Today at the Open Hardware Summit in Portland, Alicia Gibb and Michael Weinberg of the Open Source Hardware Association (OSHWA) launched the Open Source Hardware Certification program. It’s live, and you can certify your own hardware as Open Hardware right now.
Open Source Hardware can’t be defined without first discussing open source software. At its very core, open source software is just a copyright hack, enabled by a worldwide universal computer network. The rise of open source software is tied to the increasing ease of distributing said software, either through BBSes, Usenet, and the web. Likewise, Open Source Hardware is tied to the ease of distributing, modifying, and building hardware.
In the 1980s, there were no services that could deliver a custom circuit board to anywhere on the planet for a dollar per square inch. When open software began, CNC machines were expensive tools, now you can build a very good machine for just a week’s wages. We are currently living at the dawn of Open Source Hardware, enabled by the creation of Open Source design tools that have themselves been used to create physical tools. Inexpensive 3D printers, open source oscilloscopes, circuit board plotters, and the entire hackerspace movement are as revolutionary as the Internet. These devices and the Internet are the foundations for Open Hardware and software, respectively. The objections to why hardware is incompatible with Open Source no longer apply and small-scale manufacturing techniques are only going to get better.
Open source is a moral imperative in the truest Kantian sense of the word. It is a good unto itself. Of course, this means open source is also mind-numbingly prescriptivist. Holy scrolls have defined dozens of different open source licenses. The relevant license for Open Source Hardware has already been laid out to define the freedoms and responsibilities of all Open Source Hardware creators. Open Source Hardware is a tangible thing, from a laptop to a lampshade, whose design is available so anyone can make, modify, distribute, and sell that thing. Native documentation is required, and software required to run this thing must be based on an OSI-approved license.
The definition of Open Source Hardware has been around for a few years now, and since then the community has flourished, there’s a great gear logo, and you can buy real, functional hardware that bills itself as Open Source Hardware. It’s become a selling point, and this has become a problem.
Many hardware creators don’t adhere to the definition of Open Source Hardware. In some cases, the design files simply aren’t available. If they are, they could be unmodifiable. The software used to create these design files could cost thousands of dollars per seat. This is the problem the movement faces — Open Source Hardware must have a certification program. Unlike open source software, where the source is almost proof enough that a piece of software complies with an open source license, hardware does not have such obvious assurances.
All software is closed by default. Anything written is covered by copyright, and the developers of open source software choose to license their works under an open source license. Open source software, then, is a copyright hack, enabled because all software is closed by default.
Hardware, on the other hand, is open by default. If you build a device to automatically inject epinephrine intramuscularly, you must go out of your way to patent your device. Only a patent will provide you the ability to license your work, and before that patent is published anyone can make their own epinephrine pen. If you build something with an FPGA, the code that programs the FPGA is covered by copyright, but an arbitrary circuit that uses that FPGA isn’t. Any generic piece of Open Source Hardware could be covered under patents, trademarks, and a dozen licenses. Therefore, an Open Source Hardware license is impractical. This is why OSHWA is not releasing an Open Source Hardware license, and instead creating an Open Source Hardware certification program. No Open Source Hardware license could cover every edge case, and a certification is ultimately the only solution.
At last year’s Open Hardware Summit, OSHWA formally announced the creation of the Open Hardware Certification program. Now, this program is live, and the certification database will growing very, very quickly. At its heart, the Open Source Hardware Certification program is pretty simple — create hardware that complies with the community definition of Open Source Hardware.
The theoretical basis for the need of an Open Source Hardware license is the fact that anyone is able to manufacture hardware. Of course, there are limits to technology and no one has a 14nm silicon fab line in their garage. This is a problem for any piece of Open Source Hardware, and the technical capability for anyone to recreate integrated circuits and other high technologies is the sole source of the traditional objections to any open hardware license. Garage-based fabrication is always improving, though, but closed hardware in the form of NDA’d chips will remain a problem for years to come.
The clearest example of the problem with closed-source chips is bunnie’s Novena laptop. This laptop is designed as both a hacker’s laptop and an artifact of Open Hardware. Although most of the chips used in the Novena are available without signing NDAs, open source, and blob-free 3D graphics acceleration was unavailable when the laptop launched. This non-open graphics problem will be fixed with open source drivers, but it does illustrate the problem of Open Source Hardware. Even though chips might be available, there might be binary blobs required for full functionality. You can build an Open Hardware chip in VHDL, but it’s not really open if you have to use closed-source FPGA dev tools.
OSHWA’s solution to this problem is simply asking for hardware creators to act in good faith. The certification program won’t knock points off for using closed source binary blobs if that’s the only way of doing something. Open Source Hardware is just slightly more aware of the pace of technical progress, and what is closed today may be open tomorrow. Building a piece of Open Source Hardware isn’t an all or nothing proposal; just provide your best effort to make it open, and technology or reverse engineers will probably make it more open in the future.
Of course, with any certification program, there must be some effort given to enforcement. If an Open Hardware project is certified under the program but does not meet the guidelines of the certification program, fines may be levied against the project creators. Again, good faith of the project creator is assumed, and a project found not in compliance with the certification program will be given 90 days to either fix the problem or remove the project from the certification program. After 90 days, there’s a 120-day period of public shaming, and after that small fines of $500 per month. The worst offender will get a fine of up to $10,000 per month, but that would require years of non-compliance, and it’s very doubtful any conflict with OSHWA will ever reach that stage. It should be noted these fines have a legal basis in the trademark of the OSHW certification logo, and if you don’t use the OSHW logo or certify your project, there’s nothing OSHWA can do.
The old Open Source Hardware ‘gear’ logo — unquestionably a better logo — will still remain in use, and no one is going will look down on you for using it. Using the trademarked OSHW logo, though, is the only way any certification program can be enforced.
Of course, the Open Source Hardware Certification program has been more than two years in the making, and that’s time enough for a few people to start having very strong opinions about it. A few years ago, Saar Drimer of Boldport said he won’t be using the Open Source Hardware logo on his boards. This is despite the fact that he loves Open Source Hardware, has written open source PCB design software, and offers a 20% discount on open source contract work. His reason is simple: adding a logo brings baggage, and building Open Source Hardware is not mutually exclusive with putting a logo on a board. Dave Jones is a big supporter of Open Hardware, but he realizes the famous gear logo is becoming meaningless through abuse.
You need only look back on the last twenty or thirty years of the world of Open Source Software to get a sense of where Saar and Dave are coming from; Stallman does not believe in a moral imperative to Open Hardware, whereas most everyone in attendance of today’s Open Hardware Summit does. Gnome versus KDE is nothing compared to the religious war we potentially face between various Open Hardware philosophies. The Open Source Hardware community is relearning what the open source software community learned twenty years ago. We can only hope to learn from their missteps.
But Open Source Hardware has a much bigger obstacle to adoption than politicking and empire building. Open source software is a simple concept — you have a (copy) right to whatever software, music, words, or boat hull designs you create. You can, therefore, provide others the right to use, study, share, and modify that work. Physical objects and artifacts do not have copyright, they have patents. Patent law in the United States is atrocious, and just because you were the first to create a useful invention doesn’t mean a patent would be invalidated. This is the greatest challenge to anything developed as Open Source Hardware. The only solution to this is prior art and patent inspectors that know where to look.
The Open Source Hardware Certification program is going to take a while to unravel. OSHWA doesn’t believe this certification program will be a repository used by patent inspectors looking for prior art. The legal basis for the certification is literally built upon every piece of intellectual property law. It is, perhaps, an answer to the most complex legal questions ever: what is property, what is intellectual property and can the concept of physical things be given away.
No one has an answer to these questions, or at least an answer that can be summed up in one-page FAQ. The Open Source Hardware Certification program is an attempt to answer these questions, and so far it’s the best attempt yet.
None of this matters unless the community gets behind it, and if another competing Open Source Hardware certification or license pops up, the community may very well migrate to that. Judging from the last thirty years of open source software license drama, we can only hope that the community figures this out the first time, and we hope this certification program is a rousing success.
To earn educator certification in Texas or another state, candidates must complete certain steps at their institution and apply with the appropriate state agency.
To become certified in one of the Baylor educator preparation programs, a Baylor student must first be officially accepted into the program.
The Office of Professional Practice in the School of Education handles the TEA educator certification process for all Baylor students.
Transparency is critical to our credibility with the public and our subscribers. Whenever possible, we pursue information on the record. When a newsmaker insists on background or off-the-record ground rules, we must adhere to a strict set of guidelines, enforced by AP news managers.
Under AP's rules, material from anonymous sources may be used only if:
1. The material is information and not opinion or speculation, and is vital to the report.
2. The information is not available except under the conditions of anonymity imposed by the source.
3. The source is reliable, and in a position to have direct knowledge of the information.
Reporters who intend to use material from anonymous sources must get approval from their news manager before sending the story to the desk. The manager is responsible for vetting the material and making sure it meets AP guidelines. The manager must know the identity of the source, and is obligated, like the reporter, to keep the source's identity confidential. Only after they are assured that the source material has been vetted by a manager should editors and producers allow it to be used.
Reporters should proceed with interviews on the assumption they are on the record. If the source wants to set conditions, these should be negotiated at the start of the interview. At the end of the interview, the reporter should try once again to move onto the record some or all of the information that was given on a background basis.
The AP routinely seeks and requires more than one source when sourcing is anonymous. Stories should be held while attempts are made to reach additional sources for confirmation or elaboration. In rare cases, one source will be sufficient – when material comes from an authoritative figure who provides information so detailed that there is no question of its accuracy.
We must explain in the story why the source requested anonymity. And, when it’s relevant, we must describe the source's motive for disclosing the information. If the story hinges on documents, as opposed to interviews, the reporter must describe how the documents were obtained, at least to the extent possible.
The story also must provide attribution that establishes the source's credibility; simply quoting "a source" is not allowed. We should be as descriptive as possible: "according to top White House aides" or "a senior official in the British Foreign Office." The description of a source must never be altered without consulting the reporter.
We must not say that a person declined comment when that person the person is already quoted anonymously. And we should not attribute information to anonymous sources when it is obvious or well known. We should just state the information as fact.
Stories that use anonymous sources must carry a reporter's byline. If a reporter other than the bylined staffer contributes anonymous material to a story, that reporter should be given credit as a contributor to the story.
All complaints and questions about the authenticity or veracity of anonymous material – from inside or outside the AP – must be promptly brought to the news manager's attention.
Not everyone understands “off the record” or “on background” to mean the same things. Before any interview in which any degree of anonymity is expected, there should be a discussion in which the ground rules are set explicitly.
These are the AP’s definitions:
On the record. The information can be used with no caveats, quoting the source by name.
Off the record. The information cannot be used for publication. Background. The information can be published but only under conditions negotiated with the source. Generally, the sources do not want their names published but will agree to a description of their position. AP reporters should object vigorously when a source wants to brief a group of reporters on background and try to persuade the source to put the briefing on the record.
Deep background. The information can be used but without attribution. The source does not want to be identified in any way, even on condition of anonymity.
In general, information obtained under any of these circumstances can be pursued with other sources to be placed on the record.
ANONYMOUS SOURCES IN MATERIAL FROM OTHER NEWS SOURCES
Reports from other news organizations based on anonymous sources require the most careful scrutiny when we consider them for our report.
AP's basic rules for anonymous source material apply to material from other news outlets just as they do in our own reporting: The material must be factual and obtainable no other way. The story must be truly significant and newsworthy. Use of anonymous material must be authorized by a manager. The story we produce must be balanced, and comment must be sought.
Further, before picking up such a story we must make a bona fide effort to get it on the record, or, at a minimum, confirm it through our own reporting. We shouldn't hesitate to hold the story if we have any doubts. If another outlet’s anonymous material is ultimately used, it must be attributed to the originating news organization and note its description of the source.
Anything in the AP news report that could reasonably be disputed should be attributed. We should provide the full name of a source and as much information as needed to identify the source and explain why the person s credible. Where appropriate, include a source's age; title; name of company, organization or government department; and hometown. If we quote someone from a written document – a report, email or news release -- we should say so. Information taken from the internet must be vetted according to our standards of accuracy and attributed to the original source. File, library or archive photos, audio or videos must be identified as such. For lengthy stories, attribution can be contained in an extended editor's note detailing interviews, research and methodology.
Pricing from: $12.42 per month
DataCamp is a one-stop shop for data analytics professionals to get the right skills and certifications for their field. It has more than 380 courses designed to meet the needs of a data scientist, data engineer, statistician, programmer and data analyst―to name a few. If you already have a head start on your career and are looking for specific skills, DataCamp offers courses tailored to what you are looking for, including structured query language (SQL) fundamentals, applied finance, machine learning (ML) and data visualization.
Test the platform out with its limited free access. This gives you the first chapter of every course for free. You can also choose to take up to six free courses and gain access to the job board with a free professional profile on the site. Most people choose the Premium plan for $8.25 per month, which allows you full access to the entire library of certifications.
To get certified, you must pass a skills test. The test is timed and will go over general skills. You may have a coding challenge as part of the test or be required to make a case study submission.
After certification, you can create a professional profile and gain career help from the career services team. This team guides professionals through a job search and provides interview prep for upcoming meetings.
This training event will provide hands-on understanding of the Curriculog tool. Attendees can have actual proposals for courses or curricula that they would like to put into the system or provide some example proposals for hands-on learning.
For training, contact the appropriate person listed below or email email@example.com.
If so, then you are eligible to apply for a Georgia teaching certificate!
Q. I am completing an advanced degree in my field of certification. How do I apply for an upgrade?
A. If you are completing an advanced degree and NOT adding a new field, you merely need to download a Certification Update Application from the Professional Standards Commission (GaPSC), and send them a transcript after your degree is posted. If you are employed, have your district complete the Employer Assurance Form to waive the fee the GaPSC charges.
Q. How do I add an endorsement to a valid teaching certificate?
With courses taken for Professional Learning Unit (PLU) credits:
With courses taken for college credits:
Q: I have completed a teacher preparation program and did not apply for teacher certification before July 1, 2014. How do I apply for teacher certification in Georgia?
Please contact Ms. Chris Parker, Certification Official for teacher certification programs. She can be reached at 706-864-1852. Office visits by appointment only.
The purpose of this policy is to establish the minimum requirements for an information security awareness and training program at W&M.
This policy applies to all William & Mary faculty, staff, and student employees requiring access to the university’s information systems. Contractors are not covered by this policy.
The W&M Information Security Office will administer a mandatory information security awareness and training program to increase awareness and train university staff in the secure handling and use of the university’s information and information assets, including hardware, software, and data. The mandatory training program is assigned annually. All active faculty, staff, and student employees are required to complete the training. All new employees and student workers will be assigned the mandatory training within 24 hours of account creation and will be allotted a limited time period to complete. If an individual fails to complete the training within the specified deadline access to IT services will be locked until the training is completed.
Exemptions from this requirement must be approved by the Chief Operating Officer or designee.
Requests for exemptions from this policy should only be made under the following circumstances:
An employee’s failure to comply with any of the above policy statements may result in being disciplined, in accordance with general university employment policies and procedures that apply to the respective category of employees. The university may also temporarily deny access to university information systems and may refer the case to the appropriate local, state, or federal authority for further disposition.
A student’s failure to comply with any of the above policy statements may result in disciplinary actions in accordance with the Student Handbook. Depending on the nature and severity of the violation, the university may take one or more of the disciplinary actions listed under Administration of Student Code of Conduct, Section VII. The university may also temporarily deny access to university information systems and may refer the case to the appropriate local, state, or federal authority for further disposition.
Access the Exemption Form
The Higher Education Opportunity Act requires all colleges and universities participating in federal student aid programs to provide access to general institutional and financial aid information. Southern New Hampshire University (SNHU) has provided the information below in compliance with the federal law.
The contact information provided is made available to provide assistance with obtaining or understanding any required consumer information related to financial assistance, institutional information, completion, graduation, transfer-out and retention rates, and institutional security policies and crime statistics as well as any request for a disclosure in print.
Southern New Hampshire University offers innovative and affordable undergraduate and graduate programs across different platforms. Campus and hybrid online programs will help you turn your passion into your profession. SNHU offers more than 200 career-focused online college degrees and certificates. SNHU offers accredited and customized learning solutions for companies through our workforce partnerships which build upon our competency-based learning expertise and a track record of student success.
Southern New Hampshire University is accredited by the New England Commission of Higher Education (NECHE).
SNHU has articulation agreements which are formal agreements with other higher education institutions that document the transfer policies for a specific academic program.
The SNHU Career Services teams work with students throughout their academic experience as well as after graduation to build professional tools needed to succeed in the workplace. SNHU does not participate in any job placement services.
The College Navigator provides SNHU data in an easy accessible manner to include general information, tuition, fees and estimated student expenses, financial aid, net price, enrollment, admission, retention and graduation rates, programs/majors, service members and veterans, varsity athletic teams, accreditation, campus security, and cohort default rates.
SNHU requires all members of the University community to comply with all state and federal copyright laws.
SNHU is dedicated to providing equal access to individuals with disabilities, in accordance with Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, Title III of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990, and the Americans with Disabilities Act Amendments Act of 2008.
Professional licensure, certification, endorsement, and salary benefit requirements for educators vary from state to state and district to district. Southern New Hampshire University (SNHU) cannot guarantee licensure, certification, endorsement, or salary benefits. It is the students' responsibility to understand and comply with requirements in the state where they intend to work as an administrator or teacher. Students seeking licensure in states other than New Hampshire are solely responsible for determining whether they are eligible for licensure, and before beginning the program, confirming the precise requirements that must be satisfied to be licensed in that state. Students specifically seeking a New Hampshire certificate must meet all requirements, policies, and protocols included in the program approval(s) granted to Southern New Hampshire University by the State Department of Education.
SNHU professors are leaders in their fields who are committed to doing more, learning more, and caring more than they have to. Our full-time and adjunct professors possess extensive academic, career and life experience. Direct Assessment Competency-Based Education programs do not involve faculty.
The University complies with public disclosure of financial information as required by applicable regulatory bodies and will review any individual requests for audited financial statements on a case-by-case basis.
SNHU offers a high-quality, affordable education along with unparalleled support, whether you're pursuing your education at our traditional campus or working on an online degree, the entire SNHU community, from academic advisors to faculty to our network of successful alumni, will be there to help you achieve your goals, from day one to graduation and beyond.
The SNHU Net Price Calculator uses institutional data to provide estimated net price for current and prospective students and their families based on a student's individual circumstances. This calculator allows students to calculate an estimated net price of attendance (defined as cost of attendance minus grants and scholarships) based on what similar SNHU students paid in the previous year. Direct Assessment Competency-Based Education students should use the CfA Net Price Calculator.
Users of SNHU equipment, software and computer accounts are expected to follow acceptable standards of ethics and conduct in their use of computing resources. The SNHU acceptable use policy outlines our standards and the disciplinary actions taken against users who violate this policy.
Earning Certification Online
Students who successfully complete a certification program at Southern New Hampshire University may be recommended to the State of New Hampshire Board of Education for initial or secondary NH State Licensure. Students teaching in states other than New Hampshire are responsible for checking with their state board of education to determine reciprocity or other inter-state agreements between NH and their home, teaching state.
Reciprocity, What Does It Really Mean?
In most cases, reciprocity does not allow for an automatic transfer of initial teacher licensure from one state to another state. Requirements for educators differ from state to state, thus there may be more tests, courses, fieldwork and/or workshops that you will have to complete to be fully licensed in another state. Similarly, secondary licensure may have additional requirements depending on your state. For the most part, after processing the initial paperwork states under an interstate agreement will issue you a "temporary" license for a period of one to two years, giving you this time to complete any requirements that you may be missing. It is very important to know what the licensure requirements are for the state to which you wish to transfer your license.
Students seeking secondary NH licensure at Southern New Hampshire University are responsible for identifying the licensure requirements within their state of teacher employment.
Consistent with all applicable federal and state laws, rules, regulations and ordinances (e.g. Title III, Title VI, Title VII, Title IX, Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act, and the Americans with Disabilities Act as amended), and in recognition of its responsibilities to its faculty, staff, and students as well as to the communities in which it operates, Southern New Hampshire University reaffirms its continuing commitment to afford qualified or qualifiable individuals equal access and equal opportunity within the University. To ensure equal access and equal opportunity, Southern New Hampshire University shall not discriminate against any individual or group because of race, color, creed, ethnicity, sex, religion, national origin, citizenship, marital or parental status, disability (including intellectual disability), age, gender, gender identity or expression, sexual orientation, pregnancy, veteran/military status, genetic information, or on any other legally prohibited basis.
SNHU nursing programs are not authorized in the state of Washington or US territories and we are not accepting students residing in Washington state or US territories into Nursing programs at this time. Currently enrolled students who move into the state of Washington or a US territory will not be able to continue in nursing courses until they move out of the state of Washington or the US territory. Prospective students are encouraged to contact Admission, and current students should contact their Advisor, for more information.
The MSN Family Nurse Practitioner track is only available to students living in New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Maine, Vermont, Texas, Florida, North Carolina, Virginia, New Jersey. Students must reside in one of these states while taking FNP courses at SNHU, and all practicum experiences must be completed in one of these states. SNHU expects students to complete their practicum experiences in their state of domicile, as reported by the student during the application/admission process. Any student looking to change their state of domicile and/or complete their practicum experience in a different state (listed herein), may face interruptions or delays in their program. Students are responsible for reporting any change to their state of domicile immediately to academic advising. Please note that the family nurse practitioner track is accepting applications from a limited number of students per term. All other nursing program tracks are available to students living in every state except Washington or US territories.
The reauthorization of the Higher Education Act includes provisions that are designed to reduce the illegal uploading and downloading of copyrighted works through peer-to-peer (P2P) file sharing. This SNHU policy outlines the University's plan to effectively combat unauthorized distribution, alternatives to illegal file sharing, and our effectiveness reviews.
Requirements for professional licensure in disciplines such as accounting, counseling, education and nursing vary among states as do the educational requirements for certain professional certifications. SNHU provides state licensing guidance and professional certification information for students within the Licensure and Certification Disclosures page.
SNHU maintains a list of written arrangements with other higher education institutions which outlines portions of specific educational program offerings.
State Authorization is a law specified in the Higher Education Opportunity Act of 2008 that requires higher education institutions to obtain formal permission/approval to conduct regulated activities within its borders. Because Southern New Hampshire University (SNHU) has students residing across the United States, the institution is required to obtain each state’s approval (State Authorization) to operate based on the activities it conducts in a state.
In some states, SNHU is exempt from seeking approval to operate, while in other states SNHU has permission to operate via an affiliation with the National Council for State Authorization Reciprocity Agreements (NC SARA).
SNHU strives at all times to provide the highest quality of service and the best student experience possible. In the event of a serious complaint against the University that cannot be resolved, SNHU provides a comprehensive contact list of home state authorizing agencies.
SNHU campus students can choose from more than 60 clubs and organizations. SNHU online students can get involved through SNHUconnect.
The Enrollment Tab of the College Navigator provides a breakdown of the SNHU student body diversity, including the percentage of enrolled, full-time students in the following categories: gender and self-identified ethnic groups while the Financial Aid tab provides Federal Pell Grant recipient data.
SNHU must annually provide a Title II report to the state of New Hampshire and the general public for programs that prepare teachers for initial state certification or licensure. This report includes information about goals, assurances, pass rates, and program information.
SNHU must disclose within the Internet Course Schedule the International Standard Book Number (ISBN) and retail price information of required and recommended textbooks and supplemental material for each course listed. If applicable, SNHU must include on the written course schedule a notice that textbook information is available on the Internet course schedule and the Internet address for the schedule. SNHU will provide information to the college bookstore upon request.
The SNHU Transfer Credit policy outlines the transfer and external credit policies and procedures for undergraduate and graduate students. All study abroad credits and grades that are earned oversees at one of our partner universities will apply directly toward an SNHU degree. Only official transcripts sent directly from the issuing institution are considered for transfer credit. Electronic transcripts can be considered official if they are sent by an approved and secure file transfer system. Credit considered for transfer must be from the issuing institution; transfer credit posted on another institution's transcript will not be accepted.
Students who wish to transfer their credit elsewhere are responsible for verifying the transferability of credit prior to enrollment. SNHU does not guarantee that courses will transfer.
Credit for Prior Learning comprises the processes and practices of determining if knowledge gained in a variety of settings, may warrant consideration of college credit. To be eligible for prior learning credit students must be enrolled in an undergraduate or graduate program at SNHU. Official documentation that can be authenticated is required. For evaluating non-traditional learning experiences, SNHU recognizes the services of American Council on Education (ACE) and National College Credit Recommendation Service (NCCRS).
Working toward a degree is a smart investment in your future - and at Southern New Hampshire University, it's an affordable one, too. We keep our costs low, and financial aid is available to those who qualify. Additional tuition and fee information:
An official withdrawal refers to an action taken by the student at SNHU to discontinue his/her enrollment. Students who use federal financial aid and/or military benefits and fail all courses in a term will be reviewed for participation. Students who cease participation in graded activities before completing through 60% of the term will be classified as receiving an "unearned F" which is defined as an unofficial withdrawal.
Every student should complete a Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) to determine eligibility for federal financial aid programs if financial assistance is needed, Students and their families should understand the FAFSA process, eligibility requirements to apply with the FAFSA, dependency status, and the importance and use of the Federal Student Aid (FSA) ID.
SNHU has established a Title IV Loan Code of Conduct for which all employees and agents must comply to avoid any conflict of interest with financial institutions. SNHU also adheres to the NASFAA Code of Conduct to provide accurate unbiased information and the NASFAA Statement of Ethical Principles to advocate for students, maintain the highest level of integrity, support student access and success, comply with federal and state laws, strive for transparency and clarity, and protect the privacy of financial aid applicants.
Cost of Attendance (COA) is an estimate of the student's educational expenses to maintain a reasonable/moderate standard of living for a period of enrollment and is not the amount paid directly to Southern New Hampshire University (SNHU). The COA is used when calculating a student's eligibility for financial aid only. The COA includes both direct costs (tuition, fees and on campus living expenses paid directly to SNHU if applicable) and indirect costs (living, books, transportation and personal expenses).
Online entrance counseling is a requirement for all first-time Direct Loan borrowers which assists students to understand how the Direct Loan program and the obligation of repayment upon signing the Master Promissory Note (MPN) obligation, how to manage education expenses and to understand the rights and responsibilities as a borrower.
Direct Loan borrowers are required to complete exit counseling when graduating, stopping attendance or a drop below half-time enrollment. Exit counseling reviews borrowing history, servicer information, monthly payments, repayment plans, and strategies for successful repayment.
Southern New Hampshire University (SNHU) actively seeks to protect students, agencies, and the educational system at large from potential fraud, identity theft, or other unlawful activities. For this purpose, SNHU reserves the right to request additional documentation and suspend financial aid eligibility pending the resolution of any conflicting information received during the admission, financial aid, or registration process. Please see the Department of Education CFR 668.16 for additional information regarding fraud prevention regulations.
There are several need-based and non-need based federal, state, local, private and institutional student financial assistance programs available to SNHU students.
All financial aid award offers are based on enrollment pattern, and are dependent upon a determination of eligibility based on grade level, whether or not priority application deadlines have been met (if applicable), and other program specific criteria at the time of the award offer. All undergraduate and graduate degree programs are eligible by the Department of Education to use federal financial aid to assist with the cost of an SNHU education. Enrollment in a program of study abroad approved for credit by SNHU is considered enrollment for the purposes of applying for federal student financial aid as well. The following information and disclosures are aggregated in this section:
Southern New Hampshire University has an 80-year history of helping military service members and their families pursue an education, at home and abroad. SNHU offers discounts for active-duty service members and their spouses working toward an online degree. In addition SNHU also accepts Tuition Assistance (TA), Post-9/11 GI Bill®, Montgomery GI Bill benefits, and Veteran Readiness and Employment benefits. SNHU also participates in the Yellow Ribbon program that funds tuition and fee expenses that exceed the tuition and fee amounts payable under the Post-9/11 GI Bill.
Although NSLDS is still available for students, currently FSA is moving toward a consolidation of all websites to a “onestop shop” at studentaid.gov. Students will be able to get student aid information collected from NSLDS by logging into studentaid.gov using their FSA credentials. See FSA Partners for more information.
SNHU does not recommend, promote or endorse any lenders, nor do they have any preferred lender agreements. SNHU does provide a historical list of private loans that SNHU students have used in the last three completed financial aid years.
Alternative loans are private education loans through a private lender to help finance the unmet cost of attendance at SNHU. Private lenders are required to provide disclosures through the application and approval process. A self-certification form is required during the application disclosure that will review and record your cost of attendance and estimated financial assistance for your period of enrollment to be covered by the private loan.
Students who drop and/or officially withdraw from coursework at SNHU may be eligible to receive a refund of tuition and other institutional charges. Where required SNHU also adheres to specific state refund policies.
Return of Title IV funds requirements apply to a federal grant or loan recipient who officially or unofficially withdraws from Southern New Hampshire University before completing the payment period.
Return of Military Tuition Assistance applies to all TA recipients who officially or unofficially withdraw from Southern New Hampshire University before completing a term.
Your financial aid award letter will list all of the financial aid offered to you, which may consist of a combination of federal grants, federal work-study, federal loans, and if you're an on campus traditional student, institutional scholarships and grants. Review the financial aid award terms and conditions to ensure you fully understand your rights and responsibilities as a recipient of financial aid at SNHU.
To be eligible and continue to receive Federal Student Aid (FSA) on an annual basis, students must make satisfactory academic progress toward achieving and completing their program of study through measurement of qualitative (grade-based) and quantitative (time-based) standards.
SNHU has an established Tier 1 arrangement with BankMobile for the delivery of Title IV student refunds and this contract disclosure provides the refunds agreement, and amendments.
The Jeanne Clery Disclosure of Campus Security Policy and Crime Statistics Act requires that institutions which participate in Federal student aid programs provide information to the public regarding campus safety and security, as well as fire safety, policies, procedures and statistics. This SNHU Annual Security Report includes Information for victims of sexual violence, discrimination and harassment, information for crime victims about disciplinary hearings, Emergency Response and Evacuation Procedures, Timely Warnings, Crime Log, Fire Safety Policies, Fire Statistics, and Fire Logs. SNHU will provide a paper copy upon request.
The mission of the SNHU Public Safety office is to continually enhance public safety and the quality of life for those living, working and visiting our academic community.
SNHU is committed to maintaining an environment of teaching and learning that is free from illicit drugs and alcohol.
SNHU is committed to the safety and security of students, faculty, staff and visitors to our campuses. To support that commitment we formed a crisis management team which worked with University officials to develop a crisis management plan. The plan has been reviewed and approved by officials at the State of New Hampshire Division of Public Safety.
The vaccination policy applies to all residential students, all full time undergraduate students, all international students and all full time graduate day students taking classes on the Manchester NH campus.
The 3-year cohort default rate is the percentage of a school's borrowers who enter repayment on certain Federal Family Education Loan (FFEL) Program or William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan (Direct Loan) Program loans during a particular federal fiscal year (FY), October 1 to September 30, and default or meet other specified conditions prior to the end of the second following fiscal year. The U.S. Department of Education releases official cohort default rates once per year. The three most accurate three-year official cohort default rates for SNHU may be viewed on the Cohort Default Rates tab of the College Navigator.
Students and families may review the Financial Aid and Debt tab on the College Scorecard, an online tool created by the U.S Department of Education, for the following federal student loan information for SNHU borrowers:
SNHU reports disaggregated graduation rates by gender, major racial and ethnic subgroup, recipients of a Federal Pell Grant, recipients of a Subsidized Direct Loan who did not receive a Federal Pell Grant, and by students who did not receive either a Federal Pell Grant or a Subsidized Direct Loan. SNHU does not measure and report transfer out rates.
SNHU does not collect graduate and professional education data. NHES collects New Hampshire, county specific data related to Graduate and Professional Degree educational attainment. In addition, The NH Department of Education maintains educational research data as well as the most current IPEDS data.
SNHU does not calculate placement rates in employment for any academic program unless required by programmatic accreditors.
Retention Rates provided by College Navigator measure the percentage of full-time, first-time and part-time, first-time students who are seeking bachelor's degrees who return to the institution to continue their studies the following fall, as reported to IPEDS.
All schools participating in Title IV, HEA Student Financial Aid programs that enroll students who are offered athletically related student aid are required to produce a report by July 1 each year for disaggregated graduation rates for athletes by gender, major racial and ethnic subgroup, recipients of a Federal Pell Grant, recipients of a Subsidized Direct Loan who did not receive a Federal Pell Grant, and by students who did not receive either a Federal Pell Grant or a Subsidized Direct Loan. SNHU does not measure and report transfer out rates for athletes.
This annual report is a requirement of the Equity in Athletics Disclosure Act (EADA) which requires a school that has an intercollegiate athletic program to make prospective students aware of its commitment to providing equitable athletic opportunities for its male and female students. The direct link is https://ope.ed.gov/athletics/#/institution/details. SNHU will provide a paper copy upon request.
SNHU is required to provide an educational program annually, on September 17th, to commemorate Constitution Day and Citizenship Day.
SNHU provides a New Hampshire Voter Registration Guide for our Manchester NH campus students.
GI Bill® is a registered trademark of the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). More information about education benefits offered by the VA is available at the official U.S. government website.
The study of mollusks has captured the interest of amateur and scientist alike for many centuries. The National Museum of Natural History receives numerous requests from the general public for information on mollusks. We hope that the information contained in our new on-line Selected Sources of Information on Mollusks will be of help to the beginning shell collector as well as the amateur conchologist and malacologist. This bibliography is not comprehensive and is meant to serve only as a guide to selected references.
Selected Sources of Information on Mollusks has undergone a substantial change in format as well as a thorough revision to produce a more streamlined publication. To that end we have eliminated several sections and combined others to avoid redundancy in titles. The section listing shell clubs has been deleted because this information is best obtained by writing to one of the national malacological organizations which we are continuing to list or by checking the Internet.
The publications listed may not be obtained from the Smithsonian Institution. Most of the references cited may be consulted at local libraries, requested through an interlibrary loan or purchased through local bookstores. Some books are out of print and would be available only from a secondhand book dealer.
Caldrey, Jennifer. Shells. Eyewitness Explorer Series. New York: DK Publishing, 1993. 64 pp., many illus.
Dudley, Ruth H. Sea Shells. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1953. 149 pp., 62 drawings.
Evans, Eva Knox. The Adventure Book of Shells. Irvington-on-Hudson, NY: Capitol, 1955. 93 pp., many illus.
Farmer, Wesley M. Sea-Slug Gastropods. Tempe, AZ: Wesley M. Farmer Enterprises, 1980. 177 pp. 157 species drawn by author. Identification and coloring book.
Florian, Douglas. Discovering Seashells. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1986. 32 pp., color drawings.
Hansen, Judith. Seashells in My Pocket: A Child's Guide to Exploring the Atlantic Coast from Maine to North Carolina. Boston: Appalachian Mountain Club Books, 1988. 124 pp., illus.
Hunt, Bernice Kohn. The Beachcomber's Book. New York: Viking Press, 1970. 96 pp., illus.
Hutchinson, William M. A Child's Book of Sea Shells. New York: Maxton, 1954. 30 pp., illus. in color and black-and-white.
Low, Donald. The How and Why Wonder Book of Seashells. Los Angeles: Price, Stern, Sloan, 1987. 48 pp., illus.
Myers, Arthur. Sea Creatures Do Amazing Things. New York: Random House, 1981. 70 pp., illus.
Paige, David. A Day in the Life of a Marine Biologist. Mahwah, NJ: Troll Associates, 1981. 32 pp., color photos.
Pallotta, Jerry. The Ocean Alphabet Book. Chicago: Children's Press, 1991. 28 pp., color illus.
Podendorf, Illa. The True Book of Pebbles and Shells. Chicago: Children's Press, 1954. 47 pp., illus.
Sabin, Louis. Wonders of the Sea. Mahwah, NJ: Troll Associates, 1982. 32 pp., color illus.
Whybrow, Solene. The Life of Animals with Shells: A Simple Introduction to the Way in Which Animals with Shells Live and Behave. London: Macdonald Educational, 1975. 63 pp., illus.
Return to Table of Contents
Abbott, R. Tucker. Introducing Sea Shells. Princeton, NJ: D. Van Nostrand, 1955. 10 color and black-and-white plates, text figs.
______. Seashells of North America: A Guide to Field Identification. Under the editorship of Herbert S. Zim. New York: Golden Press, 1968.
______. Seashells of the World. Under the editorship of Herbert S. Zim. 2nd ed. New York: Golden Press, 1987. 48 pp., color illus.
______. Shells: Nature in Photography. New York: Portland House, 1989. 210 pp., 196 color illus.
Cameron, Roderick. Shells. New York: Octopus Books, 1972 (c.1961). 128 pp., 95 figs., 32 color plates.
Cate, Jean M., and Selma Raskin. It's Easy to Say Crepidula! (krehPIDuluh): a phonetic guide to pronunciation of the scientific names of sea shells and a glossary of terms frequently used in malacology. Santa Monica, CA: Pretty Penny Press, 1986. 153 pp.
Fair, Ruth H. Shell Collector's Guide. Rutland, VT: Charles E. Tuttle, 1976. 213 pp.
Harasewych, M.G. Shells: Jewels from the Sea. New York: Rizzoli, 1989. 224 pp., 210 color illus.
Jacobson, Morris K., and William K. Emerson. Wonders of the World of Shells: Sea, Land, and Fresh-water. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1971. 80 pp., illus.
Johns, Veronica P. She Sells Seashells. New York: Funk and Wagnalls, 1968. 198 pp., illus.
Johnstone, Kathleen Y. Sea Treasure: A Guide to Shell Collecting. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1957. 242 pp., 8 color plates, numerous text figs.
Major, Alan P. Collecting World Sea Shells. Edinburgh: J. Bartholomew, 1974. 187 pp., illus.
Melvin, A. Gordon. Seashell Parade: Fascinating Facts, Pictures and Stories. Rutland, VT: Charles E. Tuttle, 1973. 369 pp., 75 illus.
Murray, Sonia. Seashell Collectors' Handbook and Identifier. New York: Sterling, 1975. 240 pp., color plates.
Oliver, Arthur P.H. The Larousse Guide to Shells of the World. New York: Larousse, 1980. 320 pp., color illus.
Sabelli, Bruno. Simon and Schuster's Guide to Shells. Edited by Harold S. Feinberg. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1980. 512 pp., 1,230 color illus.
Saul, Mary. Shells: An Illustrated Guide to a Timeless and Fascinating World. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1974. 192 pp., illus.
Stix, Hugh, Marguerite Stix, and R. Tucker Abbott. The Shell: Five Hundred Million Years of Inspired Design. New York: Abradale Press/H. N. Abrams, 1988. 200 pp., 203 illus., including 82 plates in color.
Travers, Louise A. The Romance of Shells, in Nature and Art. New York: Barrows, 1962. 136 pp., 8 color plates, text figs.
Violette, Paul E. Shelling in the Sea of Cortez. Tucson: Dale Stuart King, 1964. 95 pp., illus.
Zinn, Donald J. The Beach Strollers Handbook, from Maine to Cape Hatteras. 2nd ed. Chester, CT: Globe Pequot, 1985. 246 pp., illus.
Return to Table of Contents
Prepared by the Department of Systematic Biology, Invertebrate Zoology,
National Museum of Natural History, in cooperation with Public Inquiry Services,
Undergraduate Teacher Certification Requirements
Drexel offers a number of education certification and degree programs that prepare students for formal teacher certification. Once a student has successfully completed their undegraduate course of study and all qualifying teacher certification exams required by the Pennsylvania Department of Education (PDE), Drexel recommends the student to the PDE for the appropriate teaching certificate.
The School of Education requires that students maintain at least a "B" average (3.0 GPA) in content courses needed for teacher certification in addition to earning a grade of "B" or better in each core pedagogy course required for certification.
All undergraduate students are required to obtain and submit updated and current copies of the required clearances to the School of Education annually in order to participate in classroom observations and student teaching in Pennsylvania. All full-time undergraduates will receive assistance in gaining these clearances during their first term. Non-PA students should contact their state's department of education or school district office for a list of clearances required in their state.
This initial certification qualifies a teacher to teach for a maximum of six years. The six years need not be continuous. To continue teaching after the six years are completed, the teacher must receive an Instructional II Certification.
The Instructional II Certification is considered a permanent certification. A teacher applying for Instructional II Certification must have:
The Pennsylvania Educator Certification Tests (PECT) are required for Grades PreK–4 and Special Education. All undergraduate and dual degree BS/MS students are required to pass the Pre-service Academic Performance Assessment (PAPA) basic skills exam. In addition, students will be required to take the appropriate assessment exam for each area of certification they wish to obtain.
For more information about examinations and registration:
All undergraduate and dual degree BS/MS students seeking certification in middle (grades 4–8) or secondary (grades 7–12) levels are required to pass exams from the PA Education Certification Tests (PECT) and the Praxis II Series. Students must pass both the Pre-service Academic Performance Assessment (PAPA) basic skills assessment exam and the appropriate Praxis II Content Knowledge test for each area of certification they wish to obtain.
For more information about examinations and registration:
To maintain Instructional I and Instructional II Certifications, the PDE requires a teacher to complete one of the following every five years:
Note: For those working to acquire Instructional II Certification, the 24 semester credits or 36 quarter credits needed to apply for Instructional II may also count toward Act 48 requirements.
Download the Pennsylvania Department of Education’s Frequently Asked Questions about Act 48 [PDF].