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Killexams : Symantec Administration thinking - BingNews Search results Killexams : Symantec Administration thinking - BingNews Killexams : Just thinking, Administration finally got it right. No result found, try new keyword!Monday thru Thursday (7/24-7/27) teachers were allowed back into the schools for classroom setup. Next week (7/31-8/3), teachers report for duty; then 8/7 students return. This week has made a ... Fri, 28 Jul 2023 09:46:00 -0500 en-us text/html Killexams : Design Thinking for Social Innovation

In an area outside Hyderabad, India, between the suburbs and the countryside, a young woman—we’ll call her Shanti—fetches water daily from the always-open local borehole that is about 300 feet from her home. She uses a 3-gallon plastic container that she can easily carry on her head. Shanti and her husband rely on the free water for their drinking and washing, and though they’ve heard that it’s not as safe as water from the Naandi Foundation-run community treatment plant, they still use it. Shanti’s family has been drinking the local water for generations, and although it periodically makes her and her family sick, she has no plans to stop using it.

Shanti has many reasons not to use the water from the Naandi treatment center, but they’re not the reasons one might think. The center is within easy walking distance of her home—roughly a third of a mile. It is also well known and affordable (roughly 10 rupees, or 20 cents, for 5 gallons). Being able to pay the small fee has even become a status symbol for some villagers. Habit isn’t a factor, either. Shanti is forgoing the safer water because of a series of flaws in the overall design of the system.

Although Shanti can walk to the facility, she can’t carry the 5-gallon jerrican that the facility requires her to use. When filled with water, the plastic rectangular container is simply too heavy. The container isn’t designed to be held on the hip or the head, where she likes to carry heavy objects. Shanti’s husband can’t help carry it, either. He works in the city and doesn’t return home until after the water treatment center is closed. The treatment center also requires them to buy a monthly punch card for 5 gallons a day, far more than they need. “Why would I buy more than I need and waste money?” asks Shanti, adding she’d be more likely to purchase the Naandi water if the center allowed her to buy less.

The community treatment center was designed to produce clean and potable water, and it succeeded very well at doing just that. In fact, it works well for many people living in the community, particularly families with husbands or older sons who own bikes and can visit the treatment plant during working hours. The designers of the center, however, missed the opportunity to design an even better system because they failed to consider the culture and needs of all of the people living in the community.

This missed opportunity, although an obvious omission in hindsight, is all too common. Time and again, initiatives falter because they are not based on the client’s or customer’s needs and have never been prototyped to solicit feedback. Even when people do go into the field, they may enter with preconceived notions of what the needs and solutions are. This flawed approach remains the norm in both the business and social sectors.

As Shanti’s situation shows, social challenges require systemic solutions that are grounded in the client’s or customer’s needs. This is where many approaches founder, but it is where design thinking—a new approach to creating solutions—excels.

Traditionally, designers focused their attention on improving the look and functionality of products. Classic examples of this type of design work are Apple Computer’s iPod and Herman Miller’s Aeron chair. In accurate years designers have broadened their approach, creating entire systems to deliver products and services.

Design thinking incorporates constituent or consumer insights in depth and rapid prototyping, all aimed at getting beyond the assumptions that block effective solutions. Design thinking—inherently optimistic, constructive, and experiential—addresses the needs of the people who will consume a product or service and the infrastructure that enables it.

Businesses are embracing design thinking because it helps them be more innovative, better differentiate their brands, and bring their products and services to market faster. Nonprofits are beginning to use design thinking as well to develop better solutions to social problems. Design thinking crosses the traditional boundaries between public, for-profit, and nonprofit sectors. By working closely with the clients and consumers, design thinking allows high-impact solutions to bubble up from below rather than being imposed from the top.

Design Thinking at Work

Jerry Sternin, founder of the Positive Deviance Initiative and an associate professor at Tufts University until he died last year, was skilled at identifying what and critical of what he called outsider solutions to local problems. Sternin’s preferred approach to social innovation is an example of design thinking in action.1 In 1990, Sternin and his wife, Monique, were invited by the government of Vietnam to develop a model to decrease in a sustainable manner high levels of malnutrition among children in 10,000 villages. At the time, 65 percent of Vietnamese children under age 5 suffered from malnutrition, and most solutions relied on government and UN agencies donations of nutritional supplements. But the supplements—the outsider solution—never delivered the hoped-for results.2 As an alternative, the Sternins used an approach called positive deviance, which looks for existing solutions (hence sustainable) among individuals and families in the community who are already doing well.3

The Sternins and colleagues from Save the Children surveyed four local Quong Xuong communities in the province of Than Hoa and asked for examples of “very, very poor” families whose children were healthy. They then observed the food preparation, cooking, and serving behaviors of these six families, called “positive deviants,” and found a few consistent yet rare behaviors. Parents of well-nourished children collected tiny shrimps, crabs, and snails from rice paddies and added them to the food, along with the greens from sweet potatoes. Although these foods were readily available, they were typically not eaten because they were considered unsafe for children. The positive deviants also fed their children multiple smaller meals, which allowed small stomachs to hold and digest more food each day.

The Sternins and the rest of their group worked with the positive deviants to offer cooking classes to the families of children suffering from malnutrition. By the end of the program’s first year, 80 percent of the 1,000 children enrolled in the program were adequately nourished. In addition, the effort had been replicated within 14 villages across Vietnam.4

The Sternins’ work is a good example of how positive deviance and design thinking relies on local expertise to uncover local solutions. Design thinkers look for work-arounds and improvise solutions—like the shrimps, crabs, and snails—and they find ways to incorporate those into the offerings they create. They consider what we call the edges, the places where “extreme” people live differently, think differently, and consume differently. As Monique Sternin, now director of the Positive Deviance Initiative, explains: “Both positive deviance and design thinking are human-centered approaches. Their solutions are relevant to a unique cultural context and will not necessarily work outside that specific situation.”

One program that might have benefited from design thinking is mosquito net distribution in Africa. The nets are well designed and when used are effective at reducing the incidence of malaria.5 The World Health Organization praised the nets, crediting them with significant drops in malaria deaths in children under age 5: a 51 percent decline in Ethiopia, 34 percent decline in Ghana, and 66 percent decline in Rwanda.6 The way that the mosquito nets have been distributed, however, has had unintended consequences. In northern Ghana, for instance, nets are provided free to pregnant women and mothers with children under age 5. These women can readily pick up free nets from local public hospitals. For everyone else, however, the nets are difficult to obtain. When we asked a well-educated Ghanaian named Albert, who had recently contracted malaria, whether he slept under a mosquito net, he told us no—there was no place in the city of Tamale to purchase one. Because so many people can obtain free nets, it is not profitable for shop owners to sell them. But hospitals are not equipped to sell additional nets, either.

As Albert’s experience shows, it’s critical that the people designing a program consider not only form and function, but distribution channels as well. One could say that the free nets were never intended for people like Albert—that he was simply out of the scope of the project. But that would be missing a huge opportunity. Without considering the whole system, the nets cannot be widely distributed, which makes the eradication of malaria impossible.

The Origin of Design Thinking

IDEO was formed in 1991 as a merger between David Kelley Design, which created Apple Computer’s first mouse in 1982, and ID Two, which designed the first laptop computer, also in 1982. Initially, IDEO focused on traditional design work for business, designing products like the Palm V personal digital assistant, Oral-B toothbrushes, and Steelcase chairs. These are the types of objects that are displayed in lifestyle magazines or on pedestals in modern art museums.

By 2001, IDEO was increasingly being asked to tackle problems that seemed far afield from traditional design. A healthcare foundation asked us to help restructure its organization, a century-old manufacturing company wanted to better understand its clients, and a university hoped to create alternative learning environments to traditional classrooms. This type of work took IDEO from designing consumer products to designing consumer experiences.

To distinguish this new type of design work, we began referring to it as “design with a small d.” But this phrase never seemed fully satisfactory. David Kelley, also the founder of Stanford University’s Hasso Plattner Institute of Design (aka the “”), remarked that every time someone asked him about design, he found himself inserting the word “thinking” to explain what it was that designers do. Eventually, the term design thinking stuck.7

As an approach, design thinking taps into capacities we all have but that are overlooked by more conventional problem-solving practices. Not only does it focus on creating products and services that are human centered, but the process itself is also deeply human. Design thinking relies on our ability to be intuitive, to recognize patterns, to construct ideas that have emotional meaning as well as being functional, and to express ourselves in media other than words or symbols. Nobody wants to run an organization on feeling, intuition, and inspiration, but an over-reliance on the rational and the analytical can be just as risky. Design thinking, the integrated approach at the core of the design process, provides a third way.

The design thinking process is best thought of as a system of overlapping spaces rather than a sequence of orderly steps. There are three spaces to keep in mind: inspiration, ideation, and implementation. Think of inspiration as the problem or opportunity that motivates the search for solutions; ideation as the process of generating, developing, and testing ideas; and implementation as the path that leads from the project stage into people’s lives.

The reason to call these spaces, rather than steps, is that they are not always undertaken sequentially. Projects may loop back through inspiration, ideation, and implementation more than once as the team refines its ideas and explores new directions. Not surprisingly, design thinking can feel chaotic to those doing it for the first time. But over the life of a project, participants come to see that the process makes sense and achieves results, even though its form differs from the linear, milestone-based processes that organizations typically undertake.


Although it is true that designers do not always proceed through each of the three spaces in linear fashion, it is generally the case that the design process begins with the inspiration space—the problem or opportunity that motivates people to search for solutions. And the classic starting point for the inspiration phase is the brief. The brief is a set of mental constraints that gives the project team a framework from which to begin, benchmarks by which they can measure progress, and a set of objectives to be realized—such as price point, available technology, and market segment.

But just as a hypothesis is not the same as an algorithm, the brief is not a set of instructions or an attempt to answer the question before it has been posed. Rather, a well-constructed brief allows for serendipity, unpredictability, and the capricious whims of fate—the creative realm from which breakthrough ideas emerge. Too abstract and the brief risks leaving the project team wandering; too narrow a set of constraints almost guarantees that the outcome will be incremental and, likely, mediocre.

Once the brief has been constructed, it is time for the design team to discover what people’s needs are. Traditional ways of doing this, such as focus groups and surveys, rarely yield important insights. In most cases, these techniques simply ask people what they want. Conventional research can be useful in pointing toward incremental improvements, but those don’t usually lead to the type of breakthroughs that leave us scratching our heads and wondering why nobody ever thought of that before.

Henry Ford understood this when he said, “If I’d asked my customers what they wanted, they’d have said ‘a faster horse.’” 8 Although people often can’t tell us what their needs are, their actual behaviors can provide us with invaluable clues about their range of unmet needs.

A better starting point is for designers to go out into the world and observe the actual experiences of smallholder farmers, schoolchildren, and community health workers as they improvise their way through their daily lives. Working with local partners who serve as interpreters and cultural guides is also important, as well as having partners make introductions to communities, helping build credibility quickly and ensuring understanding. Through “homestays” and shadowing locals at their jobs and in their homes, design thinkers become embedded in the lives of the people they are designing for.

Earlier this year, Kara Pecknold, a student at Emily Carr University of Art and Design in Vancouver, British Columbia, took an internship with a women’s cooperative in Rwanda. Her task was to develop a Web site to connect rural Rwandan weavers with the world. Pecknold soon discovered that the weavers had little or no access to computers and the Internet. Rather than ask them to maintain a Web site, she reframed the brief, broadening it to ask what services could be provided to the community to help them Improve their livelihoods. Pecknold used various design thinking techniques, drawing partly from her training and partly from ideo’s Human Centered Design toolkit, to understand the women’s aspirations.

Because Pecknold didn’t speak the women’s language, she asked them to document their lives and aspirations with a camera and draw pictures that expressed what success looked like in their community. Through these activities, the women were able to see for themselves what was important and valuable, rather than having an outsider make those assumptions for them. During the project, Pecknold also provided each participant with the equivalent of a day’s wages (500 francs, or roughly $1) to see what each person did with the money. Doing this gave her further insight into the people’s lives and aspirations. Meanwhile, the women found that a mere 500 francs a day could be a significant, life-changing sum. This visualization process helped both Pecknold and the women prioritize their planning for the community.9


The second space of the design thinking process is ideation. After spending time in the field observing and doing design research, a team goes through a process of synthesis in which they distill what they saw and heard into insights that can lead to solutions or opportunities for change. This approach helps multiply options to create choices and different insights about human behavior. These might be alternative visions of new product offerings, or choices among various ways of creating interactive experiences. By testing competing ideas against one another, the likelihood that the outcome will be bolder and more compelling increases.

As Linus Pauling, scientist and two-time Nobel Prize winner, put it, “To have a good idea you must first have lots of ideas.” 10 Truly innovative ideas challenge the status quo and stand out from the crowd—they’re creatively disruptive. They provide a wholly new solution to a problem many people didn’t know they had.

Of course, more choices mean more complexity, which can make life difficult, especially for those whose job it is to control budgets and monitor timelines. The natural tendency of most organizations is to restrict choices in favor of the obvious and the incremental. Although this tendency may be more efficient in the short run, it tends to make an organization conservative and inflexible in the long run. Divergent thinking is the route, not the obstacle, to innovation.

To achieve divergent thinking, it is important to have a diverse group of people involved in the process. Multidisciplinary people—architects who have studied psychology, artists with MBAs, or engineers with marketing experience—often demonstrate this quality. They’re people with the capacity and the disposition for collaboration across disciplines.

To operate within an interdisciplinary environment, an individual needs to have strengths in two dimensions—the “T-shaped” person. On the vertical axis, every member of the team needs to possess a depth of skill that allows him or her to make tangible contributions to the outcome. The top of the “T” is where the design thinker is made. It’s about empathy for people and for disciplines beyond one’s own. It tends to be expressed as openness, curiosity, optimism, a tendency toward learning through doing, and experimentation. (These are the same traits that we seek in our new hires at IDEO.)

Interdisciplinary teams typically move into a structured brainstorming process. Taking one provocative question at a time, the group may generate hundreds of ideas ranging from the absurd to the obvious. Each idea can be written on a Post-it note and shared with the team. Visual representations of concepts are encouraged, as this generally helps others understand complex ideas.

One rule during the brainstorming process is to defer judgment. It is important to discourage anyone taking on the often obstructive, non-generative role of devil’s advocate, as Tom Kelley explains in his book The Ten Faces of Innovation.11 Instead, participants are encouraged to come up with as many ideas as possible. This lets the group move into a process of grouping and sorting ideas. Good ideas naturally rise to the top, whereas the bad ones drop off early on. InnoCentive provides a good example of how design thinking can result in hundreds of ideas. InnoCentive has created a Web site that allows people to post solutions to challenges that are defined by InnoCentive members, a mix of nonprofits and companies. More than 175,000 people—including scientists, engineers, and designers from around the world—have posted solutions.

The Rockefeller Foundation has supported 10 social innovation challenges through InnoCentive and reports an 80 percent success rate in delivering effective solutions to the nonprofits posting challenges. 12 The open innovation approach is effective in producing lots of new ideas. The responsibility for filtering through the ideas, field-testing them, iterating, and taking them to market ultimately falls to the implementer.

An InnoCentive partnership with the Global Alliance for TB Drug Development sought a theoretical solution to simplify the current TB treatment regimen. “The process is a prime example of design thinking contributing to social innovation,” explained Dwayne Spradlin, InnoCentive’s CEO. “With the TB drug development, the winning solver was a scientist by profession, but submitted to the challenge because his mother—the sole income provider for the family—developed TB when he was 14. She had to stop working, and he took on the responsibility of working and going to school to provide for the family.” Spradlin finds that projects within the InnoCentive community often benefit from such deep and motivating connections.13


The third space of the design thinking process is implementation, when the best ideas generated during ideation are turned into a concrete, fully conceived action plan. At the core of the implementation process is prototyping, turning ideas into actual products and services that are then tested, iterated, and refined.

Through prototyping, the design thinking process seeks to uncover unforeseen implementation challenges and unintended consequences in order to have more reliable long-term success. Prototyping is particularly important for products and services destined for the developing world, where the lack of infrastructure, retail chains, communication networks, literacy, and other essential pieces of the system often make it difficult to design new products and services.

Prototyping can validate a component of a device, the graphics on a screen, or a detail in the interaction between a blood donor and a Red Cross volunteer. The prototypes at this point may be expensive, complex, and even indistinguishable from the real thing. As the project nears completion and heads toward real-world implementation, prototypes will likely become more complete.

After the prototyping process is finished and the ultimate product or service has been created, the design team helps create a communication strategy. Storytelling, particularly through multimedia, helps communicate the solution to a diverse set of stakeholders inside and outside of the organization, particularly across language and cultural barriers.

VisionSpring, a low-cost eye care provider in India, provides a good example of how prototyping can be a critical step in implementation. VisionSpring, which had been selling practicing glasses to adults, wanted to begin providing comprehensive eye care to children. VisionSpring’s design effort included everything other than the design of the glasses, from marketing “eye camps” through self-help groups to training teachers about the importance of eye care and transporting kids to the local eye care center.

Working with VisionSpring, IDEO designers prototyped the eyescreening process with a group of 15 children between the ages of 8 and 12. The designers first tried to screen a young girl’s vision through traditional tests. Immediately, though, she burst into tears—the pressure of the experience was too great and the risk of failure too high. In hopes of diffusing this stressful situation, the designers asked the children’s teacher to screen the next student. Again, the child started to cry. The designers then asked the girl to screen her teacher. She took the task very seriously, while her classmates looked on enviously. Finally, the designers had the children screen each other and talk about the process. They loved playing doctor and both respected and complied with the process.

By prototyping and creating an implementation plan to pilot and scale the project, IDEO was able to design a system for the eye screenings that worked for VisionSpring’s practitioners, teachers, and children. As of September 2009, VisionSpring had conducted in India 10 eye camps for children, screened 3,000 children, transported 202 children to the local eye hospital, and provided glasses for the 69 children who needed them.

“Screening and providing glasses to kids presents many unique problems, so we turned to design thinking to provide us with an appropriate structure to develop the most appropriate marketing and distribution strategy,” explained Peter Eliassen, vice president of sales and operations at VisionSpring. Eliassen added that prototyping let VisionSpring focus on the approaches that put children at ease during the screening process. “Now that we have become a design thinking organization, we continue to use prototypes to assess the feedback and viability of new market approaches from our most important customers: our vision entrepreneurs [or salespeople] and end consumers.” 14

Systemic Problems Need Systemic Solutions

Many social enterprises already intuitively use some aspects of design thinking, but most stop short of embracing the approach as a way to move beyond today’s conventional problem solving. Certainly, there are impediments to adopting design thinking in an organization. Perhaps the approach isn’t embraced by the entire organization. Or maybe the organization resists taking a human-centered approach and fails to balance the perspectives of users, technology, and organizations.

One of the biggest impediments to adopting design thinking is simply fear of failure. The notion that there is nothing wrong with experimentation or failure, as long as they happen early and act as a source of learning, can be difficult to accept. But a vibrant design thinking culture will encourage prototyping—quick, cheap, and dirty—as part of the creative process and not just as a way of validating finished ideas.

As Yasmina Zaidman, director of knowledge and communications at Acumen Fund, put it, “The businesses we invest in require constant creativity and problem solving, so design thinking is a real success factor for serving the base of the economic pyramid.” Design thinking can lead to hundreds of ideas and, ultimately, real-world solutions that create better outcomes for organizations and the people they serve.

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Read more stories by Tim Brown & Jocelyn Wyatt.

Sun, 23 Jul 2023 08:30:00 -0500 en-us text/html
Killexams : Report on the World Today: Dulles found himself to be somewhere between Adenauer, who called for maintenance of a rigid cold-war stand against the Soviets -- a stand widely felt to be too inflexible--and Pineau, who called for so much relaxation that a good many here thought him rather muddleheaded. Adenauer said that "nothing has changed in the Soviet Union," while Pineau contended that economic changes in Russia are "absolutely irreversible." Nothing better illustrates the massive task ahead, of revamping the Atlantic alliance so as to make the North Atlantic Treaty Organization something more than a defensive military organization.

Dulles's own view has best been put in these words: "The more the Russians seem to become what we would like them to become, the more dangerous they are, up to the point where they become what we want them to become." This is an excellent diplomatic epigram. But it is an exceedingly slippery base on which to build a new policy.

Revamping NATO

NATO is fundamental to the Atlantic alliance militarily because America's air-atomic deterrence power depends on overseas bases and will continue to depend on them for an indefinite period despite all the talk of the intercontinental ballistic missile. But beyond this fact lies a morass of uncertainty about NATO in the military field. No one in Washington will admit on the record that the Administration is beginning to reconsider the old land army concepts in which the proposed twelve West German divisions have been marked as essential; but in fact there is at least the beginning of reconsideration.

It is exceedingly difficult to revamp NATO in the political or politico-economic field until NATO's military future is clearer. However, the task has begun. The appointment of retiring Senator Walter F. George as a special ambassador on this problem was a genuine effort by Eisenhower and Dulles to tackle it, on the theory that anything George would agree to would be acceptable to Congress.

Current Administration thinking opposes any NATO changes which would require a treaty amendment and thus further ratification -- an attitude based less on fear of the United States Senate than of the West German Parliament, which might seize the opportunity to take Germany out of the alliance. It also opposes any idea of consultations which might imply an obligation to be bound by the majority view of the fourteen other NATO member nations; and it opposes any limitations, direct or implied, on American freedom of action in the non-NATO areas of the world, especially where American policy is likely to be contrary to that of its NATO allies in the colonial areas of Asia, the Middle East, and Africa.

When all these limitations have been put down, as they have been by Dulles with the President's agreement, the area for discussion is sharply curtailed. Yet, in the end, some move away from the nationalism which grips all the NATO nations, some giving-up of their sovereignty, may be the only effective solution.

State Department officials shudder at the mention of sovereignty. They know that this is an election year and that the right wing of the Republican Party as well as some Democrats would set up a howl. The NATO issue is not, of course, going to be settled before election day.

One idea advanced here is to use the NATO Council (once its stature is increased by having what would amount to vice secretaries of state serve on it) to sit as a sort of continuing body to assess Soviet, satellite, and Chinese Communist moves and tactics. The hope would be that such assessments would lead to joint policies.

Divided Counsels

From Washington's point of view, however, the problem begins at home. Last fall, for example, before the London talks of the United Nations Disarmament Subcommittee, the British, French, and Canadians asked Harold E. Stassen to sit down with them in advance and work out a common policy. He agreed to do so. But every time the allies asked when they could meet, Stassen had to say that the United States was not yet ready. In the end there were no prior consultations. The only reason Stassen was able to take an American program to London was that Dulles, at the insistence of Robert R. Bowie, chief of the State Department's policy planning staff, went to the President to force a break in Stassen's deadlock with the Atomic Energy Commission and the Pentagon.

Or take the issue of East-West exchanges and contacts. For months, those who feel that the United States must get out from behind the iron-curtain label which the Russians have pinned on us have sought in vain to get a policy decision. Resistance by Under Secretary of State Herbert Hoover, Jr., and others has made Cabinet agreement impossible.

The President takes the position that he wants an agreed program brought to him. The result is no program and no decision -- except when a decision is inescapable, as in the case of the Soviet invitation to Air Force Chief of Staff Twining and later to his fellow chiefs. In those cases the President resolved the issue on an ad hoc basis only.

Or take the East-West trade issue. In his off-the-cuff remarks at the editors' convention here this spring, the President was eloquent in pointing out the necessity of permitting trade with the Communists by certain of our allies -- he cited Japan in some detail. Yet in last February's negotiations with the British and in the June talks with the French all that was agreed was that experts should study the whole problem further.

Or take the issue of the admission of Communist China to the United Nations. There is hardly a foreign diplomat in Washington outside the Nationalist Chinese Embassy who does not think that the Peiping regime very probably will be voted into the UN by the Assembly which meets after our elections. Yet publicly the diplomats, American and foreign, go around on tiptoes lest they break the egg too soon. The result is likely to be a severe shock to an unprepared American opinion, in Congress and out.

The Satellite Policy

The satellite question crossed both the East-West trade and the exchange of persons issues. But it also is closely related to domestic politics. Dulles does have a policy on the satellites but it is called the "unannounced policy" or the "Brioni policy" by his associates. This is the story:

Last fall, before Dulles flew down to Brioni to visit Marshal Tito, he concluded that the only approach possible on the satellite issue was to divide it into two parts. He decided upon this policy: first, encourage the national independence of the Eastern European nations to help them become free of Moscow; second, once the satellites are free in a national sense, encourage steps toward democratization of their regimes.

Tito and Dulles agreed on objective number one, for which a prior sounding had been made on Dulles's behalf by Deputy Under Secretary of State Robert Murphy. Dulles and Tito did not discuss objective number two since Dulles knew, of course, that Tito has no more desire than Khrushchev for Western-style democracy in Eastern Europe.

The reason Dulles has never announced his satellite policy is simply that to do so would rouse enmity -- and political hostility -- of the national minority groups, especially the Poles and Czechs, in the United States against the Republican Party. Dulles, the author of the "liberation" doctrine in the 1952 GOP platform, is reportedly at work trying to find words to bridge the chasm for the '56 platform. That it will not be easy may be seen from Adlai Stevenson's experience with the same problem.

After George Kennan recently declared that "there is a finality, for better or worse, about what has occurred in Eastern Europe" and that the best the United States can hope for is the evolution of the Communist regimes "to a position of greater independence and greater responsiveness to domestic opinion," Stevenson received a shocked letter from Democratic Congressman Thaddeus M. Machrowicz, Polish-born representative of Detroit's Hamtramck district. Machrowicz, a Stevenson supporter in '52, noted that it had been reported that Kennan was a Stevenson adviser. He wrote that if Kennan's views had Stevenson's approval, " tacit or expressed," he would lose "the vast majority of votes of Americans of Polish decent and of all others who have roots or forefathers in any country behind the Iron Curtain."

Stevenson denied that Kennan was or had been connected with his staff. And he said that he disagreed "specifically and completely" with Kennan's remarks on the satellites, and " emphatically " rejected Kennan's finality view. Here is a case where both political parties are inhibited from rational consideration of an important foreign policy problem for fear of domestic repercussions. For what is true of Stevenson certainly holds for any of his rivals for the party nomination.

Yet the Khrushchev secret speech made public by the State Depart meet, and its reverberations both in Eastern Europe and among Western European Communist parties, have opened a new field for free-world exploitation -- in contacts, in trade, in other fields of interchange.

The Right to Know

Secretary Dulles's brother, Allen Dulles, chief of the Central Intelligence Agency for over a year had been contending that "in introducing mass education, the troubled Soviet Leaders have loosened forces dangerous to themselves. It will be difficult for them henceforth to close off their people from access to the realities of the outside world."

In the wake of the Khrushchev speech, students in Czechoslovakia and Poland especially have been noisily demanding the right to read Western newspapers and to visit abroad. Moscow, too, has allowed enough of its scientists and other technicians to go to the West to create a demand by their colleagues to see the outside world. Education alone, if the history of Hitler's Germany and Tojo's Japan is any example, may not be enough to alter the course of the Soviet Union and the satellites. But education plus communication could, in the view of an increasing number of those both within and without the government who follow Communism as a profession.

The Allen Dulles thesis is that the educated Soviet man cannot long remain, as described by one defector from that class, "a man divided." The human mind cannot be compartmentalized; the man who has freedom to pursue his work in the physical or biological sciences, even in economics, literature, or history, must in time begin to seek the truth in the political realm. Yet it is true, as the scoffers point out, that even American scientists have been notoriously apolitical and naive -- witness the Oppenheimer case -- and can stay buried in their laboratories.

Perhaps, comes the answer, if they remain in Russia or the satellites. But if they have firsthand contact with the West, it will be impossible. And now that the Soviets of Khrushchev, Bulganin & Co. are willing to permit exchanges, the West is indeed foolish if it does not agree to them.

Copyright © 1956 by The Atlantic Monthly. All rights reserved.
August 1956; Washington Report.

Sun, 16 Apr 2017 17:19:00 -0500 text/html
Killexams : Thinking Forward

In the months after taking office as the 28th president of William & Mary, Katherine A. Rowe hosted town hall forums and social media events on the Future of Knowledge, Work and Service. From more than 800 data points generated during the process, three overarching ideas developed:

  • Deep human connection is a hallmark of William & Mary.
  • The intersection of diverse modes has increasing value (fields of knowledge, skills in work and integration of service).
  • Sophistication in bridging difference, cultivated in an inclusive community, enriches our lives – at work, in service, and, most importantly, in relationships with others.

In November, President Rowe began reflecting back the input to affirm and refine those themes.

Katherine Rowe at the Future of Work forum“We’re always thinking strategically, and managing strategically. This work is not confined to a five-year or 10-year planning process, though it has defined moments that punctuate and synthesize the process. The process of strategy is best driven by widely-shared aspirations and a core sense of identity — what we have been defining all semester.”More about thinking forward...

What We've Heard

Responses gathered during the listening phase helped identify emerging themes.

Thinking Forward Wordclouds

Tue, 21 Aug 2018 03:21:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : What Is a Master of Business Administration (MBA)?

What Is a Master of Business Administration (MBA)?

A master of business administration (MBA) is a graduate degree that provides theoretical and practical training for business or investment management. An MBA is designed to help graduates gain a better understanding of general business management functions.

An MBA degree can have a general focus or a specific focus in fields such as accounting, finance, or marketing, and relationship management.

Key Takeaways

  • An MBA is a graduate business degree focused on management, business, and entrepreneurship.
  • MBA students can also focus on other aspects of business, like finance or risk management.
  • Many schools now offer specialty programs, like sports management, the entertainment business, or healthcare management.
  • Executive MBA programs are available for experienced professionals who cannot commit to a full-time schedule.
  • MBA programs may be full-time, part-time, online, or international, and each program usually has a varying degree of requirements for acceptance.

MBA Vs Executive MBA: Which Is Better?

How a Master of Business Administration (MBA) Works

A master of business administration (MBA) is a level up from an undergraduate business degree and generally places the graduate well above those with only undergraduate degrees. Most major universities and colleges provide MBA programs, which usually last two years. To get into an MBA program, an applicant needs to take the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) and be accepted by the program based on its selection criteria.

MBA programs typically include core classes in accounting, management, finance, marketing, and business law. Management training is at the heart of any MBA curriculum, with a focus on leadership, planning, business strategy, organizational behavior, and the more human sides of running a large or small business.

Increasingly, MBA programs are broadening their focus to include training in international business and to focus on the responsibilities and corporate accountability of businesses within their communities.

The MBA degree is seen as essential to enter certain fields, including strategic planning, hedge funds, and private equity firms. Other financial services fields, however, may no longer consider an MBA an entry-level degree to get started.

It is not uncommon to gain professional experience before applying to an MBA program. Many programs require a work resume and demonstration of real world experience prior to joining the program, while other programs may be suitable for candidates straight out of college.

Types of MBA Programs

MBA programs will vary between disciplines, specialties, and schools. It is highly likely that MBA candidates are able to find a solution that works for their schedule, interests, and time commitment restraints.

Two-Year Full-Time

One of the most common types of MBA programs is a two-year commitment in which candidates attend school full-time. During the first year of the program, MBA candidates may learn more fundamental business skills such as strategy or communication. It's more common for candidates to choose more specific electives during the candidate's second year.

Although requiring a substantial amount of time, a two-year program allows candidates to pursue an internship between the years. The longer duration is also intended to help foster relationships with classmates and supply candidates more time to absorb materials.

One-Year Full-Time

Accelerated programs crunch a two-year program into a single year. Better for candidates that don't want to spend too much time away from work, this type of MBA program is more intensive, faster paced, and often must sacrifice content quantity.

During a one-year full-time MBA program, candidates may still learn general business skills while selecting specialized electives. However, less time may be dedicated to either group due to the condensed nature of the coursework. One-year programs are often chosen by students trying to accelerate on their current career path as opposed to jumping to a different career path.


Students not looking to leave work and willing to attend school for a longer time may pursue a part-time MBA program. This type of program often has greater flexibility on how many courses can be taken at once and how quickly a student must move through the MBA program.

Part-time programs may be more favorable for candidates wanting to study at their own pace. In addition, part-time programs may be better suited based on lifestyle demands (i.e. a single parent may only be able to attend classes during a certain time of the day). Part-time programs may offer the flexibility of evening or weekend classes, allowing candidates to balance part-time, freelance, or gig economy work.


One type of MBA program that overlaps with the options above is an online MBA. Often a two-year, one-year, or part-time option, an online MBA allows students to attend school remotely. This type of MBA program grants candidates even greater flexibility around when they take classes and how they attend school. Online programs may also have different approaches on how to foster collaboration compared to in-person options.


Some MBA programs focus on global operations. Candidates interested in a wider focus wanting to branch out from just domestic companies or segments of a company can help candidates build an international network and foster opportunities around the world. International MBA candidates may be more diverse than traditional or domestic MBAs, especially if the international MBA offers online classes. In addition, international MBA programs may be better suited to prepare candidates for working in a multinational corporation.


Specialized MBA programs are also available for students whose lives and careers do not permit them to attend school full time. For example, executive MBA programs are designed for working professionals hoping to add to their credentials and qualifications. These courses of study typically schedule classes for nights and weekends, sometimes also requiring short residencies of intensive coursework.

Executive MBA programs are typically only open to candidates who already have substantial professional experience, and they thus tend to focus on more advanced subjects such as leadership development.


While MBA candidates can focus on one of the core disciplines of the degree, such as management or finance, many MBA programs allow students to develop concentrations in specific industries. For example, an MBA student might specialize in sports management, entrepreneurship, the entertainment business, or healthcare management.

Even within a management specialty, MBA degrees can allow a concentration on information technology, hospitality, education, or criminal justice. Some MBA programs team up with various professional healthcare programs, such as nursing schools, to offer joint degrees.

MBA programs will have varying length requirements. For example, a degree at Franklin University typically requires 60 credit hours, while the University of Nebraska Omaha program is comprised of 33 credit hours.

Special Considerations

The most prestigious MBA programs are nicknamed "M7 MBA Programs". These schools include:

  • Harvard Business School.
  • Stanford Graduate School of Business.
  • MIT Sloan School of Management.
  • Northwestern University's Kellogg School of Management.
  • University of Chicago's Booth School of Business.
  • Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania.
  • Columbia Business School.

Acceptance into an M7 school is considered more difficult than obtaining acceptance at non-M7 schools. In addition, tuition is substantially higher at M7 schools, though there is usually financial aid, fellowships, or sponsorships available.

MBA Degrees Uses

Broadly speaking, an MBA gives degree holders two uses: accelerated advancement in the career they are already pursuing or a strong pivot in a new direction with a newfound skillset.

The Wharton MBA through the University of Pennsylvania communicates the following benefits and uses of an MBA to its prospective candidates:

  • Greater Awareness of a Global Market. Candidates can use their MBA to better understand what is going on in different areas of the world.
  • Improve Communication Skills. MBA candidates often must communicate with other professionals, write research papers, and supply formal presentations. MBA candidates can use their coursework to Improve their ability to connect with others and build relationships.
  • Expand Professional Network. An MBA degree can be used for the people met along the way. Meeting others, forging relationships, and building a network is a central benefit of an MBA program. In addition to the knowledge obtained, the MBA program can be used to connect with others with the prospect of mutual long-term benefit with your peers. Through formal or informal networking, you can exchange information or ideas with like-minded individuals.
  • Increased Job Opportunities. MBA candidates are often more desirable compared to other candidates based on their proven skillset and dedication to their profession. In addition, advancement or higher positions may become available to candidates that would otherwise not be considered for roles.
  • Better Time Management. MBA candidates may have to juggle school, work, family, and life obligations. An often overlooked use of an MBA program is the soft skill practice of managing priorities, meeting deadlines, and organizing one's time to meet all expectations.

Over the past decade, more Americans are prioritizing higher education. In 2021, 24.1 million U.S. citizens age 25 and over held a Masters (not necessarily MBA) degrees. This is an increase of over 8 million citizens compared to 2011.

MBA Degree Candidate Requirements

Every MBA program will have different requirements. More prestigious programs or schools will have more competition, and these programs will often require more of candidates before accepting them into the school. For example, the following list is taken from the University of Washington (Bothell)'s MBA program admission requirements:

  • Two or more years of full-time, professional-level work experience.
  • Two (or more) short application essays.
  • Two professional referees.
  • Official 4-year Bachelor's degree transcript.
  • Demonstration of English Language Proficiency (program and candidate dependent)
  • Minimum 3.0-grade point average for the past 90 quarter credits or 60-semester credits.
  • Interview with admissions committee before acceptance or decision.

Some programs may require submission of a GMAT/GRE score. Other programs like UW-Bothell may temporarily have waived the requirement.

MBA Degree Cost

As programs offer different services and benefits, the cost of an MBA will widely vary between program and school. Top-tier MBA programs will often be more expensive than local, smaller options.

In 2022, the first-year budget for the Wharton MBA program was almost $119,000. This includes $85,000 for tuition, $23,000 for room and board, $7,000 for books and supplies, and $4,000 for health insurance. Wharton offers many Fellowship Programs to alleviate the financial burden of the program. Other two-year, full-time programs may yield similar expenses; an estimated two-year program at the University of Chicago cost almost $156,000.

Shorter-term or online programs may be substantially cheaper. For example, an online MBA at the Eller College of Management through the University of Arizona will cost $51,525. The program is promoted as completable in as little as 14 months.

MBA Salary Benefits

The result of an MBA is often to have greater skills, capabilities, and professional competency that will lead to a more successful career. Though an MBA results in a material short-term expense, the intention is to often recover this cover over time with a higher salary.

According to Glassdoor, an MBA at the end of 2021 received an average annual compensation package of roughly $106,000. Salary has historically been skewed towards degree holders with experience. Individuals with one year or less of experience earned less than $104,000 per year, while individuals with greater than 15 years of experience earned more than $144,000.

By comparison, MBA holders often make substantially more than undergraduate business majors. A 2019 study by William & Mary found MBA holders' salary was twice as high as Bachelor's degree holders.

What Does MBA Mean?

MBA stands for Masters of Business Administration. An MBA is an advanced degree that provides theoretical and practical training in business principles and leadership skills. MBA recipients obtain this postgraduate degree to further enhance their marketability as a professional.

What Is the Salary of an MBA?

As of December 2021, an MBA earns an estimated total pay of $106,000 per year. Pay is widely contingent on the industry, company, and underlying position occupied by the degree hold er. For example, the same salary data indicates a possible salary range between $45,000 to $518,000 per year for an MBA.

What Is an MBA Good for?

An MBA is good for two primary purposes. First, business professionals that obtain an MBA undergo a rigorous set of classes that Improve the candidate's skillset. At the end of an MBA program, the MBA candidate should have learned new skills, expanded their network, better understand how to strategically approach problems, and be a more competent professional.

In turn, the second primary benefit of an MBA is a higher degree of desirability with one's employer. Armed with a greater skillset, MBA candidates often have an advantage during job searches and may command higher pay. In general, possessing an MBA often makes an employee more desirable for a company to hire and retain.

What Are the Disadvantages of an MBA?

Obtaining an MBA is considered a very strenuous endeavor. For starters, MBAs are usually more difficult to get into. Candidates may find it demanding to compile a resume impressive enough to be accepted into their goal program. MBA programs may also be expensive. Not only is there is a considerable financial burden, MBA candidates may have to scale back or step away from work as they pursue their degree. Though an MBA carries substantial long-term value, there are several short-term hurdles a candidate must overcome.

Fri, 30 Jan 2015 07:01:00 -0600 en text/html
Killexams : Moving Forward Together

W&M Alumni Magazine
Winter 2019

William & Mary's 326-year history is impressive. Through wars and depredations, William & Mary has risen to national recognition as a premier institution of higher education. Our path has been full of turns, some swift, some long. Along the way, William & Mary has changed in order to sustain and realize what we value most.

That approach to change has long inspired me: in the process of transformation, we discover and clarify shared values; via transformation, we deliver on those values. I have had this mantra at front of mind this semester as — together with many members of our community — I have explored William & Mary’s aspirations for the future. In a series of open, town hall–style conversations, along with web and social media forums, we have been “Thinking Forward.” Our conversations focused on three core mission areas: knowledge, work and service.

Early takeaways from our “Future of Knowledge” conversation

Our September conversation, “The Future of Knowledge: Teaching, Research and Learning,” filled the Integrated Science Center auditorium. At one point, I asked faculty to reflect on what is changing in their disciplines. It was a profound moment when more than one colleague — from the humanities and the sciences — answered, “Everything.”

Future of KnowledgeFaculty described with excitement how the student body is changing to reflect the commonwealth and the nation. Our students are more diverse and bring with them a wider array of experiences and preparations. They arrive with worldly concerns and tech-savvy habits of living and of mind.

Teaching practices evolve as faculty explore how to Improve student learning. In undergraduate, graduate and professional schools, faculty may “flip the classroom” using new technologies, to focus time on meaningful, high-impact activities. Across all schools, the curriculum is increasingly problem-based and collaborative. Many courses engage students in international and community-based initiatives, and hands-on research.

Insights gathered from “The Future of Work”

As we discussed how to ensure William & Mary graduates will thrive in the future, the community emphasized the increasing complexity of our working lives. Our students must graduate with expansive skill sets. accurate alumni in every profession emphasize the need for more experience gathering data and analyzing it critically. All stress the value of thinking and communicating exceptionally well, in a global context. Four essential capacities stand out in their comments: tolerating ambiguity, reflecting deeply, appreciating cultural differences and lifelong learning. Employers emphasize all of the above.

Future of Work“Current students will need to be able to adapt to future changes — that requires flexibility of mind and the ability to continue to learn new skills,” one alum reported. “Critical thinking skills will be crucial here.”

By some estimates, within a decade, half of the jobs students graduate into will be entirely new. Our alumni will reinvent and reimagine their roles many times during their careers. Learning how to manage change and solving problems collaboratively: these are the success factors many emphasize in feedback sessions.

Many students arrive at William & Mary as fluent users of digital communication tools, yet hunger for the sophistication required to navigate them as professionals and engaged citizens. Graduates who can confidently relate data and emerging technologies to deep domain knowledge in a humanistic way will be valued in every organization. This work invariably requires effective team-building and collaboration. The advantage goes to those who question their own assumptions, disagree respectfully and appreciate skills and experiences that diverge from their own.

Exploring the “Future of Service”

Students, faculty, staff and alumni value William & Mary as a place that forges deep, human connections. Our commitment to the idea that “you belong” is an important and lovely aspect of this community that all seek to strengthen. Such intentional inclusive- ness sustains the decades-long bonds we forge with each other and with the university.

Future of ServiceAlumni play a special role in the future of service: mentoring and opening opportunities for graduates. The entire community shares a desire to change the world for better, viewing a William & Mary education as the launch pad for positive action in every sector of society. During a listening forum, one group asked, “How can we develop graduates who run toward challenge rather than retreat away? Who challenge people, circumstances and ideas that divide?” Many spoke of cultivating grit and confidence, empowering our graduates to tackle the world’s toughest challenges.

Continuing the conversation: playback and feedback

Having heard these themes, and more, from William & Mary, I have started to reflect them back. Opportunities for playback and feedback ensure that we listen well. So, between now and my Inauguration on Charter Day, I welcome alumni sharing your further reflections. We will continue to update Thinking Forward as we chart together the next turns in William & Mary’s path.

Thinking Forward Wordclouds

Sun, 21 Jul 2019 07:31:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Small Business Administration (SBA): Definition and What It Does

What Is the Small Business Administration (SBA)?

The Small Business Administration (SBA) is a U.S. government agency designed to bolster and promote the economy by assisting the country’s small businesses. Established in 1953, the SBA’s primary function is to counsel individuals who want to start and grow their own businesses. It provides a series of tools on its website to assist new and existing small business owners. The agency is headed by an administrator and deputy administrator and also has a chief counsel for advocacy and inspector general—all of whom are confirmed by the Senate. The SBA has at least one office in every state, the District of Columbia, and various American territories.

Key Takeaways

  • The Small Business Administration, established in 1953, is a government agency designed to bolster and promote the economy by providing assistance to small businesses.
  • The SBA is headed by an administrator and a deputy administrator who are confirmed by the Senate.
  • The agency offers various resources to small businesses, including access to capital, entrepreneurial development, government contracting, and advocacy services.
  • The SBA’s loan guarantee program is one of its most visible elements.

Understanding the SBA

The SBA offers substantial educational information with a specific focus on assisting small businesses to develop and grow. As noted above, the agency has numerous tools for businesses that can be accessed on its website, including a small business planner and additional training programs.

According to its website, the SBA provides the following services to small businesses:

  • Access to capital: The agency offers a variety of financial resources for small businesses, including microlending, or small loans that are issued to those who wouldn't otherwise qualify for financing. Loans are issued by partner banks, credit unions, and other financial institutions.
  • Entrepreneurial development: This is driven by counseling services and low-cost training provided by the SBA and is available to both new and existing business owners in more than 1,800 locations across the United States. There's also a mentor program that connects new business owners with retired and/or existing entrepreneurs.
  • Contracting: The SBA reserves 23% in government contracting dollars for small businesses with the help of other federal departments and agencies. The agency guarantees 5% of these contracting dollars for women and another 3% for business owners who are disabled and veterans.
  • Advocacy: The agency acts as an advocate by reviewing legislation and protecting the interests of small business owners across the country. The agency also advocates for business owners at the state and federal government levels.

The agency has helped countless small businesses across the country get access to loans, loan guarantees, contracts, and other services.

Isabella Casillas Guzman is the administrator of the SBA. Prior to holding this office, she served as the director of California's Office of the Small Business Advocate. 

The SBA Loan Program

The loan programs offered through the SBA are among the agency's most visible offerings, and they come with longer repayment periods for small businesses. The agency doesn’t actually issue loans itself (with the exception of disaster relief loans). Instead, loans are backed or guaranteed by the SBA and issued directly by lenders that meet the agency’s guidelines.

Loans backed by the SBA include:

  • The 504 loan (or the grow loan), which provides a small business with up to $5.5 million in financing to buy the fixed assets it needs to run its operations, including real estate.
  • The 7(a) loan, which is the agency's primary loan program. The maximum loan amount guaranteed under this program is $5 million.
  • A disaster loan is intended to help businesses and homeowners recover from declared disasters.
  • Microloans of up to $50,000 (the average amount is about $13,000) are meant to help small businesses and some nonprofit childcare centers start up or expand.

Small businesses qualify for loans more easily when they are guaranteed by the SBA. The agency also allows entrepreneurs to make lower payments for a longer period of time. Despite numerous attempts to do away with the SBA entirely, many political officials and offices continue to support it. The SBA’s ability to offer loans was also significantly strengthened by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 and the Small Business Jobs Act of 2010.

The SBA has local offices throughout the United States and associated territories that provide more-personalized special events for small business owners. These offices provide in-person, one-on-one counseling services that include instruction on writing a business plan and assistance with small business loans.

How the SBA Can Help You Start Your Business

The SBA has many resources available for people who want to start their own small businesses. If you have an idea for a business, this section highlights some of these resources, which can take you from start to finish.

Business planning

This section of the website outlines steps and provides resources related to the development of your business. These include conducting relevant market research, developing a business plan, and funding. You can also learn about what you need to do to choose:

  • A location for your business
  • A suitable business structure
  • A business name

The SBA also provides key information about what you need to register your company, as well as how to get the appropriate tax documents, permits, and licenses. You can also find out what you need to open a business bank account.

Launching your business

Launching your business is just as important as starting it, which is why you’ll find some of the same resources from the section above seeping into this one. For instance, choosing your location will depend a lot on local zoning ordinances and laws. It will also affect the kind of incentives and taxes that apply to your organization.

The SBA's website has more information on these subjects and also provides information on business insurance, which is a very important part of safeguarding your interests. It helps protect your business from any unforeseen losses that take place during normal operations.

How the SBA Can Help You Manage and Grow Your Business

The agency doesn’t just help people start and launch their own businesses; it also has resources available to help manage and grow them.


You can learn valuable tips and tricks on how to manage your finances, hire employees, and pay taxes. Other important information includes staying compliant, how-tos for purchasing assets, and marketing and sales strategies.

Because cybersecurity is a key threat to many businesses, the SBA also provides some common sense tips to stay safe. This section can help business owners spot some of the most common scams (such as malware and ransomware) and understand and assess their risk. They can also use some of the agency's best practices to avoid cyber attacks and access SBA training and events.

This section also deals with hiring people with disabilities, what to do when you must close your business, and how to recover from disasters.

Growing your business

It isn’t enough just to learn how to start and run your business, which is why the SBA also has resources to help you grow. Some of the aids in this section cover how to access additional funding, how to expand, and what to expect from mergers and acquisitions (M&A).

Part of the SBA’s mandate is to guarantee a certain percentage of federal contracts to small business owners. As such, the agency encourages businesses to become federal contractors and has an easy registration process. You can also get the resources you need to Improve your bottom line, via connecting with partners to help export your products and services.

You’ll also find useful information about different types of businesses, such as those owned by women, Native Americans, veterans, minorities, and members of the LGBTQ+ community, as well as rural businesses.

The History of the SBA

The SBA was established by President Dwight Eisenhower when he signed the Small Business Act in the summer of 1953. It replaced the Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC), which was created under President Herbert Hoover in 1932 after the Great Depression. The mandate of the newly formed SBA was to aid and protect the country’s small businesses and ensure that they received a fair portion of government contracts and surplus property sales.

The SBA has had a rocky history. In 1996 the agency was under threat of being eliminated by the House of Representatives. However, the agency survived this threat and went on to receive a record budget in 2000. There was also a lot of resistance to its loan program, which led to repeated cuts between 2001 and 2004. That’s when certain SBA expenditures were frozen altogether.

Small business owners were among some of the hardest hit during the COVID-19 pandemic. The SBA helped these owners, providing them with two different types of funding:

  • Economic Injury Disaster Loan (EIDL): This program was designed to let businesses use approved funds for working capital and other day-to-day expenses. As capital is loaned, it must be repaid. The SBA stopped accepting applications as of Jan. 1, 2022, and as of May 6, 2022, stopped accepting loan increase requests or requests for reconsideration of loan applications that had previously been declined.
  • EIDL Advance Programs: Funds were granted to people who filed for EIDL assistance as long as they met certain criteria. Unlike the loan program, funds approved through this program don’t have to be repaid.

What Does the Small Business Administration (SBA) Do?

The Small Business Administration (SBA) is a U.S. government agency that provides assistance to small business owners. It has a series of tools available for new and existing entrepreneurs. Its goals include providing business owners with access to capital, developing entrepreneurial spirit, reserving contracting dollars for certain business owners, and advocating on behalf of small business owners.

Where Does the SBA Get Its Funding?

The SBA receives an annual budget approved by the federal government. This money goes toward salaries, grant and loan programs, and administrative costs. Keep in mind that the SBA doesn’t actually provide loans to small businesses. Instead, the majority of loans issued to small business owners through SBA programs are guaranteed by the agency and issued by approved financial institutions and other lenders. This source of capital helps individuals start and grow their businesses.

Who Qualifies for an SBA Grant?

The SBA generally doesn’t issue grants, but it does to certain organizations that promote entrepreneurship in their communities. These include nonprofit organizations, organizations that provide their communities with training and funding (known as “resource partners”), and educational organizations. Grants are not provided to owners who want to expand an existing business or to startups.

The Bottom Line

The SBA is the federal government’s main resource for nurturing the growth of small businesses in the U.S. It not only provides loans, mostly through third parties, to help start or grow your business; it also offers plenty of programs designed to increase your knowledge and expertise in keeping your business healthy, from how to pay taxes to marketing and sales to cybersecurity and more.

The SBA doesn’t normally issue any grants, except for a few that go to organizations, many of them nonprofit, that promote entrepreneurship in their communities. It also advocates on behalf of small business owners. Local offices exist in all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and American territories. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the SBA provided crucial financial support through both loans and grants to the small-business community, which was gravely impacted by the crisis.

Tue, 04 Aug 2015 03:18:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Guide To Jobs In Healthcare Administration: 6 Roles To Consider

Editorial Note: We earn a commission from partner links on Forbes Advisor. Commissions do not affect our editors' opinions or evaluations.

In every hospital, clinic, medical practice and healthcare organization, you can find professionals working to keep the organization operating smoothly so patients can receive the best care possible.

These workers help you register at outpatient clinics. They make sure the facility has adequately trained staff. They ensure the secure handling of medical records. Health facilities couldn’t operate without these people working jobs in healthcare administration.

A healthcare administration career allows you to work in the medical field without directly treating patients. If you’re considering a career in healthcare administration, you can choose from many options.

This article explores jobs in healthcare administration, including education requirements, typical salaries and information on relevant professional organizations.

What Is Healthcare Administration?

In a broad sense, healthcare administration encompasses the many daily processes involved in running a medical facility or healthcare organization. This may vary among health facilities depending on the type of organization and the specific roles people fill within it. It takes healthcare administration professionals at all levels to ensure an organization operates effectively, efficiently and with excellent patient care at the forefront.

Daily Responsibilities

Daily responsibilities in the healthcare administration field vary by position. For instance, a health information specialist’s day involves managing computer systems that collect and store patient data. A hospital administrator may spend time monitoring budgets, managing staff and overseeing hospital functions. A medical director may manage medical staff or select qualified physicians and other medical professionals for a hospital.

Work Environment

Healthcare administration professionals work in hospitals, outpatient clinics, medical departments, insurance agencies, private practices, nursing homes, government agencies, and other medical organizations and companies.

Some jobs in healthcare administration are front-facing positions, where employees interact with patients to schedule appointments and gather insurance information. Other roles require behind-the-scenes work with computer systems or billing and insurance.

Challenges in Healthcare Administration

Healthcare administration professionals face some challenges, which may vary among organizations. Below we list a few common challenges for healthcare administration careers.

Shortage of Qualified Healthcare Workers

Many healthcare organizations don’t have enough qualified healthcare workers, including nurses, imaging technicians and nursing assistants. Healthcare administrators are often responsible for staffing these roles, which can be stressful and require long working hours.

Financial Challenges

As healthcare costs continue to rise, it may become more difficult for Americans to access quality, affordable healthcare. Healthcare administrators must find ways to reduce costs while still providing excellent care and maintaining sustainable budgets.

Healthcare Policy Changes

Healthcare policy is always evolving, and healthcare administrators must adapt to changing policies and regulations to ensure their organizations are compliant.


Healthcare administrators frequently deal with new technologies, such as computerized patient records systems, robotics and 3D-printed devices. These professionals may be responsible for ensuring their healthcare organizations are using the most up-to-date technologies available, which can require additional funds and employee training.

Careers in Healthcare Administration

What can you do with a healthcare administration degree? This field offers job opportunities in entry-level, management and executive-level positions. Below are a few popular jobs in healthcare administration, along with their educational requirements and salaries. We sourced salary information from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics and Payscale.

Medical Records Specialist

Median Annual Salary: $47,180
Minimum Required Education: Associate or bachelor’s degree in healthcare administration or a similar subject; high school diploma or GED® certificate sometimes sufficient; medical billing and coding certification often preferred
Job Overview: Medical records specialists gather, record and store confidential data about patients, such as their medical conditions and test results. They use a coding system to classify diagnoses and medical procedures. To learn more, see our guide: What Is Medical Billing and Coding?

Medical Secretary

Median Annual Salary: $38,500
Minimum Required Education: Associate degree in healthcare administration or a related field
Job Overview: Medical secretaries work in doctors’ offices, hospitals, clinics and other medical offices. They provide secretarial support to physicians and medical practitioners, which may include managing other staff members, ordering supplies, writing correspondence, recording patient data, and other clerical and administrative duties.

Health Information Technologist

Median Annual Salary: $58,250
Minimum Required Education: Associate degree; bachelor’s degree sometimes preferred; professional certification sometimes required
Job Overview: Health information technologists work with computerized healthcare systems and data at hospitals, clinics, doctors’ offices and other medical organizations. They store and ensure the integrity of patient data. They may also train staff members to use these computerized systems.

Medical and Health Services Manager

Median Annual Salary: $104,830
Minimum Required Education: Bachelor’s degree
Job Overview: Medical and health services managers plan and oversee healthcare services at hospitals, clinics, medical practices, assisted living facilities and other medical facilities. They may oversee budgets, hire and manage staff members, and ensure their organizations meet state and federal compliance requirements.

Clinical Manager

Average Annual Salary: Approximately $75,700
Minimum Required Education: Bachelor’s degree
Job Overview: Clinical managers oversee departments at clinics and other medical facilities. They also work in other healthcare offices, such as primary care practices. Clinical managers hire and supervise staff members, monitor budgets and expenditures, and ensure their offices meet regulatory compliance requirements.

Hospital Administrator

Average Annual Salary: Approximately $90,700
Minimum Required Education: Bachelor’s or master’s in healthcare administration or a related field
Job Overview: Hospital administrators manage daily operations at hospitals. They hire and manage staff, monitor budgets and expenditures, create improvement plans, and ensure their facilities comply with local and federal laws. Hospital administrators implement their organizations’ core values, goals and visions on a day-to-day basis.

Professional Organizations for Healthcare Administrators

American Association of Healthcare Administrative Management (AAHAM)

AAHAM focuses on the revenue cycle in the healthcare industry. It serves management and front-line staff working with financial aspects of healthcare. AAHAM provides educational resources, a job bank, networking opportunities, professional certifications and information on legislative issues relevant to the industry.

American College of Healthcare Executives (ACHE)

ACHE provides healthcare executives with educational programs, activities, networking opportunities, scholarships, career development and other resources. Members of this international professional organization serve in leadership roles in hospitals, healthcare systems and healthcare organizations.

Association for Healthcare Administrative Professionals (AHCAP)

AHCAP serves administrative assistants, executive assistants and other administrative professionals who provide support to healthcare leaders. It provides educational opportunities, professional development, career assistance and networking opportunities.

American Health Information Management Association (AHIMA)

AHIMA represents health information professionals as a leading authority in health information. It provides networking opportunities, professional development, career guidance, industry news, professional certifications and mentoring.

Healthcare Financial Management Association (HFMA)

HFMA provides healthcare financial professionals with networking opportunities, regulatory updates, digital publications, salary benchmarks, certifications, educational opportunities and other resources.

Healthcare Information and Management Systems (HIMSS)

HMISS aims to use information technology to reform the global health ecosystem. Its members include individuals, corporations, nonprofit partners and organizational affiliates. HMISS provides networking opportunities, education resources, events, and opportunities to participate in roundtables and committees.

Medical Group Management Association (MGMA)

MGMA focuses on medical practice management. Open to individual medical practice leaders and organizations, MGMA provides its members with training and education, networking opportunities, government advocacy, federal policy resources and career resources.

National Association of Healthcare Access Management (NAHAM)

NAHAM supports patient access professionals in providing quality services, such as guest relations, admissions, scheduling and registration. NAHAM provides networking opportunities, education and training, professional certifications and other resources.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) About Healthcare Administration Careers

What is the career path of a healthcare administrator?

As a healthcare administrator, your career path depends on your specific role. For example, if you want to be a hospital administrator, you should start by earning at least a bachelor’s degree, and some employers require a master’s degree. You should also gain some work experience in the healthcare field.

Is healthcare administration a good career choice?

If you want to work in healthcare and build your leadership skills, but you don’t want to be a healthcare provider who treats patients, healthcare administration may be a good field for you. Healthcare administrators can make above-average salaries and enjoy steady demand.

What degree is best for healthcare administration?

If you want to work in a management-level position in healthcare administration, aim to earn at least a bachelor’s degree. Some employers prefer or require master’s degrees for high-level positions. Some may accept a high school diploma or an associate degree for entry-level jobs.

Sun, 23 Jul 2023 03:47:00 -0500 Sheryl Grey en-US text/html
Killexams : Federal Judge Blocks Biden Administration’s New Asylum Policy

A federal judge struck down on Tuesday a stringent new asylum policy that the Biden administration has called crucial to its efforts to curb illegal crossings along the U.S.-Mexico border.

The ruling was a blow to the White House, which has seen unlawful entries plunge since the new policy was put in place in May. But the policy has been far from the only factor in the dramatic decline in crossings, and how the ruling on Tuesday will affect migration, if it stands, is uncertain.

The judge, Jon S. Tigar of the U.S. District Court in Northern California, immediately stayed his decision for 14 days, leaving the asylum policy in place while the federal government appealed the decision. The appellate court could extend the stay while it considers the challenge.

Under the policy, most people are disqualified from applying for asylum if they have crossed into the United States without either securing an appointment at an official port of entry or proving that they sought legal protection in another country along the way.

Immigrant advocacy groups who sued the administration said that the policy violated immigration law, which says that foreigners who reach U.S. soil are entitled to request asylum, regardless of how they entered the country.

Judge Tigar, in a 35-page decision, said he had found the policy, which had been in effect since May 12, “both substantively and procedurally invalid” and he noted that in 2019, he struck down a similar rule put in place by the Trump administration.

“The court concludes that the rule is contrary to law because it presumes ineligible for asylum noncitizens who enter between ports of entry, using a manner of entry that Congress expressly intended should not affect access to asylum,” the judge wrote.

But the situation on the southern border has changed considerably in accurate months. Mexican authorities have stepped up efforts to turn back migrants trying to reach the United States, and a new app rolled out by the U.S. government this year has provided an orderly way for people seeking asylum to be processed into the country at the southern border.

The Biden administration introduced the asylum rule when it ended a public health measure known as Title 42, under which illegal crossers were swiftly expelled. Since then, the number of migrants apprehended at the southern border has plummeted: In June, fewer than 100,000 people were arrested, the lowest figure since February 2021.

Civil rights groups lauded the judge’s decision, but said that migrants remained vulnerable as long as the rule remained in place.

“The ruling is a victory, but each day the Biden administration prolongs the fight over its illegal ban, many people fleeing persecution and seeking safe harbor for their families are instead left in grave danger,” Katrina Eiland, deputy director of the Immigrants’ Rights Project of the American Civil Liberties Union, who argued the case for the plaintiffs, said in a statement.

The Homeland Security secretary, Alejandro N. Mayorkas, said the administration strongly disagreed with the decision. With the policy still in place while the decision is appealed, he added, migrants who did not follow the current rule would face stiff consequences.

The strategy of returning to the same judge who found the Trump administration’s rule unlawful paid off for immigrant advocates, said Kathleen Bush-Joseph, a policy analyst at the Migration Policy Institute, a nonpartisan research group.

The plaintiffs argued that the rule was procedurally unlawful because the public had not been given enough time to comment on it. Judge Tigar, nominated by President Barack Obama, agreed, writing that the administration had failed to comply with the Administrative Procedure Act, which mandates adequate opportunity for public comment.

The administration argued in court that the policy had prevented chaos at the border and that unlawful crossings would spike if it were rescinded, straining government resources and creating dangerous conditions like overcrowding in migrant processing facilities.

The end of Title 42 had led to predictions from many quarters, including from the Biden administration itself, of a new surge in border crossings. But a surge had already been happening in the weeks before Title 42 ended, and the weeks after saw strikingly few crossings.

The administration credited a range of policies, including the new asylum rule, for helping prevent surges in migrants.

Mexican authorities have been intercepting some migrants who cross into Mexico from the south, and have been returning them to Guatemala or otherwise preventing them from journeying north to the U.S. border.

New U.S. programs have enabled several hundred thousand people to legally enter this year for stays of at least two years, provided they have a financial sponsor or an active visa application to reunite with relatives.

Asylum seekers already near the U.S.-Mexico border are instructed to use a U.S. government app to schedule an appointment to present themselves at land ports of entry. While the program has some glitches, and many people wait months for an open slot, the number of appointments available has steadily increased, to about 40,000 a month. And the policy has helped calm the border, where federal agents apprehended 2.4 million people fleeing poverty, political repression and violence in the 2022 fiscal year, which ended on Sept. 30.

Judge Tigar was not swayed, however, by the administration’s new legal alternatives, or parole programs, saying that they were not “meaningful options” for many people seeking asylum.

“The rule generally relies on the parole programs for Cuban, Haitian, Nicaraguan, Venezuelan and Ukrainian nationals,” he wrote. “These programs are country-specific and are not universally available, even to the covered populations.”

The contested rule presumptively denies asylum to those who have entered the United States illegally. Migrants apprehended at the border face expedited removal, unless they can justify being exempt from the policy — often without time to secure a lawyer to help them.

The odds of ultimately securing asylum are low, but asylum seekers can live in the United States while their cases are pending in the backlogged courts.

“Once in the immigration court system, they are eligible for employment authorization,” Blas Nuñez-Neto, a senior official at the Homeland Security Department, said last week. “That means they have years to live in the U.S. and earn money and support families back home,” he said during a discussion hosted by the Migration Policy Institute. “All these factors are drawing people.”

There are more than two million pending cases in immigration court, and about four out of 10 are asylum applications. Speaking at the Migration Policy Institute event, David Neal, director of the Executive Office for Immigration Review at the Justice Department, estimated that for the current fiscal year, about one million new cases would be filed. Though new judges have been added and the process has been streamlined, he said, the courts would probably complete only about 500,000 cases for the year.

Seamus Hughes contributed reporting.

Tue, 25 Jul 2023 09:21:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Another move: Sedgwick County thinking of buying this downtown building for admin offices No result found, try new keyword!"That allows you to make an informed decision on the best option for our county administration moving forward," Cole said. Murfin Plaza, now headquarters for Murfin Drilling Company, has 200 ... Wed, 02 Aug 2023 12:48:00 -0500 en-us text/html
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