Netstat (Network Statistics) is a command-line tool for monitoring and troubleshooting computer network issues. This tool shows you all your device’s connections in as much detail as you need.
With Netstat, you can view all your connections and their ports and stats. This information is valuable when setting up or fixing your connectivity. This article will introduce you to the Netstat command and the main parameters for filtering information displayed about your connections.
We’ll explore the following syllabus in this section:
Join me as we go through the above syllabus to help you better understand this tool and learn how to use it to troubleshoot your network issues.
Click on the Start button and search for Command Prompt. Open Command Prompt with elevated privileges by right-clicking on it and selecting the Run as administrator option.
You can open Netstat by typing the following command and pressing ENTER:
You may not understand what the columns mean if you’re new to networking.
The netstat command shows you your active connections and their details. However, you’d notice that the foreign address column prints the IP address and port names.
To show the connections’ port numbers instead of the port names next to the IP addresses, use the following command:
Further, the system can disconnect or connect to networks, and the network details can change at intervals. Hence, we can use the following command to refresh the netstat network details at intervals using this command:
netstat -n 5
To stop the refreshing, press the CTRL + C key combination.
NOTE: The 5 in the command above refreshes the command every 5 seconds. If you wish to increase or shorten the interval, you can modify this value.
netstat command is a powerful command that can show you every detail about your device’s connections. Explore the most commonly used netstat parameters to find specific network details.
Show the networks that are active or inactive.
List all applications that are associated with the connections.
Show statistics on incoming and outgoing network packets.
If you don’t want to see the port numbers or names, the following netstat parameter will show your foreign addresses’ fully qualified domain names.
Change the foreign address port names to port numbers.
netstat, and it has an extra column for every connection’s Process ID (PID).
Display the connections for the protocol you specify – UDP, TCP, tcpv6, or udpv6.
netstat -p udp
NOTE: You should change the
udp part to the protocol whose connections you want to view.
Show connections and their listening and bound non-listening ports.
Categorize networks by available protocols – UDP, TCP, ICMP, IPv4, and IPv6.
Show the routing table of your current network. It lists every route to the destination and matrix available on your system. Similar to the
route print command.
Show a list of connection offload states of your current connection.
Shows all NetworkDirect connections.
Show your networks’ TCP connection templates.
You can further filter the Netstat parameters to show you information about your connections any way you want. From the above commands, you only have to add a second parameter to show a combined view.
For instance, you can combine the
-e parameters to view the statistics for every protocol. This way, you can combine other parameters to get the desired results.
When mixing multiple Netstat parameters, you don’t need to include two dashes (-). You can use one dash (-) and append the parameter letters without a second one.
For example, instead of typing the following command:
netstat -s -e
You can write it as:
netstat - se
If you forget the parameters, a quick way to remember them is by asking netstat to help. Simply run the following command:
To stop the netstat query process, press the CTRL + C key combination.
We can check network connectivity using the netstat or network statistics command. This allows us to see active network connections and their status. The tool can view incoming and outgoing network connections, routing tables, port listening, and usage statistics. This command can be handy for network administrators when troubleshooting network issues. By understanding how to use this command, you can quickly and efficiently diagnose problems with your network.
You can check your network connection status in Windows quickly and easily. Select the Start button to do so and type “settings” into the search bar. Once you’re in the Settings menu, select “Network & internet.” The status of your network connection will be displayed at the top of the page. If you’re having trouble connecting to the internet, this is a helpful first step in troubleshooting the issue. You also check quickly, and if you see the wifi icon missing, you have a network issue.
Milton Kazmeyer has worked in the insurance, financial and manufacturing fields and also served as a federal contractor. He began his writing career in 2007 and now works full-time as a writer and transcriptionist. His primary fields of expertise include computers, astronomy, alternative energy sources and the environment.
Network problems? What could be the reason? It is just like being a detective and solve a mystery case – but who wants to be a James Bond when you’ve got a software like Why Can’t I Connect. WCIC is an easy and handy tool that lets you diagnose network issues and even helps you resolve TCP/IP connection errors. This tool will let you connect to various kinds of servers and would perform an incoming and outgoing test to diagnose the network for any problems and related issues.
WCIC is an open-sourced utility licensed under GNU public license. It is easy to use and operate the utility. It has basic and essential features that are very useful while diagnosing network problems in different types of servers.
Using this software you can connect to the following types of servers:
Microsoft SQL Server: WCIC would create a TCP/IP connection to any Microsoft SQL Server you want. What you simply need to enter is IP Address and Port of the server. But remember WCIC would not verify the server username or password, it would only make a connection to the server.
MySQL Server: It would make a similar connection as it made with Microsoft MySQL Server.
FTP and SFTP: WCIC can even diagnose network problems with FTP and Secure FTP servers. Simply you need to enter the IP address and the port only!
POP3 and IMAP: Email protocols like POP3 and IMAP can even be diagnosed using this wonderful software, for these you need to enter the server IP address and choose between STARTTLS and SSL/TLS and enter the corresponding port numbers. But remember it would not attempt to verify the username and password.
It can even diagnose other servers like IRC, LDAP and Usenet. Why Can’t I connect to create a complete log of performed operations and you can export the log by copying everything, and you can save it as a record for the future.
Overall Why Can’t I Connect is a must-have utility, as it has the essential features that are required while diagnosing the network problems experienced in different servers – and it is even useful for various testing features like if you want to test whether a server is live or not. It is easy to use and doesn’t require any geeky configuration and commands.
Click here to download Why Can’t I Connect.
The built-in Network & Internet Diagnostic & Repair Tool is another tool that you may want to have a look at.
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This course is divided into two parts in which students focus on core skills to help them thrive in electrical and computer engineering. The first half of the course focuses on application programming in Matlab where students learn basics of Programming, Digital Signal Processing, and Data Analysis. In the second part of the course students program a micro-controller and learn about the function of basic electronic components. Students learn to use basic test equipment such as an Oscilloscope, Function Generator, Volt Meter. This course is project and lab based.Curricula Practical Training
Curricula Practical Training. "Variable credit course, student chooses appropriate amount of credits when registering."Circuit Theory I (Formerly 16.201)
This course covers ideal elements, active and passive. It introduces and applies Ohm's Law and Kirchoff's Laws. Introduces concepts of network topology, independent and dependent variables, mesh and nodal analysis, the definition and consequences of linearity, source transformation, the superposition principle, Thevenin's and Norton's theorems, and maximum power transfer. Also covers ideal inductance and capacitance in simple circuits with the study of transient response and behavior under DC conditions.
Pre-req: MATH.1320 Calculus II, and Co-req: EECE.2070 Basic Electrical Engineering Lab I, and a 'C' or higher in MATH.1320.Circuit Theory II (Formerly 16.202)
This course covers AC circuits under sinusoidal steady-state conditions using the concept of the frequency domain. Introduces the use of complex numbers, phasors, impedance and admittance for the application of circuit laws introduced in Circuit Theory I: Thevenin and Norton's theorems, source transformation, superposition, maximum power transfer, nodal and mesh analysis. Covers power in the frequency domain, including RMS values, average power, reactive power, and apparent power. Introduction to magnetic coupling, mutual inductance, and the ideal transformer. Introduction to transfer functions, poles and zeroes in the s-plane.
Pre-Req: C- or better in EECE 2010 Circuit Theory I, or Spring 2020 grade of "P" and Co-Req: EECE 2080 Basic EE Lab II.Basic Electrical Engineering Laboratory I (Formerly 16.207)
Experimental work designed to verify theory and to acquaint students with electrical measurement techniques: experiments on meters, bridges, and oscilloscopes. Experiments are correlated with Circuit Theory I and concern: resistive measurements, Kirchhoff's laws, network theorems, conservation of power and maximum power transfer, inductance and capacitance, and first and second-order transients, operational amplifiers. MATLAB will be utilized throughout the course.
Co-Req: EECE.2010 Circuit Theory I.Basic Electrical Engineering Lab II (Formerly 16.208)
Presents experimental work designed to emphasize electrical measurement techniques of linear systems with time-varying signals. Waveform measurements with DC and AC meters as well as advanced use of the oscilloscope are also discussed. Experiments are integrated with Circuit Theory II. Experiments cover: Kirchhoff's laws for phasors, magnitude and phase measurements of impedance, network theorems, frequency response, resonance, inductance, maximum power transfer, and MATLAB techniques.
Pre-Req: EECE 2070 Basic EE Lab I; Co-Req: EECE 2020 Circuit Theory II.Fundamentals of Electricity I (Formerly 16.211/213)
This course serves as an introduction to direct current (DC) and alternating current (AC) analysis of electric circuits, with emphasis on energy and power. Covers the explanation of basic components (resistor, capacitor and inductor) and their use in electronics. Cover also the design and use of multi-range voltmeters, ammeters, and ohmmeters, series, parallel and series parallel circuits, the use of bridges, phasor analysis of AC circuits, transformers, relays, solenoids, etc. Different techniques like Superposition theorem, Thevenin equivalent circuit or Maximum Power will be presented. Students will also be introduced to DC and AC motors and generators, first and second order filters as well as basic sensors. Not for ECE students.
Pre-Req: MATH 1320 Calculus II.Fundamentals of Sound Recording (Formerly 16.214)
This course serves to instruct sound recording technology through the concepts of voltage, current, power, resistance and Ohm's law; series, parallel and resonant circuits, Kirchhoff's voltage and current laws; the Wheatstone bridge, Thevenin equivalent circuits and maximum power transfer theorem; magnetism, electromagnetism, electromagnetic devices, and transformers; a.c. current, RF signals, capacitors, and inductors; RC, RL, and RLC circuits; d.c. power sources; diodes, transistors, tubes (thermionic emission), and amplifiers. Use of voltmeters, ammeters, ohmmeters, and oscilloscopes are discussed and used in lab throughout the course. Not for ECE students.
Sound Recording Technology majors; Pre-Req: MATH 1320 Calculus II.ECE Application Programming (Formerly 16.216)
Introduces C programming for engineers. Covers fundamentals of procedural programming with applications in electrical and Computer engineering and embedded systems. syllabus include variables, expressions and statements, console input/output, modularization and functions, arrays, pointers and strings algorithms, structures, and file input/output. Introduces working with C at the bit manipulation level. Laboratories include designing and programming engineering applications.History of Radio (Formerly 16.233)
Intended primarily for students majoring in the liberal arts. The course develops the theory of electricity from an historical perspective. Sufficient background in circuit theory, resonance, field theory and radio waves is given to provide an understanding of the principles of radio from its antecedents in the nineteenth century through the invention of the transistor in the mid twentieth century. The fundamental contributions of, for example Volta, Oersted, Morse, Maxwell, Faraday, Hertz, Lodge, and Marconi are considered. In the present century the technical advances of such figures as de Forest, Fleming, Fessenden, Armstrong and Shockley are studied. The growth, regulation and culture of American broadcasting are also central to the course. Laboratory work is required and students may use this course toward fulfilling the General Education (science/experimental component) requirement of the University. Not open to students in the College of Engineering.Introduction to Data Communication Networks
This course is designed to convey the essentials of data communication and networking. This includes an understanding of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI), TCP/IP and Internet models. It covers various protocols and architectures of interconnection technologies. Several concepts will be discussed that will enable students to apply the basic concepts of data communication and networking technology in many practical situations.
Pre-req: EECE.1070 Introduction to Electrical and Computer Engineering, and MATH.1310 Calculus I, and PHYS.1410 Physics I.Logic Design (Formerly 16.265)
Number systems and binary codes. Boolean algebra. Canonical and fundamental forms of Boolean functions. Function expansion and its applications to digital circuit design. Minimization of Boolean functions by Boolean algebra and Karnaugh maps. Two-level and multi-level digital circuits. Decoder, encoders, multiplexers, and de-multiplexers. Latches and flip-flops. Registers and counters. Analysis and synthesis of synchronous sequential circuits. Design of more complex circuits: data-path and control circuits. Use of software tools to implement a design on modern hardware.
Pre-req: MECH.1070 intro to Mechanical Eng, or COMP.1020 Computing II, or EECE.1070 Intro to Elec. & Comp. Engin, or EECE.2160 ECE Application Programming.Electronics I Lab (Formerly 16.311)
Laboratory experiments coordinated with the subject matter of Electronics I. This lab explores the characteristics and use of electronic instrumentation for making measurements on electronic circuits. Labs will utilize the methods of designing and characterizing diode and transistor circuits. They will analyze the performance characteristics of digital and linear semiconductor circuits, including logic elements and amplifiers. The design and construction of circuits using monolithic op amps will also be explored.
Pre-req: EECE.2080 Basic EE Lab II, and Co-req: EECE.3650 Electronics I.Electronics II Laboratory (Formerly 16.312)
This course covers laboratory experiments coordinated with the subject matter of Electronics II, Study of high-frequency characteristics of transistors and transistor amplifiers. Covers feedback in electronic circuits, electronic oscillators and differential amplifier. Covers also the properties of linear IC operational amplifiers and their application in amplifier circuits and waveform generation circuits. Design and analysis of linear circuits.
Pre-req: EECE.3110 Electronics I Lab, and Co-req: EECE.3660 Electronics II.Microprocessors Systems Design I (Formerly 16.317)
Introduction to microprocessors, Uses assembly language to develop a foundation on the hardware which executes a program. Memory and I/O interface design and programming. Design and operation of computer systems. Study of microprocessor and its basic support components, including detailed schematics, timing and functional analysis of their interactions. Laboratories directly related to microprocessor functions and its interfaces (e.g. memory subsystem, I/O devices and coprocessors).
Pre-req: EECE.2160 ECE Application Programming, and EECE 2650 Logic Design.Data Structures (Formerly 16.322)
Covers algorithms and their performance analysis, data structures, abstraction, and encapsulation. Introduces stacks, queues, linked lists, trees, heaps, priority queues, and hash tables, and their physical representation. Discusses efficient sorting (quicksort and heapsort) and experimental algorithm analysis. Examines several design issues, including selection of data structures based on operations to be optimized, algorithm encapsulation using classes and templates, and how and when to use recursion. Assignments include programming of data structures in an object-oriented language.
Pre-Req: EECE.2160 ECE Application ProgrammingElectromechanics (Formerly 16.355)
Alternating current circuits, three phase circuits, basics of electromagnetic field theory, magnetic circuits, inductance, electromechanical energy conversion. Ideal transformer, iron-core transformer, voltage regulation, efficiency equivalent circuits, and three phase transformers. Induction machine construction, equivalent circuit, torque speed characteristics, and single phase motors. Synchronous machine construction, equivalent circuits, power relationships phasor diagrams, and synchronous motors. Direct current machines construction, types, efficiency, power flow diagram, and external characteristics.
Pre-Req: EECE.2020 Circuit Theory II.Engineering Electromagnetics I (Formerly 16.360)
Electromagnetics I is the study of fundamental electrostatic and magnetostatic equations building up to the foundation of electrodynamics, Maxwell's Equations. This course is put into an engineering perspective by describing transmission line properties using circuit models and deriving these model parameters directly from Maxwell's Equations. To accomplish these tasks, Engineering Electromagnetics I implements: Transmission lines as Distributed Circuits, Smith Charts, impedance Matching, Electrostatics and Capacitance, steady current flow and Resistance, and Magnetostatics and Inductance.
Pre-Req: EECE 2020 Circuit Theory II and PHYS 1440 Physics II.Signals and Systems I (Formerly 16.362)
This course covers various continuous voltage/current time functions and their applications to linear time-invariant (LTI) electrical systems. It reviews pertinent syllabus from previous courses on circuit theory, such as system functions, S-plane concepts and complete responses. It introduces step and impulse functions and their responses in LTI circuits. It covers the solving of convolution integrals and differential equations, the transformation of signals to Fourier series, the Fourier and Laplace transforms, with their application, in continuous and discrete time, and Parseval's theorem. It also describes analog filter responses and design. A computing project is proposed in this course.
Pre-Req: EECE 2020 Circuit Theory II and MATH 2360 Eng Differential Equations or MATH.2340 Differential Equations.Introduction to Probability and Random Processes (Formerly 16.363)
Introduction to probability, random processes and basic statistical methods to address the random nature of signals and systems that engineers analyze, characterize and apply in their designs. It includes discrete and continuous random variables, their probability distributions and analytical and statistical methods for determining the mean, variance and higher order moments that characterize the random variable. Descriptive and inferential statistics, as well as time-varying random processes and their spectral analysis are introduced. The course provides the skills required to address modeling uncertainty in manufacturing and reliability analysis, noise characterization, and data analysis.
Pre-Req: EECE.2020 Circuit Theory II.Engineering Mathematics (Formerly 16.364)
Complex number, Argand plane, derivatives of complex numbers, limits and continuity, derivative and Cauchy Riemann conditions, analytic functions, integration in the complex plane, Cauchy's integral formula, infinite series for complex variables. Taylor series, Laurent series, residue theory, evaluation of integrals around indented contours. Linear vector spaces, matrices and determinants, eigenvalues and eigenvectors.
Pre-Req: MATH 2360 Eng Differential Equations or MATH.2340 Differential Equations.Electronics I (Formerly 16.365)
A brief introduction to solid-state physics, leading to discussion of physical characteristics of p-n junction diodes, bipolar junction transistors, and field-effect transistors: active, saturated, and cutoff models of bipolar transistors and triode, constant current, and cutoff models of MOSFETs. Circuit models for diodes, and diode applications. Circuit models for transistors, and transistor applications in bipolar and MOS digital circuits and low-frequency amplifier circuits. Analysis of digital circuits and linear circuits based on application of circuit models of devices and circuit theory.
Pre-req: EECE 2020 Circuit Theory ll, and PHYS 1440 Physics ll, and Co-req: EECE 3110 Electronics l Lab.Electronics II (Formerly 16.366)
A continuation of 16.365 with discussion of differential amplifiers, operation amplifiers and op amp applications, transistor amplifiers at very high frequencies; direct-coupled and band pass amplifiers; small and large signal amplifiers; feedback amplifiers and oscillators. Active filters, wave form generation circuits including Schmitt trigger, multiplexers, and A/D and D/A converters. Circuit design employing integrated circuit operational amplifiers and discrete devices. Circuit analysis using SPICE. An electronic design project constitutes a major part of the course.
Pre-Req: C- or better in EECE 3650 Electronics I,or Spring 2020 grade of "P", Co-Req: EECE 3120 Electronics Lab II.Capstone Proposal (Formerly 16.399)
This course is the first in a two semester capstone sequence. In a group, students will work with a client to define their project, by identifying the problem, objective and requirements, and engage in design, analysis, test and fabrication tasks as appropriate to meet the project goals. Project management tools are discussed and applied in this process.
Pre-Reqs: EECE 3110 Electronics I Lab, and EECE 3170 Microprocessor Sys Desgn I, and EECE 3650 Electronics I.Microwave Engineering (Formerly 16.403)
An introductory course in the analysis and design of passive microwave circuits beginning with a review of time-varying electromagnetic field concepts and transmission lines. Smith Chart problems; single and double stub matching; impedance transformer design; maximally flat and Chebyshev transformers; microstrip transmission lines, slot lines, coplanar lines; rectangular and circular waveguides; waveguide windows and their use in impedance matching; design of directional couplers; features of weak and strong couplings; microwave filter design; characteristics of low-pass, high-pass, band-pass, band-stop filter designs; two-port network representation of junctions; Z and Y parameters, ABCD parameters, scattering matrix; microwave measurements; measurement of VSWR, complex impedance, dielectric constant, attenuation, and power. A design project constitutes a major part of the course.
Pre-Req: EECE.4610 Emag Theory II.VLSI Fabrication (Formerly 16.470/EECE.4700)
Fabrication of resistors, capacitors, p-n junction and Schottky barrier diodes, BJT's and MOS devices and integrated circuits. syllabus include: silicon structure, wafer preparation, sequential techniques in microelectronic processing, testing and packaging, yield and clean room environments. MOS structures, crystal defects, Fick's laws of diffusion; oxidation of silicon, photolithography including photoresist, development and stripping. Metallization for conductors, Ion implantation for depletion mode and CMOS transistors for better yield speed, low power dissipation and reliability. Students will fabricate circuits using the DSIPL Laboratory.
Pre-Req: EECE.3650 Electronics I.Antenna Theory and Design (Formerly 16.462/EECE.4620)
An introduction to properties of individual antennas and arrays of antennas. Retarded potentials, dipoles of arbitrary length, radiation pattern, gain, directivity, radiation resistance. The loop antenna. Effects of the earth. Reciprocity, receiving antennas, effective length and area. Moment methods. Arrays: collinear, broadside, endfire. Array synthesis. Mutual coupling. Log-periodic and Yagi arrays. Radiation from apertures: the waveguide horn antenna, parabolic dish. Antenna noise temperature. Numerical software packages. A design project is required in the course.
Pre-Req: EECE.4610 Emag Theory II.Directed Studies (Formerly 16.409)
Provides an opportunity for qualified Electrical Engineering students to investigate specific areas of interest. The real project undertaken may be software or hardware oriented. The most important characteristics of the projects are that the end results represent independent study, that they are research and development oriented, and that they are accomplished in an engineering environment. Design reviews and progress reports are expected for each project. A final formal report to be permanently filed in the EE Department is required for each project. Engineering Design (100%).
Pre-Reqs: EECE 3550 Electromechanics,EECE 3600 Emag Theory I, EECE 3620 Signals & Systems I, EECE 3650 Electronics I,and EECE 3660 Electronics II.Directed Studies (Formerly 16.410)
The purpose of this course is to provide an opportunity for qualified Electrical Engineering students to investigate specific areas of interest. The real project undertaken may be software or hardware oriented. The most important characteristics of the projects are that the end results represent independent study and that they are research and development oriented, and that they are accomplished in an engineering environment. Design reviews and progress reports are expected for each project. A final formal report to be permanently filed in the EE Department is required for each project.
Pre-Reqs: EECE 3550 Electromechanics,EECE 3600 Emag Theory I,EECE 3620 Signals & Systems I,EECE 3650 Electronics I, and EECE 3660 Electronics II.Directed Studies (Formerly 16.412)
The purpose of this course is to provide an opportunity for qualified Electrical Engineering students to investigate specific areas of interest. The real project undertaken may be software or hardware oriented. The most important characteristics of the projects are that the end results represent independent study and that they are research and development oriented, and that they are accomplished in an engineering environment. Design reviews and progress reports are expected for each project. A final formal report to be permanently filed in the EE Department is required for each project.
Pre-Reqs: EECE 3550 Electromechanics,EECE 3600 Emag Theory I, EECE 3620 Signals & Systems I, EECE 3650 Electronics I,and EECE 3660 Electronics II.Linear Feedback System (Formerly 16.413)
Concepts of feedback; open loop and closed loop systems. Feedback in electrical and mechanical systems. Mathematical models of systems and linear approximations. Transfer functions of linear systems, block diagrams and signal flow graphs. Sensitivity, control of transient response, disturbance signals. Time domain performance: steady state errors, performance indices. Stability related to s-plane location of the roots of the characteristic equation. Routh-Hurwitz criterion. Graphical analysis techniques: root locus, frequency response as polar plot and Bode diagrams. Closed loop frequency response. A control system design project is included in the course.
Pre-Req: EECE 3620 Signals & Systems I and EECE 3640 Engineering Math.Integrated Power Systems (Formerly 16.414/514)
Power System Operations and Electricity Markets provide a comprehensive overview to understand and meet the challenges of the new competitive highly deregulated power industry. The course presents new methods for power systems operations in a unified integrated framework combining the business and technical aspects of the restructured power industry. An outlook on power policy models, regulation, reliability, and economics is attentively reviewed. The course lay the groundwork for the coming era of unbundling, open access,, power marketing, self-generation, and regional transmission operations.
Pre-Req: EECE.2020 Circuit Theory II.Power Electronics (Formerly 16.473/515 & EECE.4730/5150)
A one-semester course with emphasis on the engineering design and performance analysis of power electronics converters. syllabus include: power electronics devices (power MOSFETs, power transistors, diodes, silicon controlled rectifiers SCRs, TRIACs, DIACs and Power Darlington Transistors), rectifiers, inverters, ac voltage controllers, dc choppers, cycloconverters, and power supplies. The course includes a project, which requires that the student design and build one of the power electronics converters. A demonstrative laboratory to expose the students to all kinds of projects is part of the course.
Pre-Reqs: EECE 3550 Electromechanics and EECE 3660 Electronics II, or Permission of Instructor.Wireless Communication (Formerly 16.418)
Cellular systems and design principles, co-channel and adjacent channel interference, mobile radio propagation and determination of large scale path loss, propagation mechanisms like reflection, diffraction and scattering, outdoor propagation models, Okumura and Hata models, small scale fading and multipath, Doppler shift and effects, statistical models for multipath, digital modulation techniques QPSK, DPSK, GMSK, multiple access techniques, TDMA, FDMA, CDMA, spread spectrum techniques, frequency hopped systems, wireless systems and worldwide standards.
Pre-req: EECE.3630 Introduction to Probability and Random Process.Real Time Digital Signal Processing (Formerly 16.421)
This course provides an introduction to real-time digital signal processing techniques using floating point and fixed point processors. The architecture, instruction set and software development tools for these processors will be studied via a series of C and assembly language computer projects where real-time adaptive filters, modems, digital control systems and speech recognition systems are implemented.
Pre-req: EECE.3620 Signals and Systems I.Semiconductor Physics for Solid-State Electronics (Formerly 16.423)
The course covers fundamental solid-state and semiconductor physics relevant for understanding electronic devices. syllabus include quantum mechanics of electrons in solids, crystalline structures, ban theory of semiconductors, electron statistics and dynamics in energy bands, lattice dynamics and phonons, carrier transport, and optical processes in semiconductors.
Pre-req: EECE.3650 Electronics I, and EECE.3640 Engineering Mathematics, and EECE.3600 Engineering Electromagnetics I, or permission of instructor.Computational Methods for Power System Analysis (Formerly 16.424/524)
The course explores some of the mathematical and simulation tools used for the design, analysis and operation of electric power systems. Computational methods based on linear and nonlinear optimization algorithms are used to solve load flow problems, to analyze and characterize system faults and contingencies, and to complete economic dispatch of electric power systems. Real case studies and theoretical projects are assigned to implement the techniques learned and to propose recommendations. Different software applications will be used concurrently including ATP, PowerWorld Simulator, Aspen, MatLab with Simulink and Power System Toolbox, PSCAD, etc.
Pre-Req: EECE.2020 Circuit Theory II.Power Distribution System (Formerly 16.4440/EECE.4440)
An intermediate course in analysis and operation of electrical power distribution systems using applied calculus and matrix algebra. syllabus include electrical loads characteristics, modeling , metering, customer billing, voltage regulation, voltage levels, and power factor correction. The design and operation of the power distribution system components will be introduced: distribution transformers, distribution substation, distribution networks, and distribution equipment.
Pre-req: EECE.2020 Circuit Theory II, and EECE.2080 Basic EE Lab II.Power Systems Stability and Control (Formerly 16.426/526)
Stability definition and cases in power systems. System model for machine angle stability. Small signal and transient stability. Voltage stability phenomenon, its characterization. Small and large signal models for voltage stability analysis. Frequency stability and control. Compensation methods for system voltage regulation including classical and modem methods. Stability of multi-machine system.
Pre-Req: EECE.2020 Circuit Theory II.Advanced VLSI Design Techniques (Formerly 16.427/527)
This course builds on the previous experience with Cadence design tools and covers advanced VLSI design techniques for low power circuits. syllabus covered include aspects of the design of low voltage and low power circuits including process technology, device modeling, CMOS circuit design, memory circuits and subsystem design. This will be a research-oriented course based on team projects.
Pre-req: EECE.4690 VLSI Design, or EECE.5690 VLSI Design, or Permission of Instructor.Alternative Energy Sources (Formerly 16.428)
PV conversion, cell efficiency, cell response, systems and applications. Wind Energy conversion systems: Wind and its characteristics; aerodynamic theory of windmills; wind turbines and generators; wind farms; siting of windmills. Other alternative energy sources: Tidal energy, wave energy, ocean thermal energy conversion, geothermal energy, solar thermal power, satellite power, biofuels. Energy storage: Batteries, fuel cells, hydro pump storage, flywheels, compressed air.Electric Vehicle Technology (Formerly 16.429)
Electric vehicle VS internal combustion engine vehicle. Electric vehicle (EV) saves the environment. EV design, EV motors, EV batteries, EV battery chargers and charging algorithms, EV instrumentation and EV wiring diagram. Hybrid electric vehicles. Fuel cells. Fuel cell electric vehicles. The course includes independent work.Introduction to Medical Image Reconstruction
This course provides both traditional and state-of-the-art tomographic reconstruction algorithms in a unified way. It includes analytic reconstruction, iterative reconstruction, and deep reconstruction based on the state-of-the-art deep learning techniques. This course provides fundamental knowledge for careers in medical image reconstruction.
Pre-req: EECE.3620 Signals and Systems I.RF Design (Formerly 16.431)
Two-port network parameters, Smith chart applications for impedance matching, transmission line structures like stripline, microstrip line and coaxial line, filter designs for low-pass, high-pass and band-pass characteristics, amplifier design based on s-parameters, bias network designs, one port and two port oscillator circuits, noise in RF systems.
Pre-Req: EECE.3600 Emag Theory I.Electronic Materials (Formerly 16.333/EECE.3330)
The production and processing of materials into finished products constitute a large part of the present economy. To prepare students for the use of a variety of traditional and new materials, this course will cover: atomic structure and chemical bonding, crystal geometry and defects, mechanical properties and phase diagrams of metals and alloys, electrical and optical properties of semiconductors, ceramics, and polymers; brief description of electronic, quantum electronic and photonic devices; benefits and difficulties of materials design with decreasing dimensions from millimeters to micrometers and to nanometers.
Pre-req: MATH.1320 Calculus II and PHYS.1440 Physics II.Electrical Power Substations
Power delivery for customers is made possible by sophisticated distribution systems. The backbone of distribution systems is power substations which connect, control, protect, and regulate incoming "high voltage" transmission lines to "low voltage" residential and commercial customers. This course will introduce and present basic information regarding electric power substations and the distribution of electric power, including components of power substations, individual equipment components, and electric power distribution systems. General information related to operational aspects of substations and distributing electric power is included. syllabus including reactive power compensation, grounding, and protection and control are introduced in a "simplified" yet "very practical approach".
Pre-Reqs: EECE 3550 Electromechanics and EECE 3660 Electronics II, or Permission of Instructor.Introduction to Biosensors (Formerly 16.441/541)
This course introduces the theory and design of biosensors and their applications for pathology, pharmacogenetics, public health, food safety civil defense, and environmental monitoring. Optical, electrochemical and mechanical sensing techniques will be discussed.Analog Devices and Techniques (Formerly 16.445/565 & EECE.4450/5650)
A survey of analog devices and techniques, concentrating on operational amplifier design and applications. Operational amplifier design is studied to reveal the limitations of real opamps, and to develop a basis for interpreting their specifications. Representative applications are covered, including: simple amplifiers, differential and instrumentation amplifiers, summers, integrators, active filters, nonlinear circuits, and waveform generation circuits. A design project is required.
Pre-Req: EECE.3660 Electronics II.Advanced Digital System Hardware Design (Formerly 16.450)
Design of logic machines. Finite state machines, gate array designs, ALU and 4 bit CPU unit designs, micro-programmed systems. Hardware design of advanced digital circuits using XILINX. Application of probability and statistics for hardware performance, and upgrading hardware systems. Laboratories incorporate specification, top-down design, modeling, implementation and testing of real advanced digital design systems hardware. Laboratories also include simulation of circuits using VHDL before real hardware implementation and PLDs programming.
Pre-req: EECE.2650 Logic Design, and EECE.3650 Electronics I, and EECE.3110 Electronics I Lab, and EECE.3170 Microprocessor Systems Design I, or permission of Instructor.Heterogeneous Computing
This course introduces heterogeneous computing architecture and the design and optimization of applications that best utilize the resources on such platforms. The course syllabus include heterogeneous computer architecture, offloading architecture/API, platform, memory and execution models, GPU/FPGA acceleration, OpenCL programming framework, Data Parallel C++ programming framework, performance analysis and optimization. Labs are included to practice design methodology and development tools.
Pre-req: EECE.3170 Microprocessors Systems Design I, or EECE.4821 Computer Architecture and Design, or Permission of Instructor.Microprocessor Systems II & Embedded Systems (Formerly 16.480/EECE.4800)
CPU architecture, memory interfaces and management, coprocessor interfaces, bus concepts, bus arbitration techniques, serial I/O devices, DMA, interrupt control devices. Including Design, construction, and testing of dedicated microprocessor systems (static and real-time). Hardware limitations of the single-chip system. Includes micro-controllers, programming for small systems, interfacing, communications, validating hardware and software, microprogramming of controller chips, design methods and testing of embedded systems.
Pre-Reqs: EECE 3110 Electronics I Lab, and EECE 3170 Microprocessor Sys Desgn I, and EECE 3650 Electronics I.Software Engineering (Formerly 16.453)
Introduces software life cycle models, and engineering methods for software design and development. Design and implementation, testing, and maintenance of large software packages in a dynamic environment, and systematic approach to software design with emphasis on portability and ease of modification. Laboratories include a project where some of the software engineering methods (from modeling to testing) are applied in an engineering example.
Pre-Req: EECE 2160 ECE Application Programming and EECE 3220 Data Structures. or Permission of Instructor.Computer System Security
An introduction to computer system security. This course introduces the threats and vulnerabilities in computer systems. This course covers the elementary cryptography, program security, security in operating system, database security, network, web, and e-commerce. It also covers some aspects of hardware security, legal, ethical and privacy issues in computer system security.
Pre-req: EECE.3220 Data Structures.Fundamentals of Robotics
The material in this course is a combination of essential topics, techniques, algorithms, and tools that will be used in future robotics courses. Fundamental syllabus relevant to robots (linear algebra, numerical methods, programming) will be reinforced throughout the course using introductions to other robotics syllabus that are each worthy of a full semester of study (dynamics, kinematics, controls, planning, sensing). Students will program real robots to further refine their skills and experience the material fully.
Pre-Req: COMP.1010 Computing 1 or EECE.2160 ECE Computing Application.Fundamentals of the Internet of Things
Explores the foundations and technologies involved in Internet of Things (IoT) from an industry perspective. syllabus include Machine to Machine (M2M) communication and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) and their relationship with IoT as well as their evolution. This involves all three main elements: (1) devices, (2) communications/networks and (3) analytics/applications. Specifically, it introduces technologies and interfaces associated with sensing and actuation of embedded devices and presents the fundamentals of IoT analytics including machine learning and rule-based AI. The bulk of the content presented in the course is focused on the industry-led standardization of IoT communication and networking mechanisms.
Pre-req: EECE.3170 Microprocessors Systems Design I, or Permission of Instructor.Introduction to Nanoelectronics (Formerly 16.459/559)
This course introduces the use of nanomaterials for electronic devices such as sensors and transistors. Synthesis methods for nanoparticles, nanotubes, nanowires, and 2-D materials such as graphene will be covered. The challenges in incorporating nanomaterials into devices will also be discussed. These methods will be compared to techniques used in the semiconductor industry and what challenges, technically and financially, exist for their widespread adoption will be addressed. Finally, examples of devices that use nanomaterials will be reviewed. The course will have some hands on demonstrations.Biomedical Instrumentation (Formerly 16.460/560)
A survey of biomedical instrumentation that leads to the analysis of various medical system designs and the related factors involved in medical device innovation. In addition to the technical aspects of system integration of biosensors and physiological transducers there will be coverage of a biodesign innovation process that can translate clinical needs into designs. A significant course component will be project-based prototyping of mobile heath applications. The overall goals of the course are to provide the theoretical background as well as specific requirements for medical device development along with some practical project experience that would thereby enable students to design electrical and computer based medical systems.
Pre-req: ECE senior/grad or BMEBT studentEngineering Electromagnetics II (Formerly 16.461)
Continuation of Magnetostatics, Maxwell's Equations for Time-varying Fields, plane waves: time-harmonic fields, polarization, current flow in good conductors and skin effect, power density and Poynting vector, wave reflection and transmission; Snell's Law, fiber optics, Brewster angle, radiation and simple antennas, electromagnetic concepts involved in a topical technology in development.
Pre-Req: EECE.3600 Emag Theory I.Special syllabus (Formerly 16.467)
Topics of current interest in Electrical and Computer Engineering. Subject matter to be announced in advance.Electro-optics & Integrated Optics (Formerly 16.468)
An introduction to physical optics, electro-optics and integrated optics. syllabus include: Waves and polarization, optical resonators, optical waveguides, coupling between waveguides, electro-optical properties of crystals, electro-optic modulators, Micro-Optical-Electro-Mechanical (MEMS) Devices and photonic and microwave wireless systems.
Pre-Req: EECE.3600 Emag Theory I.VLSI Design (Formerly 16.469/502 & EECE.4690/5020)
Introduction to CMOS circuits including transmission gate, inverter, NAND, NOR gates, MUXEs, latches and registers. MOS transistor theory including threshold voltage and design equations. CMOS inverter's DC and AC characteristics along with noise margins. Circuit characterization and performance estimation including resistance, capacitance, routing capacitance, multiple conductor capacitance, distributed RC capacitance, multiple conductor capacitance, distributed RC capacitance, switching characteristics incorporating analytic delay models, transistor sizing and power dissipation. CMOS circuit and logic design including fan-in, fan-out, gate delays, logic gate layout incorporating standard cell design, gate array layout, and single as well as two-phase clocking. CMOS test methodologies including stuck-at-0, stuck-at-1, fault models, fault coverage, ATPG, fault grading and simulation including scan-based and self test techniques with signature analysis. A project of modest complexity would be designed to be fabricated at MOSIS.Embedded Real Time Systems (Formerly 16.472)
Designing embedded real-time computer systems. Types of real-time systems, including foreground/background, non-preemptive multitasking, and priority-based pre-emptive multitasking systems. Soft vs. hard real time systems. Task scheduling algorithms and deterministic behavior. Ask synchronization: semaphores, mailboxes and message queues. Robust memory management schemes. Application and design of a real-time kernel. A project is required.
Pre-Reqs: EECE.2160 ECE Application Programming,EECE.3170 Microprocessor Sys Desgn I, EECE.3220 Data Structures.Principles Of Solid State Devices (Formerly 16.474/EECE.4740)
This course introduces the operating principles of Solid State Devices. Basic semiconductor science is covered including crystalline properties, quantum mechanics principles, energy bands and the behavior of atoms and electrons in solids. The transport of electrons and holes (drift and diffusion) and the concepts of carrier lifetime and mobility are covered. The course describes the physics of operation of several semiconductor devices including p-n junction diodes (forward/reverse bias, avalanche breakdown), MOSFETs (including the calculation of MOSFET threshold voltages), Bipolar transistor operation, and optoelectronic devices (LEDs, lasers, photodiodes).
Pre-Req: EECE.3650 Electronics I.Operating Systems (Formerly 16.481/EECE.4810)
Covers the components, design, implementation, and internal operations of computer operating systems. syllabus include basic structure of operating systems, Kernel, user interface, I/O device management, device drivers, process environment, concurrent processes and synchronization, inter-process communication, process scheduling, memory management, deadlock management and resolution, and file system structures. laboratories include examples of components design of a real operating systems.
Pre-req: EECE.2160 ECE Application Programming, and EECE.3170 Microprocessor System Design I, and EECE.3220 Data Structures, or Permission of Instructor.Computer Architecture and Design (Formerly 16.482/EECE.4820)
Structure of computers, past and present: first, second, third and fourth generation. Combinatorial and sequential circuits. Programmable logic arrays. Processor design: information formats, instruction formats, arithmetic operations and parallel processing. Hardwired and microprogrammed control units. Virtual, sequential and cache memories. Input-output systems, communication and bus control. Multiple CPU systems.
Pre-Reqs: EECE 3170 Microprocessor Sys Desgn I,EECE 2650 Intro Logic Design.Network Design: Principles, Protocols & Applications (Formerly 16.483)
Covers design and implementation of network software that transforms raw hardware into a richly functional communication system. Real networks (such as the Internet, ATM, Ethernet, Token Ring) will be used as examples. Presents the different harmonizing functions needed for the interconnection of many heterogeneous computer networks. Internet protocols, such as UDP, TCP, IP, ARP, BGP and IGMP, are used as examples to demonstrate how internetworking is realized. Applications such as electronic mail and the WWW are studied.
Pre-req: EECE.3220 Data Structures.Computer Vision and Digital Image Processing (Formerly 16.484/EECE.4840)
Introduces the principles and the fundamental techniques for Image Processing and Computer Vision. syllabus include programming aspects of vision, image formation and representation, multi-scale analysis, boundary detection, texture analysis, shape from shading, object modeling, stereo-vision, motion and optical flow, shape description and objects recognition (classification), and hardware design of video cards. AI techniques for Computer Vision are also covered. Laboratories include real applications from industry and the latest research areas.
Pre-req; EECE 2160 ECE Application Programming, and EECE 3620 Signals and Systems or Permission of Instructor.Fundamentals of Network and Cyber Security
This course will cover two categories of topics: One part is the fundamental principles of cryptography and its applications to cyber & network security in general. This part focuses on cryptography algorithms and the fundamental cyber & network security enabling mechanisms. syllabus include cyber-attack analysis and classifications, public key cryptography (RSA, Diffie-Hellman), secret key cryptography (DES, IDEA), Hash (MD2, MD5, SHA-1) algorithms, key distribution and management, security handshake pitfalls and authentications, and well-known cyber & network security protocols such as Kerberos, IPSec, SSL/SET, PGP & PKI, WEP, etc. The second part surveys unique challenges and the general security & Privacy solutions for the emerging data/communication/information/computing networks (e.g., Ad Hoc & sensor network, IoTs, cloud and edge computing, big data, social networks, cyber-physical systems, critical infrastructures such as smart grids and smart transportation systems, etc.).
Pre-req: EECE.2460 Intro to Data Communication Networks, or EECE.4830 Network Design: Principles, Protocols and Applications, or Permission of Instructor.Fiber Optic Communication (Formerly 16.490)
Optical fiber; waveguide modes, multimode vs single mode; bandwidth and data rates; fiber losses; splices, couplers, connectors, taps and gratings; optical transmitters; optical receivers; high speed optoelectronic devices; optical link design; broadband switching; single wavelength systems (FDDI, SONET, ATM); coherent transmission; wavelength division multiplexing and CDMA; fiber amplifiers.
Pre-Reqs: EECE 3600 Emag Theory I, EECE 3620 Signals & Systems I or Instructor permission.Capstone Project (Formerly 16.499)
The objective of this course is to execute the project defined in Capstone Proposal. The design of the project will be completed, prototyped, tested, refined, constructed and delivered to the client. Practical experience will be gained in solving engineering problems, designing a system to meet technical requirements, using modern design elements and following accepted engineering practices. Students will work in a team environment and deliver the completed system to the project client. Proper documentation of activities is required.
Pre-Req: EECE.3991 Capstone Proposal.
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Sinclair Inc. CEO Christopher Ripley has been running the nation’s second-biggest chain of broadcast TV stations since 2017. But broadcast is only part of Sinclair these days. Indeed, in a latest reorganization, the company removed the words “Broadcast Group” from its name, as it focuses on areas with higher growth potential, even though it continues to operate more than 190 stations in markets big and small from Washington D.C. to Seattle, Washington. In an exclusive interview, I talked recently with Ripley about broadcasting’s regulatory handicaps; the importance of sports and gambling to Sinclair despite its challenges with Diamond Sports Group, its now-independent (and in bankruptcy) collection of regional sports networks; building a venture-capital-style investment division, Wall Street’s “valuation disconnect,” and the company’s plans to use Next-Gen TV to make autonomous vehicles smarter. The interview has been edited for clarity and length.
David Bloom: Let’s talk about Sinclair’s latest reorganization and what that means.
Sinclair CEO Christopher Ripley: I'll start with just the basic facts: We split the company into two sides. One is a pure-play, local-media company, with our legacy broadcast business. And then the other (side) is what we call Ventures, which includes Tennis Channel (and) Compulse 360, our ad platform. The easiest way to understand that is that (Compulse is) Trade Desk for local. It's a platform for other local media companies and global agencies, and of course, we use it ourselves. And then we have our investment portfolio, which currently amounts to about $1.3 billion of value, about $100 million of which is in cash, and the rest is in minority investments. So we separated them out to two sides so that people could get greater visibility and transparency on the financial performance of just the local media business, and other areas on the Ventures side, (which has) a number of growth factors. We also wanted flexibility. When we thought about growing Compulse, for instance, M&A will be part of that strategy, and potentially equity issuance and debt issuance. When it was in one big balance sheet, doing something with Compulse to scale the business was not necessarily impossible, but very much more difficult. Now, it's freed up to have its own capital structure, its own balance sheet.
DB: That allows you to maximize growth areas, right?
CR: Yes, one (possible) deal last year was a merger with another company that would give (Compulse) a lot more scale. That would involve issuing equity for Compulse, and combining these two entities. As long as it was part of this much bigger entity, any merger partner wouldn't want equity in a subsidiary under this much larger balance sheet. So now that it's on its own, and it's separate, we can do that. And we would just be another shareholder as they would be another shareholder.
DB: This is a little bit like the Disney reorganization that gave ESPN its own P&L, followed by CEO Bob Iger saying “We’re open for dealmaking.” Similarly, now you can do deals because it's a clean structure?
CR: Yes, it's not in the balance sheet of the local media company, which includes a bunch of debt and liens, etc. So if you want to be an equity participant in Compulse, we can deliver a Compulse-only balance-sheet view.
DB: So what's the opportunity in that local-media ad segment?
CR: Well, it is a huge market Compulse is addressing. It's a platform for sales organizations like local media companies, other broadcasters, (and) tens of thousands of agencies across the country that buy linear, they buy it from us, they buy connected TV ads, they do (Google) AdWords campaigns, they do social campaigns. This brings that all into one platform where they can transact at a much lower price, because they ride the volume we bring to the table. It implements the campaign in an automated way, then brings (results) back with reporting and performance reports, and unified billing. It's a one-stop shop platform for any digital-marketing service you can imagine.
DB: What's your expectation for ad markets in the short term, given the Hollywood strikes and other challenges, and into next year?
CR: I'd say, generally, there's been a weak-ish ad marketplace this year. It hasn't been terrible, but it hasn't been great. We're thinking it will pick up in the back half of the year. You've seen big tech and media companies announcing a bounce, so digital (advertising)'s firming up. And there seems to be more positivity around the general economic climate. So we expect that to filter through to the ad market in the next couple of quarters, but we don't see it necessarily firming up tremendously. But what will have a big impact is political (spending). We expect political to start hitting the books in Q4, and then really gets hot and heavy in Q3, Q4, of next year, but primaries are becoming a bigger part of the overall mix. When political comes in, it tends to tighten up all the inventory, because it's taking inventory out of the general market. And that tends to be a good thing for the overall business. All indications are this 2024 political season will be record-breaking. And the basic equation for us is money raised equals money spent. Politicians don’t return the (contributions) at the end of the election.
DB: Sinclair is valuing the Ventures side of your company at $1.3 billion. Your company’s market capitalization is less than $1 billion ($530 million on Aug. 22), so you’re saying Sinclair has assets worth far more than the market's value for your entire company. Is that accurate?
CR: Yes, that is an accurate representation. If you look at Ventures, you've got the investment portfolio, worth $1.3 billion; you got Tennis Channel, Compulse, which we think collectively, those are worth over $1 billion. And so you've got well in excess of $2 billion worth of value there that compares up to a market cap, which, gosh, it's less than ($1) billion last time I checked, so there's a big disconnect in the marketplace, in terms of our valuation, not to mention the local media company that we're investing heavily in. So we think there's a big disconnect on our valuation. One reason we did this reorg was to highlight that sum of the parts, to prove to Wall Street that this valuation disconnect is real and substantial.
DB: You’re a long-time proponent of ATSC 3.0, Next-Gen TV. Where is that initiative going next?
CR: We’ve built a pretty significant portfolio of free ad-supported channels: Charge, which is action focused; Comet, which is sci fi; TBD, which is taking premium Internet content and bringing it to linear, regular television. We've got T2, which is our second Tennis Channel, and is meant to be free and ad supported. And we'll be adding shortly here pickleball channels that will be free and ad supported. Those channels are largely over the air or on a streaming basis, and meant for mass distribution. They're top of the funnel, (designed to) get people into our properties, get them interested and then move them down into higher-value, subscription services or other products that we have. When we complete the rollout of Next-Gen, we will have significantly more over-the-air capacity for many more channels. And so I think you're gonna see a proliferation of those channels, just like you're seeing right now in the FAST ecosystem. What’s even more interesting, we will have more capacity to do data-casting. We’re really excited about things like backing up the nation's GPS system, where we can take the accuracy of a regular GPS (down) from one to 10 meters to six centimeters. (Other uses include) connected car services, firmware updates, entertainment, infotainment. And then content CDN, prepositioning highly desired content in wireless networks. We think there's a lot of opportunity there beyond just broadcast.
DB: What will it take for generally nationwide adoption of Next-Gen TV/ATSC 3.0?
CR: It's a good question. The broadcasts absolutely are out there. If you're in a 3.0 market, you can experience a more modern interface and interactivity on a connected TV with over-the-air television. I think the elephant in the room is why is the industry taking so long to roll this out? Why has there not been more oomph to it? Even though it is available in over 60% of the country, very few people know about it.
That's really because of the antiquated way in which we're structured as an industry and regulated. (Unlike) our primary competitors, big media and big tech, which have nationwide and global platforms, broadcasters have been relegated to this very parochial little territory-by-territory model. (It) maybe made sense in the 1970s, but certainly doesn't make sense today. Getting things done on a nationwide basis requires a lot of cooperation from a lot of different players. And it underscores how our regulatory framework really is hampering the industry from moving forward on these growth opportunities, which (would) make the industry robust.
If you're not developing new revenue streams, you're not going to survive. A lot of our inability to push forward aggressively comes back to the fact that no one has a nationwide footprint. No one controls a big enough slice of the industry that they can just make a decision and march forward. You have to herd the cats together. It's a small miracle we've managed to get the industry above 60% (market penetration) today, because that's been a lot of herding cats. And it’s not just one station that has to be converted. The real potential for Next-Gen is when we get all the stations converted. One of two things needs to happen: either the government needs to push that (rollout) along, or the government needs to deregulate. A major motivation for this change in strategy and diversifying into Ventures is that we recognize that the broadcast industry is just so over-regulated, in a way that its competition is not. Our primary competition is Disney, Paramount, Comcast, Apple, Google, Amazon. These guys are thousands of times bigger than we are financially. And it didn't make sense for us to continue to buy more TV stations if we were going to be so hamstrung from a regulatory perspective. So we're going to be investing in acquiring businesses on the venture side more aggressively.
DB: What is the status of your investment and engagement with Diamond Sports Group and its regional sports cable networks at this point?
CR: There's still a bunch of (litigation) pending, so I can't really comment about those matters. But Diamond is on its way. It has its own management team, it has an independent board. We provide management services, and it will figure out its own way. Largely Sinclair's passive at this point. We've been in that position for quite some time now. And we just have to support Diamond and whatever its future may be. That's getting worked out right now. But we're largely bystanders, and outside viewers just like you.
DB: As the Diamond situation plays out, where does Sinclair go next with sports, which continues to keep people tuning into broadcast?
CR: Sports is still at the heart of this company, regardless of what happens to Diamond. Take a look at what drives our business on the local media side and the broadcast side, it’s sports. The NFL is a huge property for us. And we continue to believe that it should be gamified and more highly integrated with sports betting, but also, not-for-money interactivity for virtual goods, or badging, or recognition. And so we're working on strategies for that. And Tennis (Channel) is a place we often do some of our groundwork in. We had a whole Metaverse release at Indian Wells (one of the biggest pro tennis tournaments) where you could walk through all of Indian Wells in a virtual basis and play games, while you also watched the tennis matches.
We think sports betting and just broadly, interactivity and gamification is a huge opportunity for us. We also are active on the sales side. We have (ad sales) relationships with (viral video maker) Wave and (sports podcasting network) Blue Wire. We think sports and news will be a major component of our linear networks for the foreseeable future. We’re really excited about what we're doing at Tennis because we're not just looking at it domestically, we're looking at international. We're in eight countries now, about to launch a ninth. We have T2, which is purely ad supported and will be available on a direct consumer basis. Next year, we're moving into other sports like pickleball and padel. Sports betting and gamification will figure significantly into the future of tennis and our other sports on broadcast.
DB: YouTube TV is making a big play for NFL viewers with cut-rate deals on Sunday Ticket. At the same time, they’re not required to carry local broadcasters. You said the government should either get more involved or deregulate when it comes to Next-Gen TV. This feels like more of that.
CR: It's another one of these regulatory loopholes or shadows from the past where, for some crazy reason, MVPDs like Comcast and DirecTV are treated different than virtual MVPDs, like YouTube TV. One has a facility, one does not, that's the only difference from a technical perspective. But they offer exactly the same service. That creates a loophole for the networks to essentially leave us out of the negotiation. That’s another reason why we're not buying more TV stations. It's something that needs to be fixed and I think eventually it will be. The incubation period is over, and there's no reason that vMVPDs should be treated differently. There's no reason the regulation should essentially pick winners and losers, which is essentially what it's doing right now.
DB: Can Next-Gen TV become a home for all those teams and conferences facing distribution problems with the collapse of the regional sports networks?
CR: I think there will always be a significant place for sports on over-the-air broadcast. We did a deal with the (NBA’s) Utah Jazz, which lost its RSN because Warner Brothers Discovery basically shut it down. And they recognized they really needed maximum reach. We had a unique station KJazz (KJZZ-TV) in Salt Lake, and we were able to come to a very sensible arrangement. Any sport should be including over-the-air broadcast as a significant component. It doesn't have to be everything, but having a component of your sport on the most broadly available and most broadly watched platform will continue to make your sport healthy, and that will only be accelerated by (Next-Gen TV). It'll really take it to the next level.
DB: Is there a time when Sinclair doesn’t have broadcast? You took the words “broadcast group” out of your corporate name.
CR: There's still a Sinclair Broadcast Group, which is now a pure-play, local-media division. I think we'll always have broadcasting in the portfolio. If regulations change, then I think you could see us pivot back into broadcast and getting more active there.