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CWAP-404 Certified Wireless Analysis Professional (CWAP) Certification techniques |

CWAP-404 techniques - Certified Wireless Analysis Professional (CWAP) Certification Updated: 2024

Never miss these CWAP-404 questions before you go for test.
Exam Code: CWAP-404 Certified Wireless Analysis Professional (CWAP) Certification techniques January 2024 by team
Certified Wireless Analysis Professional (CWAP) Certification
CWNP Certification techniques

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CWAP-403 Certified Wireless Analysis Professional (CWAP)
CWNA-108 Certified Wireless Network Administrator
CWS-100 Certified Wireless Specialist
CWAP-404 Certified Wireless Analysis Professional (CWAP) Certification
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Question: 110
When configuring a long term, forensic packet capture and saving all packets to disk which of the following is not a
A. Total capture storage space
B. Individual trace file size
C. Real-time packet decodes
D. Analyzer location
Answer: B
Question: 111
You are performing a multiple adapter channel aggregation capture to troubleshoot a VoIP roaming problem and
would like to measure the roaming time from the last VoIP packet sent on the old APs channel to the first VoIP
packet sent on the new APs channel.
Which timing column in the packet view would measure this for you?
A. Delta
B. Absolute
C. Roaming
D. Relative
Answer: C
Question: 112
Protocol analyzers may present field values in either binary, decimal or hexadecimal.
What precedes a
hexadecimal value to indicate it is hexadecimal?
A. 0x
B. %
D. 16x
Answer: A
Question: 113
Which one of the these is the most important in the WLAN troubleshooting methodology among those listed?
A. Interview the network manager about the issues being experienced
B. Talk to the end users about their experiences
C. Observe the problem
D. Obtain detailed knowledge of the wireless vendors debug and logging options
Answer: C
Question: 114
The network administrator at ABC Engineering has taken a large packet capture from one of their APs running in
monitor mode. She has very little knowledge of 802.11 protocols but would like to use the capture file to evaluate the
overall health and performance of their wireless network. When she asks your advice, which tool do you recommend
she opens the packet capture file with?
A. Capture visualization tool
B. Protocol analyzer
C. Spectrum analyzer
D. WLAN scanner
Answer: B
Question: 115
802.11k Neighbor Requests and Neighbor Reports are sent in what type of Management Frames?
B. Action
C. Beacon
D. Reassociation Request and Reassociation Response
Answer: C
Question: 116
Which one of the following is required for Wi-Fi integration in laptop-based Spectrum Analyzer software?
A. A supported WLAN adaptor with a customized driver
B. Any 802.11 wireless adaptor
C. A dual radio spectrum analyzer card
D. SNMP read credentials to the WLAN controller or APs
Answer: C
Question: 117
Youre the WLAN administrator for a large retailer based at the HQ in New York. The London-based office has been
complaining about WLAN disconnections around lunch time each day. You suspect this might be interference from
the staff microwave, how might you test your theory from the New York office?
A. Access the microwave remotely and run a diagnostic check
B. Ask a local member of staff to take some pictures of the microwave, including some close-ups of the door seal so
that you can access it
C. Place one of the London APs into spectrum analyzer mode and monitor the situation over lunch time
D. Ask a local member of staff to change the frequency of the microwave and see if the disconnections stop
Answer: A
Question: 118
ABC International has installed a new smart ZigBee controlled lighting system.
However, the network team is concerned that this new system will interface with the existing WLAN and has asked
you to investigate the impact of the two systems operating simultaneously in the 2.4 GHz band. When performing
Spectrum Analysis, which question could you answer by looking at the FFT plot?
A. Do the ZigBee channels used by the lightning system overlap with the WLAN channels?
B. Is the ZigBee system using more the 50% of the available airtime?
C. Is the ZigBee system causing an increase in WLAN retries?
D. Is the WLAN corrupting ZigBee system messages?
Answer: C
Question: 119
In a Spectrum Analyzer the Swept Spectrogram plot displays what information?
A. The RF time domain
B. RF power present at a particular frequency over the course of time
C. Wi-Fi Device information
D. Duty cycle in the frequency domain
Answer: D
Question: 120
You have installed a new 802.11ac WLAN configured with 80 MHz channels. Users in one area are
complaining about poor performance. This area is currently served by a single AP. You take a spectrum
analysis capture in the poor performing areA. While examining the waterfall plot you notice the airtime
utilization is higher on the first 20 MHz of the 80 MHz channel when compared to the rest of the channel.
What do you conclude?
A. The AP is misconfigured and needs to be reconfigured to 80MHz operation
B. RRM is enabled and has dynamically picked a 20 MHz channel
C. The first 20 MHz is the APs primary channel and higher airtime utilization on the primary channel is normal when
an AP Is configured for 80 MHz operation
D. Non Wi-Fi interference is preventing the APs 80 MHz operation
Answer: C
Question: 120
Which common feature of a Spectrum Analyzer would be the best to help you locate a non-802.11
interference source?
A. Max hold
B. Location filter
C. Waterfall plot
D. Device finder
Answer: D
Question: 121
A manufacturing facility has installed a new automation system which incorporates an 802.11 wireless network. The
automation system is controlled from tablet computers connected via the WLAN.
However, the automation system has not gone live due to problem with the tablets connecting to the WLAN. The
WLAN vendor has been onsite to perform a survey and confirmed good primary and secondary coverage across the
facility. As a CWAP you are called in to perform Spectrum Analysis to identify any interference sources. From the
spectrum analysis, you did not identify any interference sources but were able to correctly identify the issue.
Which of the following issues did you identify from the spectrum analysis?
A. The tablets are entering power save mode and failing to wake up to receive the access points
B. A high noise floor has resulted in a SNR of less than 20%
C. The tablets are connecting to the wrong SSID
D. There is a power mismatch between the APs and the clients
Answer: A
Question: 122
Finish the statement. It is possible to distinguish between _______and ______20 MHz transmissions when looking at
an FFT plot.
B. ERP and VHT
C. HT and VHT
D. OFDM and HT
Answer: C
Question: 123
What is the function of the PMD sub-layer?
A. Converts 1s and 0s given to it by the PLCP sub-layer into the appropriate RF signals
B. Provides framing
C. Adds a PHY preamble and header to a PSDU
D. Performs A-MPDU
Answer: A
Question: 124
What is the function of the PHY Preamble?
A. To set the modulation method for the MPDU
B. Allows the receiver to detect and synchronize with the signal
C. To terminate a conversation between transmitter and receiver
D. Carries the NDP used in Transmit Beamforming and MU-MIMO
Answer: B

CWNP Certification techniques - BingNews Search results CWNP Certification techniques - BingNews Physical Management Techniques

Carrie Windham has been writing since 2008, featured in “The Brief Out” and “Key Issues.” Windham, a leader in County Government, holds certificates in peace officer, corrections officer and instructor from the Texas Commission on Law Enforcement. Windham is pursuing a Master of Arts in organizational management from Ashford University. She is a national speaker successful in the use of education and hands-on experience for training program development, presentation and implementation.

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Mastering Online Dog Training: Tips and Techniques for Success

Is your pup’s behavior driving you up the wall? Are you tired of spending hours with in-person trainers without seeing significant results? Then it’s time to consider the world of online dog training! By embracing the convenience, cost-effectiveness, personalized training plans, and flexible learning schedules, you can unlock your dog’s full potential and transform them into a well-behaved companion. Ready to embark on this exciting journey?

Key Takeaways

●       Master the essential skills of online dog training with personalized plans and top programs tailored to your pup’s needs.

●       Enjoy the convenience, cost-effectiveness and flexibility of at-home dog training with positive reinforcement techniques.

●       Address common behavioral issues like excessive barking, nipping or biting through proactive steps for a well behaved pup!

●       Pro Tip: FREE Online Training Workshop to anyone who signs up here.

Benefits of Online Dog Training

The advantages of online dog training are hard to ignore. Here are some of the benefits:

●       Access to professional dog trainers from all around the world at your fingertips

●       No more rushing to make it to an in-person session or worrying about transportation

●       Convenience and flexibility to schedule training when it works best for you and your pup

●       Cost-effective compared to hiring a personal dog trainer

●       High-quality training for your furry friend

Online dog training offers convenience, flexibility, and cost savings while providing a professional dog training experience for your dog, guided by a professional dog trainer.

And let’s not forget the personalized training plans tailored to your pup’s unique needs and your goals as a pet owner. With online dog training, the possibilities are endless. Don’t delay! Begin your adventure to a well-mannered pet now!


Gone are the days of rushing to make it to a dog training session across town. With online dog training, you can access training materials and resources from the comfort of your own home, eliminating the need for transportation. Plus, online training offers a flexible schedule, allowing you to train your dog at your own pace and set your own timetable.

No more worrying about juggling your busy schedule to accommodate your pup’s training. Online dog training provides the convenience you need to create good habits for your dog and a strong bond between you two.


Educating your pup shouldn’t strain your finances. Online dog training offers a more affordable alternative to in-person trainers, with prices ranging between $65 and $260 for a six-week course. Compared to personal dog trainers that charge between $40 to $160 per hour, online dog training can save you up to $60 per hour, even when opting for one-on-one training sessions. Plus, you won’t have to worry about additional costs like travel expenses associated with in-person training.

Online dog training allows you to deliver high-standard training to your pup without significant financial impact.

Personalized Training Plans

Every dog is unique, and your pup’s training plan should be tailored to their specific needs and goals. Online dog training courses offer personalized training plans designed just for your pup, ensuring that their unique needs are met. With the help of specialized software, trainers can create customized plans that address your pup’s behavior, temperament, and training requirements.

Whether you’re working on loose leash walking, crate training, or potty training, a personalized plan will set you and your pup up for success.

Flexibility in Learning

One of the greatest advantages of online dog training is the flexibility it offers. You can learn at your own pace, access course materials anytime and anywhere, and even choose the courses you want to focus on. No more feeling overwhelmed or rushed during training sessions.

With online dog training, you have the freedom to create a learning experience that works best for you and your pup.

Top Online Dog Training Programs

The wide array of online dog training programs can make the selection process seem overwhelming for you and your pup. But fear not! We’ve narrowed down the top online dog training programs just for you:

  1. K9 Training Institute

  2. Spirit Dog Training

  3. Dunbar Academy

  4. Brain Training For Dogs

Each program offers unique approaches and focuses, tailored to cater to different training needs. Read on to learn more about these fantastic programs and find the one that best suits you and your pup.

#1 K9 Training Institute - View Official Site For FREE Workshop

The K9 Training Institute focuses on non-verbal communication and obedience training, ensuring your pup learns how to behave appropriately in various situations. Developed by experts in police and civilian dog training, K9 Training Institute’s program is rooted in principles of animal behavior psychology and emphasizes consistency in training.

Their 6-step training process and 10-week online masterclass ensure your dog will undergo high-standard training and emerge as a well-mannered companion.

#2 Spirit Dog Training - View Official Site

Offering a variety of essential modules and user-friendly courses, Spirit Dog Training is perfect for those who want a comprehensive and accessible training program. Some exciting modules included in their program are:

●       Confidence Boosting

●       Focus in Public

●       Resource Guarding

●       Loose Leash Walking

●       Tackling Reactivity

●       Puppy Training Basics

With their easy-to-understand courses, even non-native English speakers can benefit from Spirit Dog Training’s wealth of knowledge and expertise.

#3 Dunbar Academy - Visit Official Site

Designed by renowned dog trainer and animal behaviorist Dr. Ian Dunbar, Dunbar Academy uses a reward-based approach to dog training. Focusing heavily on positive reinforcement using praise and food, Dr. Dunbar’s philosophy stands in contrast to dominance-based philosophies and physical corrections.

Courses offered by Dunbar Academy, a renowned dog sports academy, cover courses like:

●       New puppy training

●       Science-based dog training

●       Common behavioral issues

●       Aggression prevention

●       Dog training for children

●       Potty training

In addition to Dunbar Academy, you might also consider exploring courses at Fenzi Dog Sports Academy for a diverse learning experience.

This ensures a well-rounded education for you and your pup at puppy kindergarten.

#4 Brain Training For Dogs - Visit Official Site

If you’re looking to Improve your dog’s behavior through mental stimulation and intelligence development, look no further than Brain Training For Dogs. This program offers:

●       A reward-based approach

●       Focus on engaging your dog’s brain through games

●       Making them more flexible and receptive to new information and obedience skills.

With Brain Training For Dogs, you’ll not only have a well-behaved pup but also a smarter and happier one.

Essential Skills to Master

Gaining proficiency in essential dog training skills is key to your pup’s success. By focusing on the following skills, you can ensure your dog has a solid foundation for future learning and growth:

  1. Loose leash walking

  2. Potty training

  3. Crate training

  4. Obedience

Read on to discover tips and tricks for mastering these essential skills.

Loose Leash Walking

Loose leash walking is essential for enjoyable and stress-free walks with your pup. It encourages calm, low-energy activity and helps dogs focus on their owners instead of being easily distracted.

By mastering loose leash walking techniques, such as using treats to lure your dog to walk beside you and practicing leash pressure, you can ensure that your walks are safe and enjoyable for both you and your dog.

Potty Training

Potty training is a vital skill to ensure a clean and happy home. By following essential steps like taking your pup outside regularly, rewarding them when they successfully potty, and being consistent and patient throughout the process, you can successfully potty train your dog and create good habits that last a lifetime.

Crate Training

Crate training provides your pup with a safe and secure space, helping them feel comfortable and at ease in their environment. By introducing your dog to the crate in a positive manner, gradually increasing the time they spend in the crate, and rewarding them for entering and staying in the crate, you can create a comfortable space for your dog that promotes calm behaviors and helps with house training.


Teaching your dog basic obedience commands like sit, stay, and come is crucial for their overall behavior and well-being. By starting with simple commands and gradually progressing to more advanced skills, you can ensure your dog has a strong foundation for future training and a better understanding of what is expected of them.

Positive Reinforcement: The Key to Successful Training

Positive reinforcement is the key to successful dog training. By rewarding desired behaviors with treats, praise, or playtime, you can encourage your dog to repeat those behaviors in the future. This creates a strong bond between you and your dog and promotes a positive and enjoyable training atmosphere.

The subsequent parts will cover the significance of positive reinforcement and provide instances of praise and rewards.

Importance of Positive Reinforcement

Positive reinforcement is a key element in successful dog training. It encourages desired behaviors by rewarding them with treats, praise, or playtime, creating a positive association that helps your dog understand what is expected of them and motivates them to continue exhibiting the desired behavior.

By focusing on positive reinforcement, dog training becomes more enjoyable and effective, strengthening the bond between the dog and the trainer.

Examples of Praise and Rewards

There are various forms of praise and rewards to motivate your dog during training. Some examples include:

●       Food treats

●       Toys

●       Affection

●       Praise

These can all be used to reinforce desired behaviors, making training fun and engaging for both you and your pup.

By using a combination of these rewards, you can create a positive and enjoyable training experience that your dog will look forward to.

Tips for Effective At-Home Dog Training

Educating your dog at home can be an enriching and bonding experience. Nevertheless, it is important to adopt effective training techniques to yield optimal results. In this section, we’ll explore tips for successful at-home dog training, including:

●       Starting with the basics

●       Being consistent

●       Making training fun

●       Using proper equipment

●       Being patient

Start with the Basics

Begin your dog’s training journey by teaching them basic commands like sit, stay, and come. Starting with the basics not only provides them with essential skills but also reinforces obedience, safety, and a strong bond between the dog and the owner.

Once your dog has mastered the basic commands, gradually increase the difficulty level by adding distractions or working on more advanced commands.

Be Consistent

Consistency is key in dog training. Using the same commands and hand signals every time you provide a command to your dog will help them understand and respond more effectively. Consistent training also helps to reinforce desired behaviors and prevents the reinforcement of unwanted behaviors.

With consistent training, you and your pup can develop good habits and become the best of friends.

Make Training Fun

Keeping training sessions enjoyable and engaging is essential for both you and your dog. Incorporate playtime, treats, and praise into your training sessions to motivate your dog and make the experience more enjoyable for both of you.

By making training fun, you can help your dog stay focused and excited about learning new skills and behaviors.

Use Proper Equipment

Using appropriate dog training equipment is essential for effective training. Some necessary tools for successful at-home dog training include:

●       A well-adjusted collar or harness

●       A leash

●       Treats

●       A clicker

●       Training targets or sticks

Having these tools will help you train your dog effectively.

By using the proper equipment, you can ensure that your dog is comfortable and focused during training sessions.

Be Patient

Patience is a virtue, especially when it comes to dog training. Training takes time and effort, so be patient with your dog and remain persistent in your training efforts for better results.

Remember, every dog learns at their own pace, and with time and practice, your dog will become the well-behaved companion you’ve always wanted.

Addressing Common Behavioral Issues

No dog is perfect, and every pup has its own set of behavioral quirks. In this section, we’ll address common dog’s behavior issues, such as:

●       excessive barking

●       overexcitement

●       leash pulling

●       nipping or biting

●       jumping on people

By understanding these issues and implementing effective training techniques, you can help your dog become a well-behaved and happy companion.

Excessive Barking

Excessive barking can be a nuisance for both you and your neighbors. Understanding the root cause of your dog’s barking is essential for addressing the issue effectively.

Online dog training courses offer training techniques and strategies to train dogs to stop barking, providing step-by-step instructions and guidance on how to teach dogs alternative behaviors and reinforce positive habits.


Overexcitement can be a challenge for many dog owners. Recognizing the signs of overexcitement, such as over panting, spinning, and pacing, can help you identify when your dog is overly excited.

Online dog training courses offer techniques to help your dog stay focused and calm during training sessions, such as using treats and toys to engage your dog’s mind and help them release excess energy.

Leash Pulling

Leash pulling can make walks uncomfortable and even dangerous for both you and your dog. By mastering leash pulling techniques, such as using treats to lure your dog to walk beside you and practicing leash pressure, you can ensure that your walks are safe and enjoyable for both you and your dog.

Nipping or Biting

Nipping or biting can be a concerning behavior in dogs. Understanding the root cause of your dog’s nipping or biting is essential for addressing the issue effectively. Online dog training courses offer training techniques and strategies to prevent and correct nipping or biting behavior, providing step-by-step instructions and guidance on how to teach dogs alternative behaviors and reinforce positive habits.

Jumping on People

Dogs jumping on people can be a dangerous situation for both the dog and the person. Taking proactive steps to address this issue is important for the safety and well-being of both parties.

Online dog training courses offer training techniques and strategies to:

●       Prevent dogs from jumping on people

●       Provide step-by-step instructions and guidance on how to teach dogs alternative behaviors

●       Reinforce positive habits.

Choosing the Right Online Dog Training Course

Given the large number of online dog training courses, it’s important to choose the one that best suits you and your pup. Consider factors like:

●       Reputation

●       Training methodology

●       Schedule and availability

●       Class size

●       Customer support

●       Pricing

When choosing the perfect online dog training course, it’s essential to consider various online courses and training videos available to find the best fit for you and your pet.

By carefully evaluating your options and keeping these factors in mind, you can find the ideal course to help you and your pup on your training journey.


In conclusion, online dog training offers a wealth of advantages and opportunities for both you and your pup. By exploring top online training programs, mastering essential skills, using positive reinforcement, and implementing effective at-home training tips, you can transform your pup into a well-behaved companion. So, why wait? Your journey to a well-trained and happy dog starts now!

This article is part of a featured content programme.

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6 Advanced Techniques for Running a Successful Family Care Clinic No result found, try new keyword!Running a family care clinic may seem daunting, but with the right approach, it’s a noble endeavor that can bring professional accomplishments and personal fulfillment. But what’s the secret to ... Sun, 10 Dec 2023 05:00:02 -0600 en-us text/html Zone 2 Training Tips: How to Actually Keep Your Effort Low on Long, Slow Distance Runs

It sounds counterintuitive, we know, but if you want to

become a faster runner, you probably need to slow down your pace. And we mean really slow it down.

“The easier, the better,” Nico Montañez, Mammoth Lakes-based ASICS-sponsored pro marathoner and coach with RunDoyen, tells Runner’s World.

Many athletes, when left to their own training, tend to execute all of their workouts “at an inappropriately fast pace,” Janet Hamilton, C.S.C.S., exercise physiologist and coach with Running Strong in Atlanta tells Runner’s World. And that means they’re not doing much (if any) training in zone 2, generally defined as a low-effort level where your heart rate averages between 60 to 70 percent of its maximum.

Zone 2 training may sound like a skippable component of training, but it’s important to prioritize since it offers a host of truly awesome benefits, including boosted blood volume and increased heart size and strength, to name a few. As Hamilton sums it up: “Basically all the things that go into what we globally refer to as ‘improved fitness’” occur with consistent zone 2 training. And improved fitness means you can tackle both longer and shorter distance races without tiring as easily, allowing you to maintain faster finish times.

Keep in mind: Though zone 2 training is defined by a specific heart rate range, you don’t need to obsessively track bpms to ensure you’re actually hitting this target. In fact, experts say to avoid placing too much emphasis on heart rate data, considering heart rate monitors can vary in accuracy. Instead, take heart rate into account alongside pace and perceived effort. If you’re logging miles significantly slower than your max effort pace, your bpms aren’t skyrocketing, and the overall exertion feels breezy, then you’re probably in the right zone.

Now that you know what zone 2 is and why it’s worth your while, here comes the hard part: Actually executing it. Like we mentioned, many runners tend to naturally push the pace, so keeping things easy is, well, easier said than done.

To help you step out of turbo mode, we tapped Hamilton and Montañez for advice on actually nailing zone 2 training. Here are the strategies worth trying.

1. Enlist a Chatty Friend

    A hallmark sign of running in zone 2 is being able to carry on a conversation. Wield this fact to your advantage by scheduling runs with a friend that you can’t help but gab with as you go. The company will automatically make the workout more fun—helpful if you’re someone who considers easy running “boring”—while also keeping your pace in check.

    “If you get to a point where you’re saying one word responses because you can’t breathe, you’re probably going too hard,” says Montañez. Dial your pace back accordingly so you’re able to chit-chat the entire run.

    2. Chant the ABCs

      Perhaps it’s not feasible to run with a buddy for every zone 2 workout. No sweat! You can still monitor your effort level with the ABCs test: Say the ABCs out loud and try to get to the letter G without having to take a breath. If you’re able to hit that mark, you’re “probably in the right zone,” says Montañez.

      If it’s all but impossible,take it as a cue to slow things down. Montañez recommends testing yourself twice during a run: Once in the middle after you’ve warmed up, and again towards the end when you may be subconsciously tempted to ratchet up your speed.

      3. Take Walk Breaks

        Injecting your run with periodic walk breaks can be a great way to keep your effort level low. These breaks can be spontaneous—simply walk whenever you feel like your exertion is climbing beyond easy. Or, plan them out. For example, take a one-minute walk break every five minutes, says Hamilton. Just be sure to keep things light and easy during the run segments. You’re not trying to “make up for” the walk breaks by sprinting the runs, but instead are striving for an overall low-effort workout.

        4. Hit the Trails

          Taking your workouts off the roads and to the trails can be a simple way to execute zone 2 training. That’s because the unpredictable terrain can force you into an easier pace compared to what you’d run on a more predictable surface like a road, sidewalk, or treadmill, says Hamilton. On trails, “you’re trying not to faceplant,” she explains, and the concentration needed for that can help you subconsciously pump the brakes.

          Bonus: The peaceful scenery that typically surrounds trails can set the tone for a chill pace. Hamilton often tells her athletes: “I want you to relax and enjoy the scenery around you and really take this as a ‘no agenda’ workout. Your agenda for this workout is to go have a nice pleasant trot in the woods.”

          5. Schedule Treadmill Sessions

            We know, we know: Treadmill runs aren’t a fan favorite, but occasionally taking your workouts there can be a surefire way to execute a slow pace, condsidering you can set the belt to a relaxed cadence and resist the urge to dial it up any further. Just avoid relying on treadmills for all your zone 2 training runs, if you can.

            “I don’t particularly encourage runners to use treadmills because they’re really a simulation of running; it’s not the same as running over Mother Earth,” says Hamilton. But, she adds, they are a tool that you can have in your arsenal of workout options.

            6. Stride With Someone Slower Than You

              Intentionally lacing up alongside a slower runner and/or someone who is new to the sport can be a no-brainer way to tamp down your efforts. “Not only does it help you to relax, and ease the pace, what better way to build our running community than to bring someone else into it?” says Hamilton.

              Of course, for this to be effective (and to avoid being a jerk), you’ll want to be respectful of your partner’s ability level. “Be willing to take walk breaks when they need a walk break or run at their pace,” says Hamilton. “Don’t push them.”

              7. Commit to a Trial Period—and Track How You Feel

                Having a set schedule can make it easier to adhere to consistent zone 2 training. Hamilton suggests committing to two low-effort runs a week and then paying attention to how your body responds after six weeks of consistent adherence.

                Track your resting heart rate, or your average heart at a given pace, and note if/how it changed over the six weeks. Chances are, those metrics will have improved as a result of the physiological effects of zone 2 training. Taking stock of those effects may be just the motivation you need to stick with easy-effort training for the long haul.


                Jenny is a Boulder, Colorado-based health and fitness journalist. She’s been freelancing for Runner’s World since 2015 and especially loves to write human interest profiles, in-depth service pieces and stories that explore the intersection of exercise and mental health. Her work has also been published by SELF, Men’s Journal, and Condé Nast Traveler, among other outlets. When she’s not running or writing, Jenny enjoys coaching youth swimming, rereading Harry Potter, and buying too many houseplants. 

                Tue, 19 Dec 2023 09:59:00 -0600 en-US text/html 9 Tips for Beginning Weight Training No result found, try new keyword!This article is based on reporting that features expert sources. 9 Tips for Beginning Weight Training Adding weight training to your fitness routine has many health benefits, but getting started ... Tue, 29 Mar 2022 22:50:00 -0500 Exclusive interview: Tom Brady reveals new training techniques to Willie McGinest

                NFL Network's Brian Baldinger lays out his expectations for the Kansas City Chiefs' new-look offensive line combination for 2023, featuring tackles Donovan Smith and Jawaan Taylor as well as mainstays in the middle: guards Trey Smith and Joe Thuney, as well as Pro Bowl center Creed Humphrey.

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                How to Train for a Half Marathon So You’re Prepared on Race Day

                Training for a

                half marathon will require a level of dedication and commitment, especially if you want to run your best race. Also, you’ll need to find a training plan that best aligns with your goals and also challenges you to build strength and endurance without taking up all of your free time.

                “Just about anyone can do a half marathon with the proper training,” says Mark Coogan, New Balance Boston Elite coach and former Olympic marathoner. “The key is preparing your body for the distance without overdoing it and causing injury.”

                A lot of beginners end up falling on two ends of the training spectrum: They either commit to their half marathon training plan too much (ignoring their bodies and escalating an injury that could have been avoided) or they don’t commit enough, making race day feel super tough. If you find that sweet spot, the finish line will be in sight before you know it and you’ll enjoy each mile.

                To do that, follow our advice and tips on how to train for a half marathon, and you’ll to the end in one victorious piece—ready to celebrate your feat.

                Runner’s World+ Half Marathon Training Plans

                Our Runner’s World Half Marathon Training Plans are designed to help you crush your first race or finally break that time-based goal. And to start your 2024, Runner’s World+ created the How to Master the Half Marathon training program. Paired with the RW Training Plan of your choice, this holistic system, available exclusively to Runner’s World+ members, provides all the tools you need to navigate the entire half-marathon training journey

                Below are our most popular plans, with each lasting 10 to 14 weeks long. Runner’s World+ members get access to these ultimate half marathon training guides (along with marathon, 10K, and 5K plans... plus other great membership perks!) when you sign up!

                How to Train for a Half Marathon

                The key to successful half marathon training is consistently putting in enough weekly mileage to get your body accustomed to running for long periods of time. Newer runners may start with logging 10 to 15 miles per week total and gradually building to a peak week of 25 to 30 miles. More experienced runners may start at 25 or more miles per week and peak at 40 or more miles.

                Plan your race at least two months from now. “If you can run a 5K now, then you can run a half marathon in eight weeks,” Coogan says. “But the ideal plan is three to four months long, which gives you a buffer if you get sick, injured, or slammed at work.” Basically, plan for life to get in the way—as it so often does—so you don’t stress yourself out.

                Can’t run a 5K just yet? Most beginner half marathon training plans start with a three-mile run in the first week, so you’ll want to work your way up to that first. “Lots of people run into problems like shin splints when they first start, so get past that point first,” Coogan says.

                To build up, former Olympian, running coach, and author Jeff Galloway suggests running at least three times a week. “Weekday runs should average about 30 minutes,” he says. Then, you can work your way up to a three-mile run on the weekend.

                The most important part of your training is a weekly long run at an easy “conversational” pace—meaning you can speak in full sentences throughout the run—that gradually increases in distance, week over week, to build your strength and endurance. If you gradually build to being comfortable on long runs of 10 or 11 miles, you’ll have what it takes to go 13.1 on race day.

                Signed up for your half marathon already? Here’s when to start training for a fall race:

                Spring Half Marathon Weekend → When to Start a 14-Week Plan → When to Start a 10-Week Plan

                March 16-17 → December 10 → January 7

                March 23-24 → December 17 → January 14

                March 30-31 → December 24 → January 21

                April 6-7→ December 31 → January 28

                April 13-14→ January 7 → February 4

                April 20-21 → January 14 → February 11

                April 27-28 → January 21 → February 18

                May 4-5 → January 28 → February 25

                May 11-12→ February 4 → March 3

                May 18-19 → February 11 → March 10

                May 25-26 → February 18 → March 17

                June 1-2 → February 25 → March 24

                June 8-9 → March 3 → March 31

                June 15-16→ March 10 → April 7

                How do I pick the right half marathon training plan?

                Once you’ve chosen your half marathon, it’s time to settle on your training plan. A solid half marathon training plan should have these four things: cross-training days, a long run that’s at least 10 miles, a rest day following your long run, and a taper.

                “Cross-training allows you to work on your cardio without the constant pounding of running, long runs provide you the confidence you need on race day, and rest days are crucial to recovery,” Coogan says. (More on the taper later.)

                A lot of training plans leave the cross-training decision up to you, but Coogan suggests swimming, cycling, or using the elliptical or Stairmaster.

                Also, there’s no need to worry about not hitting that 13.1 before the half marathon: “If you can run 10 miles, you can run 13 on race day,” Coogan says.

                To help you get started, check out our half marathon training plans:

                This plan spans 14 weeks and starts with a five-mile long run. You’ll run four days a week, take three rest days, and peak at 28 total miles in one week.

                Lasting 10 weeks, this plan includes five days of running and two rest days or cross-training days. You’ll incorporate intervals into your schedule and peak at a 14-mile long run.

                This 10-week plan also includes five days of running and two days of rest or cross-training. You’ll mix easy days, intervals, and tempo runs, and build up to your longest run of 16 miles.

                You’ll start this more advanced plan at 10 miles for your long run, building up to 16-mile long runs, and incorporating tempo paces into those long runs. You’ll get two rest or cross-training days and mix in easy runs and intervals.

                You can find the rest of our training plans, from running nonstop to breaking 3:00 in the marathon, here.

                How should I approach strength training while gearing up for a half marathon?

                The short answer: Yes, absolutely incorporate strength training into your half marathon training. “Strength training is important for half marathon training because it helps prevent injury, Improve running economy, increase power and speed, and promote better posture and form,” says Runner’s World run coach, Jess Movold. She recommends aiming for two strength training sessions per week.

                Coach Jess advises prioritizing full-body strength workouts, particularly lower body and core strength. Why? “As a runner, you need upper body strength for good posture and arm swing, but it’s extremely important to incorporate movements like weight squats, deadlifts, split squats, and lunges to build power, strength, and durability,” she says.

                A few of Coach Jess’s favorite strength movements for runners: back squats, front squats, and deadlifts. She advises performing one main lift per strength session, along with supporting strength work. This can include push-ups, step ups, or lateral lunges (to name a few examples).

                “Finish off your strength session with a core blaster or a short push of bodyweight movements to add in a conditioning element focusing on explosiveness and higher intensity,” she adds.

                What if I’m struggling with my half marathon training?

                We’ve all had those days where the training doesn’t go as planned, or you just feel off. But if they’re happening more often than not, it might be time to reassess what’s going on. Coach Jess says to first make sure you’re prioritizing proper fueling, hydration, and sleep. Also, examine your easy days. Are you actually running at an easy effort? Can you slow it down more? Make sure you’re not running too hard on those days that should be light.

                “Your training plan should have weeks with higher intensity or ‘peak’ weeks, and it should also have weeks with less volume and intensity, which is called a deload week. Be honest with yourself about your consistency in your training, have patience, and trust the process,” Coach Jess says.

                Remember consistency is the key to success when it comes to running, but if you need an extra rest day, take it.

                What should I wear for a half marathon?

                Running may not always feel easy in the moment, but it’s one of the easiest sports to access. It’s cheap (once you swallow that race registration fee), you can do it anywhere, and it requires almost no equipment.

                But as anyone who has run in poorly fitted shoes will tell you, gear still makes a huge difference. “Go to a specialty running shop that analyzes your form and helps you choose the best shoe for you,” Coogan says.

                Keep in mind that your friend’s favorite might not be your favorite. Some people prefer to run as close to barefoot as possible in minimalist shoes, while others like extra-cushioned shoes that resemble Spice Girl platforms. Allow yourself to find the best running shoe for you.

                You’ll also want to test every pair of leggings, headphones, and socks before race day—the last thing you want is an unexpected tag scratching your lower-back for two-plus hours, or socks that fall down every four seconds. Never race in something you’ve never worn before.

                What should I eat during a half marathon?

                Don’t experiment with new energy gels, caffeine, or breakfast foods on race day. Your training runs are just as much about preparing your body as they are about finding the fuel and gear that work well for you. Load up on caffeinated gels without testing them first, and you could end up spending more time in the porta-potty than planned.

                The best way to eat during training: Experiment with different breakfast options, then aim to consume about 30 to 60 grams of carbs per hour while you’re running. Your on-the-run fuel should come from sources that are easy to eat, digest, and carry.

                Practice when and what you’ll eat during your long training runs so you can see what works best for you. Some people prefer gels versus gummies and eating every three miles versus 45 minutes. It takes some trial and error to find out what works best for you.

                4 Great Energy Gels for Long Runs

                A quick hit of caffeine for when you need it most.

                GU Energy GU Energy Gel, 24-Count

                A wide variety of flavors keeps your palette happy.

                Honey Stinger Organic Fruit Smoothie Energy Gel

                Organic, gluten- and caffeine-free ingredients you can actually pronounce.

                This gel can be easier on the stomach.

                How much should I drink during a half marathon?

                You need to drink enough before, during, and after your run to perform your best. Indeed, just two percent dehydration can slow you down. It’s especially important to stay on top of hydration during warm summer months, when you sweat more.

                While some experts recommend you stay hydrated by simply drinking when thirsty, others suggest you develop a customized plan by performing a sweat test—that is, weighing yourself before and after exercise. Any weight loss corresponds with fluid loss, so try to drink enough to replenish that weight.

                Before you run, you should have six to eight ounces of water, sports drink, or even coffee. While you are running, you should aim to take in three to six ounces every 15 to 20 minutes. Water is usually fine for runs in the 30- to 60-minute range. For runs longer than that, you should consider a sports drink with carbs and electrolytes to replenish sodium and energy.

                How do I avoid injury while training for a half marathon?

                Committing to your training plan is important, but it’s not more important than avoiding injury. “Most injuries can be addressed quickly early on, but in order to do that you need to be honest with yourself if something hurts,” Coogan says.

                Ultimately, missing one workout won’t ruin your race. What will? Being sidelined for a month because you ignored an injury that got worse. If you happen to get an ache or pain close to the start of your race, consider your options—and consult your doctor—before deciding to run or rest.

                How do I prepare for the long runs on a half marathon training plan?

                The long run, usually on Saturday or Sunday, is arguably the most important part of any half-marathon training plan. (Coogan suggests Saturday, so you can rest on Sunday, but that depends on the type of work you do and your schedule.) Everything you’re doing earlier in the week—speedwork, cross-training, hill repeats—is designed to prepare you for this long run (no pressure!).

                If you can, choose a route similar to the race you’ll be running. This won’t always be possible if you’re doing a destination race, but don’t hit the treadmill for every single run. Yes, even if it’s raining. “You need to make sure you have the right gear (and mindset) for any conditions you might encounter on race day,” Coogan says.

                And don’t underestimate the importance of pacing: “The most common mistake runners make is going out too fast—then crashing and burning,” Galloway says. “If you’ve raced a couple of 5Ks, aim to run three to four minutes per mile slower on your long runs and on race day.”

                Coach Jess also says your long run days are the time to get familiar with fueling for the real race day. “Practice your prerace meal on every single long run morning so that it’s programmed into your mind and body and your prerace morning has become a habit and something you have successfully figured out,” she says. Then, come race day, you know what to do.

                Why and when should I taper before a half marathon?

                A taper will be part of any solid training plan, but it’s worth explaining why it’s important.

                “Typically, most runners taper for about two weeks when it comes to a half marathon,” says Coach Jess. This time gives your body a chance to recover from the 10-plus weeks of hard training and stress.

                Your last hard workout should be about 10 days prior to the race, and your final long run should be slightly shorter than the previous week, with no hard effort or pace goals, says Coach Jess. The day before the race, keep your run super easy and simple—no more than 25 to 30 minutes, she adds.

                Don’t worry, after months of increasing your mileage every week, your body will thank you for the rest period—and you’ll feel as fresh as ever on race day.

                How should I prepare for half marathon race day?

                First, set your alarm a little earlier so don’t feel rushed come race morning. Coach Jess advises waking up 20 minutes earlier than you think you need and using the extra time to calm your mind, breath, and meditate and visualize a smooth race and a strong finish.

                You’ll also want to do your homework prior to race morning. “Study the race morning logistics, including bag drop, bathrooms, and corral closings so you stay relaxed and calm and avoid any surprises or stress on the morning of your race,” says Coach Jess.

                She also offers this tip: Wear layers that you plan to donate so you arrive to the race feeling warm and comfortable, and then you can shed the layers in a donate bin as you approach your starting time.

                Headshot of Kiera Carter

                Kiera Carter has a decade's worth of experience covering fitness, health, and lifestyle courses for national magazines and websites. In a past life, she was the executive digital editor of Shape and has held staff positions at Fit Pregnancy, Natural Health, Prevention, and Men’s Health. Her work has been published by Marie Claire, Cosmopolitan, Travel + Leisure, and more. She spends her free time boxing, traveling, and watching any movie or show with a strong female lead. She is currently based in New York.

                Wed, 10 Jul 2013 03:37:00 -0500 en-US text/html
                My Year of Being Very Online About Dogs

                If you own a dog and have ever searched the internet for advice on that dog, there’s a good chance you’ve encountered Zak George.

                Mr. George, a 45-year-old with 3.69 million YouTube followers and the slightly goofy, hyper energy of a doodle mix, is the most popular dog trainer on the platform. He’s the most popular by a long shot: Cesar Millan, the dog whisperer, has 2.71 million. Those trying to deride Mr. George — and there are many — will often say he stopped being a dog trainer a long time ago; what he is now is a dog influencer.

                I’ve watched Mr. George’s videos for years; I deployed them as background noise while doing dishes or folding laundry. I watched as he worked with untrained rescue dogs to prepare them for new homes. I watched as he road-tripped across the country in a camper van with his two dogs and his wife. Every once in a while, there were hints that he had bigger things on his mind: his videos in which he said the dog training industry needed to confront its “misogyny,” for instance. But mostly his content consisted of him training his dogs: Inertia, a black and white Border collie, and Veronica, a rescue mutt with a cute underbite.

                Then, around this time last year, I watched, transfixed, as Mr. George began launching broadsides against an approach to training dogs known as balanced training (more on just what that is in a moment). In video after video, he declared that the dog training industry had reached a crisis point and that it was time for a reckoning with those in the profession who train with what are called aversives — tools that cause a dog discomfort.

                The videos did what they were intended to do: They sparked a response. But not just any response. Comment sections filled with discussions on “woke idiots” in dog training. “Radicals Are Hijacking Dog Training,” posted one trainer, calling force-free training, the anti-aversive movement of which Mr. George is arguably the most prominent face, an “ideology” and a “cult” with a “radicalized agenda” — language that sounded awfully familiar.

                Even before this, I’d seen the occasional Instagram post by a trainer using terminology that seemed drawn from another context: I’d paused on several posts that applied the term “consent” to dogs — as in, we should get their consent before we pet them. In some cases, the trainer’s vocabulary seemed drawn from even more distant shores: “I will not project colonial, capitalist, or patriarchal concepts on my dog,” one post read, in between tips on leash reactivity and separation anxiety; “don’t gaslight your dog,” another urged.

                But Mr. George’s series of videos seemed to send whatever process had generated those posts into overdrive. “It sounds like dog training has become just one more target for the woke community to prey upon!” a YouTube user wrote. “These are the same people with ‘gender fluid’ dogs,” another wrote, a statement that I found funny, then spent too long trying to parse. (What is standard gender expression in dogs?) I watched a video in which a trainer referred to the “dog training far left,” which should have made no sense, except that at this point, I knew what he meant.

                For the most part, I watched this confusing web of associations go unquestioned; when I found commenters who shared my bewilderment, I screenshotted them with relief. “People are trying to conflate their anti-liberal politics with dog training,” a YouTube user named Bar posted, adding that it’s “super weird.”

                Of course, it would be silly to say that dogs can’t be political: Anyone who has seen photos of German shepherds at civil rights marches should appreciate that they can.

                But there seemed to be something different about what was happening here. The creep of this sort of language into a subject this far afield felt like the apotheosis of something. When I’d describe what I’d seen to friends, it often sparked a visceral combination of exhaustion and despair. (“I kind of hate knowing about this,” one said. “We deserve climate change,” another said.) These were the late-stage culture wars — in decline, perhaps, but still with enough life left to flare up and set fire to new and unexpected territory. Including dogs.

                On the surface, the dispute Mr. George threw himself into centered on a long-running debate: Should you make a dog physically uncomfortable as a means of changing its behavior?

                Force-free training — or positive reinforcement training, as it’s often called — in the simplest terms rejects the use of physical punishments, known as corrections. Dogs are trained not through punishing the bad behavior but by rewarding the good: A dog sitting politely on his bed while his owners eat dinner should be showered with treats, for instance.

                Few trainers today would take issue with the idea of positively reinforcing a behavior you like. Where things get more contentious is what to do about behavior you don’t like.

                Proponents of positive reinforcement training say you stop bad behavior through a combination of management measures (drawing the curtains for a dog that won’t stop barking at passers-by) and reinforcing alternative behaviors you prefer (giving treats to reward moments of not barking). A balanced trainer, by contrast, might suggest a bark collar — a device that emits a negative stimulus like a shock or a high-pitched sound whenever the dog gets set off.

                Those who argue for the end of punishment say that, at best, it’s unnecessary and unethical and, at worst, can have unintended consequences: A punished dog might become more fearful and therefore more likely to bite. Those who argue that corrections have their place say that positive training too often prioritizes the dog’s comfort over the owner’s and that in extreme cases, tools like e-collars and prong collars are the only way to handle dogs that would otherwise be put down for aggression. Positive trainers have the backing of organizations like the American Veterinary Society of Animal Behavior; balanced trainers dismiss such organizations as at odds with their real-world experience.

                All this is emotive territory and can certainly make for a tense argument. But it still didn’t seem like enough to account for how, in a world already awash with political shorthand, dog training methods had seemingly become yet another signifier.

                Was it just coincidence that so many balanced trainers seemed to be men in tight shirts who trained Belgian Malinois in protection sports? Why did positive trainers seem to post so often about mental health (canine and human) — and why did so many balanced trainers complain about dogs being overmedicated? Why did so many positive trainers talk about following the science and so many balanced trainers talk about science having an agenda? Each of these questions, taken on their own, had an explanation. Taken together, they managed to map out the battle lines of the culture wars with unsettling precision.

                Occasionally, I’d wonder if I was making too much of what I’d seen. After all, a majority of owners were almost certainly blissfully unaware of these dynamics. Had I become too online about dogs, of all things, animals notorious for insisting you touch grass twice a day?

                Then I would stumble on something that stunned me anew with its insistence that dog training methods were a cultural front line — “balanced trainers who try to paint themselves as ‘the nice guys’ will also be the target of the woke mob” — and I would feel a renewed sense that what I was seeing was very real and was simultaneously both absurd and terrible.

                There is a way of seeing what has unfolded in dog training as a function of the internet and social platforms. Dog training has taken readily to video-based platforms like YouTube, Instagram and TikTok, which lend themselves to demonstrating physical skills. It also requires no certification process, an approach that aligns with the ethos of the internet, where anyone can claim to be anything and scrollers are left on their own to determine credibility.

                In the past few years, these factors combined with the Covid pandemic, which sent a wave of new dog owners onto the internet looking for help, to draw yet more trainers online. Today the world of online dog training can be overwhelming: Who actually knows what they’re talking about? How is an owner to gauge whose advice to take?

                What I was seeing was, in part, dog training just adopting internet-y language. These platforms are where we consume everything now: politics, culture, entertainment, said Robert Topinka, who studies digital culture at Birkbeck, University of London. They each have their own grammar, syntax, vocabulary and aesthetics. Shorthand bleeds easily from one subject to another. Thus, the idea that you don’t need to exercise authority through fear while training becomes “Don’t be a cop to your dog.”

                Faced with more information than anyone can possibly sort through, Dr. Topinka said, users tend to judge creators by affect and vibes. In 2023 one ready way to signal a vibe is either wokeness or anti-wokeness. And so: Who should I turn to to figure out how to train my dog to walk on a leash? The guy who insists he’s not going to be politically correct about it.

                But this explanation may imply a level of calculation that’s not quite right. Everyone I spoke to for this story was deeply sincere (these are, after all, dog people): “The world of dogs does not exist in a vacuum of pet guardian and pet but is interconnected with systemic oppression,” Rachel Forday, a positive trainer, told me when I asked about her use of political language. “Systemic oppression dictates who is allowed to own a dog and what kind of dog they own.” Robert Cabral, a balanced trainer, worried in one of his videos that the rise of science citations in dog training was turning the profession into an “elitist realm.” “I have an issue with that,” he said. “I’m a simple guy. I didn’t go to college.” He continued, “I think when you make things complicated, you cut out a lot of good people.” The vibes these people are projecting are simply who they are.

                But “vibes generate their own momentum,” Dr. Topinka said. They feed off the vibes of other creators; they encourage stridency and positioning within an ecosystem.

                Despite having begun a high-profile anti-balanced-training campaign, Mr. George didn’t, at first, seem particularly inclined to draw a connection between training methods and politics. Over time, though, I noticed this shifting: In an Instagram Live video in late summer, for example, he and his wife covered subjects ranging from pronouns and trans rights to racism in policing to toxic masculinity and how all of these subjects, in some way, relate back to dogs.

                Was this a case of vibes generating their own momentum?

                I finally spoke to Mr. George in September. During our conversation, he agreed that he was talking about these subjects more; he seemed to see it as simply a growing willingness on his part to draw valid connections between dog training and cultural issues. Our conversation reminded me that in some articulations, there is nothing so outlandish about the idea that a person’s worldview might shape the way he trains dogs. The reasons people train with aversive tools are multifaceted, he told me, and not all of it has to do with their politics. But some of it does: The still pervasive idea that in training, humans have to establish dominance, for instance — it’s not such a stretch to connect that to societal ideas about masculinity.

                But our conversation was also a reminder that flattening everything we discuss on the internet into the same debate — one that follows the same scripts and uses the same shorthand — is actually not great if the goal is a productive discussion.

                Applying the term “consent” to the question of petting dogs stood out to me in this regard: We might flinch at the word being used in this context, but most people, balanced trainers included, would agree that it’s important to recognize when a dog doesn’t want to be touched. A contentious term was masking an area of agreement.

                When I brought up consent with Mr. George, though, he jumped to defend it: “People have a visceral reaction: How dare we say that dogs need to consent?” he said. “And actually, that underscores a lot of the toxic masculinity that we have.” When I stopped him to clarify that the objections I’d heard were not about toxic masculinity but about the implied equivalence between sexual assault and unwanted dog petting, he paused; he genuinely seemed not to have thought of it that way before. I asked if using a less loaded term could be a better approach for discussing the real Topic at hand. He conceded it probably would.

                At the time we were speaking, Mr. George’s war against balanced training had taken a notable twist: He was now leading what could only be described as a full-fledged cancellation campaign against another dog trainer — a particularly egregious one, whose tactics some balanced trainers disparaged, too.

                This certainly felt like an escalation. Mr. George was calling for his followers to show up and protest at this trainer’s events, to contact venues that host him and leave them bad reviews; he was tagging institutions and other prominent dog trainers, urging them to issue statements. Between mid-August, when he started the campaign, and mid-September, when we spoke, he had posted on Instagram dozens of times. A vast majority of those posts had been about this trainer.

                Was this an instance of vibes generating their own momentum? Mr. George’s commitment to force-free dog training is deeply held and, again, undeniably sincere. He told me he wasn’t doing this for engagement or clicks, and this also seemed true. His most popular videos on YouTube, by far, have nothing to do with the dog training wars; they’re tips on how to train a puppy. And that other trainer really is egregious.

                At the same time, the campaign seemed perfectly calibrated to validate the perspectives of those who previously sounded hysterical and overwrought. In other words, it looked like a woke dog-training mob, after all.

                There’s another way of thinking about what’s happened here that’s not so much about the internet.

                In a 2017 paper, a Norwegian researcher, Ane Moller Gabrielsen, detailed a strange phenomenon: Dog training in Norway had also divided into two camps, which essentially mirrored those in the United States — positive training (via a device called a clicker) and “traditional” training. Those camps, too, had mapped onto a social divide, but it was a slightly different one: not woke and anti-woke but women and men.

                It was not necessarily the case that more women trained one way and more men trained another, Dr. Gabrielsen found. (There were more female trainers than male trainers across all forms of training.) But the training methods had become gendered. Advertisements for Canis, the country’s main positive-training institution, “often featured women succeeding at clicker training while several men watched with disbelief,” Dr. Gabrielsen wrote. By contrast, Hundefaggruppen, the traditionalist training school, “often presented clicker trainers as naïve young girls.”

                Dr. Gabrielsen’s work seemed to describe a phenomenon similar to the one I observed in a very different social context. When we spoke, she said she’d thought about my questions: Was this about social media? 2023? She wanted to offer another idea: This was about dogs.

                Crucially, both methods of training — positive training and balanced training — work, she said. With time and consistency, effort and skill, both will, in most cases, provide you a dog that behaves the way you want it to. Dogs, so highly attuned to humans, have lived with us for a long time; they’re good at understanding what we want from them. But as a result, they become vehicles for our self-expression in a way that most other animals do not.

                Dogs are where we project our “fantasies about what we want — either who we want to be or what we want the world to look like,” said Katharine Mershon, a professor of religion and philosophy at Western Carolina University who studies the role of dogs in American society.

                Dr. Mershon told me how dogs had become a focal point for tensions in her rural Appalachian town: Her local NextDoor was filled with arguments about whether leaving hunting dogs to roam about freely, slightly underfed and living mostly outside, constituted abuse. This was an argument, ostensibly about dogs, that was actually about gentrification and the place of newcomers to impose their values on local life.

                At points in my conversations with Dr. Gabrielsen and Dr. Mershon, we discussed the poet, philosopher and animal trainer Vicki Hearne. “Dogs are domesticated to, and into, us,” Ms. Hearne wrote in her 1986 book “Adam’s Task.” “And we are domesticated to, and into, them.”

                No neutral observer in dog training’s internecine fights, Ms. Hearne was brutal to the point of being genuinely shocking in her training methods. She railed in her writing against the sanctimoniousness of those who she felt refused to respect dogs enough to let them earn the consequences of their choices.

                But among the various points she stressed in “Adam’s Task” — her effort to bridge the gap between academia and animal training — was humanity’s capacity for telling itself stories about dogs and horses, the creatures we’ve bred to accompany us through the human world. We see what we want to in them; they respond to our vision. “Quarrels about training technique are almost never about whatever the surface issue appears to be,” she wrote.

                “It’s so easy to project ideas of discipline and loyalty and obedience and all this strong leadership — it’s so easy to project that upon dog training,” Dr. Gabrielsen told me. “But at the same, it’s just as easy to project ideals of democracy, equality, reward-based, no-punishment, because it all works.”

                From this perspective, it’s not that the structures of the internet ensure that the culture wars will come for every subject; it’s that the culture wars were inevitably going to come for dogs.

                A confession — and it’s something you might have guessed already: I first found myself going down this particular rabbit hole because of a problem with my own dog.

                About two and a half years ago, on a sunny summer morning, Finn, our spaniel-greyhound-saluki mix, chased after a jogger. He’d never done it before, and even as I cringed and went to collect him, I hoped that this might be a one-off thing.

                It wasn’t. I still live in fear that the photo the jogger rage-took of us after Finn bounded after him will surface on social media, even though I apologized profusely. During this period, I spent hours online looking for answers on how to deal with my problem animal.

                Mr. George was my first stop on this journey. After I followed him on Instagram, the algorithm kicked in, offering me content from other positive training accounts, too. Was I dogfluenced? I’m not sure, but eventually, I opted for a solution to my dog’s jogger chasing that is very common in positive reinforcement training (though is used by some balanced trainers, too): I started using a ridiculously long leash. It is 32 feet long, long enough that we can play a real game of fetch while he’s wearing it, but I can still grab it and reel him in quickly if he misbehaves. It’s so long that it often attracts comments and questions.

                Another confession: At some point, I started thinking about getting an e-collar for my dog. He seemed, in some ways, an ideal candidate: neither aggressive nor fearful, just a dog who might get to run around a little more freely if I could make it very clear that chasing joggers was not, in fact, a fun game.

                I never did it. I don’t exactly know why; I can’t untangle my bundle of motivations well enough to fully understand them. Was I worried about being a cop to my dog? Was I just not the kind of person who uses e-collars? (In signifier terms, I’m not.) Did I simply just not want to buzz him if he did something bad? I definitely didn’t, but I can’t confidently say that was the only impulse at work.

                We’re living through a funny juncture when it comes to the culture wars and the internet. The structures of the internet are evolving at the same time that the grounds on which the culture wars are being fought are shifting. Even over the past few months, I’ve felt a subtle tenor change across this particular slice of the web. It’s not that the temperature of the dog training wars has gone down; if anything, it may be going up — Mr. George has begun talking about pursuing legislation against aversive tools. But the trainers do seem to be, in a hard-to-pin-down way, more focused on dogs: Fewer threads about training techniques are devolving into fights about vaccines; I’ve seen very few major dog accounts venture an opinion about Israel and Gaza. Whether, in a few years’ time, we’ll emerge in a place where it still behooves people who train dogs to provide off a politically tinged vibe and whether owners like me will still internalize those vibes, we’ll see. What does seem guaranteed — and is, frankly, kind of a bummer — is that regardless of what happens with this particular iteration of the culture wars, dogs will always be destined to become goofy, oblivious vehicles for human conflict.

                On the other hand: What do they care, really? Finn and I still take walks with the giant leash. I still get comments on it and fight the urge to feel self-conscious. Finn, for his part, doesn’t really seem to mind and probably doesn’t know what he’s missing.

                Alicia Wittmeyer is an editor in Opinion.

                Mark Peckmezian has been photographing dogs as a passion project since 2010. For this essay, he photographed dogs over two months in the fall at over a dozen New York City parks and dog runs and while out on daily walks.

                The Times is committed to publishing a diversity of letters to the editor. We’d like to hear what you think about this or any of our articles. Here are some tips. And here’s our email:

                Follow The New York Times Opinion section on Facebook, Twitter (@NYTopinion) and Instagram.

                Tue, 19 Dec 2023 09:59:00 -0600 en text/html

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