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Exam Code: HH0-210 Practice exam 2022 by team
HDS Certified Implementer - Enterprise
Hitachi Implementer exam contents
Killexams : Hitachi Implementer exam contents - BingNews Search results Killexams : Hitachi Implementer exam contents - BingNews Killexams : Prepare for the CAP Exam

ISA offers a variety of resources to help you prepare for the Certified Automation Professional (CAP®) exam.

Primary Textbook

A Guide to the Automation Body of Knowledge is the primary text resource for the CAP exam and provides a complete overview of all technical topics. Order the Guide to the Automation Body of Knowledge.

Study Guide

The CAP Study Guide is a comprehensive self-study resource that contains a list of the CAP domains and tasks, 75 review Q&A complete with justifications. References that were used for each study guide question are also provided with the question. The Study Guide also includes a recommended list of publications that you can use to do further study on specific domains. Order the CAP Study Guide.

Review Courses

A CAP review course is available in several formats as preparation for taking the certification exam. This course is offered by ISA and can also be offered at your location.

ISA also has a variety of training courses that would be helpful in preparing for CAP. Visit the Automation Professional Training page for a complete list.

Additional Resources

Exam Topics

  1. Basic Continuous Control: Process Instrumentation, Analytical Instrumentation, Continuous Control, Control Valves, Analog Communications, Control System Documentation, Control Equipment
  2. Basic Discrete, Sequencing, and Manufacturing Control: Discrete Input & Output Devices and General Manufacturing Measurements, Discrete and Sequencing Control, Motor and Drive Control, Motion Control
  3. Advanced Control Topics: Process Modeling, Advanced Process Control, Control of Batch Processes, Environmental, Environmental Monitoring, Building Automation
  4. Reliability, Safety, and Electrical: Alarm Management, Reliability, Process Safety and Safety Instrumented Systems, Electrical Installations, Safe Use and Application of Electrical Apparatus
  5. Integration and Software: Digital Communications, Industrial Networks, Manufacturing Execution Systems and Business Integration, System and Network Security, Operator Interface, Data Management, Software, Custom Software
  6. Deployment and Maintenance: Operator Training, Checkout, System Testing, and Startup, Troubleshooting, Maintenance, Long-Term Support and System Management
  7. Work Structure: Automation Benefits and Project Justifications, Project Management and Execution, Interpersonal Skills

CAP demo Questions

Questions on the exam were derived from the real practice of automation professionals as outlined in the CAP Role Delineation Study and job task analysis. Using interviews, surveys, observation, and group discussions, ISA worked with automation professionals to delineate critical job components to develop exam specifications to determine the number of questions related to each domain and task tested. This rigorous program development and ongoing maintenance process ensures that CAP certification accurately reflects the skills and knowledge needed to excel as an automation professional.

The following six questions were taken from the CAP exam question item bank and serve as examples of the question type and question content found on the CAP exam.

  1. The method by which the tasks and hazards associated with a machine or process are analyzed is known as:
    • A. Risk assessment.
    • B. Machine assessment.
    • C. Risk reduction.
    • D. Risk abatement.
  2. To test controller tuning or prototype new control strategies offline, the model should be a(an):
    • A. Tie-back (loopback) simulation.
    • B. Artificial neural network.
    • C. Dynamic process simulation.
    • D. Steady state process simulation.
  3. The temperature measurement with the BEST repeatability and resolution is the:
    • A. Thermocouple.
    • B. Resistance temperature detector (RTD).
    • C. Dial thermometer.
    • D. Capillary system.
  4. Which of the following is NOT a variable speed drive setup parameter?
    • A. Acceleration rate.
    • B. Motor winding type.
    • C. Output frequency.
    • D. Maximum speed.
  5. A complete test plan for system integration testing MUST include:
    • A. Comments for the application programmer.
    • B. Multiple test cases for each mode of operation.
    • C. At least five test cases for each test.
    • D. Expected results for each test case.
  6. Frequency of maintenance should be determined by:
    • A. Failure rates of components.
    • B. Availability of personnel and parts.
    • C. Management targets for efficiency and productivity.
    • D. Effectiveness of maintenance personnel.

Sample Questions Answer Key

Question Number Correct Answer Exam Content Outline
1 A Domain 1, Task 4
2 C Domain 2, Task 2
3 B Domain 3, Task 3
4 B Domain 4, Task 7
5 C Domain 5, Task 5
6 A Domain 6, Task 2
Wed, 14 Jul 2021 04:33:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Series 65

What Is the Series 65?

Designed by the North American Securities Administrators Association (NASAA) and administered by the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA), the Series 65 is an exam and securities license required for individuals to act as investment advisers in the US.

The Series 65 exam, known formally as the Uniform Investment Adviser Law Examination, covers laws, regulations, ethics, and various syllabus important to the role of a financial adviser.

Key Takeaways

  • Financial professionals in the U.S. must often pass licensing examinations in order to practice.
  • The Series 65 exam qualifies an investment professional to function as an Investment Adviser Representative (IAR) in most states.
  • Topics include state and federal securities acts, rules and regulations for investment advisers, ethical practices, and fiduciary obligations—including communications with clients, compensation, client funds, and conflicts of interest.
  • The exam features 130 multiple-choice questions, and you have 180 minutes to earn a passing score of at least 72%.
  • If you passed the Series 65, you may also need to take the FINRA Series 7 exam to be fully-licensed to sell securities and execute trades.

Understanding the Series 65

Successful completion of the Series 65 exam is designed to qualify candidates as investment adviser representatives (IARs) in their home states.  As an IAR, advisors must act in a fiduciary capacity, offering investment advice to clients for a fee. 

Passing the Series 65 exam, formally known as the Uniform Investment Advisor Law Exam, is the only requirement for becoming an IAR. There are no prerequisites, and candidates do not need to be sponsored by an investment firm to sit for the exam, but they need to file a Form U10 (Form U4 for brokers) and pay the $187 exam fee. 

The Series 65 exam includes 130 questions that cover syllabus determined to be necessary to understand in order to provide investment advice to clients. These include questions on the subjects of economics, financial markets, investment vehiclesinvestment strategies, analysis, and ethics.

If you are not charging a fee and you do not regularly provide advice on securities, then you most likely do not need to get your Series 65 license. Other FINRA-administered qualification examinations include the Series 3 National Commodities Futures (NCFE), Series 7 General Securities Representative (GS), and Series 63 Uniform Securities Agent State Law.

Financial professionals who have successfully passed the Series 65 exam may not act as investment advisers until licensed and registered in their state.

Series 65 exam Structure

The Series 65 examination contains 130 multiple-choice questions. Candidates have 180 minutes to complete the exam. Candidates must get 94 of the 130 questions correct to pass (a score of 72.3%).

Test takers must schedule an exam at a qualified testing center, where they are provided with a basic four-function electronic calculator. Only this calculator may be used during the exam. Dry-erase boards and markers are also provided for candidates. No reference materials of any kind are permitted in the exam room, and there are severe penalties for those who are caught cheating or attempting to cheat.

An individual's firm can schedule a candidate to take the exam by filing Form U4 and paying the $175 examination fee. If an individual is not firm-registered, the candidate uses Form U10 to request and pay for the exam.

Series 65 exam Content

NASAA provides updated information on the exam's content on its website. The exam is structured as follows:

  • Economic Factors and Business Information (15%, 20 questions): syllabus include monetary and fiscal policy, economic indicators, financial reporting, quantitative methods, and basic risk concepts.
  • Investment Vehicle Characteristics (25%, 32 questions): syllabus include cash and cash equivalents, fixed income securities, methods of fixed income valuation, equities and methods used in equity valuation, pooled investments, derivative securities, and insurance-based products.
  • Client Investment Recommendations and Strategies (30%, 39 questions): syllabus include individuals; business entities and trusts; client profiles; capital market theory; portfolio management styles, strategies, and techniques; tax considerations; retirement planning; ERISA issues; special types of accounts; trading securities; exchanges and markets; and performance measurement.
  • Laws, Regulations, and Guidelines, including Prohibition on Unethical Business Practices (30%, 39 questions): syllabus include state and federal securities acts; rules and regulations for investment advisers, investment adviser representatives, broker-dealers, and agents; ethical practices; and fiduciary obligations, including communications with clients, compensation, client funds, and conflicts of interest.

NASAA updated questions on the Series 65 exam in light of 2018 changes to the tax code. Tax-related questions appearing on the exams starting in Jan. 2019 reflect the tax code changes.

Studying for the Series 65

There are several resources in book form or online to help study and prepare for the Series 65 exam. Candidates are encouraged to devote between 50-70 hours to studying for the exam. Unlike many other securities exams, preparing for the Series 65 exam primarily involves memorizing rules and laws. People with good recall might require less preparation time than those who struggle with recall. Regardless, some exam sections are more challenging than others, especially for people with no background in securities.

In addition, Investopedia has reviewed several of the best Series 65 test prep courses, which you can find here.

Series 65 vs. Series 63 vs. Series 66

The NASAA offers three exams: the Series 65; Series 63; and Series 66.

The Series 65 was the first exam created by NASAA back in 1989, used to evaluate the competency of individuals who wanted to engage in commission or fee-based investment advisory services, such as being a financial advisor or RIA. At the time it was launched, it focused primarily on the Uniform Securities Act, NASAA rules, and ethical practices in the securities industry.

The Series 63 was developed to qualify candidates who wished to work in the securities industry within a state and to sell investment products, such as stocks, mutual funds, variable annuities, and unit investment trusts. In other words, to execute trades rather than deliver out financial advice. The exam covers the principles of state securities regulations and laws, and is formally known as the Uniform Securities Agent State Law Examination.

The Series 66 is a newer NASAA exam that combines subject matter from both the Series 63 and Series 65, and is fittingly known as the Combined State Law Exam. Test-takers of the Series 66 must also take the FINRA Series 7 licensing exam (which is not a co-requisite of the Series 63 or 65, although many individuals will still need the Series 7 to legally operate).

If you only have a Series 65 license, you can deliver financial advice but you cannot sell securities, execute trades on behalf of clients, or manage portfolios. To do so, you will also need to pass the FINRA Series 7 exam, which is more intensive

Does the Series 65 License Expire?

No, the Series 65 license does not expire as long as you are actively working in the financial services industry. If you leave the industry for more than two years, your new employer may require you to pass the Series 65 exam again.

Do I Need A Sponsor to Take the Series 65?

No. To sit for the Series 65 exam, a candidate does not require sponsorship by a member firm.

How Much Does the Series 65 exam Cost?

The cost for sitting for the Series 65 exam is currently $187. You'll need a passing score of 72%, but if you fail you can pay the exam fee again and retake the test after 30 days.

Can I Become An IAR Without Taking Series 65?

Yes, but you will instead need to take the Series 7 and Series 66 exams.

Is the Series 65 a Hard Exam?

The NASAA does not release official pass rates, however test preparation programs estimate that the pass rate is around 65-70% of test takers.

The Bottom Line

The Series 65, officially known as the Uniform Investment Adviser Law Exam, is designed to test an individual's knowledge and ability to advise clients in the area of investing and to discuss general financial concepts. The Series 65 exam tests candidates' comprehension of financial concepts and qualifies them to deliver investment advice and charge a fee for doing so. Most state securities regulators have set the Series 65 as the minimum requirement to become an investment advisor representative (IAR).

Wed, 01 Aug 2018 05:13:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Series 7: Definition and Formula for Calculation, With Example

The Series 7 exam licenses the holder to sell all types of securities products except commodities and futures. Known formally as the General Securities Representative Qualification Examination, the Series 7 exam and its licensing is administered by the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA).

Stockbrokers in the United States need to pass the Series 7 exam to obtain a license to trade. The Series 7 exam focuses on investment risk, taxation, equity, and debt instruments; packaged securities, options, retirement plans, and interactions with clients for prospective securities industry professionals. This introductory-level exam assesses a candidate’s knowledge of basic securities industry information including concepts fundamental to working in the industry.

The purpose of the Series 7 license is to set a level of competency for a registered representative or stockbroker to work in the securities industry. The Series 7 license is an essential requirement for an entry-level broker. The licensing exam covers an extensive range of financial terms and syllabus as well as securities regulations.

Key Takeaways

  • The Series 7 is an exam and license that entitles the holder to sell all types of securities products except commodities and futures.
  • The Series 7 exam covers syllabus on investment risk, taxation, equity and debt instruments, packaged securities, options, and retirement plans.
  • The purpose of the Series 7 license is to establish a level of competency for registered representatives in the securities industry.

Candidates who pass the Series 7 exam can trade many securities, such as stocks, mutual funds, options, municipal securities, and variable contracts. The Series 7 license does not cover selling real estate or life insurance products. In addition to obtaining the Series 7 license, many states require that registered representatives pass the Series 63 exam, also called the Uniform Securities Agent State Law Exam.

Series 7 Requirements

Since Oct. 1, 2018, Series 7 candidates are required to pass the Securities Industry Essentials (SIE) exam as well as the Series 7 exam in order to receive the General Securities registration. According to FINRA, the SIE is an introductory-level exam that "assesses a candidate’s knowledge of basic securities industry information including concepts fundamental to working in the industry, such as types of products and their risks; the structure of the securities industry markets, regulatory agencies and their functions; and prohibited practices." If you need more information on the SIE, FINRA's SIE exam content outline provides more details.

Candidates who want to take the Series 7 exam must be sponsored by a FINRA member firm or other applicable self-regulatory organization (SRO) member firm. The member firm must file a Form U4 (Uniform Application for Securities Industry Registration or Transfer Form) for the candidate to be registered for the licensing exam. Non-FINRA members should use the Test Enrollment Services System (TESS) in order to register for the exam. FINRA governs the activities of securities firms and registered brokers, ensuring that anyone who sells securities products is qualified and tested.

Candidates who want to take the Series 7 exam must be sponsored by a FINRA member firm or other applicable self-regulatory organization (SRO) member firm.

Series 7 exam Structure

The Series 7 is structured as follows:

  1. Seeks Business for the Broker-Dealer from Customers and Potential Customers: 9 questions
  2. Opens Accounts after Obtaining and Evaluating Customers’ Financial Profile and Investment Objectives: 11 questions
  3. Provides Customers with Information about Investments, Makes Suitable Recommendations, Transfers Assets, and Maintains Appropriate Records: 91 questions
  4. Obtains and Verifies Customers’ Purchase and Sales Instructions and Agreements; Processes, Completes, and Confirms Transactions: 14 questions

The Series 7 exam has 125 multiple choice questions, lasts 225 minutes, and cost $300. The passing score is 72%.

Prior to Oct. 1, 2018, the Series 7 exam contained 250 questions covering five major job functions. The exam duration was six hours, had no prerequisites, and cost $305. A score of 72% was required to pass.

FINRA does not provide candidates with any physical certificate as proof of exam completion. Current or potential employers who wish to view proof of completion must access this information through FINRA's Central Registration Depository (CRD).

Completion of the Series 7 exam is a prerequisite for many other securities licenses, such as the Series 24, which permits the candidate to supervise and manage broker activities.

Mon, 28 Aug 2017 05:11:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : exam preparation in a group

In our intensive and evening courses, which run over the course of several weeks and build upon one another, you can systematically work towards achieving a certain language level. The course content of the individual sub-levels is designed such that, by combining the applicable courses, the learning goals of a complete level are covered.

The difference is that our one-week Exam preparation in a group course focuses on targeted preparation for your German exam.

Book an exam preparation in a group course here

Yes, once you have completed the Exam preparation in a group course, you receive a certificate of attendance.

Book an exam preparation in a group course here

Yes, to attend an Exam preparation in a group course, you need previous knowledge of German to the level of the applicable course. This means, to do the Exam preparation in a group at level B1, you will need knowledge of German at level B1. To do the Exam preparation in a group at level B2, you will need knowledge of German at level B2. To do the Exam preparation in a group at level C1, you will need knowledge of German at level C1. To do the Exam preparation in a group at level C2, you will need knowledge of German at level C2.

Book an exam preparation in a group course here

One-week Exam preparation in a group costs EUR 340.

Book an exam preparation in a group course here

Fri, 27 Nov 2020 06:39:00 -0600 en text/html
Killexams : Big Data and the Internet of Things


2000 - 2020

As the expansion of the digital data network makes the world ever smaller and more integrated, we’re using our personal web-connected devices to create and distribute works of art, to measure our physical exertion and monitor our health, to read and react to global news in real time, and to chat on video with people on the other side of the world. In the last ten years alone, the number of mobile data devices—smartphones, tablets, digital cameras, camcorders, e-book readers etc.—shot up from two to six billion, a number that is still growing fast. The Internet of Things is a lot bigger than smartphones. Virtually every kind of industry, business, and institution is beginning to see the flood of new data as a fount of innovation.

Connected Devices

In this connected future, our cars will communicate with every other car on the road, preventing accidents. Sensors driving data from every power outlet to the electric grid will help utilities flatten demand and alert us when we can save money by turning something off. Emergency vehicles will communicate with traffic lights. Data from sensors will drive the world’s largest industrial plants. Big data will make every kind of business smarter about their customers—and customers smarter about business. And this data-driven future is happening right now.


2014 - 2019

Smartphones alone will test the capacity of the world’s data centers in the not very distant future. Right now more than a billion people are sending and receiving all forms of web-based data every minute of every day. And as smartphones become more and more ubiquitous, their data output is exploding. Today, nearly a quarter of the world’s population owns a smartphone. By 2018, that fraction will increase to a third. In that time, mobile data is projected to increase four-fold.

Connected Devices

By 2019, data from smartphones alone is projected to increase from three million to 19 million terabytes per month.


2000 - 2020

Beyond self-aware cars, streamlined healthcare systems, more secure homes, and energy efficiency, networked data will create the foundation for smart cities. The influx of data from our personal devices as well as data-collecting sensors on everything from street and traffic lights to water and waste systems will make urban life cleaner, safer, and healthier. In Copenhagen (see below), that future for cities is being realized right now.

Connected Devices


Smart City Partnership

Connected Devices

“Extensive retrofitting of buildings, reorganization of the energy supply, more wind turbines and a change in transport habits are some of the many initiatives that we plan to implement to reach our 2025 goal.” — Frank Jensen, Lord Mayor of Copenhagen

Whether to reduce traffic jams or crime rates, data is crucial to making modern cities work more efficiently. While individual data streams alone are invaluable, integrating, centralizing, and sharing them can make for dramatic, even life-saving change. Consider, for one small example, the difference it would make to share the data, now siloed, between stop lights and emergency services.

To explore the full potential of such data integration, Hitachi is currently working with the city of Copenhagen and other partners to build a citywide platform for big data, collecting and analyzing information from every corner of Copenhagen’s urban infrastructure— demographics, crime statistics, and every kind of sensor-driven output, from energy consumption and air quality to traffic patterns. Citizens and businesses will be directly connected to the platform as well. For Hitachi, this is part of what the company calls “Social Innovation”.

Pulling Copenhagen’s data together and submitting it to advanced analytics is an important step toward making all cities smarter, improving public safety, inspiring efficiencies, and enhancing the wellbeing of citizens. It will also drive innovation and entrepreneurship: Copenhagen’s big-data platform will be a marketplace where app developers and businesses can buy and sell new data, which is the key to encouraging private companies to make their data available for others.

Copenhagen By The Numbers

Connected Devices

Hitachi itself is already building two pilot apps on the platform. Its transportation app will allow users to track their transportation choices as they move around in the city, allowing them to learn how much time they spend using various forms of transport, as well as distance travelled, calories burned, and CO2 footprint based on these choices. The app will also allow users to see how they are doing on these metrics compared to others in the city. An energy app will integrate data from energy providers to help companies and citizens keep track of their energy consumption and its effect on greenhouse-gas emissions

The reach of such a platform is yet to be fully measured, but one indication of its promise is that Copenhagen’s project with Hitachi is expected to help the city meet its exemplary and very ambitious goal of becoming carbon-neutral by 2025.

To learn more about Hitachi Social Innovation, visit​

Terms & Definitions


Telematics and In-Car Infotainment; Under-the-Hood and Others


Consumer Electronics: Flat Panel TVs, Set-top Boxes, Gaming Consoles and Controllers, DVD / Blu-ray Players / Recorders, Remote Controls, 3D Glasses, Digital Photo Frames, Speakers, Wi-Fi Access Points / External Adapters. PCs and Peripherals: Desktop PCs, Laptops, Netbooks, Ultrabooks, Printers, PC Accessories, USB and Other External Modems, PCMCIA Cards


Home Automation Controllers; Smart Home Devices; Smart Appliances; Smart Home Lighting Units


Health and Medical; Sports and Fitness Equipment; Other Wearables (incl. Smartwatches)


Smartphones, Mobile Phones, Mobile Phone Accessories, Media Tablets, Mobile Internet Devices, Handheld Gaming, Portable Media Players, Digital Cameras / Camcorders, eBook Readers, PNDs


POS; ATMs; Kiosks; Vending Machines; Digital Signage; Asset Tracking; Inventory Management


Commercial Building Automation; Intelligent Transportation Systems; Smart Parking; Smart Street Lighting; Other Smart City Applications (e.g., Environmental Monitoring); Video Surveillance; Enterprise Access Points


Agriculture; Industrial Equipment; Hospital and Other Healthcare Equipment; Heavy Vehicles; Electricity Metering; Water and Gas Metering; Smart Grid Equipment; Renewable Energy; Aerospace; Defense



ABI Report: Internet of Everything Market Tracker


Cisco Visual Networking Index: Global Mobile Data Traffic Forecast Update 2014–2019 White Paper


ABI Report: Internet of Everything Market Tracker


Interview with Frank Jensen, Lord Mayor of Copenhagen;

Copenhagen: By the Numbers


Mobile Data Traffic


Wed, 16 Dec 2015 12:04:00 -0600 text/html Killexams : Hitachi unwraps ‘tri-mode’ train ahead of Italian debut

Hitachi Rail has unveiled its new ‘Blues Train’, a passenger-carrying hybrid that can switch between battery, electric or diesel power depending on where it is running.

The train is being displayed at this week’s InnoTrans event in Berlin before entering service in Italy with Trenitalia later in the year. According to Hitachi, the Blues will make up Europe’s first battery-hybrid passenger fleet as well as its first tri-mode fleet. Capable of travelling anywhere on Europe’s network, the Blues train is claimed to reduce carbon emissions and fuel consumption by 50 per cent.

“The Blues train, with its pioneering battery hybrid technology, is a hugely important way for railways across Europe to reduce their carbon emissions, while improving passengers’ journeys,” said Andrew Barr, Group CEO, Hitachi Rail.

“We’re thrilled to unveil this technology here in Berlin and to begin passenger service in Italy later this year. We know that decarbonising transport is a vital mission around Europe, so we’re delighted to provide our customer with effective solutions that lessen the impact on the planet.”

On electrified routes, the Blues will use pantographs to draw power from overhead lines. On smaller regional routes with non-electrified lines, the train will use a combination of battery and diesel power. When near to a station, the battery system can power the train its own, eliminating diesel emissions including harmful nitrogen oxides as well as reducing noise pollution. The battery is also able to recharge while the train is in operation, both in diesel and electric mode.

The Trenitalia fleet of Blues trains will have a top speed of 160 km/h. According to Hitachi, the battery power will enable faster acceleration than existing diesel trains, which should help to reduce journey times. The new four-carriage trains have been manufactured at Hitachi Rail’s factories in Pistoia and Naples and can accommodate up to 300 seated passengers.

Hitachi said the fleet has been designed to accommodate families and leisure travellers as well as regular commuters, with features including greater capacity for luggage and bikes, air conditioning, more USB and power sockets, and an area entirely dedicated to children. In total, 135 trains will be delivered by Hitachi to the Italian operator in a deal worth €1.2bn.

In the UK, Hitachi is working with both GWR and the operators of the Trans Pennine Express (TPE) on retrofitting existing rolling stock to convert then to tri-mode operation. Updates on both trials are expected later in the year.

Tue, 20 Sep 2022 12:01:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Driving through change: decarbonising fleets

With decarbonisation targets posing a serious challenge to fleet operators, Hitachi’s hands-on services promise to ease the transition to sustainable transportation and cut costs.

The internal combustion engine is reaching the end of the road leaving many commercial fleet owners in need of clear directions for the future. With the 2008 Climate Change Act requirement of an 80 per cent reduction in emissions by 2050, the UK government is aggressively pushing ahead with plans to phase out diesel and petrol engines, accelerating timelines to decarbonise mobility by 2035.

Regulation poses a huge challenge to commercial and public vehicle operators which have less than a decade to grasp the nettle of decarbonising their fleets. Strategic planning for these organisations is imperative, or costs will spiral, as congestion charges rise and balance sheets are burdened with legacy vehicles that can no longer legally take to the road.

With more than five million vans and HGVs on the road, the UK road freight sector contributes more than its fair share of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions including nitrous oxide (NOx). Just 0.5 per cent of all vehicles licensed in the UK are currently ultra-low emission.

Cost-effective conversion would be a significant challenge on its own, and the pandemic has dealt a blow to the finances of many businesses – with the exception of couriers and food delivery firms – squeezing capital and making investment hard to contemplate. Setting the issue to one side is tempting but would be a mistake, says Mike Nugent, Head of Intelligent Fleet Decarbonisation, Hitachi Europe.

“Fleet operators can’t put this on the back burner. They have no choice but to comply with legislation and it requires strategic action now,” he explains. “We have under-utilised public transport, a changing working landscape, an expansion of low carbon vehicles (LCVs) on the road to meet demand, and the residual value of all these vehicles is falling. But the business case for replacement has to hinge on the total cost of ownership (TCO). It’s a very complex field, which is where we support customers.”

Hitachi Europe and its sister company, Hitachi Capital Vehicle Solutions (HCVS), provide a route out of the operational cul-de-sac via Intelligent Fleet Decarbonisation, a renewal programme in the shape of a green-transport-as-a-service solution.

HCVS has been leasing, financing and managing vehicle fleets for more than 30 years and is responsible for some of Britain’s largest corporate and commercial vehicle fleets, including those of Network Rail, DHL and Defra. Converting those and others to electric requires a multi-layered approach.

“Our customers are very good at running fleet,” says Nugent. “But what they’re not experts in is total cost-of-ownership comparisons, electricity, grid connections and upgrades, charging points, optimisation and energy management. It takes them way out of their comfort zone and that adds risk.”

This view is echoed by Dale Eynon, Director of Group Fleet Services, at the government department Defra, which recently signed a new contract with Hitachi.

“We have a very complex and mixed fleet ranging from cars, vans and 4x4s through to plant and boats, which makes decarbonising our fleet challenging. There are currently limitations in terms of choice of vehicle availability, cost and charging network. When you overlay culture change on top of this, then we see it being several years before we break the back of it. That said, the work Hitachi is doing in this field is highly interesting and we hope it will support our ambitions on net carbon zero.”

Intelligent Fleet Decarbonisation is an end-to-end solution in which Hitachi guides the customer through an electrification and optimisation programme. This not only sources and finances vehicles but also reduces running costs by employing digital optimisation tools that deliver predictive maintenance and driver-behaviour modification.

“Our package de-risks the whole transformation process,” says Nugent. “We help customers build the business case, prioritise where to start, what to start on and what is the most optimal means by which they can run a fleet.”

Paulo Larkman, Head of Fleet Consultancy at Hitachi Capital Vehicle Solutions, explains how its programme provides a holistic view that supports operators through the entire process of transitioning to electric. It also enables operators to understand the new challenges that this transition involves, such as vehicle charging, converting depots and driver training, and that the real savings come when optimisation is applied to daily running costs.

“There isn't really anybody out there that's saying, ‘we'll put together the whole package and we'll run it for you and then we'll charge you per vehicle mile or per vehicle per month’, because it’s not cheap or straightforward,” he says. “The case for conversion becomes much more compelling when you present it as being built around an optimised fleet and optimised energy. That's where the digital element kicks in.”

Larkman adds: “In the past, we used to make fuel savings by moving to smaller vans and reducing journeys. But now, when you bring digital technology to bear, it just turbocharges the savings, through subsets of use such as journey efficiency, driver behaviour and early fault identification.”

Commercial fleets are often mixed-use and geographically spread, making flexibility an important feature. Hitachi tailors its solution to individual customer needs and budgets. For example, a phased approach could be taken for a mixed fleet, initially targeting those vehicles registering high costs in ultra-low emission zones (ULEZ).

There are approximately 40 very large fleets operating in the UK but thousands of SMEs that run a couple of hundred vehicles each. Nugent sees no reason why the cost savings of Intelligent Fleet Decarbonisation cannot be applied to all to achieve the overarching goal of protecting the planet.

“We make the case for financial benefit but, from a social innovation perspective, Hitachi’s aim is to achieve environmental, economic and social value wherever possible,” he explains. “This is how we make a very big difference as an organisation by bringing all of our skills and capabilities to the fore, to drive demand, drive acceptance and get people to switch.”

A green transport plan which achieves long-term cost reduction is no shortcut, but for fleet operators it’s the best route out of this jam.

Find out more about Hitachi

Thu, 03 Dec 2020 17:03:00 -0600 text/html
Killexams : ‘Exam reports are your best friend’: How these students got 50 in science

Olivia says it doesn’t matter how you do your practice exams, as long as you do them and learn from them.

Key exam dates:

October 28 - Biology

October 31 - Psychology

November 8 - Chemistry

November 9 - Physics

November 10 - Environmental science

Voulgaris’ biology tips:

  • Biology is content heavy, but a lot of questions come up again and again.
  • If you look through exam papers you can sometimes see a pattern.
  • Think outside the box. Sometimes you may get two marks easily off a three-mark question. Think of a creative solution or think abstractly to develop the last answer.
  • Use your memorizing time in the biology exam strategically. Read the short answer question first, then start going through the multiple choice in your head.
  • Find someone you can bounce ideas off – a teacher, friend, parent or study buddy.

Ben Ostermeyer scored a 50 in VCE psychology in 2021 and received a premier’s award.

When Ben Ostermeyer, 18, was studying for his 2021 VCE exams, he was in and out of lockdown. It meant a lot of his study groups were online.

Ostermeyer, a former student of Whitefriars College in Donvale, scored a 50 in psychology and earned himself a premier’s award in the subject. He’s now studying speech pathology at the Australian Catholic University.

He leaned on his teachers, his friends and his mother to drill content before doing practice exams.

“I got other people involved. I studied with my mates and my mum and went through the content togther,” he says.

He did about 10 practice exams altogether, the first few of which he did open-book style to identify areas he needed to focus more on, before progressing to closed-book exams.

Although he didn’t use a timetable to study, Ostermeyer did make sure he did all his practice exams at the same time they were scheduled: 10am.


The psychology exam includes multiple choice, short-answer questions and an extended-answer question. He says it was good to experiment with completing the different sections at different paces.

“In the exam, I found I spent more time on the multiple choice. In my practice exams I was flying through the multiple choice. I would recommend trying to do them at different paces,” he says.

He also recommends spending time studying research methods – hypotheses, independent variables and experiments.

“Just get in there, have a crack at it. I was little bit nervous. I was pretty confident going in because I put in a lot of work, so I knew that would put me in good stead.”

Both students advise getting a good night’s sleep before the exam and taking time to relax, whether that’s by listening to music, doing puzzles or exercising.

Voulgaris says to remember that there are many pathways into your future career. “I’m at uni now. It’s a completely different landscape. No one cares what my ATAR was,” she says.

“I’m doing bio-med. You can do the same path through science. There are always options. You aren’t looking at it as a score that evaluates yourself. It’s just another tool to get where you need to go.”

Tips from assessors from previous science exams:


  • Show sufficient working. Assessors say students should imagine what they would write if they were explaining their thinking to a teacher or peer.
  • Don’t round too much during calculations. Students should carry as many decimal places as is reasonable and only round at the end.
  • Don’t copy text directly from reference sheets. Assessors say it’s obvious when the response has no relation to the question.
  • For calculation questions worth more than three marks, plan the layout of your work.


  • Understand key terms from the study design and be able to apply them.
  • Include clear detail and be able to show key science skills.


  • Use the study design to prepare for the exam. In last year’s exam, a number of questions directly related to the study design.
  • Be familiar with and use the key knowledge and skills in the study design.
  • Read the question carefully. If it asks to calculate a number, make sure it’s in the units specified in the stem.
  • Make sure all key aspects of a question are addressed in your answer, especially in descriptive responses.


  • Respond to every multiple-choice question, even if you don’t know it.
  • Write within the marked boundaries of the exam paper and highlight if your response is continued on an extra space.
  • Make sure you answer the question asked.
  • Make sure you don’t misspell words that could alter the meaning of what you are saying, ie: “semantic” instead of “somatic”.

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Fri, 30 Sep 2022 13:33:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : ‘Curious and committed’: How to get through a marathon English exam

How should you prepare?

Have a look at the assessment criteria on VCAA website for literature and for English.Bermingham says students should slowly build up to the exam’s required three-hour timeframe.

“You might sit down for 10 minutes to break down a topic, reflect and put an essay subject together,” she says. “Then I might deliver myself 30 minutes to do an essay plan and write my introduction and one body paragraph. Then a full essay in the 50 or 60-minute mark. Then start to do two sections together, a and b, or b and c.”

Credit:Jim Pavlidis

Some tips from previous exams:

Maribyrnong Secondary College teacher and president of the Victorian Association for the Teaching of English, Emily Frawley, says the night before, re-read any notes you have made, eat a good dinner and go to bed early.

Look after your wellbeing so you are in a calm and confident headspace going in.

Reading time in the exam:
Frawley says to use the memorizing time to settle any nerves, and plan responses in your head before writing time begins.

“Consider writing the question at the top of each page and refer back to it to ensure you haven’t lost sight of the question you’re answering,” Frawley says.

  • Use strong verbs.
  • Make sure you read the question carefully and answer the question that is asked, not one you have studied for.

If you are having trouble:

Frawley says to write what you know. “Assessors look for what they can reward, they don’t deduct marks. If in doubt, writing something is better than writing nothing.”

Tips from 2021 English Premier’s Award winner and former Haileybury College student Rufaro Zimbudzi:

Student Rufaro Zimbudzi at Hailebury College last year.Credit:Wayne Taylor

  • Brainstorm with friends and talk through the nitty-gritty. “In the exam, you aren’t able to plan on a piece of paper ... I wanted to get used to doing it all in my head.”
  • Find the best way you learn. Zimbudzi says she learned through conversation. “For English and writing, we forget that discussion is the way ideas are formulated.” Having conversations about the texts “was a really good time-effective way to study because it didn’t feel like I was studying. It got my brain working and had me thinking critically”.
  • Zimbudzi rooted her responses in current events, with latest articles to make them topical. “Stuff that is happening now in this society and generation, it made me feel part of the action and change, and motivated me to keep researching and reading.”
  • To memorise quotes, she repeated them or thought of them as song lyrics.
  • Instead of doing three-hour timed practice essays, Zimbudzi did essay plans or timed 15-minute paragraphs, before working up to a full hour-long essay. She says sitting for a full three-hour practice exam wasn’t for her.
  • Try to get passionate about it, and read for enjoyment. “I found I felt so much more articulate. All that stuff we take for granted, everything that is overcast by the idea of marks or your ATAR, but there is a lot of real-life value.”
Wed, 28 Sep 2022 12:04:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : U.S. National Chemistry Olympiad


International Chemistry Olympiad Exams

The four international competitors are accompanied by mentors who translate the test, inspect laboratories and arbitrate the scoring of the exams. Students and mentors also have opportunities to interact with one another and experience the host country’s culture through planned educational and social events. 

Sun, 16 Aug 2020 19:01:00 -0500 en text/html
HH0-210 exam dump and training guide direct download
Training Exams List