Edition), as well as an array of digital content, tools and platforms, and a suite of services designed to drive audience engagement and support
  • License fees for a portfolio of broadcast programs other than the NPR newsmagazines

The core fee calculation is based on a percentage of stations' membership revenue, as a reflection of the value that NPR programs and services provide to Members and their audiences.

The license fees for individual news/talk, entertainment, and music programs (e.g. programs like Fresh Air, Here & Now, 1A World Cafe, or Throughline) are set using pricing tiers based on each Member's total revenue.

The fee model includes provisions that recognize NPR Members with particular characteristics that contribute to NPR's audience service mission, including Members designated by CPB as serving rural and minority audiences.

Corporate Sponsorship Support

Covering the news requires significant resources. The funds NPR receives from corporate donors are an important part of the revenues that fuel NPR's in-depth reporting and programming, but only a part. One of the largest portions of NPR's revenue comes from dues and fees paid by our Member Stations.

Corporate sponsors cannot influence NPR's coverage. NPR journalists have no role in selecting corporate sponsors. Our journalists are trained in the ethics and practices of journalism which prevent outside groups from influencing their objectivity, story selection, and reporting. You can read the code of ethics in place at NPR here. When news warrants, we will report on the activities of companies that support NPR.

Messages acknowledging NPR's national sponsors are presented on air in short announcements, and are presented in visual and audio form on and other digital services.

NPR makes decisions about national corporate sponsors based on principles established by NPR's Board of Directors. Under those principles, NPR has no list of sources from which funding will be refused. However, potential conflict of interest or similar concerns are considered in accepting or rejecting support from particular entities.

This approach results in a diverse pool of funders which is an important basis of NPR's impartiality as a news organization. To impose a litmus test to accept or reject funding from an organization would create the appearance that NPR as a news organization has taken a position on the issues related to that organization.

NPR is represented by National Public Media LLC (NPM), a majority-owned subsidiary of NPR Asset Holding Company, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of NPR. NPM also handles some corporate sponsorship for NPR and PBS. As noted above, NPR journalists have no role in selecting corporate sponsors. You can find more about National Public Media on the web here.

Grants and Contributions

Grants from institutions and non-profits have made it possible for NPR to maintain its current programming, and launch new programs and initiatives. They have also allowed us to expand coverage of major news subjects including international news, education, science, the environment, and the economy. Many of these grants also directly and indirectly benefit Member Stations. NPR and our Member stations share a common mission and many of the same strategic goals. Together, we are increasingly engaging philanthropic partners at high levels. These individuals and families are interested in supporting transformational, strategic advancements in public media's capacity to meet major societal needs. The NPR Foundation, working in collaboration with Member stations, is poised to make a significant contribution to the individual giving fundraising capacity of public media — to the benefit of all.

Distribution from NPR Foundation Board-Designated and Endowment Funds to Support Operations

The NPR Foundation provides funding for NPR's operations, drawing on earnings from funds that include the 2003 bequest from Joan B. Kroc and other endowment funds, as well as a Board-designated fund. In addition, NPR earns revenue on its short and long-term investments.

Satellite Interconnection and Distribution

NPR's Distribution Division operates the Public Radio Satellite System ("PRSS"). They collect revenue from stations and producers that use its platform for broadcast distribution, including nearly every organization in the public radio community. In addition, the PRSS offers excess capacity to both public radio and non-public radio users for private networks to keep the cost of distribution as low as possible.

Other Revenues

Additional revenues include facility rental income, royalties, licensing of programming, and other fees.

NPR Expenses

The vast majority of NPR's expenses are devoted to producing and presenting news, technical support for radio programs and journalists, the distribution of programs to stations and digital media services like

The balance is spent on support and service for Member stations, facilities and information services, corporate sponsorship and fundraising, legal services, human resources, marketing and communications, and overall management of NPR.

NPR's Average Consolidated Operating1 Expenses (FY18-FY22)

NPR's average consolidated operating expenses (FY18-FY22). Content production and distribution 58%; Support services 31%; Digital and other platforms 11%

1Non-operating expenses (e.g. depreciation, amortization, interest, losses of disposition on fixed assets) are not included.

"Content production and distribution" includes expenses incurred by NPR's News and information, Programming, Engineering, NPR Music, and Distribution divisions. "Digital and other" program services includes expenses incurred by NPR's Digital, Member Partnership, and Consumer Products divisions. "Support services" includes expenses incurred by the following divisions: Development; Sponsorship; Facilities; Information Technology; Audience Growth; Communications; Finance; People Team; Office of General Counsel; and Executive leadership offices.

Cost of News

Year to year, our expenses are affected by major news events, particularly those that require extensive reporting and operational support. For example, when a natural disaster or health epidemic strikes, we often have to move staff and equipment into areas that lack transportation or basic communication channels to cover the story. Foreign coverage costs have increased over the years to keep pace with an ever more complex international scene. NPR invests in global coverage by maintaining offices throughout the world.

Special Series and Projects

NPR also typically invests in special series and projects. These include Planet Money, an award-winning, multi-platform explanatory journalism project focused on demystifying the economy, coverage of the presidential primaries and general elections, and the Olympics. For all of these reasons, NPR News and Engineering costs generally increase by some amount each year.

Digital Media

Investment in digital media has also been on the rise in accurate years. Examples include an upgrade of, the introduction of the NPR API (application program interface) and the launch of NPR One. Several recent, noteworthy strategic investments have made it possible to produce new podcasts and mobile products to reach more people in more places. In addition, NPR provides extensive digital media training for its entire team of journalists.

Published reports in Worth Magazine and Consumers Digest cited NPR as a leading U.S. nonprofit charity because of the organization's program spending efficiency, high level of private support and outstanding public service.

Financial Reports

The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of National Public Radio, Inc.; NPR Foundation; American Coalition for Public Radio; NPR International Operations, Inc.; and NPR Asset Holding Company, Inc. (which includes 1111 JW, LLC; 1111 Media Enterprises, LLC; and National Public Media LLC).

Note: NPR operates on an October 1 - September 30 fiscal year. Documents referenced on this page are posted as soon as they become available.

Audited Consolidated Financial Statements

All consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the notes that come immediately after the consolidated statements.

Audited Financial Statements(1)

Consolidated: FY2020 / FY2021 / FY2022

The Balance Sheets, as well as the Statements of Activities and Cash Flows, for NPR Parent Company Only and the NPR Foundation are included as supplementary schedules to the consolidated financial statements and footnotes.

(1) The audited consolidated financial statements are presented for convenience and information purposes only. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the integrity of such information, the audited consolidated financial statements presented should not be relied upon. An official printed copy of audited consolidated financial statements will be provided upon request.

IRS 990 Filings

The IRS Form 990 is the annual federal information return filed by all charitable corporations that are exempt from income tax. The amounts in these statements are presented in accordance with IRS regulations, which in some cases are at variance with generally accepted accounting principles. Both NPR, Inc and NPR Foundation are 501(c)(3) organizations and are each required to file Form 990.

In addition to Form 990, NPR and NPR Foundation are each required to file form 990T to report any unrelated business income.

IRS Form 990 Filings
NPR, Inc.: FY2020 / FY2021 / FY2022
NPR Foundation: FY2020 / FY2021 / FY2022
American Coalition for Public Radio: FY2020 / FY2021 / FY2022
NPR International Operations, Inc.: FY2021 / FY2022

IRS Form 990-T Filings
NPR, Inc.: FY2020 / FY2021 / FY2022
NPR Foundation: FY2020 / FY2021 / FY2022

Annual Reports

2001 / 2002 / 2003 / 2004 / 2005 / 2006 / 2007 / 2008 / 2009 / 2010 / 2011 / 2012 / 2013 / 2014 / 2015 / 2016 / 2017 / 2018 / 2019 / 2020 / 2021 / 2022

Additional Information

The forms posted above, which include our annual statements to the IRS as well as our audited financial statements, reflect the most current public information about NPR's finances. Other NPR About pages offer additional information on the role of institutional donations, individual giving, the NPR Foundation, and corporate sponsorship.

Member Station Revenues

As you can see in the following chart, public radio stations rely most heavily on contributions from listeners. Sponsorship from local companies and organizations (also known as corporate sponsorship or business support) is the second largest source of support to stations.

Public Radio Station Revenues (FY21)

Public Radio Station Revenue Sources (FY21). Individuals 41%; Investments and other 16%; Corporations 13%; Colleges and universities 8%; Foundations 8%; Federal appropriation via CPB 7%; Federal, state and local governments 7%

Public Radio and Federal Funding

Federal funding is essential to public radio's service to the American public and its continuation is critical for both stations and program producers, including NPR.

Public radio stations receive annual grants directly from the Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB) that make up an important part of a diverse revenue mix that includes listener support, corporate sponsorship and grants. Stations, in turn, draw on this mix of public and privately sourced revenue to pay NPR and other public radio producers for their programming.

These station programming fees comprise a significant portion of NPR's largest source of revenue. The loss of federal funding would undermine the stations' ability to pay NPR for programming, thereby weakening the institution.

Elimination of federal funding would result in fewer programs, less journalism—especially local journalism—and eventually the loss of public radio stations, particularly in rural and economically distressed communities.

Stations receive support from many sources, including:

  • listener contributions,
  • corporate sponsorship,
  • in-kind and direct support from universities (when licensed to a college or university),
  • foundation grants and major gifts,
  • grants from the Corporation for Public Broadcasting
  • in some cases, state and local governments

On average, less than 1% of NPR's annual operating budget comes in the form of grants from CPB and federal agencies and departments.

Mon, 14 Aug 2023 13:19:00 -0500 en text/html Killexams : Today's spies find secrets in plain sight

Defense lawyers say FTX founder Sam Bankman-Fried can't adequately prepare for trial in six weeks while in jail without proper access to computers, necessary medications to help him concentrate, and a better diet than bread, water and peanut butter

August 22

Wed, 02 Apr 2008 00:00:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : FEMA administrator says disaster fund could run out soon

Aug. 20 (UPI) -- Compounding natural disasters spurred on by extreme weather may lead to the FEMA disaster fund becoming completely depleted within weeks, administrator Deanne Criswell says.

Appearing on Face The Nation and CNN's State of the Union on Sunday, Criswell said the disaster fund is projected to run dry in mid-September, but the situation is day-to-day.

"And as we get closer to that, I mean, this is a day by day monitoring of the situation, we will start to move some of our recovery projects and delay them until the next fiscal year," Criswell told Margaret Brennan of CBS.

When asked by CNN's Kasie Hunt what FEMA would do in the event of a government shutdown, Criswell said FEMA will continue to push projects into the next fiscal year so it can continue to respond to disasters immediately.

"We will take measures to ensure there is always going to be enough funding to continue to support immediate responses to these types of severe weather events," she said.

The projections come as Tropical Storm Hilary reaches Mexico's Baja California Peninsula and heads toward southern California where it may drop up to 4 inches of rain per hour, causing flash flooding.

There have been 15 weather-related or climate disaster events that caused more than $1 billion in damage this year prior to Aug. 8, according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The combined disaster cost is more than $39 billion.

Last week the Biden administration requested $12 billion to fund the Federal Emergency Management Agency as it undertakes recovery efforts related to multiple natural disasters. Criswell said the agency's response to crises will not be impacted despite the House and Senate being in recess until after Labor Day.

Sat, 19 Aug 2023 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html Killexams : FEMA administrator Deanne Criswell says emergency funds could be depleted within weeks

Washington — FEMA's disaster fund could dry up within weeks and delay the federal response to natural disasters, the agency's administrator warned Sunday.  

FEMA Administrator Deanne Criswell told "Face the Nation" that the agency is watching its disaster relief fund "very closely" ahead of hurricane season and that some recovery projects that are not life-saving measures could be delayed into the next fiscal year if funding falls short. 

"Our estimates do still say that we may have a depletion of our fund — now it's pushed into the middle of September," Criswell said. "And as we get closer to that, I mean, this is a day-by-day monitoring of the situation." 

According to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, there were 15 weather or climate disaster events this year before Aug. 8, with each causing more than $1 billion in damage. The tally does not include the recent wildfires on Maui, which decimated Lahaina, causing an estimated $6 billion in damage to the coastal city. The peak of hurricane season is not until Sept. 11. 

President Biden asked Congress earlier this month for $12 billion to replenish the disaster fund to address the response to the wildfires and other natural disasters. Congress is on recess until after Labor Day. 

Criswell said that amount may not be enough. 

"The $12 billion was going to be able to cover some of the immediate needs that we were going to need to get through this fiscal year," she said. "As we're continuing to see the increasingly severe weather events that dollar amount may need to go up as we go into next fiscal year." 

Criswell is traveling with Mr. Biden to Maui on Monday to view the devastation and meet with survivors. 

"The biggest thing that the president needs to see is just the real impact," Criswell said of the importance of the visit. "It really feels different when you're on the ground and can see the total devastation of Lahaina. He'll talk to some of the families that have been impacted by this and hear their stories." 

"He's really going to be able to, one, bring hope to this community, but also reassure them that the federal government is there," she said. "He has directed them to bring the resources they need to help them as they begin to start their recovery and their rebuilding process." 

While FEMA responds to the wildfires, it is also preparing for the "really significant impacts" of Tropical Storm Hilary on Southern California, Criswell said. 

"We had a lot of staff already on the ground. We are moving in some additional resources to make sure that we can support anything that California might need, but they're a very capable state as well and they have a lot of resources," she said. "So if it does exceed what their capability is, we're going to have additional search-and-rescue teams, commodities on hand to be able to go in and support anything that they might ask for." 

Sun, 20 Aug 2023 09:55:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Killexams : Does Information Affect Our Beliefs?

It was the social-science equivalent of Barbenheimer weekend: four blockbuster academic papers, published in two of the world’s leading journals on the same day. Written by elite researchers from universities across the United States, the papers in Nature and Science each examined different aspects of one of the most compelling public-policy issues of our time: how social media is shaping our knowledge, beliefs and behaviors.

Relying on data collected from hundreds of millions of Facebook users over several months, the researchers found that, unsurprisingly, the platform and its algorithms wielded considerable influence over what information people saw, how much time they spent scrolling and tapping online, and their knowledge about news events. Facebook also tended to show users information from sources they already agreed with, creating political “filter bubbles” that reinforced people’s worldviews, and was a vector for misinformation, primarily for politically conservative users.

But the biggest news came from what the studies didn’t find: despite Facebook’s influence on the spread of information, there was no evidence that the platform had a significant effect on people’s underlying beliefs, or on levels of political polarization.

These are just the latest findings to suggest that the relationship between the information we consume and the beliefs we hold is far more complex than is commonly understood.

Sometimes the dangerous effects of social media are clear. In 2018, when I went to Sri Lanka to report on anti-Muslim pogroms, I found that Facebook’s newsfeed had been a vector for the rumors that formed a pretext for vigilante violence, and that WhatsApp groups had become platforms for organizing and carrying out the real attacks. In Brazil last January, supporters of former President Jair Bolsonaro used social media to spread false claims that fraud had cost him the election, and then turned to WhatsApp and Telegram groups to plan a mob attack on federal buildings in the capital, Brasília. It was a similar playbook to that used in the United States on Jan. 6, 2021, when supporters of Donald Trump stormed the Capitol.

But aside from discrete events like these, there have also been concerns that social media, and particularly the algorithms used to suggest content to users, might be contributing to the more general spread of misinformation and polarization.

The theory, roughly, goes something like this: unlike in the past, when most people got their information from the same few mainstream sources, social media now makes it possible for people to filter news around their own interests and biases. As a result, they mostly share and see stories from people on their own side of the political spectrum. That “filter bubble” of information supposedly exposes users to increasingly skewed versions of reality, undermining consensus and reducing their understanding of people on the opposing side.

The theory gained mainstream attention after Trump was elected in 2016. “The ‘Filter Bubble’ Explains Why Trump Won and You Didn’t See It Coming,” announced a New York Magazine article a few days after the election. “Your Echo Chamber is Destroying Democracy,” Wired Magazine claimed a few weeks later.

But without rigorous testing, it’s been hard to figure out whether the filter bubble effect was real. The four new studies are the first in a series of 16 peer-reviewed papers that arose from a collaboration between Meta, the company that owns Facebook and Instagram, and a group of researchers from universities including Princeton, Dartmouth, the University of Pennsylvania, Stanford and others.

Meta gave unprecedented access to the researchers during the three-month period before the 2020 U.S. election, allowing them to analyze data from more than 200 million users and also conduct randomized controlled experiments on large groups of users who agreed to participate. It’s worth noting that the social media giant spent $20 million on work from NORC at the University of Chicago (previously the National Opinion Research Center), a nonpartisan research organization that helped collect some of the data. And while Meta did not pay the researchers itself, some of its employees worked with the academics, and a few of the authors had received funding from the company in the past. But the researchers took steps to protect the independence of their work, including pre-registering their research questions in advance, and Meta was only able to veto requests that would violate users’ privacy.

The studies, taken together, suggest that there is evidence for the first part of the “filter bubble” theory: Facebook users did tend to see posts from like-minded sources, and there were high degrees of “ideological segregation” with little overlap between what liberal and conservative users saw, clicked and shared. Most misinformation was concentrated in a conservative corner of the social network, making right-wing users far more likely to encounter political lies on the platform.

“I think it’s a matter of supply and demand,” said Sandra González-Bailón, the lead author on the paper that studied misinformation. Facebook users skew conservative, making the potential market for partisan misinformation larger on the right. And online curation, amplified by algorithms that prioritize the most emotive content, could reinforce those market effects, she added.

When it came to the second part of the theory — that this filtered content would shape people’s beliefs and worldviews, often in harmful ways — the papers found little support. One experiment deliberately reduced content from like-minded sources, so that users saw more varied information, but found no effect on polarization or political attitudes. Removing the algorithm’s influence on people’s feeds, so that they just saw content in chronological order, “did not significantly alter levels of issue polarization, affective polarization, political knowledge, or other key attitudes,” the researchers found. Nor did removing content shared by other users.

Algorithms have been in lawmakers’ cross hairs for years, but many of the arguments for regulating them have presumed that they have real-world influence. This research complicates that narrative.

But it also has implications that are far broader than social media itself, reaching some of the core assumptions around how we form our beliefs and political views. Brendan Nyhan, who researches political misperceptions and was a lead author of one of the studies, said the results were striking because they suggested an even looser link between information and beliefs than had been shown in previous research. “From the area that I do my research in, the finding that has emerged as the field has developed is that factual information often changes people’s factual views, but those changes don’t always translate into different attitudes,” he said. But the new studies suggested an even weaker relationship. “We’re seeing null effects on both factual views and attitudes.”

As a journalist, I confess a certain personal investment in the idea that presenting people with information will affect their beliefs and decisions. But if that is not true, then the potential effects would reach beyond my own profession. If new information does not change beliefs or political support, for instance, then that will affect not just voters’ view of the world, but their ability to hold democratic leaders to account.

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Wed, 09 Aug 2023 05:47:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Top Science News

The entire contiguous U.S. has experienced massive urban expansions and the Atlantic Coast shows outstandingly high rates. Urban expansion has substantially squeezed the space of tidal flats and affected surrounding environments. In new urban areas, tidal flats have undergone considerable degeneration with more significant patterns as they get closer to new urban locations. Tidal flats protect ...


Researchers have developed a new tool, REBURN, that can simulate large forest landscapes and wildfire dynamics over decades or centuries under different wildfire management strategies. The model can simulate the consequences of extinguishing all wildfires regardless of size, which was done for much of the 20th century and has contributed to a rise in large and severe wildfires, or of allowing ...


The economists say more frequent use of up-front experiments would result in more effective environmental policymaking in areas ranging from pollution control to timber harvesting across the ...


Research attempts to quantify the value of U.S. property at risk in forested areas exposed to increased ecological disturbance associated with climate change, such as wildfire and tree mortality. Property exposed to such climate risks, especially in California, is project to climb substantially if emission-reduction measures are not ...


Struggling with a teenager who refuses to ditch digital devices at night and wakes up grumpy? Boarding school could be the ...


According to a accurate study, improved overall diet quality and reduced consumption of red meat, as well as increased time spent in memorizing and organized sports enhanced reasoning skills among children over the first two school ...


Life is harder for adolescents who are not attractive or athletic. New research shows low attractive and low athletic youth became increasingly unpopular over the course of a school year, leading to subsequent increases in their loneliness and alcohol misuse. As their unpopularity grows, so do their problems. Put simply, the peer group punishes those who do not have highly valued traits such as ...


What do superheroes Deadpool and Elastigirl have in common? Each was used in a college anatomy class to add relevance to course discussions -- Deadpool to illustrate tissue repair and Elastigirl, aka Mrs. Incredible, as an example of hyperflexibility. Instructors created a 'SuperAnatomy' course in an attempt to Improve the experience of undergraduate students learning the notoriously difficult -- ...


New research suggests that the US municipal bond market systemically misprices risk, as the pricing of municipal debt does not account for local physical climate risk, but does demand larger credit spreads from communities with a larger proportion of Black ...


A accurate interdisciplinary study used a novel method of data collection -- computer usage metrics -- to show that employees are less active and more prone to mistakes on afternoons and Fridays, with Friday afternoon representing the lowest point of worker ...


Scientists have recently proposed a workflow that can dramatically accelerate the search for novel materials with improved properties. They demonstrated the power of the approach by identifying more than 50 strongly thermally insulating materials. These can help alleviate the ongoing energy crisis, by allowing for more efficient thermoelectric ...


Researchers found that people with strong mind memorizing abilities -- the ability to understand and take the perspective of another person's feelings and intentions -- are more successful in cooperating to complete tasks than people with weaker mind memorizing ...


Thu, 17 Aug 2023 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Guaana: Welcome to the Era of Open Source Information

So. Science Has A Problem

Let's be honest, it's not easy being a scientist. From science deniers to sensationalist reporting to funding sometimes seems like the world is rather determined to undermine science at every possible opportunity. Fortunately, there are a number of individuals who are working to combat this troubling trend. Guaana is one such company.

Ultimately, science is all about the sharing of knowledge and information—breakthroughs can't happen if experts don't have access to the latest advancements; however, paywalls and corporate funding and a host of other obstacles crop up that prevent scientists from speaking to one another and accessing necessary information. 

How do we fix this? How can we better share our knowledge to accelerate the next generation of scientific and technological breakthroughs? This is the fundamental question that helped make Guaana what it is; it is what prompted them on their quest to bring forth a new era of open source information and collaboration to the sciences.

A New Way to Network

In short, Guanna is a platform for scientists and researchers to come together and connect with like-minded individuals and build on each other's is a platform for making connections, forming collaborations to make science happen. It's about trying to connect the dots in a way they haven’t been (or couldn't have been) connected before.

In image: Guaana CEO Marko Russiver, Guaana CTO Edgar Aronov, Matilde the Cat

Marko Russiver, Guaana's CEO and cofounder, clarifies by noting that this is more than just a place to post research—it is a community of scientists working together towards a common end: "We didn't want to build a digital archive of knowledge, it's more like a buzzing saloon of people talking, sharing knowledge, and really working together."

Indeed, Russiver states that, ultimately, the company is all about the generation of scientific knowledge: "A majority of research papers published today are written to justify the received grant money instead of talking about practical, important science. This practice has alienated scientists from each other and companies...we're solving this by enabling them to work on projects they are passionate about and that actually matters."

So, how does it differ from other platforms or web forums (Researchgate, for example)?

Russiver begins by noting some of the issues that plague forms that are (supposedly) dedicated to the advancement of scientific research. As Russiver notes, “There have been a number of instances where platforms have abused scientific research papers and, sadly, used scientists as member base growth drivers.” Guaana asserts that they are all about respecting the individual. "

We don't use the smartest people on Earth to make ourselves look good. We empower them so they could do their job better, faster and with full support of individuals such as themselves in the fields they care about." Additionally, Russiver notes that most social networks revolve around authored content and past research papers. "But science shouldn’t be about what you did 15 years ago. It should be about what you do now. About finding opportunities to discuss and develop your bold ideas and make them happen."

Guaana also helps by working with the scientists who use the platform from the moment that they first join: "It's not just the tools and the features on the platform....we have around 20 research campaigns published so far, but we have 68 in the back. This is because we are working with the project proposers to ensure that they are both clear and high quality, even making intros to relevant people from our own personal networks before the project goes live.”

In short, Russiver clarifies, "If you come to Guaana to post a project, you are not going to be alone, our whole team works with you." He adds that this ultimately functions as a kind of 'vetting process,' which allows Guaana to verify identities and information and ensure that the work is sound.

Filling in the Gaps

Image credit: Guaana

Russiver asserts that Guaana came about after realizing how difficult it was for scientists to connect, and how long it takes for valuable research to come to light: "Scientific collaboration right now is really difficult. It takes quite a bit of determination to just reach the people that you need to. It all takes so much time, and what scientists should really be able to focus on is the research. So for us, what is important is trying to find ways to try and accelerate science so the breakthroughs could be applied rather sooner than later to solve real world problems.”

Indeed, research often sits in the darkened corners of the internet for decades before it is finally uncovered by someone who puts it to use or makes those "breakthrough" connections. "Can you even imagine the stuff that just lies about in random laboratories around the world? There's all this information, and many don't know what to do with it because they don't talk about it...or if they do talk, they don't know who to talk to," Russiver states. “Touch-screen technology was sitting in CERN labs for 30 years before it ended up in everyone’s pocket.”

And this is precisely what Guaana is hoping to help alleviate.

Notably, one of the keys to the project is the feedback that the team has received from scientists. Russiver asserts that Guaana focused their efforts on determining the specific tools that scientists said that they needed, and then incorporating those things into their platform.

"We connected with experts from CERN, NASA,  the European Space Agency, and numerous individual scientists from around the world," Russiver begins. "We even managed to get a hold of several Nobel Prize laureates who showed their support for the concept. And when my childhood hero Jack Horner, known for his work as scientific advisory to Jurassic Park movies, said 'I quite frankly hope it actually does create some changes in how people think,' we felt we were ready to go."

And it is completely free for scientists (and always will be). You can check them out, and sign up, here.

Wed, 06 Apr 2016 14:14:00 -0500 text/html
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