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Savvy, talented and knowledgeable database professionals are always in demand. This article covers some of the best, most in-demand certifications for database administrators, database developers and anyone else who works with databases. 

During the past three decades, we’ve seen a lot of database platforms come and go, but there’s never been any question that database technology is a crucial component for all kinds of applications and computing tasks. 

Database certifications may not be as sexy or bleeding-edge as cloud computing, storage, or computer forensics. That said, there has been and always will be a need for knowledgeable database professionals at all levels and in a plethora of database-related job roles. 

To get a better grasp of the available database certifications, it’s useful to group these certs around job responsibilities. In part, this reflects the maturity of database technology and its integration into most aspects of commercial, scientific and academic computing. As you read about the various database certification programs, keep these job roles in mind: 

  • Database administrator (DBA): Responsible for installing, configuring and maintaining a database management system (DBMS). Often tied to a specific platform such as Oracle, MySQL, DB2 or SQL Server. 
  • Database developer: Works with generic and proprietary APIs to build applications that interact with a DBMS (also platform-specific, like DBA roles).
  • Database designer/database architect: Researches data requirements for specific applications or users, and designs database structures and application capabilities to match.
  • Data analyst/data scientist: Responsible for analyzing data from multiple disparate sources to discover previously hidden insight, determine meaning behind the data and make business-specific recommendations.
  • Data mining/business intelligence (BI) specialist: Specializes in dissecting, analyzing and reporting on important data streams, such as customer data, supply chain data, and transaction data and histories.
  • Data warehousing specialist: Specializes in assembling and analyzing data from multiple operational systems (orders, transactions, supply chain information, customer data, etc.) to establish data history, analyze trends, generate reports and forecasts, and support general ad hoc queries. 

Careful attention to these database job roles highlights two important technical issues for would-be database professionals to consider. 

First, a good general background in relational database management systems, including an understanding of Structured Query Language (SQL), is a basic prerequisite for database professionals of all stripes. 

Second, although various efforts to standardize database technology exist, much of the whiz-bang capability that databases and database applications deliver come from proprietary, vendor-specific technologies. Serious, heavy-duty database skills and knowledge are tied to specific platforms, including various Oracle products (such as the open-source MySQL environment and Oracle itself,) Microsoft SQL Server and IBM DB2. That’s why most of these certifications relate directly to those enormously popular platforms. 

It’s important to note that NoSQL databases – referred to as “not only SQL” and sometimes “non-relational” databases – handle many different types of data, such as structured, semi-structured, unstructured and polymorphic. NoSQL databases are increasingly used in big data applications, which tend to be associated with certifications for data scientists, data mining and warehousing, and business intelligence. Although there is some natural overlap, for the most part, we cover those certs in our annually updated “Best Big Data Certifications.” 

Before you look at our featured certifications in detail, consider their popularity with employers. The results of an informal search on several high-traffic job boards show which database certifications employers look for most when hiring. Though these results vary from day to day (and by job board), such numbers provide a useful perspective on database certification demand in current job listings.

Job board search results (in alphabetical order by certification)*




 LinkedIn Jobs 



IBM Certified Database Administrator – DB2






Microsoft SQL Server database certifications**






Oracle Certified Professional, MySQL Database Administrator






Oracle Database 12c Administrator












*See our complete methodology for selecting top five certifications in the “Best Certifications” series.

**Combined totals for MCSA: SQL Database Administration (540), MCSA: SQL Database Development (569), MCSE: Data Management and Analytics (640) and MTA: Database (503).

If the sheer number of available database-related positions isn’t enough motivation to pursue a certification, consider average salaries for database administrators. SimplyHired reports $86,415 as the national average in the U.S., in a range from $60,960 to over $128,000. Glassdoor’s reported average is somewhat higher at $93,164, with a top rung for experienced, senior DBAs right around $135,000.

Top 5 database certifications

Now let’s look at the details of our top five database certification picks for 2020.

1. IBM Certified Database Administrator – DB2

IBM is one of the leaders in the worldwide database market by any objective measure. The company’s database portfolio includes industry standard DB2, as well as IBM Compose, Information Management System (IMS), lnformix, Cloudant and IBM Open Platform with Apache Hadoop. IBM also has a long-standing and well-populated IT certification program, which has been around for more than 30 years and encompasses hundreds of individual credentials. 

After redesigning its certification programs and categories, IBM’s major data-centric certification category is called IBM Data and AI, which includes a range of database credentials: Database Associate, Database Administrator, System Administrator, Application Developer and more. It’s a big and complex certification space, but one where particular platform allegiances are likely to guide readers straight to the handful of items that are relevant to their interests and needs. 

Database professionals who support DB2 (or aspire to) on Linux, Unix or Windows should check out the IBM Certified Database Administrator – DB2 certification. It’s an intermediate credential that addresses routine administration, basic SQL, and creation of databases and database objects, as well as server management, monitoring, availability and security. 

This certification requires candidates to pass two exams. Pre-exam training is recommended but not required.

IBM Certified Database Administrator – DB2 facts and figures

Certification name

IBM Certified Database Administrator – DB2 11.1 (Linux, UNIX and Windows)

Prerequisites and required courses

None required; recommended courses available

Number of exams

Two exams: IBM DB2 11.1 DBA for LUW (exam C2090-600) (60 questions, 90 minutes)


DB2 11.1 Fundamentals for LUW (exam C2090-616) (63 questions, 90 minutes)

Cost per exam

$200 (or local currency equivalent) per exam ($400 total). Sign up for exams at Pearson VUE.


Self-study materials

Each exam webpage provides exam objectives, suggested training courses and links to study guides for sale through MC Press. Click the exam Preparation tab for detailed information. You can also visit the Prepare for Your Certification Exam webpage.

2. Microsoft SQL Server database certifications 

SQL Server offers a broad range of tools and add-ons for business intelligence, data warehousing and data-driven applications of all kinds. That probably explains why Microsoft offers database-related credentials at every level of its certification program. 

Microsoft has taken significant steps over the last year to change its certification program from technology-focused to role-centric, centered on the skills one needs to be successful in specific technology jobs. With these changes in mind, Microsoft now identifies four job tracks in its certification program: Developers, Administrators, Solution Architects and Functional Consultants. You will find a wide variety of skills and technologies within each of those categories, but we’ll concentrate below on the company’s SQL Server certifications.

MTA: Database Fundamentals

The MTA program includes a single database-related exam: Database Fundamentals (98-364). This credential is ideal for students or as an entry-level cert for professionals looking to segue into database support.


Microsoft offers several SQL-related credentials at the Microsoft Certified Solutions Associate (MCSA) level:

  • MCSA: SQL Server 2012/2014 (three exams)
  • MCSA: BI Reporting (two exams)
  • MCSA: SQL 2016 BI Development (two exams)
  • MCSA: SQL 2016 Database Administration (two exams)
  • MCSA: SQL 2016 Database Development (two exams)


There is one SQL database credential at the Microsoft Certified Solutions Expert level: Data Management and Analytics. This certification has the MCSA as a prerequisite (a list of valid items follows in the table) and then requires passing one elective exam.

Microsoft SQL Server database certification facts and figures

Certification name

MTA: Database Fundamentals

MCSA: SQL Server 2012/2014

MCSA: BI Reporting 

MCSA: SQL 2016 BI Development

MCSA: SQL 2016 Database Administration

MCSA: SQL 2016 Database Development

MCSE: Data Management and Analytics

Prerequisites and required courses  

No prerequisites:

MTA: Database Fundamentals

MCSA: SQL Server 2012/2014

MCSA: BI Reporting

MCSA: SQL 2016 BI Development

MCSA: SQL 2016 Database Administration

MCSA: SQL 2016 Database Development

MCSE Data Management and Analytics prerequisites (only one required):

MCSA: SQL Server 2012/2014

MCSA: SQL 2016 BI Development

MCSA: SQL 2016 Database Administration

MCSA: SQL 2016 Database Development

MCSA: Machine Learning

MCSA: BI Reporting

MCSA: Data Engineering with Azure

Training courses are available and recommended for all certifications but not required.

Number of exams

MTA: Database Fundamentals: One exam

  • Database Fundamentals (98-364)

MCSA: BI Reporting: Two exams

  • Analyzing and Visualizing Data with Power BI (70-778)
  • Analyzing and Visualizing Data with Microsoft Excel (70-779)

MCSA: SQL Server: Three exams

  • Querying Microsoft SQL Server 2012/2014 (70-461)
  • Administering Microsoft SQL Server 2012/2014 Databases (70-462)  
  • Implementing a Data Warehouse with Microsoft SQL Server 2012/2014 (70-463

MCSA: SQL 2016 BI Development: Two exams

  • Implementing a SQL Data Warehouse (70-767)
  • Developing SQL Data Models (70-768) 

MCSA: SQL 2016 Database Administration: Two exams

  • Administering a SQL Database Infrastructure (70-764)
  • Provisioning SQL Databases (70-765) 

MCSA: SQL 2016 Database Development: Two exams

  • Querying Data with Transact-SQL (70-761)
  • Developing SQL Databases (70-762) 

MCSE: Data Management and Analytics: One exam (from the following)

  • Developing Microsoft SQL Server Databases (70-464)
  • Designing Database Solutions for Microsoft SQL Server (70-465)
  • Implementing Data Models and Reports with Microsoft SQL Server (70-466)
  • Designing Business Intelligence Solutions with Microsoft SQL Server (70-467)
  • Developing SQL Databases (70-762)
  • Implementing a Data Warehouse Using SQL (70-767)
  • Developing SQL Data Models (70-768)
  • Analyzing Big Data with Microsoft R (70-773)
  • Implementing Microsoft Azure Cosmos DB Solutions (70-777

All exams administered by Pearson VUE.

Cost per exam

MTA: $127 (or equivalent in local currency outside the U.S.)

MCSA/MCSE: $185 (or equivalent) per exam


Self-study materials

Microsoft offers one of the world’s largest and best-known IT certification programs, so the MTA, MCSA and MCSE certs are well supported with books, study guides, study groups, practice tests and other materials.

3. Oracle Certified Professional, MySQL 5.7 Database Administrator 

Oracle runs its certifications under the auspices of Oracle University. The Oracle Database Certifications page lists separate tracks for Database Application Development (SQL and PL/SQL), MySQL (Database Administration and Developer) and Oracle Database (versions 12c, 12c R2, and 11g, and Oracle Spatial 11g). 

MySQL is perhaps the leading open-source relational database management system (RDBMS). Since acquiring Sun Microsystems in 2010 (which had previously acquired MySQL AB), Oracle has rolled out a paid version of MySQL and developed certifications to support the product. 

A candidate interested in pursuing an Oracle MySQL certification can choose between MySQL Database Administration and MySQL Developer. The Oracle Certified Professional, MySQL 5.7 Database Administrator (OCP) credential recognizes professionals who can install, optimize and monitor MySQL Server; configure replication; apply security; and schedule and validate database backups. 

The certification requires candidates to pass a single exam (the same exam can be taken to upgrade a prior certification). Oracle recommends training and on-the-job experience before taking the exam.

Oracle Certified Professional, MySQL 5.7 Database Administrator facts and figures

4. Oracle Database 12c Administrator

Most Oracle DBMS credentials require candidates to attend authorized training classes to qualify for the related exam, but MySQL (and Sun-derived) credentials often do not. Oracle certifications also represent a true ladder, in that it is generally necessary to earn the associate-level credentials first, professional-level credentials second and master-level credentials third, culminating with the expert level. 

Oracle Database 12c R2 is the latest version, which includes enhancements to Oracle Database 12c. Oracle 12c certifications are currently offered at the associate, professional and master levels. 

A Foundations Junior Associate certification (novice level) is also available for Oracle Database 12c, as are three specialist designations: the Implementation Specialist, the Oracle Database Performance and Tuning 2015 Certified Implementation Specialist, and the Oracle Real Application Clusters 12c Certified Implementation Specialist. 

Available expert-level credentials include the Oracle Certified Expert; Oracle Database 12c: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administrator; Oracle Database 12c Maximum Availability Certified Expert; Oracle Certified Expert; Oracle Database 12c: Data Guard Administrator; Oracle Certified Expert; and Oracle Database 12c: Performance Management and Tuning. Oracle still offers 11g certifications as well. 

NoteAlthough premium support for Oracle 11g Database ended on Dec. 31, 2014, extended support lasts until December 2020, so it’s probable that Oracle Database 11g will remain in use for the short term. 

We focused on requirements for Oracle Database 12c certifications. One important consideration is that Oracle 11g is forward-compatible with Oracle 12c, but Oracle 12c is not backward- compatible with the prior version. Because Oracle 12c is a newer version, IT professionals with Oracle 11g certifications should consider upgrading their 11g credentials.

Oracle Database 12c Administrator facts and figures

Certification name

Oracle Database 12c Administrator Certified Associate (OCA 12c)

Oracle Database 12c Administrator Certified Professional (OCP 12c)

Oracle Database 12c Administrator Certified Master (OCM 12c)

Oracle Database 12c Maximum Availability Certified Master

Prerequisites and required courses

OCA 12c: Training recommended but not required

OCP 12c: OCA 12c credential and one training course required; complete course submission form

OCM 12c: OCP 12c or 12c R2 credential and two advanced training courses (must be different from the course used to achieve the OCP); complete course submission form; submit fulfillment kit request

Oracle Database 12c Maximum Availability Certified Master: Three credentials

  • Oracle Database 12c Administrator Certified Master
  • Oracle Certified Expert, Oracle Database 12c: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration
  • Oracle Certified Expert, Oracle Database 12c: Data Guard Administration

Oracle training: Classes typically run 2-5 days; costs range from $1,360 to over $5,580.

Number of exams

 OCA 12c: Choose one exam from the following:

  • Oracle Database 12c SQL (1Z0-071) (73 questions, 100 minutes)
  • Oracle Database 12c: Installation and Administration (1Z0-062) (67 questions, 120 minutes)

OCP 12c: One exam: Oracle Database 12c: Advanced Administration (1Z0-063) (80 questions, 120 minutes)

OCM 12c: One exam: Oracle Database 12c Certified Master (12COCM), a two-day, performance-based exam

Oracle Database 12c Maximum Availability Certified Master: None

Cost per exam

OCA 12c: 1Z0-071and 1Z0-062 cost $245 each.

OCP 12c: 1Z0-063, 1Z0-082 and 1Z0-083 cost $245 each

OCM 12c: 12COCM costs $2,584; contact Oracle for pricing/availability of upgrade exam.

Oracle Database 12c Maximum Availability Certified Master: None

Note: Prices vary by geography.


Self-study materials

Each Oracle certification exam webpage lists exam Topics as well as recommended training courses, seminars and practice tests. A variety of self-study guides are available on Amazon. Oracle Database certification candidates benefit from student manuals, labs and software provided as part of class offerings.

5. SAP HANA: SAP Certified Technology Associate – SAP HANA (Edition 2016)

SAP SE has a large portfolio of business application and analytics software, including cloud infrastructure, applications, and storage. The foundation of the SAP HANA platform is an enterprise-grade relational database management system, which can be run as an appliance on premises or in the cloud. The cloud platform enables customers to build and run applications and services based on SAP HANA. 

SAP offers a comprehensive certification program, built to support its various platforms and products. We chose to feature the SAP Certified Technology Associate – SAP HANA cert because it aligns closely with other certifications in this article and is in high demand among employers, according to our job board surveys. This certification ensures that database professionals can install, manage, monitor, migrate and troubleshoot SAP HANA systems. It covers managing users and authorization, applying security, and ensuring high availability and effective disaster recovery techniques. 

SAP recommends that certification candidates get hands-on practice through formal training or on-the-job experience before attempting this exam. The SAP Learning Hub is a subscription service that gives certification candidates access to a library of learning materials, including e-learning courses and course handbooks. The annual subscription rate for individual users on the Professional certification track is $3,048. This online training program is designed for those who run, support or implement SAP software solutions. Though this may seem like a steep price for online training, you will likely be able to pass any SAP certification exams you put your mind to by leveraging all of the learning resources available to SAP Learning Hub Professional subscribers. 

Typically, SAP certifications achieved on one of the two most latest SAP solutions are considered current and valid. SAP contacts professionals whose certifications are nearing end of life and provides information on maintaining their credentials.

SAP Certified Technology Associate facts and figures

Certification name

SAP Certified Technology Associate – SAP HANA (Edition 2016)

Prerequisites  and required courses        

 None required

 Recommended: SAP HANA Installation & Operations SPS12 (HA200) course ($3,750)

Number of exams

One exam: SAP Certified Application Associate – SAP HANA (Edition 2016), exam code C_HANATEC_12 (80 questions, 180 minutes)

Cost per exam



Self-study materials

The certification webpage includes a link to trial questions. SAP HANA trade books and certification guides are available on Amazon. The SAP Help Center offers product documentation and a training and certification FAQs page. The SAP Learning Hub (available on a subscription basis) provides access to online learning content.

Beyond the top 5: More database certifications

Besides the ones mentioned in this article, other database certification programs are available to further the careers and professional development of IT professionals who work with database management systems. 

While most colleges with computer science programs offer database tracks at the undergraduate, master and Ph.D. levels, there are few well-known vendor-neutral database certifications. The Institute for the Certification of Computing Professionals (ICCP) is part of this unique group, offering its Certified Data Professional and Certified Data Scientist credentials. Find out more about ICCP certifications here

EnterpriseDB administers a small but effective certification program, with two primary certs: the EDB Certified Associate and the EDB Certified Professional. PostgreSQL was the fourth-ranked relational database management system in October 2019, according to DB-Engines

Credentials from GoogleMarkLogicTeradata and SAS may also be worth considering. All of these credentials represent opportunities for database professionals to expand their skill sets – and salaries. However, such niches in the database certification arena are generally only worth pursuing if you already work with these platforms or plan to work for an organization that uses them. 

Ed Tittel

Ed is a 30-year-plus veteran of the computing industry, who has worked as a programmer, a technical manager, a classroom instructor, a network consultant, and a technical evangelist for companies that include Burroughs, Schlumberger, Novell, IBM/Tivoli and NetQoS. He has written for numerous publications, including Tom’s IT Pro and GoCertify, and is the author of more than 140 computing books on information security, web markup languages and development tools, and Windows operating systems. 

Earl Follis

Earl is also a 30-year veteran of the computer industry, who has worked in IT training, marketing, technical evangelism, and market analysis in the areas of networking and systems technology and management. Ed and Earl met in the late 1980s when Ed hired Earl as a trainer at an Austin-area networking company that’s now part of HP. The two of them have written numerous books together on NetWare, Windows Server and other topics. Earl is also a regular writer for the computer trade press, with many e-books, whitepapers and articles to his credit.

Mon, 10 Oct 2022 12:01:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : PEPSC Chair Van Dempsey answers your questions about the proposed teacher licensure and pay reform

For much of this year, the Professional Educator Preparation and Standards Commission (PEPSC) has been working on a proposal that would overhaul how North Carolina teachers are licensed and paid.

Ahead of the commission’s next meeting on Oct. 13, we sat down with Chair Van Dempsey to answer some of the most frequently asked questions we’ve been getting from readers.

Under North Carolina’s current system, teachers are paid based on their levels of experience. The new proposal would introduce different levels of licensure and corresponding pay, ranging from apprentice teachers to advanced leadership roles.

Dempsey, who is also the dean of UNC-Wilmington’s College of Education, said he wants this plan to Excellerate outcomes for both students and teachers.

“Why is North Carolina doing this? Because we can build that,” he said. “And if we want a profession that we know is rewarded, supported, resourced, structured in a way that North Carolina has the teachers it needs and the teachers it wants, we can do that.”

Click through the slides below to see the most latest draft of the proposal.

Keep memorizing to find out answers to who will be affected by this proposal, what could change for classroom teachers, and what comes next.

Who will be affected by the teacher licensure and pay reform?

This proposal only applies to classroom teachers. So if you’re an assistant principal, school counselor, or another role that isn’t a classroom teacher, your pay and licensure process will not change if this proposal goes into effect.

What are the different licensure levels, and what supports/pay do they receive?

You can view basic information about the different license levels in the infographic below. A more detailed outline of the various requirements for each license level is in the slideshow at the top of this article.

A screenshot from a spring 2022 latest Professional Educator Preparation & Standards Commission meeting.

As teachers advance through different licenses, they have access to mentoring, professional development, and stipends. For example, License III teachers would get a weekly peer review from an advanced teacher.

How should a teacher think about what their license level would be?

A current teacher can get a sense of where they would fall by looking at their current license, Dempsey said. This means looking at whether you’re fully licensed or have a residency license, for example.

Under the proposal, a latest graduate from an educator preparation program should fall under License III. Someone coming into teaching from a different career might start out in License I. The general population of current classrooms teachers would likely fall under License IV, he said.

How much money would I make under the proposed teacher pay reform?

Each of the license levels under this draft proposal have a corresponding starting salary. Then once you get into License IV under this draft, years of experience and things like National Board Certification are added to the mix.

Dempsey explained that for teachers currently licensed, whether they already live in North Carolina or are coming from another state, you can look at your current license level and level of experience to determine what your salary would be if the proposal going into effect.

Take a look at the table below. The current salary schedule is on the left, and the one being proposed by PEPSC is on the right.

This proposed salary schedule could mean that educators earn hundreds of thousands of dollars more during the course of their career, compared to the current salary schedule.

There’s a lot to consider. If you’re already a full-time teacher and have a couple years of experience, you’d likely qualify for a Level IV license. The base salary for that is $56,000 with a 1% yearly increase. If you have a master’s degree, add 10% on top of that. And if you have National Board certification, you’d get a 12% raise on top of your base salary.

Here’s an example: Let’s say you’re a teacher with 7 years of experience and a master’s degree. Under this proposal, you would make $66,044.

If you’re a teacher-in-training or have an associate degree, you may be eligible for an apprentice teacher license or a license between Levels 1 and 3. The salary range for those is $30,000 to $45,000. Where you fall in that range depends on your education, credentials, and performance on a number of metrics.

Dempsey said a hold harmless provision is expected, meaning currently licensed teachers wouldn’t get a pay cut if this proposal goes into effect.

“I’m not hearing resistance to that,” he said.

Has PEPSC discussed this proposal’s implications on CTE teachers?

Dempsey said the commission is still working on a recommendation for this.

“(The Preparation and Entry Subcommittee) has talked on multiple occasions about how there are conditions that are unique to CTE teachers that you wouldn’t see in a content area teacher or in elementary, middle, secondary,” he said, “and that the model has to be attentive to the expectations for a CTE teacher, and likely would be different than what we would see for teachers and other certification areas.”

“We understand that we will need to be clear about what the pathways are for CTE teachers,” he explained further.

As for what that evidence of practice could look like for CTE teachers, he said PEPSC is still working on a specific recommendation, but it could include things like years of experience in the industry.

How will teacher effectiveness be measured?

Teachers advance through and maintain the various levels of licensure by demonstrating effectiveness, or a positive impact on student learning.

If you look at the draft model at the top of this article, you’ll see an outline of the different ways teachers will be evaluated at each license level. This can include things like microcredentials, National Board Certification, observations, student test scores, and other tools not yet developed.

Dempsey emphasized that this portion of the model is about “evidence of impact on student learning.” He said one of the most important things is understanding the complexity of teacher practice and translating that into adequate professional development and evaluation of student learning.

That’s why there are multiple evaluation methods in the proposal, he said.

“You want instruments that are valid and reliable, that help to inform the teacher,” he said. “The purpose is to inform the teacher practice so that we can have the most positive impact on students that we can, and then how to translate that into the knowledge base that is used in the profession.”

He said he understands there are concerns that these measures could be used in negative ways.

“As a chair of PEPSC, as a dean, as an educator, as a citizen who’s had kids in public schools, if you’re developing formative tools, they should not be used for those purposes in isolation of some other form of evidence, or some other reason to believe that you’re at a critical point in a teacher’s skill and ability and capacity.”

What role does EVAAS play in this proposal?

The Education Value-Added Assessment System (EVAAS) is one measure included in the proposal that teachers could use to demonstrate an impact. But Dempsey emphasized that is just one option for teachers out of several, with the goal of adequately capturing the teacher’s practice.

“In an effective infrastructure for understanding teacher practice and its impact, it cannot come down to one factor,” he said. “That is bad assessment.”

Not all teachers have EVAAS scores, too. That’s where the other measures, such as observations, come in.

What is the timeline for this proposal?

This proposal still has a long way to go.

Right now, PEPSC still has the proposal, Dempsey explained. He said depending on how members’ questions are addressed at next week’s meeting, the commission could vote on the proposal as soon as November.

Once PEPSC approves the draft proposal, they will present their recommendations to the State Board of Education. From there, the State Board could take additional time to deliberate on and edit the proposal before taking its final vote.

Dempsey said he hopes that once the proposal is in the State Board’s hands, that the Board and PEPSC can collaborate on fine-tuning some of the details of the proposal and how it will be implemented.

The proposal then has to pass through the state legislature.

Until then, PEPSC is still actively working on the proposal, and Dempsey is encouraging people to send feedback and recommendations. You can send feedback to

Anna Pogarcic

Anna Pogarcic is a Reporting and Engagement Fellow for EducationNC.

Wed, 05 Oct 2022 09:30:00 -0500 by Mebane Rash | September 13, 2022 en-US text/html
Killexams : CBSE Board Exams 2023: From Datesheet, trial Papers to exam Pattern; All You Need To Know

CBSE Board exam 2023: The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) will be conducting the Class 10 and 12 Board exams for the 2022-23 academic batch from February 15, 2023. According to several news reports, CBSE officials are expected to release a detailed schedule by December 2022. Once released, students can download their date sheet from the board’s official website — The Board will conduct the Classes 10 and 12 board exams in a single shift this year.Also Read - SSB Constable Recruitment 2022: Register For 399 Posts Under Sports Quota at Class 10th Pass Eligible

After a gap of two years, CBSE will hold the examination in the same pattern as the pre-pandemic years. Due to Covid-19 pandemic, the board exams were cancelled in 2020, and candidates were graded using alternative assessment criteria. The board divided the entire academic year into two terms in 2021. Since the examination will be held in the normal format after two years gap, therefore in this article we have some questions answered for you. Also Read - GATE 2023 Registration Extended Till Oct 07; Check exam Date, Documents Required

CBSE trial Papers 2023

The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) has released the trial question papers for the current academic year 2022-23 for students of classes 10 and 12. The CBSE Class 10 and Class 12 exam trial papers 2023 were published on September 16. Eligible students can download the trial papers by visiting the official website of the Board at Apart from the trial paper, the marking scheme of the board examination has also been released. With the help of the CBSE Class 10 and Class 12 trial papers 2023, a student will know more about the board exam pattern, types of questions, and others. Also Read - NEET UG 2022 State Counselling Schedule Released at Round 1 Registration Begins From Oct 17

HOW TO download CBSE CLASS 10, 12 trial QUESTION PAPERS?

  • Visit the official website of the Central Board of Secondary Education at or
  • On the homepage, go to the “Sample Question Papers” sections.
  • Now click on SQP 2022- 2023.
  • Depending upon your class, click on the desired link. Click either on Class XII or Class X option.
  • The CBSE trial question papers for classes 10 and 12 will be displayed on the screen.
  • Download and take a printout of it for future reference.


CBSE will be conducting the Class 10 and 12 Board exams for the 2022-23 academic batch from February 15, 2023.  According to several media reports, the detailed schedule is expected to be released by the CBSE officials by December 2022.


The Central Board of Secondary Education has released the rationalised syllabus for Class 10 for the academic session 2022-2023. As per the news report, CBSE has reduced the syllabus by removing many important Topics from Social Science. More details are available on the official website of the Board.


The Board has decided to return to the pre-pandemic single-exam format, which means that the class 10 and 12 board examinations are not likely to be divided into two parts.


The CBSE Board examination for class 10 and 12 students next year will be based on the pre-pandemic syllabus. In other words, the 30% reduction in syllabus offered to students in response to learning loss caused by the covid-induced disruption has been reversed.

Wed, 05 Oct 2022 04:27:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : New board for trade union certification to be appointed

The appointment of a new Registration, Recognition and Certification Board (RRCB) is high on the agenda and the process is expected to be completed in short order, according to Natalie Willis, the acting permanent secretary in the Ministry of Labour.

The Board has not been operational since May 30, 2022 following the expiry of the term of the chairman and eight members.

This Board is responsible for matters relating to the certification of trade unions as recognised majority unions in accordance with Part II, Section 21 (1) of the Industrial Relations Act, Chapter 88:01 (IRA).

The work of the Board also facilitates workers’ right to freedom of association and the effective recognition of the right to collective bargaining by joining a trade union of their choice.

Speaking at the Board’s 50th anniversary, at Crews Inn ballroom, Chaguaramas last Friday, Willis said the Ministry of Labour is working assiduously to complete the process of filling the positions of members needed to constitute the new RRCB.

She noted that under the function of labour administration, the Conciliation Advisory and Advocacy Division of the Ministry and the RRCB have been able to fulfil their obligations to the Industrial Court.

“It has been noted that there was a sharp increase in the number of requests made to the RRCB through the Minister of Labour to ascertain membership in good standing and to also ascertain workers within the meaning of the Act.

“For 2020, there were 27 requests to the RRCB whereas for 2021, there were 96 requests sent for investigation,” Willis highlighted.

She added that it is noteworthy to mention that there has been an increase in the RRCB’s response rate to its stakeholders’ requests, which is attributed to your improved internal processes.

Board secretary and secretariat, Brendon Taitt, who said the Board has determined bargaining units for large organisations thereby giving full benefit to the right to organise and the right to collective bargaining.

Taitt said it must be noted that the Trinidad and Tobago Unified Teachers’ Association (TTUTA) is the only public service association that has a certificate of recognition from the Board.

He explained that the Board, as the first port of call, has put to rest the burning issue of the recognition of unions, which gives full effect to the right to organise and the right to collective bargaining.

In spite of its challenges, Taitt outlined that the Board continues to fulfil its mandate and the stakeholders must be cognisant of the fact that delays only hurt the worker.

“Therefore, it is my humble view that the powers that be in the new legislation that in order for the Board to be expeditious there is need to remove it from being subjected to judicial review. Any appeal should be to the Industrial Court on points of law,” Taitt stressed.

Wed, 12 Oct 2022 13:31:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Central Board of Film Certification (CBFC): History, Significance and Functioning

The Central Board of Film Certification (CBFC) works as the censor board in India and regulates feature films, short films, documentaries, trailers, and advertisements. Keep memorizing to learn about CBFC’s history and functioning.

If you’ve watched an Indian movie, you must have noticed a certificate that always pops up before a movie starts. That’s the mark of the Central Board of Film Certification (CBFC), also known as the Censor Board.

The CBFC is part of the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting of the Government of India and is tasked with regulating films released in India. While the CBFC isn’t exactly a film censoring body, it does have the power to demand cuts it deems necessary.

The CBFC frequently comes under fire from the film industry for its practices, and its authority has been questioned. But before that, it's important to know what exactly the CBFC is and why it is controversial. So, dive in to know all about the CBFC, its history, significance, functioning, and controversies.

History of the CBFC?

The CBFC stands for the Central Board of Film Certification and is commonly called the Censor Board. The CBFC is tasked with regulating the public exhibition of films under the provisions of the Cinematograph Act 1952.

Censorship boards were formed after the production of India’s first feature film, Raja Harishchandra. Initially, they were independent bodies under the police chiefs of major cities like Mumbai, Kolkata, and Lahore.

After India’s independence in 1947, the regional censor bodies were merged into one: the Bombay Board of Film Censors, which later became the Central Board of Film Censors after the Cinematograph Act of 1952. And in 1983, after the revision of cinematography rules, it was changed to the Central Board of Film Certification.

Since then, CBFC’s main role has been to certify feature films meant for theatrical release, advertisements, and short films. Its current head is Prasoon Joshi.

The CBFC criteria for film certification

CBFC issues four types of certificates to films, which are listed below.

U Certificate

The U certification stands for unrestricted public exhibition. People of all age groups can freely watch U-certified films. Most animated and socially relevant films fall under this category.

U/A Certificate

U/A Certification is intended for films that contain moderate amounts of profanity and violence. The majority of movies, especially action and thrillers, fall under this category. U/A-certified films are deemed unsuitable for children under the age of 12 and require an adult guardian with them.

A Certificate

A-certified films are strictly meant for adults only. Many horror movies and Hollywood films end up receiving A-certification. These films often contain extreme violence, drug use, and cuss words. However, the CBFC can still put some restrictions on such films if they degrade women, or any social group, or contain nudity.

S Certificate

S-certified films are a rarity. These films are not meant for public viewing and are only seen by particular groups associated with them, like engineers, doctors, scientists, etc.

Can CBFC censor content?

As evident from its 1983 name change, the CBFC doesn’t have the power to censor films. It can only certify them. However, the CBFC has laid out some guidelines for all films to follow. These include violence against women, inciting communal tensions, threatening the sovereignty of the nation, etc.

Criticisms of the CBFC

Even though the CBFC doesn’t have the power to censor, it has withheld certification from certain films. This has happened six times since 2014. Filmmakers argue the board’s decisions violate freedom of expression, while CBFC argues that the films under question were harmful to society. Udta Punjab and Lipstick Under My Burkha were two films that were initially denied certification by the CBFC.


Also Read:

What Is Internet Movie Database (IMDb)? All You Need to Know

10 Most Inspiring Bollywood Biopics to Stir Your Soul

Wed, 12 Oct 2022 06:48:00 -0500 text/html
Killexams : Alabama officials demand better teacher certification exam pass rates

Want more state education news? Sign up for The Alabama Education Lab’s free, weekly newsletter, Ed Chat.

Alabama state officials on Thursday demanded better certification pass rates from the state’s future teachers and those who prepare them.

Wayne Reynolds, a former superintendent, said he was alarmed about a state report showing 53% of Alabama’s elementary teacher candidates passed the Praxis certification on their first try.

“Fifty percent is not impressive to me,” Reynolds said at a regular monthly meeting of the state Board of Education. He is vice president of the board.

Read more from the Ed Lab about teacher quality:

The first-attempt pass rate was reported by the Alabama Commission on Evaluative Services in September as part of a larger look at enrollment at the state’s teacher preparation programs

ACES sourced those rates to research by the National Council on Teacher Quality that evaluated first-attempt pass rates based on test results from 2015 through 2018.

Reynolds and other board members keyed in on the overall 53% pass rate and the wide range of first-attempt pass rates from the state’s 14 public universities, also published in the report.

State education officials responded by saying while low, the reported rate doesn’t necessarily reflect efforts from Alabama students and future teachers.

Alabama Superintendent Eric Mackey said the pass rates published in the report includes students who aren’t actually enrolled in an Alabama college but chose to have their results sent to that college or to the state department of education.

And some students might not be putting their full effort into that first round of taking the test, Huntingdon College Dean of Education Carolyn Corliss said, because her college pays for students to take the test once.

Deanise Peacock, who leads the teacher testing area at the state department of education, said the test for which the pass rate was published contains four subtests. One each for English language arts, math, science and social studies. A teacher would have to pass all four subtests to count as having passed the test.

But students might take the four subtests the first time simply as a matter of cost.

“Their thought process is to take the bundle. It’s a lower price,” Peacock said. And if they fail to pass one of the subtests, they can take just that test again.

“Which is a fine strategy, but it also hurts the numbers here.”

According to NCTQ, Alabama’s walk away rate – the percentage of test takers that never took the test again after failing on a first attempt – was between 22% and 25% for each of the four subtests for all students. Students of color had higher walk away rates: Between 33% and 37% of students of color didn’t take the test a second time after failing on their first attempt.

Peacock instead provided examples of individual pass rates on each of the four subtests, claiming the low overall passage rates masks much higher individual test passage rates.

An Alabama Education Lab look at NCTQ’s data found that Alabama was one of 16 states to require the same Praxis test, an elementary multiple subjects test. Of those 16 states, first-time pass rates ranged from 34% in New Jersey to 57% in Virginia.

Alabama’s 53% first-time pass rate was the third highest of the 16 states, behind Virginia and Idaho. That was not included in the ACES report.

Board members took education officials, including some deans of the colleges of education in attendance, to task, asking what action will be taken to Excellerate those first-attempt pass rates.

“Some deans focus on open enrollment,” Reynolds said. “They take everybody because they want equal opportunity, which is fine. But somewhere along the line with open enrollment, there has to be some discretion, and some guideposts to allow people to progress. And so that they don’t end up in our classroom as substandard teachers.”

Corliss told board members they now require pre-service teachers to be tutored prior to taking the Praxis for the first time.

Peacock said she talked with test publisher Educational Testing Service earlier in the week, after the published rates were brought to her attention, to try and find a better way of recording and reporting the data.

College officials can review the data monthly, she said, and remove results of test takers who are not enrolled at the college.

Katie Kinney, president of the Alabama Association for Colleges for Teacher Education, told the limitations of the first-attempt pass rate and what it measures means it isn’t useful in helping increase the quantity or quality of elementary teachers.

“We want data to inform continuous improvement for our programs,” Kinney said, “but first-time attempt pass rate data aren’t the data to aid us in that work.”

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Sat, 15 Oct 2022 01:07:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : From CISCE to CBSE, UP Board to WBBSE: How Class 10, 12 Exams Will Be Held in 2023

Board exam 2023: Since life is back to normal after almost two years of the COVID-19 pandemic, several state and Central boards including the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) and Council For The Indian School Certificate Examinations (CISCE) have decided to conduct the class 10, 12 board exam 2023 in the old format. The boards have also apprised its respective schools to get back to a 100 per cent syllabus, which means, the 30 per cent syllabus cut which was offered as relaxation to the years will be rolled back. In this article, we will know how the boards —from CBSE to West Bengal; Maharashtra to UP will change the exam patterns in 2023.Also Read - CBSE Class 12 Board Exams 2023: Check Class 12th History trial Question Paper, Marking Scheme Here

CBSE: The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE), earlier this year, issued an official notification confirming that it will hold CBSE Board Exams 2023 only once from the next academic year. “Considering the feedback of stakeholders and other prevailing conditions, the Board will conduct the annual scheme of assessment at the end of the Academic Session 2022-23 and the curriculum has been designed accordingly,” the official notification from CBSE read.

CBSE will also go back to 100 per cent syllabus. Owing to the pandemic, CBSE had conducted the 10th and 12th exams on a reduced syllabus. Like previous years, class 10 and 12th board exam 2023 will be held for 80 marks. 20 per cent of marks will be awarded for the internal assessments or practicals.

CISCE: Like CBSE, the Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations has decided to get back to its single format. From the next year, the CISCE will conduct ICSE and ISC board exam 2023 once a year. “It has been decided by the CISCE to conduct only one examination at the end of the academic year 2023 at both ICSE and ISC levels. The CISCE proposes to hold the said examinations tentatively in February/ March 2023,” CISCE notification read.

Mon, 10 Oct 2022 23:40:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Talview to Showcase the Future of Certification exam Delivery at TSIA World: Envision

Talview exam Solutions Spotlight Launching and Scaling Certification Programs

SAN MATEO, Calif., Oct. 13, 2022 /PRNewswire/ -- Talview, the global leader for hiring and exam solutions, will be showcasing methodologies to launch and scale certification programs for organizations of all sizes at TSIA World: Envision, live at the Aria resort in Las Vegas, October 17-19. Talview exam Solutions use an AI-led approach for exam delivery to enable affordable pricing and improved security at a higher scale. Talview will also be unveiling its latest capability, Talview Employer Connect, which enables certification providers to extend an opportunity to professionals who undertake exams on the Talview platform, and who are interested in job openings, to get connected with employers who use the Talview Hiring Solution.

Talview Logo

Talview focuses on delivering exams securely, with improved accessibility and a non-intrusive test-taker experience, while providing a more user-friendly, engaging experience.

"In the minds of most customer and education leaders we've spoken with, a top concern is that their certification programs are not ready for the future. They struggle with clunky, legacy platforms that haven't kept pace with the needs of the market," said Sanjoe Jose, CEO, Talview. "Our exam Solutions can help organizations get ready for the future. We have kept users at the center of the platform design and use the latest AI capabilities to Excellerate security and drive down the cost of exam delivery."

A latest survey of certification leaders at top technology companies revealed their principal certification program challenges:

  • The high cost of proctoring deters scaling certification programs, particularly entry level certifications

  • A poor user experience and the lack of quality Customer Service during the exam process is negatively impacting their brand

  • Most feel their certification programs are not ready for the future, especially when it comes to Performance Based Exams

  • Concerns about the intrusive nature of the online proctoring experience is preventing the growth of expert communities

  • The lack of accessibility and poor multilingual support of their exam platforms

Talview exam Solutions deliver a superior user experience through an interface that is modern, multi-lingual, accessibility friendly, and a proctoring experience that is non-intrusive. The Talview Proctoring Solution can integrate into any LMS (Learning Management Systems), exam Engine, or other web platform, allowing organizations to augment their proctoring capacity, use their own proctors if desired, and easily support Performance Based Exams. In addition, Talview is one of the first providers to incorporate an immersive experience for test takers via the Metaverse. Talview delivers a platform to better engage an industry's community with Candidate Management capabilities.

The focus of its newest launch, Talview Employer Connect, is connecting certified professionals with high quality prospective employers. Talview Hiring Solutions are integrated into the recruitment management systems of many leading ITeS employers. Employer Connect provides real-time visibility of talent requirements, and places properly certified professionals directly into the appropriate stage of the hiring process of organizations looking to hire specific skills. Certified professionals have the ability to opt-in for all employers or specific organizations.

"Many certification test takers have a sub-optimal user experience while taking their certification exams," said Sundar Nagarathnam, Advisor to Talview and leading education services industry expert. "This can be especially frustrating when problems are encountered, or legacy platforms simply make it very cumbersome. Take into account additional factors: a lack of accessibility for people with special needs, poor multilingual support, or no support at all. As more and more technical certification processes move online, innovative technologies like Talview's solutions can provide hassle-free administration of exams."

At TSIA World: Envision, Talview will be holding a session, Expert Playbook for Launching and Scaling Certification Programs, presented by Sundar Nagarathnam, Advisor to Talview and an innovative pioneer in technical education and certification programs, along with Sanjoe Tom Jose, CEO, Talview. The focus will be on how innovative, digital-first companies are using AI to deliver low-cost, highly secure, non-intrusive exams.

  • October 17 & 18

  • 12:30PM - 12:55PM

  • Booth #519

Stop by the Talview booth #519 and enter to win an E-Bike. We are holding a drawing for a Swagcycle EB-5 Plus Folding Electric Bike. Pedal or go full throttle with the battery to reach your destination. Free shipping is included for one lucky winner!

Book a meeting with Talview at TSIA in advance and enter to win a folding E-Bike.


Talview offers an award-winning Measurement Platform that orchestrates hiring and exam workflows: screening, interviews, assessments, proctoring, and credentialing. Organizations seeking more efficient, effective, and intelligent decisions throughout the talent lifecycle can access a single, AI-powered platform for intelligent insights. A 360-degree view of talent potential enables quick, confident, and bias-free decisions, providing an equal opportunity for all. Learn more at



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Thu, 13 Oct 2022 01:04:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Killexams : exam board leaders apologise to teenagers for the ‘distress’ of missing grades

File photo of students sitting an exam (Niall Carson/PA) (PA Archive)

The heads of two major exam boards admitted teenagers were left “stressed and anxious” after thousands of exam results were delayed this summer.

The leaders of OCR and Pearson exam boards made a personal apology in front of MPs after many students taking vocational qualifications failed to be given grades on results days in August.

More than 10,000 BTEC results and 3,200 Cambridge Technical results were handed out late, delaying students from confirming college and university places and excluding some from the university clearing system.

Multiple errors were also found in papers, including a question that was inaccessible to colourblind pupils and a map of Africa labelling Gabon as the Republic of Congo.

MP Robert Halfon, chair of the education select committee, accused exam boards of treating students taking vocational qualifications as second class citizens.

He said exam boards had not done enough to Excellerate the situation for vocational students “because you are all graduates.” He said: “It’s typical of how we treat students who take vocational qualifications in this country”, adding if academic qualifications such as A-Levels had been delayed the exams regulator would have “gone mad”.

Jill Duffy, Chief Executive of OCR, said: “I want to apologise profusely to any student that didn’t receive the Cambridge technical result on results day. We did deliver the vast majority of Cambridge technical results, 39,000 on results day.

“But I know from the calls I had personally with teachers and students who were waiting for a result that this was adding to their stress and anxiety, and I deeply regret that…We are at the moment running an internal review to see what went wrong this year to make sure it doesn’t happen again.”

Mike Howells from Pearson, said: “The first thing I want to do on behalf of Pearson is to apologise to everybody affected. I personally am very sorry at the distress this caused for many students and their families.

“Any delay in a result is unacceptable as far as I am concerned.

“Like OCR we take full accountability for our role in that.

“We are also in the midst of an investigation into exactly what happened.”

MPs also heard that exam boards are investigating a number of cases of malpractice in private schools. It follows concerns that results rocketed in private schools under the teacher assessment system.

Mr Halfon said after exams were reintroduced this year, the proportion of top grades in private schools fell further than in state schools.

He said: “People have suggested this is evidence of private schools gaming the teacher assessed grading system.”

Jo Saxton, chief regulator for Ofqual said the watchdog takes all allegations of malpractice and cheating extremely seriously and there are “ongoing investigations”, but comparisons between 2021, when grades were decided by teacher assessment, and 2022, when exams were reintroduced, is hard because it is a “totally different form of assessment.”

She added: “It is one of the reasons I am incredibly glad we were able to reinstate exams. I think it proves exams are the fairest form of assessment.”

Wed, 12 Oct 2022 00:00:00 -0500 en-GB text/html
Killexams : CBSE Board Exams 2023: All you need to know about datesheet, trial papers, exam pattern © Provided by The Indian Express

CBSE Board exam 2023 Class 10th 12th Updates:  The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) will conduct the Classes 10 and 12 board exams in a single shift this year. The board exam datesheet will be released in December, The Indian Express has learned.

Read |CBSE Class 10th, 12th Exams: Marking scheme, trial question papers released

After a gap of two years, the board will conduct the exam in the same pattern as the pre-pandemic years. In 2020, the board exams were cancelled due to Covid-19, and candidates were marked based on alternate assessment criteria. In 2021, the board divided the entire academic year into two terms. 

Since the exams will be held in the normal format after the gap of two years, here are some important questions answered for you:

Q: What will be the pattern of the CBSE board exam 2023?

A: The Board has decided to restore the pre-pandemic single-exam format, which means the class 10 and 12 board exams are not likely to be split into two parts.

Q: What is the syllabus of Class 10 CBSE 2023?

A: The Board exam for class 10 and 12 students next year will be based on the pre-pandemic syllabus. In other words, the 30 per cent cut in syllabus offered to students in wake of learning loss due to the covid-induced disruption has been rolled back.

Must read |How these National award-winning teachers tackled digital illiteracy in hilly regions

Q: Is the CBSE trial paper for 2023 released?

A: CBSE has released the class 10 and 12 trial papers for board exams 2023 along with the marking scheme. Candidates can download it at the official website -

Q: What is the date of the CBSE Board exam 2023?

A: For both classes, the exams will be conducted from February 15, 2023. Datesheet will be released in December.

Q: Is there any reduction in the syllabus of class 10?

A: CBSE has released the rationalised syllabus for Class 10 for the academic session 2022-2023. The board has cut down the syllabus by dropping many important Topics from Social Science. Detailed is available on the board’s website.

Tue, 04 Oct 2022 23:39:00 -0500 en-IN text/html
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