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OG0-061 IT4IT Part 1

Exam Name: IT4IT Part 1 Exam
Exam Number: OG0-061 - English
Qualification upon passing: IT4IT Foundation (and partial credit towards a future Level 2 qualification)
Delivered at: Authorized Examination Provider Test Centers and also available as an Online Proctored exam.
Prerequisites: None
Supervised: Yes
Open Book: No
Exam type: Simple Multiple choice
Number of questions: 40
Pass score: 65% (26 out of 40 questions)
Time limit: 60 minutes (*)
Retake policy: If you fail the test you must wait one month before another attempt

The Open Group Certification for People: IT4IT Certification Program (the Program) makes certification available to people who demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the IT4IT Body of Knowledge. The Program also provides accreditation for training courses designed to help people acquire the necessary knowledge and understanding of the Body of Knowledge in order for the person to achieve certification.

IT4IT Part 1
The-Open-Group test
Killexams : The-Open-Group test - BingNews http://www.bing.com:80/news/search?q=The-Open-Group+test&cc=us&format=RSS Search results Killexams : The-Open-Group test - BingNews http://www.bing.com:80/news/search?q=The-Open-Group+test&cc=us&format=RSS https://killexams.com/exam_list/The-Open-Group Killexams : The most exciting trends and findings from the 2022 trail bike group test

What can we expect from our trail bikes in the future? What are the good and bad developments in the trail bike segment? Do electronic components really have an advantage? After our group test of the 14 hottest trail bikes of 2022, it’s time to take stock and list the most important findings from the test.

Our group test didn’t just show that trail bikes are the ultimate all-rounders, but that they’re also becoming increasingly capable on the descents without sacrificing their climbing efficiency. We had a ton of fun testing all these bikes over the past months, gaining a lot of exciting insights and discovering new trends while we were at it.

More control and less arm pump on trail bikes – More powerful brakes

Although we’re talking about trail bikes here, most of them came with brakes that were developed for enduro or even downhill bikes. 12 of the 14 bikes were equipped with SRAM CODE, Shimano XT or XTR, or a Formula Cura 4 four-piston brakes. Sweet! Only two bikes relied on SRAM’s G2 four-piston brakes, which simply don’t provide enough braking power for the intended use of these bikes. The size of the rotors is also growing steadily and most of the tested bikes were fitted with big 200 mm rotors front and rear. Only Mondraker and Rocky Mountain specced 180 mm rotors at the front and rear, which is too small for these bikes’ capabilities, especially considering the insignificant weight difference of bigger rotors and the resulting advantages.

More grip and cushioning vs rolling resistance and weight – Tires are a weak point on trail bikes

As before, many trail bikes still come with tires that aren’t fit for the intended use. Particularly the casings, which can end up being very expensive, especially in combination with carbon rims. Thinner casings are lighter, but they must be pumped up harder to protect the rims and prevent burping. Doing so reduces grip and cushioning. On the other hand, a thick casing – which can be ridden with a lower tire pressure – provides significant advantages on the trail, outweighing the minimal added weight and rolling resistance on the climbs. The higher rotating mass also provides increased stability and confidence on the trail.

Attention to the details and their implementation

All the bikes on test feature details like seat stay and chainstay protectors, down tube protectors, and some even come with protective film on much of the frame. But the devil is in the details as there are big differences between the solutions and their quality. Unfortunately, rattling chains and cables and rubber bits that come loose were constant companions in this group test. The seat stay and chainstay protectors are often undersized or the material that they’re made of is too hard. Some frames have untidy cable routing, or the cables aren’t clamped down securely enough at the ports. Manufacturers such as Canyon and Specialized continue to Strengthen their tried-and-tested systems, so their customers can enjoy riding quiet and well-protected bikes. On a positive note, we’re seeing more and more bikes being shipped with protective film, thus protecting your frame and increasing the resale value of your bike. All the bikes on test have room for a water bottle, though you’ll be faced with restrictions regarding the size, shape and accessibility of the bottle.

The weight difference in the test field is huge

There’s a difference of almost 3 kg between the lightest and heaviest bikes in the test field. However, the lightest bike – the Mondraker Raze RR SL weighing in at 12.9 kg – costs more than twice as much as the 15.9 kg FOCUS JAM 8.9. The Atherton AM.150 won the group test weighing in at a whopping 15.5 kg, making it one of the heaviest bikes on test. Nevertheless, its performance on the trail, which is the result of heavier components, far outweighs this drawback, and the super efficient rear suspension means that the AM.150 is a good climber despite its weight and robust tires. Of course, everyone benefits from lugging less weight uphill and the Mondraker is a damn quick climber. However, this was largely due to the efficient rear suspension and the light, fast-rolling tires. On the other hand, ultra-light bikes like the Mondraker often feel flimsy and nervous at high speeds on the descents.

The electronic RockShox Flight Attendant suspension

The RockShox Flight Attendant suspension offered a huge advantage in our last enduro bike group test, automatically switching between open, pedal and lock mode. However, that wasn’t the case in our 2022 trail bike group test where it featured on the YT JEFFSY UNCAGED 6, though it wasn’t due to the system itself but to the competition. They’re very efficient climbers even without the suspension locked out. Of course, the electronic suspension performs as expected on the YT and optimises the uphill riding position by keeping the shock higher in its travel, yet much of the competition was faster on the climbs. In other words, the technology only makes sense on bikes that require a lock-out when pedalling uphill, which isn’t the case with most trail bikes nowadays.

The new standard: storage compartments and tool mounts

More and more brands are adding mounting points to their bikes that allow you to carry your trail essentials without needing a backpack or hip bag. Integrated storage compartments are also becoming increasingly common, and, in a few years, we’ll hardly see any bike without a feature like this. The advantages are just too big to ignore. Whether you use it for storing a tube, pump, snacks, rain jacket, tool or additional hydration bladder, there are a ton of convenient possibilities. Nevertheless, there are big differences in the brands’ individual designs and for many of them, it’s their first attempt at something like this. In other words, the functionality and quality often leave room for improvement, particularly with regard to the locking mechanism of the storage compartment. That said, we can look forward to cool and refined solutions in the future.

Trail bikes are becoming increasingly capable on the descents while also getting faster on the climbs! As a result, they’re more versatile than ever. The details are being refined and convenient new features make life on the trails so much easier. Innovations that were all the rage just recently are now standard, though we’re still seeing a lack of proper implementation. That said, the component choices are lagging behind this rapid development as many brands are stuck in old habits instead of adapting to the increasing capability of their bikes.

Words: Peter Walker Photos: Peter Walker, Mike Hunger

Wed, 03 Aug 2022 20:00:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://enduro-mtb.com/en/trends-findings-trail-bike-group-test-2022/
Killexams : NEW COVID-19 TESTING METHOD IS AS SENSITIVE AS A PCR TEST, BUT FASTER THAN A LATERAL FLOW TEST

University of Birmingham (U.K.) signs licensing deal with Innova Medical Group – the world's largest COVID-19 at-home self-test provider - to Commercialize New Proven Testing Method in the Global Markets it Serves

PASADENA, Calif., Aug. 4, 2022 /PRNewswire/ -- A unique testing method invented at the University of Birmingham is set for a global rollout after its commercial rights were licensed to the world's largest COVID-19 test provider, Innova Medical Group – a California-based global health screening and diagnostics innovator and a world leader in the manufacture and distribution of COVID-19 rapid tests. Known as Reverse Transcription-Free EXPAR (RTF-EXPAR) testing, this new technology offers detection in as little as 10 minutes. 

Detailed test evaluations reveal the RTF-EXPAR method delivers a fast, accurate, highly sensitive and simple test for COVID-19 detection, meaning the test could be deployed en masse at entertainment venues, airport arrival terminals, and in remote settings where clinical testing laboratories are not available. The method is just as sensitive as both PCR and LAMP tests and is also faster and more sensitive than lateral flow tests, enabling detection at low viral levels.

Reverse Transcription-Free EXPAR (RTF-EXPAR) testing offers detection in as little as 10 minutes.

 Detailed test evaluations reveal the method delivers a fast, accurate, highly sensitive and simple test for COVID-19 detection, meaning the test could be deployed en masse at entertainment venues, airport arrival terminals, and in remote settings where clinical testing laboratories are not available. The method is just as sensitive as both PCR and LAMP tests - currently used in hospital settings - and is also faster and more sensitive than lateral flow tests, enabling detection at low viral levels. Crucially, it can be used with testing techniques which bypass the need for specialized laboratory equipment, which would reduce delays in waiting for test results, which currently requires samples to be sent to specialist laboratories.

The assay was invented and tested at the University of Birmingham, which found its sensitivity to be equivalent to quantitative PCR testing. This new RTF-EXPAR testing platform is also being adapted for the detection of other viruses, meaning the tests can be quickly adapted to cover both new variants and new viruses. The technology's new license holder, Innova Medical Group, is the world's largest provider of lateral flow tests. The company is aiming to accelerate RTF-EXPAR's global rollout for widespread use by 2023.

The approach behind RTF uses reagents that can be adapted for the detection of other viruses, meaning the tests can be quickly adapted to cover both new variants and other viruses, such as human papillomavirus (HPV) which causes cervical cancer.

"The RTF technology developed at the University of Birmingham hits a testing sweet spot. It's just as sensitive as PCR and LAMP tests, but without the time constraints and laboratory equipment required for these methods," said Robert Kasprzak, Chief Executive Officer at Innova. "We're committed to accelerating RTF's growth and further complementing our current portfolio of healthcare diagnostic products that strengthen the pandemic management solutions we offer to global customers. We've been searching globally for advanced diagnostics technologies to manage the current pandemic and mitigate future healthcare challenges, and we were impressed by the RTF testing method and the team behind it deserves enormous credit for their innovation."

Since the COVID-19 pandemic's outbreak, Innova Medical Group has delivered more than 1.5 billion lateral flow tests to customers worldwide. With this new licensing agreement underscoring its nimble approach and commitment to innovate, the company aims to provide effective, high-quality diagnostic products at reasonable prices to more people around the world.
"The RTF test rapidly amplifies small quantities of viral genetic material, producing a detectable signal within 10 minutes, which is much faster than PCR or LAMP testing and even quicker than lateral flow tests," said Professor Tim Dafforn from the University of Birmingham. "The reverse transcription and amplification steps slow down existing COVID-19 assays like LAMP and PCR, which are based on nucleic acid detection, thus an ideal test would be both sufficiently sensitive and speedy; the new RTF test achieves that goal in two ways - a new RNA-to-DNA conversion step we designed avoids reverse transcription and the amplification step to generate the read-out signal uses EXPAR, an alternative DNA amplification process."

Professor James Tucker from the University of Birmingham added, "EXPAR amplifies DNA at a single temperature, thus avoiding lengthy heating and cooling steps found in PCR; however, while LAMP also uses a single temperature for amplification, EXPAR is a simpler and a more direct process in which much smaller strands are amplified making it an even faster DNA amplification technique than not only PCR but also LAMP."

For more information on Innova Medical Group, please visit: https://innovamedgroup.com/

About Innova Medical Group, Inc.

Innova Medical Group, wholly owned by Pasaca Capital, Inc., is a global health screening and diagnostic innovator driven to dramatically Strengthen health outcomes worldwide with equitable, high-value testing solutions. From delivering more than 2 billion COVID-19 rapid test kits to customers worldwide since the beginning of the pandemic, to providing critical vaccines, including highly sought-after WHO approved COVID-19 vaccines to the world population, Innova is committed to improving the human condition globally. Our strategic and iterative approach enables us to manufacture, distribute, and deploy myriad accessible tests customised to meet and empower the user at their point of need. With a panoramic vision spanning the present to the future, we develop trusted solutions that are both intuitive and secure to use. We quickly and nimbly became the world's largest provider of COVID-19 tests, and we are determined to execute on this model across infectious disease, other chronic conditions, and wellness.

About the University of Birmingham, United Kingdom

The University of Birmingham is ranked amongst the world's top 100 institutions. Its work brings people from across the world to Birmingham, including researchers, teachers and more than 6,500 international students from over 150 countries. 

University of Birmingham Enterprise helps researchers turn their ideas into new services, products and enterprises that meet real-world needs. We also support innovators and entrepreneurs with mentoring, advice, and training and manage the University's Academic Consultancy Service. View our portfolio of technologies available for licensing.

Innova Medical Group Logo (PRNewsfoto/Innova Medical Group, Inc.)

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SOURCE Innova Medical Group, Inc.

Thu, 04 Aug 2022 06:04:00 -0500 en text/html https://markets.businessinsider.com/news/stocks/new-covid-19-testing-method-is-as-sensitive-as-a-pcr-test-but-faster-than-a-lateral-flow-test-1031652149
Killexams : The search goes on after just 3 pass test for police chief in Southampton Village

Southampton Village officials are weighing their options to fill the police department's top job after just three people passed a exact chief exam, complicating the nearly yearlong candidate search.

Village Mayor Jesse Warren said of the eight candidates who took the test, administered by the Suffolk County Department of Human Resources, Personnel and Civil Service on March 6, three passed, potentially narrowing the village’s pool of candidates. The list could be deemed ineligible or “broken” if at least one of those candidates is not interested or eligible, which could open up other options for the village, he said.

“What might seem at first glance as a very limited list, it largely would be considered a broken list if any of those candidates are not reachable,” Warren told Newsday on Wednesday. “Then we would have more flexibility to appoint somebody provisionally or go back to the prior list.”

Civil Service law allows the village to hire someone from the list or, if it is broken, the village could choose from another list of candidates who passed an exam administered for the Westhampton Beach Village police chief position in March 2021. That list expires Oct. 1.

The village also could appoint someone else provisionally after the Westhampton Beach results expire, or appoint someone who is serving as a chief in a police department elsewhere in the state outside of New York City, Warren said.

The board has not decided how it will act, Warren said.

Lt. Suzanne Hurteau has served as acting chief since former Chief Thomas Cummings, who collected a $248,342 salary in 2020, retired in September. The new chief’s salary will be determined by their abilities and experience, Warren said.

Hurteau, who village administrator Charlene Kagel-Betts confirmed took the March 6 test, is not on the list. Only the names of those who received a passing grade of 75 or higher are included.

The highest scorer on the list is James Kiernan, the captain of the Southampton Town Police Department who has been the subject of accolades as well as controversy during his 25 years with the town.

Kiernan sued the police department in 2014, alleging he was subjected to retaliation for refusing to use his perceived political influence to help his then-boss, Chief William Wilson, and settled the case for $185,000 as well as a promotion to detective lieutenant in 2018.

Kiernan had supervised Eric Sickles, a former officer with the Street Crimes Unit who admitted he was addicted to prescription painkillers. Wilson had brought 32 internal departmental charges against Kiernan for allegedly misleading internal affairs investigators and other offenses. Kiernan pleaded guilty to four "minor charges" because he could not afford to pay for a formal departmental hearing, according to his lawsuit.

Also on the chief list is William J. Hayes, the former chief of the upstate Town of Bedford Police Department who works for a firm that offers police test preparation. He could not be reached for comment.

The third name on the list is Christopher Broich, a former Southampton Village police sergeant who was fired in 2007 for misconduct and now runs a private security firm. When reached on Thursday, Broich said: “A larger group of people take the test and a much smaller group pass the test. I’m happy to be in that small group.”

 A village search committee is screening candidates for the job, for which Southampton has received about 10 resumes, Warren said.

Southampton Village paid Cummings $774,000 for unused time when he left. At the time Warren vowed the next chief’s contract would not be so “lopsided against the taxpayer.”

Thu, 04 Aug 2022 10:26:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.newsday.com/long-island/towns/police-chief-search-test-southampton-village-x8pcz1r2
Killexams : Biden will keep aircraft carrier group in the South China Sea but postpone missile test

The USS Ronald Reagan (CVN-76) aircraft carrier is seen during a port visit in Hong Kong on October 2, 2017.

Anthony Wallace | AFP | Getty Images

WASHINGTON — President Joe Biden will keep a U.S. naval aircraft carrier strike group in the South China Sea longer than originally planned, in response to Chinese missile tests and heightened aggression around Taiwan, the White House announced Thursday.

At the same time, Biden will postpone a previously scheduled intercontinental ballistic missile, or ICBM, test, said a White House spokesman.

The twin announcements signal an approach that seeks to raise American military vigilance in the region while simultaneously limiting opportunities for Beijing to point to any U.S. action as a provocation for increased aggression toward Taiwan and neighboring countries.

The aircraft carrier USS Ronald Reagan and her escort ships will remain in the South China Sea "for a little bit longer than they were originally planned to be there," National Security Council spokesman John Kirby said at the White House on Thursday.

The goal of the strike group's prolonged stay in the region will be "to monitor the situation," he said. He added that "the president believed that it was the prudent thing to do, to leave her and her escort ships there for just a little bit longer."

The Ronald Reagan carrier strike group has been operating in the South China Sea since the middle of July, according to the U.S. military.

Kirby said the postponement of the Minuteman 3 ballistic missile test aims to demonstrate "the behavior of a responsible nuclear power by reducing the risks of miscalculation" while China "engages in destabilizing military exercises around Taiwan."

Still, the United States does not expect China to scale back its aggressive actions any time soon.

"We're expecting more exercises, more bellicosity and rhetoric, and we're expecting more incursions" into non-Chinese territories, he said.

Tensions between Washington and Beijing have increased significantly in the past week, driven in part by House Speaker Nancy Pelosi's decision to visit Taiwan with a delegation of congressional Democrats.

The White House and Pentagon reportedly cautioned the powerful California lawmaker not to make the trip when she did, due to the potential for increased bilateral tensions.

Pelosi wrote in an op-ed that she believes China poses a grave threat to the independence of Taiwan, which Beijing considers a Chinese province. She said her trip was necessary to show American support for democracy in Taiwan and around the world.

But as Biden tries to balance a desire to flex American muscle in the South China Sea and not provoke further actions from Beijing, experts say the distinction could be lost on the Chinese government.

"China doesn't want or need to convince itself that we're serious. And parsing between 'serious' and 'provocative' is like angels dancing on a pin," said Andrew Mertha, director of the China Global Research Center at Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies.

"This 'splitting the difference' exhibits precisely the confusion and incoherence that Beijing likely sees as some sort of deliberate, aggressively opaque strategy," he said in an interview with CNBC.

"If cooler heads are prevailing behind the scenes — in both Beijing and Washington — this will be a prelude to a shift to a more sustained, substantive diplomatic engagement," said Mertha.

Kirby emphasized Thursday that key lines of communication between the U.S. and China are open, despite the heightened tensions.

"We're using those lines of communication, and I think you'll see that in days to come as well," he said, somewhat cryptically.

The White House did not immediately respond to an email asking for further details on what Kirby meant.

Thu, 04 Aug 2022 10:14:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.cnbc.com/2022/08/04/biden-orders-aircraft-carrier-to-stay-in-the-south-china-sea-but-postpones-an-icbm-test.html
Killexams : Why the time for open fan is now

The a-ha moment came around 2014. At the time I was leading GE’s advanced technology team, a group of technical engineers whose sole role is to test the boundaries of what’s possible. We were probing the possibilities of improving fuel efficiency with the goal to see how far we could push.

GE had designed and tested open fan designs dating back to the 1980s and we had advanced significantly on that work, but a counter-rotating fan was essentially a given to us at that point. That’s when one of the engineers asked, “Why does it have to counter-rotate? What if it’s single stage?”

GE_Chris Lorence 2019 (004)_image_For_use_with_Flight_Sustainable Aviation Focus_GE_open fan_content_Push_date_29Jul2022

It was like a lightbulb went off. One of those moments when you’ve worked on something for so long that you can’t see it any other way, and then someone did. It wasn’t just a breakthrough, it was radical. A single stage fan that wasn’t simply a propeller, but rather one set of rotating fan blades with the same speed and performance of a counter-rotating fan.

As chief engineer of GE and a GE engineer for the last 27 years, I’ve watched how we’ve incrementally improved fuel efficiency with each successive new commercial aircraft engine design. The LEAP engine*, introduced in 2016, is 15 percent more efficient than CFM56-5B and -7B engines. The GEnx engine is up to 15 percent more efficient than the CF6-80C2, and the GE9X engine has been designed to be up to 10% more efficient than the GE90-115B.

But the push for 20 percent greater fuel efficiency in one generation? That is something different. Engineers like big challenges, and this is certainly one of them.

To address this challenge, CFM International, our 50-50 joint company with Safran, announced the CFM RISE* (Revolutionary Innovation for Sustainable Engines) technology demonstration program back in June 2021, targeting reduced fuel consumption and CO2 emissions by more than 20 percent compared to today’s most efficient engines.

Central to the program is state-of-the-art propulsive efficiency for the engine, including advancing the open fan architecture.

The path to 20% lower fuel consumption

In the past, when we’ve broached the open fan, it’s been in response to rising fuel prices. The technology foundation from our work in the 1970s with NASA’s Quiet Clean Short-Haul Experimental Engine (also known as QCSEE) and in the 1980s with the GE36 open fan is what we are building on today.

With the CFM RISE Program, our engineers are again pushing the limits to develop even more advanced technologies than we have before. What’s different this time is why. We are now at a point in the dialogue where fuel prices aren’t driving the discussion. Instead, we are putting all of our best technology on the table toward an even bigger, more impactful goal — reducing CO2 emissions to achieve a more sustainable aviation industry.

Last year, I joined other Chief Technology Officers prior to COP26, the United Nation’s climate conference, to issue a joint statement reaffirming our industry’s commitment to achieve industry-wide Air Transport Action Group (ATAG) targets, including the goal of net zero CO2 emissions by 2050. This supports the Paris Agreement goal to limit global warming to 1.5ºC compared to pre-industrial levels.

The CTO statement is four pages long but, in essence, it reflects our promise to relentlessly pursue efficiency. And, quite simply, the open fan architecture is an essential component in GE’s plan to lead in the march toward net zero.

Why open fan?

Over the last 50 years, we’ve learned how to make the open fan engine design simpler and lighter. Stationary outlet guide vanes replace previous two-stage, counter-rotating fan blades in our latest designs. This change is significant because we can direct air flow and fly at speeds consistent with conventional turbofan engine architectures.

More recently, we’ve made significant improvements in acoustics, which had been an inhibiting factor. Open fan acoustics are where we need them to be for commercial service and we are actually on the lower end for noise certification.

Add to that our fourth generation - and the industry’s only - carbon fiber composite fan blades, which are well suited to move to an open fan engine. No one else in the industry has the depth of expertise or composite fan experience that GE has.

The challenge when you work in advanced technology is coming up with something that is revolutionary, rather than evolutionary. To achieve the bold goals that we and the industry are driving toward, revolutionary design is the only solution. And like my colleague pointed out in 2014, when you go from counter-rotating to single-stage, your mind expands. You think, ‘Wow, this is truly revolutionary.’

While ducts (or fan cases/nacelles) perform some aerodynamic function, their primary function is structural. But they weigh a ton. Literally. And when you take most of that weight away with the open fan design, you also remove propulsion drag.

We joke that removing the nacelle lets a fan blade be a fan blade. When there is a nacelle, you have to decide how big you want the fan to be. But when you remove the nacelle, the fan is able to be as big as it needs to be from an aerodynamic standpoint. Even with larger blades, the open fan is not much bigger than the nacelle we have around the CFM LEAP engine today. In fact, the blades for the RISE Program’s open fan are not much bigger than the GE9X fan blades.

GE_01-CFM_RISE_Program_Open_Fan_image_For_use_with_Flight_Sustainable Aviation Focus_GE_open fan_content_Push_date_29Jul2022

The time is now

As the GE team rises to the aviation industry’s challenge to achieve net zero CO2 emissions by 2050, open fan architecture also awakens our collective excitement because it’s an obvious change from the traditional turbofan aircraft engine. This is the most exciting—and the most challenging—time to be an engineer. I tell people just starting their careers in our Edison Engineering Development Program that if they aren’t excited about this program, then they are probably in the wrong place. It takes everything we thought we could do with jet engines previously and says, ‘Nah, we can do better.’

And the time is now. While global aviation produced just 2 percent of human-induced carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in 2019, passenger air traffic is expected to grow in coming years, and it is incumbent upon us to act quickly.

Safety is our top priority. As chief engineer for GE, I am primarily responsible for product safety. My team and I will ensure that safety supersedes all else during our ground and flight tests for the open fan, and as always, we will work closely with our regulators before it enters into service.

Air transport plays a key role in reaching climate targets. Open fan architecture is the radical change aviation needs to achieve its goals; we cannot reach them without it.

Hot off the Press: July 19, 2022 it was announced at the Farnborough Air Show, that the Airbus A380 would test open-fan architecture in flight

GE_A380Demo-flightlabCFM-P3-20220624_For_use_with_Flight_Sustainable Aviation Focus_GE_open fan_content_Push_date_29Jul2022

*RISE, CFM56, and LEAP are all registered trademarks and programs of CFM International, a 50-50 joint company between GE and Safran Aircraft Engines.

Tue, 26 Jul 2022 21:41:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.flightglobal.com/paid-content/why-the-time-for-open-fan-is-now/149626.article
Killexams : Airbus and CFM launch flight test demonstrator for advanced open fan architecture

Photo Credit, all images: Airbus

Airbus (Toulouse, France) and CFM International (Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S.), a 50/50 joint company between GE Aviation (Cincinnati) and Safran Aircraft Engines (Courcouronnes, France), are collaborating to flight test CFM’s cutting-edge open fan engine architecture.

 

Joint flight-testing ambitions

The joint demonstration program will use shared flight test assets. The plan is for CFM to perform engine ground tests, along with flight test validation, at GE Aviation’s Flight Test Operations center in Victorville, Calif., U.S.

A second phase of flight tests will be performed from the Airbus flight test facility in Toulouse, France, in the second half of the decade. For these tests, the open fan engine will be mounted under the wing of a specially configured and instrumented A380 testbed aircraft.

The joint Airbus and CFM objectives for the open fan joint demonstration on the A380 are extensive. The high-level goals include: evaluation of open fan propulsive efficiency and performance on an aircraft; acceleration and maturity of technologies through ground testing; assessment of aircraft/engine integration and aerodynamics (thrust, drag, loads); and evaluation of internal and external noise levels.

The goal is to achieve future engine and aircraft efficiency improvements, including propulsive system efficiency gains; improved fuel efficiency that could provide a 20% reduction in CO2 emissions compared to today’s most efficient engines and ensuring compatibility with 100% sustainable aviation fuels (SAF). Note, a reduction in CO2 emissions beyond 20% can be realized using SAF versus conventional jet fuel.

Prediction capabilities are key to find the right design that meets both the fuel efficiency and the acoustic targets (for the communities around airports and also for passengers inside the cabin). And because CFM’s engine and the wing will be very close-coupled, these capabilities have to be developed in close collaboration. 

Read more about preparing the flight test hardware and evolution from two counter-rotating fans to a single plus fixed stators at “Could an open fan engine cut carbon emissions for more sustainable aviation?

 

Open fan revolution and CFRP blades

In the Nov. 2021 GE Aviation blog, “Why the Time for Open Fan is Now,” GE Aviation Chief Engineer, Chris Lorence, explains the open fan’s revolution:

“It wasn’t just a breakthrough, it was radical. A single-stage fan that wasn’t simply a propeller, but rather one set of rotating fan blades with the same speed and performance of a counter-rotating fan.”

He points out that the 20% efficiency gain the open fan is geared toward is no small feat:

“The LEAP engine, introduced in 2016, is 15% more efficient than CFM56-5B and -7B engines. The GEnx engine is up to 15% more efficient than the CF6-80C2, and the GE9X engine has been designed to be up to 10% more efficient than the GE90-115B. But the push for 20% greater fuel efficiency in one generation? That is something different.”

He then includes carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) blades as a key part of the latest design:

“Over the last 50 years, we’ve learned how to make the open fan engine design simpler and lighter. Stationary outlet guide vanes replace previous two-stage, counter-rotating fan blades in our latest designs. This change is significant because we can direct air flow and fly at speeds consistent with conventional turbofan engine architectures.

Add to that our fourth generation — and the industry’s only — carbon fiber composite fan blades, which are well suited to move to an open fan engine. No one else in the industry has the depth of expertise or composite fan experience that GE Aviation has.”

 

Removing the nacelle

Lorence also discusses why removing the nacelle provides efficiency gains, and how it affects the size of the CFRP fan blades:

“While ducts (or fan cases/nacelles) perform some aerodynamic function, their primary function is structural. But they weigh a ton. Literally. And when you take most of that weight away with the open fan design, you also remove propulsion drag.

We joke that removing the nacelle lets a fan blade be a fan blade. When there is a nacelle, you have to decide how big you want the fan to be. But when you remove the nacelle, the fan is able to be as big as it needs to be from an aerodynamic standpoint. Even with larger blades, the open fan is not much bigger than the nacelle we have around the CFM LEAP engine today. In fact, the blades for the RISE Program’s open fan are not much bigger than the GE9X fan blades.”
 

Airbus and CFM commitment

“New propulsion technologies will play an important role in achieving aviation’s net-zero objectives, along with new aircraft designs and sustainable energy sources,” Sabine Klauke, Airbus chief technical officer (CTO), says. “By evaluating, maturing and validating open fan engine architecture using a dedicated flight test demonstrator, we are collaboratively making yet another significant contribution to the advancement of technology bricks that will enable us to reach our industry-wide decarbonization targets.”

“The CFM RISE Program is all about pushing the technology envelope, redefining the art of the possible and helping to achieve more sustainable long-term growth for our industry,” Gaël Méheust, president and CEO of CFM International, adds. “CFM, its parent companies and Airbus all share the same vision and commitment for the future; the open fan flight test demonstration program is an exciting next step toward achieving the industry’s net-zero goals.”

This collaboration with CFM is just one part of Airbus’ technology demonstrator portfolio. In Feb. 2022, the two companies announced a joint flight test program to validate hydrogen propulsion capability. Airbus, CFM and CFM’s parent companies, GE Aviation and Safran, are committed to fulfilling the promise they made in signing the Air Transport Action Group goal in Oct. 2021 to achieve aviation industry net-zero carbon emissions by 2050, and developing and testing the technologies required.

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Wed, 20 Jul 2022 05:46:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.compositesworld.com/news/airbus-and-cfm-launch-flight-test-demonstrator-for-advanced-open-fan-architecture
Killexams : Alex Trebek Took the ‘Jeopardy!’ Contestant Test Annually ‘in His Early Years as Host’

While it makes sense that contestants for a quiz show as rigorous as Jeopardy! would be expected to take a test to earn a spot on the program, one wouldn’t think the host would need to, or want to.

But that’s exactly what Alex Trebek did, particularly when he started out on Jeopardy! His reasoning for doing so just makes many fans of the late host admire him even more.