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There are many who aspire to hold prestigious positions at big corporate houses, but very few are willing to work hard enough for it. Such positions can be achieved by only those who love what they do. Dr Aloknath De is one of them. He calls himself a ‘missionpreneur.’ He refuses to box himself and loves to think out of the box. He does not become comfortable in a setting as he likes to do things outside his comfort zone. He has been Samsung India’s first CTO besides many more achievements to his credit. This is Dr Aloknath De’s story, as told to EFY’s Siddha Dhar.

Born in the spiritual town of Nabadwip Dham in West Bengal, Aloknath had the influence of holy men on him from a very young age. Even though his family migrated to Kolkata soon after he turned a year old, Aloknath credits his birthplace for teaching him the lessons of renunciation, finding fulfillment in life, and cherishing it.

Aloknath’s father picked up his LLB degree out of passion while working as a gazetted officer at the Food Corporation of India. Under his tutelage, Aloknath was home-schooled till the age of six. A rigorous man, it was he who built the strong foundation of science and mathematics for Aloknath.

Aloknath recalls, “He was a very disciplined person, and he influenced my love for science. So, taking up science after 10th standard was a very natural choice.” Aloknath went to a proper school only when he was in the 2nd standard. While home-schooling provided him with the basic skills, he gained ‘interactive intelligence’ only after he went to school.

Aloknath says, “I realised that natural intelligence, or the ability to react in a situation, comes only when you interact and talk with more and more people. The more you converse, the more you grow.”

Aloknath’s mother, a homemaker, has always been soft-natured. She is an epitome of love and affection. This fusion of hard and soft behaviour of parents is what Aloknath tries to maintain in his own life as well, even today. In fact, his leadership mantra is: “Be Hard on Goal, Be Soft on Soul.”

Diligent from childhood, it was quite natural for Aloknath to be a topper in his school. But by the time he was in 6th standard, a sense of restlessness loomed over him. “It gave me a feeling of accomplishment in the beginning, but then it made me feel as if I was not being challenged enough.” This notion of not ever getting too comfortable in something was a lesson that has driven Aloknath all through his life.

Thought Leadership presentation by Dr Aloknath De
Thought Leadership presentation by Dr Aloknath De

On the lookout for more competition to raise his accomplishment bar, Aloknath decided to appear for a Central government merit scholarship programme, which allowed him to study in a residential school of his choice. And he got admission in Ramakrishna Mission (RKM) Residential School in Purulia—a district 250km away from Kolkata.

Though he had the option to choose a school in Kolkata and stay near his family, Aloknath decided not to base his choice on emotions, and rather grab the opportunity to live and operate independently. The pangs of separation from his parents and siblings struck him in the initial phase. But Aloknath knew that he was accountable for the decision that he had taken and that he had to stick to it—a lesson that he would recall again, years later.

A Few Lessons from Dr Aloknath De’s Story

  • ABC of Achievement—Align (your thoughts), Beam (your energy), Collaborate (your ecosystem)
  • Infuse lateral thinking, when needed, before making decisions rationally
  • Keep your mind open to learning new things; continuous learning is of essence
  • Get out of your comfort zone; perturb a bit when too comfortable. Bring stability from comfort zone and growth from outside the comfort zone
  • Building zero-to-one has different challenge than scaling one-to-infinity
  • What is interesting about life is that sometimes taking an apparent step back can help you leap forward by ten steps
  • Your unique way of doing and supporting will always be valued by the community

Although his father was a strong influence in his life, it was his monk headmaster at RKM whom Aloknath regards as his role model. “He was a man of such purity. He had mastery over multiple languages. Once I was writing an essay about the river Ganges. I showed him the first draft and he helped me make it better—his knowledge was profound. I would say it was the best piece in Bengali that I have ever written.”

It is not surprising that science and math were his favourite subjects. But Aloknath was not excellent in academics alone, he also took active part in school debates, elocutions, recitation competitions, and so on. He even appeared on numerous TV debate shows broadcast by Doordarshan.

A rational thinker since childhood, Aloknath quickly figured out that his heart lay in engineering. When he was in the 11th standard, he decided to share this with his father, who was then disappointed with his decision. “My father wanted to be a doctor, but it was not possible due to financial constraints. He was hoping that I would become a physician, but I chose engineering. I remember it was a long-drawn evening discussion with my father and uncle. They tried very hard to change my mind.”

Aloknath did not budge from his goal and readied himself to prepare for the next chapter in his life.

IIT and finding his calling

A large chunk of Aloknath’s future plans began taking shape in his undergraduate years that he spent at IIT Kharagpur. While studying Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE), he remained a high-achiever here too. Having done his secondary education in a Bengali-medium school, the fluency with which some students at IIT spoke English alarmed him. But he did not let it intimidate him. He remained headstrong and mastered the language pretty soon.

At an institute of IIT’s stature—where the brightest minds of the country came to make their dreams come true—Aloknath found there were many who were just as meritorious as him. But he took it as a blessing in disguise, as he was always looking for a more competitive space where his limits could be tested, and his mind could expand.

Aloknath says, “It’s important to accept that some people are better than you at something and it’s absolutely okay to be not as good as them. But what is important is to bring yourself to a minimum threshold level on attributes that matter in life and excel in a few dimensions.”

As his world-view expanded and he met more people, Aloknath found his calling—telecommunications—at IIT Kharagpur a fascinating field indeed! “I saw the power of communications and how it helped people stay connected remotely. I saw how it could compete with transportation and thought it was revolutionary.”

The realisation didn’t occur overnight, though. He spent months and months memorizing books and magazines, listening to radio, and talking to people to soak in as much information as possible and then come to this conclusion. “Inquisitiveness to explore makes a big difference. When you keep your queries alive, one fine morning you’ll come across some information that makes you pause. And you take a moment to think about it and ask further questions. It is in this process of asking and answering these questions that you realise what you are drawn to.”

A three-step process Aloknath likes to follow for his goal is ABC of Achievement: Align (your thoughts), Beam (your energy), and Collaborate (your ecosystem). As he began the seeding for his future roles, he realised how telecommunication systems could be built with hardware and then-new software elements. He also started appreciating how engineering deployment could complement technological innovations.

Dream job and memories at IISc

The unpredictability of life is enthralling. It makes you do things you never intended to, and gives you results you never expected. Although Aloknath had planned to pursue his master’s degree after IIT and even got admission to a US university, a financial crisis forced him to start working right after his graduation in 1985. Yet, he did not let this setback derail him from his plans.

Thankfully for Aloknath, he found his way to Bharat Electronics Ltd (BEL). In an era when MNCs did not rule the subcontinent, PSUs were the dream job of many, and Aloknath was no different.

But, while joining BEL, he knew what his ultimate goal was—to learn telecommunication systems as much as he could.

At BEL, he was part of a team that built a low-flying target detection radar, which was the first indigenously built radar system: INDRA 1. Till date, INDRA series of radars are deployed on the borders of India.

His role in BEL, Sahibabad needed him to travel a lot to the headquarters in Bangalore (now Bengaluru). He made it a rule to take a different route during each of his trips. This was his way of having fun and exploring the country while working. As he travelled the length and breadth of India, Aloknath’s mantra to always go out of his comfort zone found more strength. “Even today, whenever I see that I’m getting too comfortable, I try to find new things to do that make me uncomfortable for a while.”

But going out of your comfort zone can be scary besides being uncomfortable. How did he tackle that? He says, “The trick is to keep yourself anchored 50% in comfort and unsettle the rest. Going completely out of your comfort zone makes it probably very risky. Bring stability from the comfort zone, and growth from outside the comfort zone.”

Dr Aloknath De with former IT Minister of Karnataka at Innovate Karnataka Launch
Dr Aloknath De with former IT Minister of Karnataka at Innovate Karnataka Launch

After a two-year stint at BEL, Aloknath went on to pursue his master’s degree from another premier institute of India—IISc Bangalore. A fond memory of IISc that he holds close to his heart, beyond studies, is how he would save some money from his scholarship grant to buy cassettes of classical music. An avid lover of classical music since a young age, Aloknath had even tried learning the stringed musical instrument sitar. Although he could not sing well, his affinity for classical music drove him to find solace in it, irrespective of his prevailing mood.

At IISc, Aloknath further broadened his knowledge about telecommunications and realised how every aspect uniquely complemented each other. It was this fascination that took him from India to Canada, where he pursued his PhD and also started another phase of his life.

Flight to Canada and international exposure

Like many middle-class Indians at that time, Aloknath’s flight to Canada was the first one he had ever taken in his life. While he was working hard to revolutionise telecommunications, calling from a foreign country was a luxury that he could not afford then. And that would also make his parents anxious at times.

“When I first landed there, I sent them a telegram but it took ten days to reach. In the meantime, my father would go to the Air India office every now and then to enquire if my flight had landed. The people there assured him that many flights had gone and come back since my flight, so I was probably already well-settled in Canada,” he laughs.

Aloknath did his PhD in ‘communication with signal processing’ from McGill University on a full scholarship. After ‘communication with control’ in IIT and ‘communication with computing’ in IISc, he wanted to fathom this combination as well. Aloknath knew that it would eventually bring him to a more holistic view of telecommunications.

Surviving in Canada was no easy feat. Aloknath had to adjust to the limited food choices and the cold climate. However, he liked the cosmopolitan culture of Montreal and saw himself living there for a long time, and hence took up learning French language.

Aloknath’s PhD thesis was supported by Canadian Institute for Telecommunication Research; he also bagged the Alexander Graham Bell prize in Canada for his doctoral research. His PhD mentor was a wonderful man who made the whole learning process at McGill very enjoyable for Aloknath. “He was an immigrant himself; so he knew what challenges I was facing and he helped me navigate through them.”

It was through this mentor that Aloknath got his first break in Canada. He bagged an opportunity to work in Nortel Networks, which was then called Bell Northern Research. His first assignment had ample scope for innovation. He just needed to find the meaningful business gap. This, he credits to being curious and looking for means to go above and beyond to find a pain point he ought to fix.

But as he kept getting better at making these discoveries, he missed the excitement of implementing them and seeing them in their realised form. He knew it was time to get out of his comfort zone and soak deeply into practical implementations and field issues to grow in industry. “I told my manager that I wanted to do the dirtiest work. The most mundane things that nobody wanted to do.”

In the summer of 1999, Aloknath made a decision that would change the trajectory of his life—leaving Canada after a decade and coming back to India. “It was one of the toughest decisions I had to make in my life,” Aloknath remarks. He was eligible for a Canadian PR. His son was three years old and had access to better education there; and he himself had a thriving career.

In his true spirit to think through and make a call, Aloknath mulled over the situation for an entire year. He thought rationally yet infused elements of lateral thinking before taking decision. After all, he couldn’t look back and regret his decision. “I decided to come back to India. Although it seems unbelievable now, I did envision something along the lines of how India would look like in 2020, and wanted to see if I could be part of that vision coming true.”

His reasoning to come back was based on two things. First, he had built a broad international perspective that expanded his mind and made him understand what makes a country developed. Second, he understood deeply what was needed to be a subject matter expert on communication with controls, computing, and signal processing elements, and build global innovative products.

He recalls, “With all that knowledge in my bag, I felt complete and thought it was the right time to come back. Many around me felt that I was taking a step backwards. But what is interesting about life is that sometimes taking an apparent step back can help you leap forward by ten steps.”

Return to India and re-building from zero

Back in India, Aloknath had uprooted his life in Canada by taking the risk of applying to only two companies. Fortunately, he received offers from both the companies. “The same postman brought the two offer letters on the same day. I found the phrase so true: God helps those who help themselves. The power of hope and ambition beats everything,” he remembers.

He went with one of these companies—Hughes Software Systems in Gurgaon. His interview with the Director of Hughes India had happened while he was still in Canada. Incidentally, the Director had made it a point to highlight how different his life would be once Aloknath was back in India.

In such a case, one might take a moment to reconsider the decision. But Aloknath knew exactly what he wanted. “I told the executive that I am cognizant of all of that, and I was making the decision while being fully aware. I am ready to face challenges as they come.”

This director who also became his manager and is now a good friend, was a source of inspiration for Aloknath as he made his switch so seamless; he never felt like he had left home. At Hughes too, Aloknath’s vision for joining a company did not alter—he wanted to do something that nobody else was doing or was willing to do.

He recalls, “During that time, digital signal processing in the base layer was effectively not there in Hughes communication stack. Many prospective clients said that they could have a service agreement with Hughes if that solution could be included in service delivery. That was truly a defining statement for me.”

He was entrusted with building a team for the same. Here came a moment to take something from zero to one, an opportunity of intrapreneurship. “Taking something from level one and scaling it to infinity is relatively easy because you have done it once. Building something from zero to one is the real challenge.”

Aloknath had to build a team of twenty people with strong DSP expertise and also start securing the DSP business beyond Hughes. It gave him joy that, due to this twenty-member team, Hughes could garner indirectly about eighty other people in higher-level stack areas. And this continued scaling up.

After a four-year stint at Hughes, he had a new itch. Even though the chip was never his core, he realised that semiconductors and VLSI design were a part of telecommunications and had a tremendous potential. So, he decided to join STMicroelectronics, which was looking to start telecom business ab initio in 2003. He joined them as the head of this division.

In 2008, when a joint venture between STMicroelectronics and Ericsson was signed, Aloknath was appointed as the MD of the group in India. He was handling the teams of both Noida and Bengaluru. He built an enviable team by internal transfer, external hiring as well as company acquisitions. By the time he left, he had 1000 team members.

Dr Aloknath De practising for fitness
Dr Aloknath De practising for fitness

To understand the full stack better, he became a ‘student’ of chip design. Even though he was the MD, he would often join the freshers during their training sessions to learn more about frontend and backend chip design, the processes and nuances. “In order to make decisions as an MD and interact as a global leader, I needed to know the subject to a great extent. I thought it was an integral part of decision making and I had to learn it to do my job well.”

After eight good years at ST-Ericsson, a world giant was waiting for Aloknath to knock on their door.

Samsung and a missed opportunity

Aloknath had the good taste of administrative life for a long time at
ST-Ericsson where he was also a Board Director of the company, and he now craved for a more technical role. He wanted to lead with technology. But before that, he wanted to pause and take time to contemplate—much like he used to do in his childhood days.

He took a sabbatical of about six months and decided to experiment with a few things during the period. He taught at IIT Delhi as an Adjunct Professor, served as a consultant to Accenture, and mentored a location-technology based startup during this phase. While mentoring the startup, he got down to interacting with the ground-level customers to understand things from their perspective. “If you can take a month or even a few days to interact with the people on the ground, there is no better learning than this. I would not trade this for anything else.”

But as they say, you cannot hide exceptional talent anywhere. This time, Aloknath’s talent was found by South Korean electronics giant Samsung. Although the folks at Samsung wanted Aloknath to come over to Korea and work with them from their headquarters, Aloknath’s priority was now sorted out; he could not leave his family in India and the family was not in a position to relocate at that juncture.

So, Aloknath was almost ready to decline the offer but his destiny, however, had other plans. The very next day after this interview, he received a call from Samsung HQ. “They were willing to interview me again to create a position especially for me if I only wanted to work in India.”

This is how Aloknath became the first CTO of the Indian unit of the conglomerate with his base in Bangalore. His mantra, again, was simple—he didn’t want to work on something that was going well. He wanted something that was aspirational, but they couldn’t seem to make it work.

At Samsung, he had to create an innovation layer onto the flagship products by building new intellectual properties (IPs) without jeopardising base engineering deliveries. In the first fifteen years of Samsung’s journey in India, it had about 2000 patents, which increased to 7500+ patents under his leadership by their silver jubilee celebrations time.

He became the Corporate VP for Samsung Electronics, Korea and contributed to the internet of things (IoT) on SmartThings platform. Despite these accomplishments, he felt like something was missing. The earlier-missed opportunity to join the team in Korea kept gnawing at him. He asked them if he could join them in HQ and the team in Korea happily agreed. He got an IoT lab to work in Korea where he spent 7-8 days every month for thirty months or so. This made him a very effective global leader.

The data platform that Aloknath built in Korea is now connecting 200 million home appliances and mobility devices globally. With his global role and expertise in AI and Blockchain, he has built an impactful AIoT Centre-of-Excellence in India. Now, with this background and experience behind him, he has set a personal mission of researching and nurturing activities around Cyber-Physical Systems.

Some Unknown Facts about Dr Aloknath De

  • Favourite cuisine: Hyderabadi Biryani
  • Favourite book(s):Isaac Asimov (Robot Dreams, Fantastic Voyage)
  • Favourite leader: Swami Vivekananda
  • Favourite film:Three Idiots
  • Favourite actor: Nasiruddin Shah
  • Favourite actress: Smita Patil
  • Favourite sports: Volleyball
  • Favourite music genre: Classical
  • Car and bike: Black Car

Finding love, fitness goals, and his mission

While the accomplishments of Aloknath are innumerable, his story of finding his love is like a romantic film. Aloknath and his wife knew each other since long, but never knew that they would be cojoined by destiny in an everlasting bond.

They got married towards the end of Aloknath’s PhD, that is, six months before he would graduate. His wife had to stay back in Kolkata for some time. “She had to go to a neighbour’s place to call me and had to request them to go out,” he laughs. She soon joined him in Canada, where she also pursued a postgraduate degree at Concordia University.

Upon returning to India, she has been working as a Math teacher. She is a big fitness junkie.

“She is also my personal trainer. I was never into fitness that much, but since the pandemic, I started taking care of my physique. And would it not be a waste if I didn’t utilise my opportunity despite having a trainer at home!” he says with a smile.

The couple has a son who was born in Canada, studied in India, and went on to pursue Economics and Physics at the University of Chicago. After his stint at an investment bank, he currently works with a global new-gen ride-sharing company.

Aloknath’s love for music is still intact, thanks to his mother who continues to practice music till date. She is the inspiration behind his love for classical music.

In December 2021, Aloknath took superannuation from Samsung formally. However, he is still associated with them as an Executive Consulting Director and wishes to continue as long as it makes sense for both. He calls it his Corporate Home.

Aloknath has increased his efforts to mentor deep-tech startups and has also become an angel investor. He is now an Adjunct Professor with IISc (ECE) and IIT Jodhpur (CS). Aloknath also has a venture of his own in the works.

Talking of his future plans, Aloknath says, “During India’s 75th Independence Day celebration, it is solemn for me to rededicate to the service of the nation. R&D serves as an impetus for business growth. If we can hone India’s talent for R&D and can excite business to spend greater on R&D and innovation, we can do wonders as a country.”

In fact, he revealed that the unveiling of his singular mission could happen soon; but he is in no hurry. Because if there’s anything he has learnt, it is to make ‘the rest of his life, the best of his life!’

Sun, 07 Aug 2022 23:34:00 -0500 en-GB text/html
Killexams : 4G Equipment Market Size, Share to present lucrative growth opportunities over 2022-2028

The MarketWatch News Department was not involved in the creation of this content.

Jul 11, 2022 (Market Insight Reports) -- Latest Report 4G Equipment Market by Type (TD-LTE, FDD-LTE), By Application (Virtual Presence, Crisis Management, Virtual Navigation, Multi-media and Video, Logistics, E-Commerce, Tele Medicine and Geo Processing, and Others), and Region (North America, Latin America, Europe, Asia Pacific, and the Middle East & Africa), Forecast From 2022 To 2028

Detailed picture of the 4G Equipment market by the way of study, synthesis, and summation of data from multiple sources by an analysis of key parameters such as profit, pricing, competition, and promotions. It presents various market facets by identifying the key industry influencers. The data presented is comprehensive, reliable, and a result of extensive research – both primary and secondary. The 4G Equipment market research reports provide a complete competitive landscape and an in-depth vendor selection methodology and analysis using qualitative and quantitative research to forecast accurate market growth and 4G Equipment market size across segments.

Our Experts will help you get valuable insights about 4G Equipment market share, size, and regional growth prospects. Available Other Related Market Research Reports

Sample PDF Report at:-

This report also studies the global 4G Equipment market competition landscape, market drivers and trends, opportunities and challenges, risks and entry barriers, sales channels, distributors, and Porter’s Five Forces In-depth Analysis and Data-driven Insights on the Impact of COVID-19 Included in this 4G Equipment Market Report. It aims at estimating the market size and the growth potential of the market across segments by component, application, organization size, deployment type, and region.

The Top key vendors in 4G Equipment Market include are:- Huawei, Alvarion, Nokia Siemens Networks, Cisco, Datan Mobile Communications, Airspan Networks, Fujitsu, Genband, Nortel Networks, Samsung, Redline Communications, NEC, ZTE, HP

Apart from this, the valuable document weighs upon the performance of the industry on the basis of a product service, end-use, geography, and end customer. The industry experts have left no stone unturned to identify the major factors influencing the development rate of the 4G Equipment industries including various opportunities and gaps. A thorough analysis of the 4G Equipment markets with regard to the growth trends in each category makes the overall study interesting. When studying the 4G Equipment markets the researchers also dig deep into their future prospects and contribution to the 4G Equipment industries.

Major Product Types covered are:


Major Applications of 4G Equipment covered are:
Virtual Presence

Crisis Management

Virtual Navigation

Multi-media and Video



Tele Medicine and Geo Processing

Based on region, the market is segmented into North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America and Middle East & Africa (MEA). North America region is further bifurcated into countries such as U.S., and Canada. The Europe region is further categorized into U.K., France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Russia, and Rest of Europe. Asia Pacific is further segmented into China, Japan, South Korea, India, Australia, South East Asia, and Rest of Asia Pacific. Latin America region is further segmented into Brazil, Mexico, and Rest of Latin America, and the MEA region is further divided into GCC, Turkey, South Africa, and Rest of MEA.

Important Features of the report:
- Detailed analysis of the Global 4G Equipment market
-Fluctuating 4G Equipment market dynamics of the industry
-Detailed 4G Equipment market segmentation
- Historical, current, and projected 4G Equipment market size in terms of volume and value
- recent industry trends and developments
- Competitive landscape of the Global 4G Equipment Market
- Strategies of key players and product offerings
- Potential and niche segments/regions exhibiting promising growth
- A neutral perspective toward Global 4G Equipment market performance

Access full Report Description, TOC, Table of figures, Chart, etc. at-

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Reports Insights is the leading research industry that offers contextual and data-centric research services to its customers across the globe. The firm assists its clients to strategize business policies and accomplish sustainable growth in their respective market domains. The industry provides consulting services, syndicated research reports, and customized research reports.

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Read More Article:–research-forecasts-to-2028-2022-06-29


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Mon, 11 Jul 2022 15:09:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Killexams : Huawei's Peiying Zhu explains why 4G was a hard sell

Imagine playing a key role in the development of not one but two generations of wireless technology.

Our first esteemed guest in The Women Behind Wireless series has done just that. Huawei fellow and senior director of the company’s Canadian wireless technology lab Dr. Peiying Zhu contributed significantly to the 4G wireless standard and is now doing the same for 5G.

Previous to working at Huawei, Dr. Zhu was a fellow and director of advanced wireless access systems at Nortel.

Dr. Zhu speaks on her career, the lessons she’s learned, and how it feels to be a part of the creation of wireless standards that play a large role in determining societal changes and the global economy.

MobileSyrup: What is the most important thing you learned when you first started out in wireless?

Dr. Zhu: What I found was that there’s always a hot Topic area. I was studying computer vision and AI in the 80s, and the reason I started in this area at the time was because it was a hot topic.

They painted the picture that it would happen shortly, but then the bubble burst. By the time you finished studying, you found the field didn’t happen as you thought it would happen, and you couldn’t even find a job. So, I switched to wireless.

What I learned is: you need to learn some solid background knowledge, instead of just going to the new hot niche. It’s good to have broad knowledge.

MS: What interested you about wireless technologies?

Dr. Zhu: I was memorizing about it in a magazine, because at the time wireless was also new — not completely new, but still at the beginning. It looked quite attractive and looked like it had potential.

Thu, 21 Jul 2022 09:03:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : SaaS DR/BC: If You Think Cloud Data is Forever, Think Again

Key Takeaways

  • SaaS is quickly becoming the default tool for how we build and scale businesses. It’s cheaper and faster than ever before. However, this reliance on SaaS comes with one glaring risk that’s rarely discussed.
  • The “Shared Responsibility Model” doesn’t just govern your relationship with AWS, it actually impacts all of cloud computing. Even for SaaS, users are on the hook for protecting their own data.
  • Human error, cyber threats and integrations that have gone wrong are the main causes of data loss in SaaS. And it’s not uncommon, in one study, about 40% of users have said they have lost data in SaaS applications.
  • It’s possible to create your own in-house solution to help automate some of the manual work around backing-up SaaS data. However, there are limitations to this approach and none of them will help you restore data back to its original state.
  • A data continuity strategy is essential in SaaS, otherwise you may be scambling to restore all information you rely on each and every day. 

The Cloud is Not Forever and Neither is Your Data 

When I began my career in technical operations (mostly what we call DevOps today) the world was dramatically different. This was before the dawn of the new millennium. When the world’s biggest and most well-known SaaS company, Salesforce, was operating out of an apartment in San Francisco. 

Back then, on-premise ruled the roost. Rows of towers filled countless rooms. These systems were expensive to set up and maintain, from both a labour and parts perspective. Building a business using only SaaS applications was technically possible back then but logistically a nightmare. On-prem would continue to be the default way for running software for years to come. 

But technology always progresses at lightspeed. So just three years after Salesforce began preaching the “end of software”, Amazon Web Services came online and changed the game completely.

Today a new SaaS tool can be built and deployed across the world in mere days. Businesses are now embracing SaaS solutions at a record pace. The average small to medium-sized business can easily have over 100 SaaS applications in their technology stack. Twenty years ago, having this many applications to run a business was unthinkable and would have cost millions of dollars in operational resources. However, at Rewind, where I oversee technical operations, I looked after our software needs with a modem and a laptop. 

SaaS has created a completely different reality for modern businesses. We can build and grow businesses cheaper and faster than ever before. Like most “too good to be true” things, there’s a catch. All this convenience comes with one inherent risk. It’s a risk that people rarely discussed in my early days as a DevOps and is still rarely talked about. Yet this risk is important to understand, otherwise, all the vital SaaS data you rely on each and every day could disappear in the blink of an eye.

And it could be gone for good. 

The Shared Responsibility of SaaS

This likely goes without saying but you rent SaaS applications, you don’t own them. Those giant on-prem server rooms companies housed years ago, now rest with the SaaS provider. You simply access their servers (and your data) through an operating system or API. Now you are probably thinking, “Dave, I know all this. So what?” 

Well, this is where the conundrum lies. 

If you look at the terms of service for SaaS companies, they do their best to ensure their applications are up and running at all times. It doesn’t matter if servers are compromised by fire, meteor strike, or just human error, SaaS companies strive to ensure that every time a user logs in, the software is available. The bad news is this is where their responsibility ends. 

You, the user, are on the hook for backing up and restoring whatever data you’ve entered and stored in their services. Hence the term “Shared Responsibility Model”. This term is most associated with AWS but this model actually governs all of cloud computing.

The above chart breaks down the various scenarios for protecting elements of the cloud computing relationship. You can see that with the SaaS model, the largest onus is on the software provider. Yet there are still things a user is responsible for; User Access and Data.  

I’ve talked to other folks in DevOps, site reliability, or IT roles in recent years and I can tell you that the level of skepticism is high. They often don’t believe their data isn’t backed up by the SaaS provider in real time. I empathize with them, though, because I was once in their shoes. So when I meet this resistance, I  just point people to the various terms of service laid out by each SaaS provider. Here is GitHub’s, here is Shopify’s and the one for Office 365. It’s all there in black and white.

The reason the Shared Responsibility Model exists in the first place essentially comes down to the architecture of each application. A SaaS provider has built its software to maximize the use of its operating system, not continually snapshot and store the millions or billions of data points created by users. Now, this is not a “one-size fits all scenario”. Some SaaS providers may be able to restore lost data. However, if they do, in my experience, it’s often an old snapshot, it’s incomplete, and the process to get everything back can take days, if not weeks. 

Again, it’s simply because SaaS providers are lumping all user data together, in a way that makes sense for the provider. Trying to find it again, once it’s deleted or compromised, is like looking for a needle in a haystack, within a field of haystacks.    

How Data Loss Happens in SaaS

The likelihood of losing data from a SaaS tool is the next question that inevitably comes up. One study conducted by Oracle and KPMG found that 49% of SaaS users have previously lost data. Our own research found that 40% of users have previously lost data. There are really three ways that this happens; risks that you may already be very aware of. They are human error, cyberthreats, and 3rd party app integrations. 

Humans and technology have always had co-dependent challenges. Let’s face it, it’s one of the main reasons my career exists! So it stands to reason that human inference, whether deliberate or not, is a common reason for losing information. This can be as innocuous as uploading a CSV file that corrupts data sets, accidentally deleting product listings, or overwriting code repositories with a forced push.

There’s also intentional human interference. This means someone who has authorized access, nuking a bunch of stuff. It may sound far-fetched but we have seen terminated employees or third-party contractors cause major issues. It’s not very common, but it happens.       

Cyberthreats are next on the list, which are all issues that most technical operations teams are used to. Most of my peers are aware that the level of attacks increased during the global pandemic, but the rate of attacks had already been increasing prior to COVID-19. Ransomware, phishing, DDoS, and more are all being used to target and disrupt business operations. If this happens, data can be compromised or completely wiped out. 

Finally, 3rd party app integrations can be a source of frustration when it comes to data loss. Go back and read the terms of service for apps connected to your favourite SaaS tool. They may save a ton of time but they may have a lot of control over all the data you create and store in these tools. We’ve seen apps override and permanently delete reams of data. By the time teams catch it, the damage is already done.

There are some other ways data can be lost but these are the most common. The good news is that you can take steps to mitigate downtime. I’ll outline a common one, which is writing your own backup script for a Git.

One approach to writing a GitHub backup script

There are a lot of ways to approach this. Simply Google “git backup script” and lots of options pop up. All of them have their quirks and limitations. Here is a quick rundown of some of them.

Creating a local backup in Cron Scripts

Essentially you are writing a script to clone a repo, at various intervals, using cron jobs. (Note the cron job tool you used will depend on the OS you use). This method essentially takes snapshots over time. To restore a lost repo, you just pick the snapshot you want to bring back.  For a complete copy use git clone --mirror to mirror your repositories. This ensures all remote and local branches, tags, and refs get included. 

The pros of using this method are a lack of reliance on external tools for backups and the only cost is your time. 

The cons are a few. You actually won’t have a full backup. This clone won’t have hooks, reflogs, configuration, description files, and other metadata. It’s also a lot of manual work and becomes more complex if trying to add error monitoring, logging, and error notification. And finally, as the snapshots pile up, you’ll need to consider accounts for cleanups and archiving.

Using Syncthing

Syncthing is a GUI/CLI application that allows for file syncing across many devices. All the devices need to have Syncthing installed on them and be configured to connect with one another. Keep in mind that syncing and backing up are different, as you are not creating a copy, but rather ensuring a file is identical across multiple devices.  

The pros are that it is free and one of the more intuitive methods for a DIY “backup” since it provides a GUI.  Cons: Syncthing only works between individual devices, so you can’t directly back up your repository from a code hosting provider. Manual fixes are needed when errors occur. Also, syncing a git repo could lead to corruption and conflicts of a repository, especially if people work on different branches. Syncthing also sucks up a lot of resources with its continuous scanning, hashing, and encryption. Lastly, it only maintains one version, not multiple snapshots. 

Using SCM Backup

SCM Backup creates an offline clone of a GitHub or BitBucket repository. It makes a significant difference if you are trying to back up many repos at once. After the initial configuration, it grabs a list of all the repositories through an API. You can also exclude certain repos if need be. 

SCM lets you specify backup folder location, authentication credentials, email settings, and more. 

Here’s the drawback though, the copied repositories do not contain hooks, reflogs, or configuration files, or metadata such as issues, pull requests, or releases.  And configuration settings can change across different code hosting providers. Finally, in order to run it, you need to have .NET Core installed on your machine.

Now that’s just three ways to backup a git repository. As I mentioned before, just type a few words into Google and a litany of options comes up. But before you get the dev team to build a homegrown solution, keep these two things in mind.

First, any DIY solution will still require a significant amount of manual work because they only clone and/or backup; they can’t restore data. In fact, that’s actually the case with most SaaS tools, not just in-house backup solutions. So although you may have some snapshots or cloned files, it will likely be in a format that needs to be reuploaded into a SaaS tool. One way around this is to build a backup as a service program, but that will likely eat up a ton of developer time. 

That brings us to the second thing to keep in mind, the constantly changing states of APIs. Let’s say you build a rigorous in-house tool: you’ll need a team to be constantly checking for API updates, and then making the necessary changes to this in-house tool so it’s always working. I can only speak for myself, but I’m constantly trying to help dev teams avoid repetitive menial tasks. So although creating a DIY backup script can work, you need to decide where you want development teams to spend their time.

Data Continuity Strategies for SaaS

So what’s the way forward in all of this? There are a few things to consider. And these steps won’t be uncommon to most technical operations teams. First, figure out whether you want to DIY or outsource your backup needs. We already covered the in-house options and the challenges it presents. So if you decide to look for a backup and recovery service, just remember to do your homework. There are a lot of choices, so as you go through due diligence, look at reviews, talk to peers, read technical documentation and honestly, figure out if company X seems trustworthy. They will have access to your data after all.  

Next, audit all your third-party applications. I won’t sugarcoat it, this can be a lot of work. But remember the “terms of service” agreements? There are always a few surprises to be found. And you may not like what you see. I recommend you do this about once a year and make a pro/cons list. Is the value you get from this app worth the trade-off of access the app has? If it’s not, you may want to look for another tool. Fun fact: Compliance standards like SOC2 require a “vendor assessment” for a reason. External vendors or apps are a common culprit when it comes to accidental data loss.

And finally, limit who has access to each and every SaaS application. Most people acknowledge the benefits of using the least privileged approach, but it isn’t always put into practice. So make sure the right people have the right access, ensure all users have unique login credentials (use a password manager to manage the multiple login hellscape) and get MFA installed.

It’s not a laundry list of things nor is it incredibly complex. I truly believe that SaaS is the best way to build and run organizations. But I hope now it’s glaringly obvious to any DevOps, SRE or IT professional that you need to safeguard all the information that you are entrusting to these tools. There is an old saying I learned in those early days of my career, “There are two types of people in this world – those who have lost data and those who are about to lose data”. 

You don’t want to be the person who has to inform your CIO that you are now one of those people. Of course, if that happens, feel free to send them my way. I’m certain I’ll be explaining the Shared Responsibility Model of SaaS until my career is over!  

About the Author

Dave North has been a versatile member of the Ottawa technology sector for more than 25 years. Dave is currently working at Rewind leading 3 teams (devops, trust, IT) as the director of technical operations. Prior to Rewind, Dave was a long time member of Signiant, holding many roles in the organization including sales engineer, pro services, technical support manager, product owner and devops director. A proven leader and innovator, Dave holds 5 US patents and helped drive Signiant’s move to a cloud SAAS business model with the award winning Media Shuttle product. Prior to Signiant, Dave held several roles at Nortel, Bay Networks and ISOTRO Network Management working on the NetID product suite. Dave is fanatical about cloud computing, automation, gadgets and Formula 1 racing.

Thu, 09 Dec 2021 14:12:00 -0600 en text/html
Killexams : Market Focus: Workhorse products

One of the product categories that can be considered to make up the industrial market is those infrastructure products that support the booming electronic and telecommunications industry. This year's SPI Structural Plastics Conference and Design Competition focused on some of these interesting applications.

An eye-catching example from the industrial telecommunications perspective was the award-winning Alcoa Fujikura splice box, molded and submitted by Mack Molding (see opposite page). The part represents a metal-replacement trend in this market that's been under way for several years and is now reaching critical mass.

Unless you've been in a coma for the last five years, you know that the digital revolution is well underway. Baby Bells, AT&T, MCI Worldcom, Sprint, British Telecom, and a host of other mega-companies are positioning themselves to build and cash in on new and improved telephone, cable, and mobile communications networks. These networks have an infrastructure being built by the likes of Lucent, Nortel, and Motorola.

Joel Fouquart, technical manager at GE Plastics, says the Alcoa/Mack splice box is the best example of the trend occurring in the outdoor infrastructure arena. The Alcoa box replaces a diecast aluminum predecessor that weighed 65 lb and was a beast to install. But with a switch to GE's Valox PBT and structural foam molding, Alcoa suddenly had a lighter, equally durable, less expensive box that could be produced in volumes. That, says Fouquart, is the key-producing in high volumes to accommodate the new and improved networks under construction.

Indoors, Fouquart says the central office is the scene of the most changes. Not happy producing simple computer and electronics cabinets and housings, many manufacturers are looking to plastics and injection molding to create a more striking identity, similar to the job Silicon Graphics has done with its standout colors and contours. Fouquart says many OEMs struggle to determine the break-even point between plastic and metal.

The economic advantages of plastics increase with part complexity. Plastics allow designers to incorporate unique features that are often difficult to impossible to produce in sheet metal. GE and Fouquart conducted a study using a standard 6-ft cabinet panel with moderate contours and complexity, and compared the cost of producing it via structural foam vs. metal. The sheet metal, he says, has an initial tooling cost ranging from $10,000 to $90,000, where an injection mold ranges from $100,000 to $275,000.

However, downstream welding and shaping of the metal ballooned the per part cost to $550 for metal compared to $350 for plastic. Not only that, but the break-even volume for the plastic part is 1000 units annually.

For Example
The Best Paper winner at the Structural Plastics Conference was written and presented by Michael Caropreso, who, with Hewlett-Packard, devised a system for molding plastic panels to replace a large metal door on a peripheral computer rack system. The metal door H-P was looking to replace cost $40 to make and $150 to ship because of its size, and was often damaged in transit.

The series of smaller plastic panels would prove less expensive to make, and ship, and easier to use for service personnel who need to access cabinets. But what made the project particularly interesting was the rare combination of gas-assist molding and sequential gating.

The panels are 35 inches long and 16 inches wide, with a nominal wall thickness of .140 inch, unpainted and with no visible sink marks or weld lines allowed. Two gates were used in the mold, both fed by a hot manifold system with hydraulic valves.

To establish production parameters, the mold was filled through one gate in a series of short shots that were used to determine the ram position at which the flow front reached the second gate. This position was used to trigger the second valve, which finished filling the part. This overlap in flow fronts rendered weld lines invisible.

Gas filling begins after both gates close. A series of carefully guided gas bubbles help pack out different sections of the panel, provide strength, and eliminate sinks. The entire cycle runs in just over a minute, with no secondary operations. The molder produces the parts at facilities in California and Dublin, Ireland.

Metal-to-plastic conversion takes the weigh off

Replacing its eight-part diecast aluminum predecessor, this structural foam molded splice box weighs less than half as much and greatly reduced the total part count. The splice box, manufactured for Alcoa Fujikura Ltd. by Mack Molding (Arlington, VT), is mounted on utility poles and buildings and is used to house and protect spliced fiber optic connections.

"An excellent metal replacement application, this splice box previously weighed 65 lb," says Brian Sumpter, new business development director at Mack's southern division. "We've reduced that to 29 lb, which is a tremendous relief to field service personnel who are hoisting these units up telephone poles to install them." The 10-by-30-inch box consists of two primary parts: one is a drawer in which lines are spliced; the other is the enclosure into which the drawer slides (see photo). The drawer accommodates up to 360 fiber splices and up to six individual cables of various types and sizes. The gasketed drawer can be easily opened for periodic maintenance.

Called the Opti-Guard splice box, it's high-pressure structural foam molded of Valox PBT from GE Plastics at Mack Molding's Inman, SC facility. The material was chosen to meet requirements of UV exposure, ballistic resistance, impact resistance of 100 ft-lb or more at -40F, and temperature resistance ranging from -40F to 176F. Also, Alcoa's internal tieoff system resists more than 100 lb of tension per cable.

The part was an award winner at the Structural Plastics '99 Conference and Design Competition, an annual event hosted by the Society of the Plastics Industry.

For more information:
GE Plastics, Pittsfield, MA
Phone: (800) 845-0600; Fax: (800) 433-2925

Rare-earth compound, plastic unite for speedometer part

All the plastic parts you see in this Bitorque speedometer, designed for some models of Harley Davidson motorcycles, are molded by Thomas G. Faria Corp. But the two parts below the speedometer required a special material. Called bobbins, the parts hold a pin that connects to a magnetic source on the back side of the speedometer. That magnetic source emits a varying electrical charge based on how fast the engine is running. The bobbin, connected to the pin and a meter, rotates according to that charge, thus telling the driver the vehicle's speed.

Faria needed a moldable, highly filled, high-temperature polymer that could be insert molded and then magnetized as part of the inner electrical workings of the speedometer. It hired custom compounder Foster Corp. (Dayville, CT), which developed a compound from a nylon and a rare-earth material called ferrite (an iron-based material). Specifics of the material were not released, but according to the molder, the plastic version is equal in quality to the chrome-plated, hand-finished instrument made for other Harley motorcycles.

Faria runs 40 or so injection molding machines ranging from 15 to 200 tons at its Uncasville, CT plant.

For more information:
Foster Corp., Dayville, CT
Phone: (860) 848-9271
Fax: (860) 848-2704

Regenerative pump housing benefits from PPS

Designed to house regenerative pumps for use in soft drink dispensing systems in the U.S. and the U.K., this part is required to withstand up to 30 bar of pressure and must operate in temperatures ranging from -4F to 212F. Chemical resistance is required to withstand periodic purging with cleaners. Good surface hardness and dimensional stability are also required. Chosen to mold the part: 40 percent glass-filled Fortron PPS from Ticona.

The critical component in the housing design is the back plate. Stress analysis conducted during the design phase indicated that unacceptably high stress levels in key areas around the connecting points could cause the part to fail. A new design was submitted in which the overall wall section was increased, ensuring greater strength and dimensional stability, with cored-out sections to minimize material use.

Tests on the new design showed a reduction in strain levels around the connecting points by a factor of three. Tests also predicted that the design would be able to meet the stress requirements as well as maintain the .05 mm flatness required for the pump's impeller. The housings are made in the U.K. by Electromag-Neil, which insert molds the stainless steel threads for connecting pipes.

For more information:
Ticona, Summit, NJ
Phone: (800) 235-2637
Fax: (908) 598-4165

Polypropylene wheel unit endures heavy weight

This four-caster wheel unit, called the Universal Gondola Skate, is designed to facilitate safe and easy movement of heavy, fully loaded shelves during renovation of retail stores. The wheels are placed under the shelves so that during a store's off hours, the shelves can be moved out of the way to make room for renovation and construction. Then, they can be easily rolled back to their place during regular store hours. They are designed to hold up to 2000 lb and reportedly cost up to 50 percent less than comparable products.

The idea was co-developed by Cozza Harris Design (San Diego) and Co-Mack Technology (Vista, CA). Co-Mack molds the part in a structural foam molding process on a 385-ton Battenfeld. Up to 700 wheel units can be produced in a day on the single-cavity mold. The part is made from a 10 percent glass-filled polypropylene from RheTech Inc. that doesn't have to meet tight tolerances, but must offer strength. The casters are purchased out of house and assembled at Co-Mack.

For more information:
RheTech Inc.
Whitmore Lake, MI
Phone: (734) 769-0585
Fax: (734) 769-3565

Tension knob gets lubed with switch to acetal

The knob on the Ovation 2 thermal transfer printer is used to adjust ribbon tension each time a different width label is used. The printer produces labels up to 4 inches wide and is used to make bar codes, tags, and other products. The tension knob is used intermittently, but not continuously. For Orlando-based manufacturer Datamax, this was a problem with the material used previously, which tended to bind up if the knob was not frequently used.

"The binding," says Ken Colonel, director of mechanical engineering at Datamax, "was due to the fact that the knob is a part that is not in constant operation. The lubricated material we previously used would have worked fine had this been the case. Frequent use would have brought the internal lubricants to the surface and allowed for better performance."

For help, Datamax switched to Fulton 441D, a silicone lubricated acetal composite produced by LNP Engineering Plastics. Because of the silicone's limited compatibility with the base acetal material, it migrates to the surface of the tension adjustment knob. The result is a continuous generation of silicone film, which serves as a boundary or lubricant.

For more information:
LNP Engineering Plastics
Exton, PA
Phone: (610) 363-4500;
Fax: (610) 363-4749

Encapsulated solenoids endure with PET

Solenoids manufactured by Caterpillar Inc. are designed to operate hydraulic valves on heavy-duty equipment used in construction, mining, and agriculture. The key to the solenoid's durability is the encapsulation, which blocks moisture and insulates the unit from sudden temperature changes.

Previously overmolded with a thermoset or other thermoplastic, the solenoid is now encapsulated with 30 percent glass-filled Rynite PET from DuPont. More durable than previous designs, the encapsulated product meets Caterpillar's standards for resistance to heat, thermal shock, vibration, moisture penetration, fuel, and lubricants. The company rates solenoids for service at ambient temperatures from -40F to 250F. The PET is also used to mold a coil bobbin that is part of the assembly.

John Hoffman, an engineer for Caterpillar, says the new design and the switch to Rynite PET makes the new units less expensive to produce than the ones they replace. Also, the addition of an integrated electrical receptacle into the encapsulation shell saves the cost of an additional part. The solenoids are installed on bulldozers, wheel loaders, motor graders, agricultural tractors, and off-highway mining trucks.

For more information:
DuPont Engineering Polymers
Wilmington, DE
Phone: (800) 441-0575
Fax: (302) 999-2311

TPE rubber used in electrica plugs, connectors

Electrical products maker Leviton Mfg. in Little Neck, NY makes this watertight locking plug and connector assembly for indoor and outdoor industrial electrical applications. Called the Wetguard, the unit is used to connect two flexible cords in order to supply power to electrical appliances, tools, and machines in a safe and simple installation procedure. The guard shields the connection from threatening environmental elements, providing protection from moisture and dust.

Leviton molds the Wetguard with a Capron nylon 6 from AlliedSignal Plastics and overmolds it with a Santoprene thermoplastic elastomer from Advanced Elastomer Systems. Santoprene not only gives a tactile feel, it also provides resistance to harsh environments, insulation, and good part uniformity and sealability. Levitron specified nylon-bondable grades of Santoprene because they chemically bond well with Capron, thus eliminating any possibility for leakage in the area where the two parts meet. The combination also reportedly resists crushing, impact, and abrasion.

The plugs and connectors, which are available in 15A, 20A, and 30A Nema ratings, feature a tongue-and-groove design, meaning when the male and female parts of the plug and connector are put together, it seals itself. It also has a locking indicator that gives the user visual confirmation that a seal has been obtained.

The Wetguard enclosure consists of two parts that are insert injection molded on a 150-ton press in a two-cavity mold. Previously, enclosures for the 15A devices were designed as a two-part assembly, which, according to Leviton, was a slow operation that often provided an unsatisfactory seal.

For more information:
Advanced Elastomer Systems
Akron, OH
Phone: (330) 849-5000
Fax: (330) 849-5599

AlliedSignal Plastics
Morristown, NJ
Phone: (201) 455-5010
Fax: (201) 455-3506

Multimeter features one-shot overmolding of TPU resin

Tektronix Inc. wanted to Strengthen the durability of its TX-DMM family of true RMS digital multimeters, and ease the manufacturing process at the same time. Handheld DMMs are the most common of all electrical and electronic test instruments. Tektronix used film insert molding to Strengthen the bezel and display window of the DMM but the back cover presented some design molding challenges.

The back cover, which is injection molded with Bayer's Bayblend FR110 PC/ABS resin, requires three additional parts molded with an elastomer resin: a water-resistant gasket that seals the DMM's electronics from moisture, dust and other elements; a mechanical connection that holds a metal electromagnetic interference shield inside the back cover; and four no-skid pads on the outside of the back cover. Poly-Cast (Tigard, OR), which molds the front and back covers, wanted the three parts to be molded from the same material in just one shot. It chose Bayer's Desmopan KU2-8651 TPU resin, with a 75 Shore A hardness, because it offers good flexibility, resilience, and compression-set properties.

After the Bayblend PC/ABS back covers are molded, Poly-Cast inserts them and an EMI shield into the press. The Desmopan resin is shot onto the back cover through two gates. The resin flows around the lip of the back cover to form a watertight gasket. It then continues through an opening on each side of the part's interior and flows into separate lines over the EMI shield. Finally, the resin flows through openings in the EMI shield and back cover to form four capsule-shaped feet on the outside diameter of the DMM's back cover.

According to Steve Lyford, mechanical engineer for Tektronix, it was less expensive to overmold the parts using this process than to perform a secondary operation by hand. Tektronix had previously used a custom-made gasket, but preferred the overmolding operation even though the mold was tougher to build because the resin has to run a long flow path. The complex mold was built by Bestco of Hillsboro, OR.

For more information:
Bayer Corp., Polymers Div.
Pittsburgh, PA
Phone: (800) 622-6004
Fax: (412) 777-5585

Wed, 06 Jul 2022 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : ROADM WSS Component Market Trends In 2022 : Growth, Size, Segmentation, Future Demands, Latest Innovation, Sales Revenue by Regional Forecast 2026

The MarketWatch News Department was not involved in the creation of this content.

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ROADMÂnetworks inability to maintain a typical noise shape result in inaccurate optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) measurements.ÂROADM WSS componentsÂare widely classified into Blocker-based, Edge, PLC-based, and Wavelength Selective Switches (WSS).
The key factor contributing to growth of ROADM WSS component market is the growing demand for dynamic ROADMs. Global market is also experiencing an upsurge in the demand for adoption of wavelength selective switches (WSS) enabled ROADMs. However, product cost and quality are some of the major challenges faced by this industry that can hinder its growth rate. Growth of WSS market slowed down during past few months as a result of excessive supply chain inventory; however, this market is expected to resume growth in the near future as a result of surging demand for technologically improved components.Â

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The research report studies the ROADM WSS Component market using different methodologies and analyzes to provide accurate and in-depth information about the market. For a clearer understanding, it is divided into several parts to cover different aspects of the market. Each area is then elaborated to help the reader comprehend the growth potential of each region and its contribution to the global market. The researchers have used primary and secondary methodologies to collate the information in the report. They have also used the same data to generate the current market scenario. This report is aimed at guiding people towards an apprehensive, better, and clearer knowledge of the market.
The global ROADM WSS Component market size is projected to reach USD 1447.8 million by 2026, from USD 831.6 million in 2020, at a CAGR of 9.7% during 2021-2026.

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The global ROADM WSS Component market is segmented by company, region (country), by Type, and by Application. Players, stakeholders, and other participants in the global ROADM WSS Component market will be able to gain the upper hand as they use the report as a powerful resource. The segmental analysis focuses on revenue and forecast by region (country), by Type, and by Application for the period 2015-2026.

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As a result of the Ukraine-Russia War and COVID-19 epidemic, the ROADM WSS Component market is estimated to be worth USD million in 2022 and is forecast to be worth USD million by 2026, with a CAGR estimated to generate a lot of revenue till 2026.

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What are the key companies covered in the ROADM WSS Component Market?

The Major Players covered in the ROADM WSS Component Market report are:

● Cisco Systems Inc(US) ● Fujitsu(Japan) ● Tellabs(US) ● Alcatel Lucent(France) ● Movaz Networks Inc(US) ● Nortel Networks(Canada) ● OpVista Inc(US) ● Tropic Networks Inc(Canada) ● AC Photonics Inc(US) ● Alliance Fiber Optic Products(US) ● AOC Technologies(US) ● Shenzhen Hi-Optel Technology Co(China) ● Auxora Inc(US) ● Ciena Corporation(US)

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A thorough evaluation of the controls associated with the report portrays the separation to drivers and gives space for essential arrangement. Factors that obscure the market advancement are critical as they can be seen to devise different bends for getting hold of the advantageous entryways that are accessible in the reliably creating business area. Besides, pieces of information into market capable's viewpoints have been taken to appreciate the market better.

ROADM WSS Component Market - Size, Shares, Scope, Competitive Landscape and Segmentation Analysis:

The report focuses on the ROADM WSS Component market size, segment size (mainly covering product type, application, and geography), competitor landscape, recent status, and development trends. Furthermore, the report provides strategies for companies to overcome threats posed by COVID-19. Technological innovation and advancement will further optimize the performance of the product, enabling it to acquire a wider range of applications in the downstream market. Moreover, customer preference analysis, market dynamics (drivers, restraints, opportunities), new product release, impact of COVID-19, regional conflicts and carbon neutrality provide crucial information for us to take a deep dive into the ROADM WSS Component market.

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What segments are covered in ROADM WSS Component Market report?

ROADM WSS Component Market is segmented on the basis of type, end-use industry and application. The growth amongst the different segments helps you in attaining the knowledge related to the different growth factors expected to be prevalent throughout the market and formulate different strategies to help identify core application areas and the difference in your target markets.

On the basis of Product Type, ROADM WSS Component Market is segmented into:
● Blocker-Based
● PLC-Based
● Wavelength Selective Switches (WSS)
● Edge

The report studies end-user applications in various product segments and the global ROADM WSS Component Market. By collecting important data from relevant sources, the report assesses the growth of individual market segments. In addition, the market size and growth rate of each segment is explained in the report. The report considers key geographic segments and describes all the favourable conditions driving market growth.

On the basis of the End Users / Applications, ROADM WSS Component Market is segmented into:
● Fiber-Optic Networks
● Communication
● Industrial
● Others

The country section of the report also includes individual market influences affecting current and future market trends and changes in market regulation at the country level.

Get a demo Copy of the ROADM WSS Component Market Report 2022

On the basis of the Geography, ROADM WSS Component Market is segmented into:
- North America [US, Canada, Mexico]
- Europe [Germany, UK, France, Russia, Italy, Rest of Europe]
- Asia-Pacific [China, India, Japan, South Korea, Southeast Asia, Australia, Rest of Asia Pacific]
- South America [Brazil, Argentina, Rest of South America]
- Middle East and Africa [GCC, North Africa, South Africa, Rest of Middle East and Africa]

Through a comparative examination of the past and present scenarios, the ROADM WSS Component research offers a complete blueprint of the industry scenario across the assessment timeframe; assisting stakeholders in establishing action plans that guarantee maximum growth while managing market risks. Furthermore, the study document provides a complete review of the major industry segments to discover the best investment opportunities. It also examines all of the major market participants in terms of their financials, growth plans, and product and service offerings to provide a comprehensive picture of the competitive environment.

ROADM WSS Component Market - Impact of Covid-19 and Recovery Analysis:

We have been tracking the direct impact of COVID-19 on this market, as well as the indirect impact from other industries. This report analyses the impact of the pandemic on the ROADM WSS Component market from a Global and Regional perspective. The report outlines the market size, market characteristics, and market growth for ROADM WSS Component industry, categorized by type, application, and consumer sector. In addition, it provides a comprehensive analysis of aspects involved in market development before and after the Covid-19 pandemic. Report also conducted a PESTEL analysis in the industry to study key influencers and barriers to entry.

Request A demo Copy of ROADM WSS Component Market Research Report 2022 Here

ROADM WSS Component Market Drivers and Restrains:

The ROADM WSS Component industry research report provides an analysis of the various factors driving the markets growth. It creates trends, constraints and impulses that change the market in a positive or negative direction. This section also discusses the various segments and applications that could affect the future ROADM WSS Component market. Details are based on current trends and past achievements. The report includes a comprehensive boundary condition assessment that compares drivers and provides strategic planning. The factors that impede market growth are fundamental because they create different curves to seize opportunities in emerging markets. We also gather information from the opinions of market experts to better understand the market.

Years considered for this report:
- Historical Years:2017-2021
- Base Year:2021
- Estimated Year:2022
- Forecast Period:2022-2026

What the Report has to Offer?
- Market Size Estimates:The report offers accurate and reliable estimation of the market size in terms of value and volume. Aspects such as production, distribution and supply chain, and revenue for the ROADM WSS Component market are also highlighted in the report
- Analysis on Market Trends:In this part, upcoming market trends and development have been scrutinized
- Growth Opportunities:The report here provides clients with the detailed information on the lucrative opportunities in the ROADM WSS Component market
- Regional Analysis:In this section, the clients will find comprehensive analysis of the potential regions and countries in the ROADM WSS Component market
- Analysis on the Key Market Segments:The report focuses on the segments: end user, application, and product type and the key factors fuelling their growth.
- Vendor Landscape:Competitive landscape provided in the report will help the companies to become better equipped to be able to make effective business decisions.

Reasons to buy this report:
- To gain insightful analyses of the market and have comprehensive understanding of the global market and its commercial landscape.
- Assess the production processes, major issues, and solutions to mitigate the development risk.
- To understand the most affecting driving and restraining forces in the market and its impact in the global market.
- Learn about the market strategies that are being adopted by leading respective organizations.
- To understand the future outlook and prospects for the market.
- Besides the standard structure reports, we also provide custom research according to specific requirements.

Inquire more and share questions if any before the purchase on this

ROADM WSS Component Market - Table of Content (TOC):

1 ROADM WSS Component Market Overview
1.1 Product Overview and Scope of ROADM WSS Component Market
1.2 ROADM WSS Component Market Segment by Type
1.2.1 Global ROADM WSS Component Market Sales and CAGR Comparison by Type (2017-2026)
1.3 Global ROADM WSS Component Market Segment by Application
1.3.1 ROADM WSS Component Market Consumption (Sales) Comparison by Application (2017-2026)
1.4 Global ROADM WSS Component Market, Region Wise (2017-2026)
1.4.1 Global ROADM WSS Component Market Size (Revenue) and CAGR Comparison by Region (2017-2026)
1.4.2 United States ROADM WSS Component Market Status and Prospect (2017-2026)
1.4.3 Europe ROADM WSS Component Market Status and Prospect (2017-2026)
1.4.4 China ROADM WSS Component Market Status and Prospect (2017-2026)
1.4.5 Japan ROADM WSS Component Market Status and Prospect (2017-2026)
1.4.6 India ROADM WSS Component Market Status and Prospect (2017-2026)
1.4.7 Southeast Asia ROADM WSS Component Market Status and Prospect (2017-2026)
1.4.8 Latin America ROADM WSS Component Market Status and Prospect (2017-2026)
1.4.9 Middle East and Africa ROADM WSS Component Market Status and Prospect (2017-2026)
1.5 Global Market Size (Revenue) of ROADM WSS Component (2017-2026)
1.5.1 Global ROADM WSS Component Market Revenue Status and Outlook (2017-2026)
1.5.2 Global ROADM WSS Component Market Sales Status and Outlook (2017-2026)
1.6 Influence of Regional Conflicts on the ROADM WSS Component Industry
1.7 Impact of Carbon Neutrality on the ROADM WSS Component Industry

2 ROADM WSS Component Market Upstream and Downstream Analysis
2.1 ROADM WSS Component Industrial Chain Analysis
2.2 Key Raw Materials Suppliers and Price Analysis
2.3 Key Raw Materials Supply and Demand Analysis
2.4 Market Concentration Rate of Raw Materials
2.5 Manufacturing Process Analysis
2.6 Manufacturing Cost Structure Analysis
2.7 Major Downstream Buyers of ROADM WSS Component Analysis
2.8 Impact of COVID-19 on the Industry Upstream and Downstream

3 Players Profiles

4 Global ROADM WSS Component Market Landscape by Player
4.1 Global ROADM WSS Component Sales and Share by Player (2017-2022)
4.2 Global ROADM WSS Component Revenue and Market Share by Player (2017-2022)
4.3 Global ROADM WSS Component Average Price by Player (2017-2022)
4.4 Global ROADM WSS Component Gross Margin by Player (2017-2022)
4.5 ROADM WSS Component Market Competitive Situation and Trends
4.5.1 ROADM WSS Component Market Concentration Rate
4.5.2 ROADM WSS Component Market Share of Top 3 and Top 6 Players
4.5.3 Mergers and Acquisitions, Expansion

5 Global ROADM WSS Component Sales, Revenue, Price Trend by Type
5.1 Global ROADM WSS Component Sales and Market Share by Type (2017-2022)
5.2 Global ROADM WSS Component Revenue and Market Share by Type (2017-2022)
5.3 Global ROADM WSS Component Price by Type (2017-2022)
5.4 Global ROADM WSS Component Sales, Revenue and Growth Rate by Type (2017-2022)

6 Global ROADM WSS Component Market Analysis by Application
6.1 Global ROADM WSS Component Consumption and Market Share by Application (2017-2022)
6.2 Global ROADM WSS Component Consumption Revenue and Market Share by Application (2017-2022)
6.3 Global ROADM WSS Component Consumption and Growth Rate by Application (2017-2022)

7 Global ROADM WSS Component Sales and Revenue Region Wise (2017-2022)
7.1 Global ROADM WSS Component Sales and Market Share, Region Wise (2017-2022)
7.2 Global ROADM WSS Component Revenue and Market Share, Region Wise (2017-2022)
7.3 Global ROADM WSS Component Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
7.4 United States ROADM WSS Component Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
7.4.1 United States ROADM WSS Component Market Under COVID-19
7.5 Europe ROADM WSS Component Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
7.5.1 Europe ROADM WSS Component Market Under COVID-19
7.6 China ROADM WSS Component Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
7.6.1 China ROADM WSS Component Market Under COVID-19
7.7 Japan ROADM WSS Component Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
7.7.1 Japan ROADM WSS Component Market Under COVID-19
7.8 India ROADM WSS Component Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
7.8.1 India ROADM WSS Component Market Under COVID-19
7.9 Southeast Asia ROADM WSS Component Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
7.9.1 Southeast Asia ROADM WSS Component Market Under COVID-19
7.10 Latin America ROADM WSS Component Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
7.10.1 Latin America ROADM WSS Component Market Under COVID-19
7.11 Middle East and Africa ROADM WSS Component Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
7.11.1 Middle East and Africa ROADM WSS Component Market Under COVID-19

8 Global ROADM WSS Component Market Forecast (2022-2026)
8.1 Global ROADM WSS Component Sales, Revenue Forecast (2022-2026)
8.1.1 Global ROADM WSS Component Sales and Growth Rate Forecast (2022-2026)
8.1.2 Global ROADM WSS Component Revenue and Growth Rate Forecast (2022-2026)
8.1.3 Global ROADM WSS Component Price and Trend Forecast (2022-2026)
8.2 Global ROADM WSS Component Sales and Revenue Forecast, Region Wise (2022-2026)
8.3 Global ROADM WSS Component Sales, Revenue and Price Forecast by Type (2022-2026)
8.4 Global ROADM WSS Component Consumption Forecast by Application (2022-2026)
8.5 ROADM WSS Component Market Forecast Under COVID-19

9 Industry Outlook
9.1 ROADM WSS Component Market Drivers Analysis
9.2 ROADM WSS Component Market Restraints and Challenges
9.3 ROADM WSS Component Market Opportunities Analysis
9.4 Emerging Market Trends
9.5 ROADM WSS Component Industry Technology Status and Trends
9.6 News of Product Release
9.7 Consumer Preference Analysis
9.8 ROADM WSS Component Industry Development Trends under COVID-19 Outbreak
9.8.1 Global COVID-19 Status Overview
9.8.2 Influence of COVID-19 Outbreak on ROADM WSS Component Industry Development

10 Research Findings and Conclusion

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ROADM WSS Component Market - Research Methodology:

The key research methodology is data triangulation which involves data processing, analysis of the impact of knowledge variables on the market, and first (industry expert) validation. Data collection and base year analysis is completed using data collection modules with large demo sizes. The market data is analyzed and forecasted using market statistical and coherent models. Also market share analysis and key analysis are the main success factors within the market report.

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Organization: 360 Market Updates

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Fri, 15 Jul 2022 05:57:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Killexams : Boom or bust: what next for the British property market?

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Wed, 29 Jun 2022 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Conexant and Cisco sign deal to swap IP for chip sets

Conexant and Cisco sign deal to swap IP for chip sets
By Loring Wirbel, EE Times
October 18, 2000 (7:51 p.m. EST)

NEWPORT BEACH, Calif. — Conexant Systems Inc. signed a pact with Cisco Systems Inc. this week that will give Conexant access to intellectual property related to Cisco's Dynamic Packet Transport (DPT) technology, while Cisco receives a supply of chip sets that support DPT.

The work leading to the pact was critical in allowing Conexant to demo the CX29950 ring processor unit, a controller that supports the new Resilient Packet Ring architecture.

Cisco's DPT technology is one proposal in front of a new IEEE study group on resilient rings. The study group is slated to become Working Group 802.17 at IEEE's 802 plenary meeting in November. Conexant is following Cisco's general model of providing protection switching at the routing layer but is calling its implementation the Spatial Reuse Protocol, since DPT refers to Cisco's specific implementation.

The RPR study group entails many pr oposals for building counter-rotating fiber rings for metropolitan-area networks, borrowing concepts from Sonet, Gigabit Ethernet and the Fiber Distributed Data Interface. Cisco's DPT uses Layer 3 restoration, Nortel Networks is proposing a combined Layer 1/Layer 3 concept called InterWAN Packet Transport, Luminous Networks Inc. is including protection switching in a modified medium access control chip at Layer 2, and Lantern Communications Inc. is using Sonet Digital Wrapper technology.

"We saw a lot of merit in the proposals from the smaller companies," said Lauren Schlicht, product line manager for broadband internetworking solutions at Conexant's Boulder, Colo., group. "But at the end of the day, we took the attitude that whatever Cisco implements will probably get adopted by the industry.

"Still, the RPU architecture is flexible enough to follow where the IEEE study group goes."

The concepts embodied in resilient packet rings are so new themselves that only a handful of equipment companies t hus far have taken up the RPR banner. Conexant is the first semiconductor company to make public its intent to provide RPR controllers.

Conexant used a design for a ring-based packet controller, developed in the Boulder WAN operations and originally called the RAC-24. But in designing the CX29550, Conexant not only listened to Cisco's overall DPT strategy but consulted with other, new Conexant groups for an optimal design. Consulting operations included the Maker Communications unit, in Massachusetts, which will produce network coprocessors to be used with the RPU, and Israel-based Novanet Inc., which has sampled OC-48 CMOS Sonet framers that can operate in a Sonet-less fiber ring alongside the CX29550.

Conexant program manager Vince Eberhard said RPRs allow nodes to be added to or deleted from a metro fiber ring without requiring that the ring be brought down or reconfigured. The RPR proposals share the philosophy that rings should not require a master controller, nor should they require a token, li ke token ring or FDDI. Any node on the network should help recover from fiber cuts or single-node failures by automatically initiating a ring wrap around the failure.

The ring described its conditions to member nodes through the dynamic combination of control packets and data packets being sent. When a packet arrives at a node, it can be received, forwarded, received and forwarded for multicast traffic, stripped to check for error conditions, or examined for special cases such as ring wraps and pass-through modes. Every packet must be examined, so the ring operates totally in store-and-forward modes, with no cut-through operations.

Some of the trickiest elements in getting such rings to operate efficiently are the need to implement fairness so that one node cannot hog all the bandwidth; the need to have guaranteed protection switching that can operate within Sonet's 50-ms constraints; and the need to perform automated topology discovery to recognize new nodes on the ring.

Fairness is implemented through a series of transit buffers, which help carry out the Spatial Reuse Protocol at the heart of the Cisco approach. Ordinarily, Eberhard said, nodes must automatically set traffic-engineering constraints based on four traffic types: high-priority transit packets moving through a node, high-priority transmit packets being originated by a node, and low-priority versions of both transit and transmit packets. When a ring nears congestion, the nodes must perform both a global fairness check, to make sure the ring is operating optimally and fairly as a whole, and local optimization, to make sure that local subgroups are sharing bandwidth among themselves equitably. That is performed by having the low-priority transit buffer send congestion messages to other nodes on the ring.

Intelligent Protection Switching (IPS) operates with constraints identical to those of Sonet's Automatic Protection Switching, but without reserving extra bandwidth, as Sonet requires. Auto-notification of rings is sent out as a Laye r 3 message from any RPR node.

Finally, topology discovery messages are sent out on both fiber rings, and nodes respond by appending medium access control address information, using a 6-byte MAC field.

The first generation of RPU from Conexant has dual OC-48 (2.5-Gbit/second) MACs, and Conexant is designing an OC-192 (10-Gbit) follow-on for release in 2001. The controller supports packet address lookup, multicasting, priority processing, fairness implementation, topology discovery, protection switching and rate limitation. The chip interfaces to external SRAM to implement an external transit buffer of either 500-kbyte or 1-Mbyte density. There are also packet-over-Sonet Physical Layer 3 interfaces to both external Sonet framers and network processors.

"We have to continue to look at the partitioning of the controller over time," Schlicht said. "Do you throw the framer on-chip, or does that reduce flexibility? Are two MACs optimal? What's the best transit buffer size? We may want to offer differe nt devices over time, as packet rings are used more widely."

Conexant also is leaving bets open as to what kinds of network equipment OEMs will leap on the RPR bandwagon. Some may be opportunistic companies that develop specialized nodes for existing Cisco networks, she said. Others will develop a range of dedicated RPR nodes, RPR/10-Gbit Ethernet nodes, RPR/Sonet nodes, or some other hybrid that has yet to be defined. Even a server could turn into an RPR node.

And if Cisco's early success in cable TV hybrid fiber/coax networks is any indication, Schlicht said, the cable headend or wireless basestation could become a node for an RPR network, perhaps even earlier than traditional telco switches or routers.

Sun, 26 Jun 2022 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : New Study Suggests COVID-19 Vaccine Linked to Short-Term Period Changes

"Hearst Magazines and Yahoo may earn commission or revenue on some items through the links below."

  • A new study shows that women may experience short-term changes in their menstrual cycles after COVID-19 vaccination.

  • The researchers found that these changes were associated with all COVID-19 vaccine types. But, experts still recommend people who menstruate receive their COVID-19 vaccines.

  • “The good news from the data is that the changes were temporary and short-lived without long-term consequences.”

Since the first wave of COVID-19 vaccinations became available, we have continued to learn more and more about how the shot affects our bodies, most side effects being of little consequence. And while this remains true, a new study suggests that COVID-19 vaccines may affect your period.

Specifically, medical professionals have now identified a potential link between COVID-19 vaccination and short-term changes in menstrual cycle length and regularity. The study (the largest one to date) was published last week by researchers from the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign and its findings have already raised several questions for people who menstruate.

Early in 2021, many people began sharing that they experienced unexpected menstrual bleeding after receiving their initial COVID-19 vaccine. To investigate this phenomenon further, researchers asked 39,129 individuals who received a two-dose SARS-CoV-2 vaccination a series of questions about period changes and vaccine experiences.

In this sample, 42% of people with regular menstrual cycles said that they bled more heavily than usual after getting vaccinated, while 44% reported no change. Among respondents who typically do not menstruate, 71% of people on long-acting reversible contraceptives, 39% of people on gender-affirming hormones, and 66% of postmenopausal people reported breakthrough bleeding.

Researchers also found that increased/breakthrough bleeding after vaccination was significantly associated with older age, systemic vaccine side effects (fever and/or fatigue), a lighter typical menstrual flow, having previously been pregnant or given birth, and ethnicity—specifically Hispanic/Latinx. For non-menstruating premenopausal people, breakthrough bleeding was more likely if they had previously been pregnant and/or given birth. For postmenopausal people, breakthrough bleeding was more likely for those who were Hispanic/Latinx. Lastly, regularly menstruating people with endometriosis, menorrhagia, fibroids, and PCOS were slightly more likely to experience heavier bleeding.

Ultimately, the results from this study demonstrated that respondents in the demo who menstruate regularly were about equally likely to have no bleeding changes after vaccination at all or to have heavier periods after vaccination. A much smaller proportion of people had lighter periods. The study highlighted that “generally, changes to menstrual bleeding are not uncommon or dangerous, yet attention to these experiences is necessary to build trust in medicine.”

It’s important to note the limitations of this study as well. Because this study was solely based on personal responses from participants, the results may have been skewed due to self-reporting bias. And, people who are experiencing menstrual changes are more likely to have completed the survey. Additionally, this study did not compare the results with a control group of people who were unvaccinated.

Kate White, M.D., Associate Professor of OB/GYN at Boston University School of Medicine, and author of Your Sexual Health: A Guide to Understanding, Loving and Caring for Your Body, agrees that this study is limited by the web-based design. “In addition, a very high percentage of the respondents were white, which may not reflect the experiences of all people. But the size of the study (over 39,000 people) is an incredible strength.”

Still, these findings are in line with smaller studies that have reported menstrual changes after vaccination while utilizing a control group (unvaccinated people).

What should we take away from these new findings?

“Many women noticed changes in their menstrual cycle after receiving the Covid vaccine and their concerns were often brushed off or they were told their cycle was impacted by anxiety. This study highlights the fact that women know their bodies best and the changes weren't in their ‘heads,’ but rather a real side effect from the vaccine,” says Jennifer Wider, M.D., a women’s health expert. She adds that “the good news from the data is that the changes were temporary and short-lived without long-term consequences.”

These new findings will likely affect how medical professionals consider the after-effects of the COVID-19 vaccines, and take further consideration of menstrual health in trials for other vaccines. Dr. Wider says that “this study emphasizes how important it is for researchers to monitor menstrual health in future vaccine trials and to get a better handle on the underlying biological mechanisms at play.”

Should people with periods still get vaccinated?

The answer is yes. “All people, whether or not they menstruate, should get the COVID vaccine,” says Dr. White. “It’s important for doctors to counsel patients that the vaccine may temporarily disrupt their periods, but there’s no long-term impact on your periods, and the vaccine doesn’t affect your fertility at all.”

Dr. White continues, saying “COVID-19 continues to be a serious infection for many people, and everyone is at risk of repeated infection with the new variants (though the vaccine still provides protection from both any infection and from severe infection) the protection of the vaccine is worth the short-term mucking with your periods.”

Given that the menstrual changes seen in the participants of the study were temporary and short-lived, Dr. Wider agrees, saying that “the importance of getting vaccinated far outweighs the short-term risk of having a change in your menstrual cycle.”

Dr. Wider adds that this study “should raise awareness for women who have irregular periods or lighter bleeding cycles that they may experience changes or heavier bleeding and that it would be likely caused by the vaccine.” So, ultimately, the study should serve as a potential explanation for heavier menstrual cycles in some, post-vaccination.

Can COVID-19 infection affect menstruation as well?

According to Dr. Wider, “women who had COVID have reported a change in their menstrual cycle.” However, more studies are definitely needed to tease out why that may be the case.

“Any infection (or serious stress) can affect your periods,..and early studies have shown that COVID-19 infection can change your periods in multiple ways,” says Dr. White. “The amount of bleeding you see can change—most often, it leads to a lighter period, but some people experience heavier flow. The timing of your bleeding can be altered, too—sometimes your next period comes early, and more often your next period comes late (or not at all). And these disruptions may be present for a long time.”

Still, Dr. Wider points out, despite reports that women who had COVID-19 have reported changes in their menstrual cycles, “more studies are definitely needed to tease out why that may be the case.”

The bottom line

Getting vaccinated is still important. But, it is always a good idea to track your menstrual cycles. And it’s especially prudent to track your period following vaccination. But rest assured that if you do see short-term irregularities in your cycle, there’s no need to be alarmed, says Dr. Wider. “If irregular patterns persist, it would be wise to bring it to the attention of a healthcare provider.

This article is accurate as of press time. However, as the COVID-19 pandemic rapidly evolves and the scientific community’s understanding of the novel coronavirus develops, some of the information may have changed since it was last updated. While we aim to keep all of our stories up to date, please visit online resources provided by the CDC, WHO, and your local public health department to stay informed on the latest news. Always talk to your doctor for professional medical advice.

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