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Afghanistan
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Master Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 90%; or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: 80%; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: 70%; or GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Albania
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 9.5 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 8 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 7 out of 10

Algeria
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Licence; Diplome de [subject area]; Diplome d'Etudes Superieures; Diplome de Docteur end Pharmacie; or Diplome de Docteur en Medecine from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 14 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 12 out of 20

Angola
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Grau de Licenciado/a (minimum 4 years) from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: 17 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 15 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 13 out of 20

Argentina
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Titulo/ Grado de Licenciado/ Titulo de [subject area] (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 9 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 7.5 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 6.5 out of 10

Armenia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Specialist Diploma from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 87 out of 100
UK 2:1 degree: 75 out of 100
UK 2:2 degree: 61 out of 100

Australia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) or Bachelor Honours degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: High Distinction; or First Class with Honours
UK 2:1 degree: Distinction; or Upper Second Class with Honours
UK 2:2 degree: Credit; or Lower Second Class with Honours

Austria
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 1.5 out of 5.0
UK 2:1 degree: 2.5 out of 5.0
UK 2:2 degree: 3.5 out of 5.0

The above relates to grading scale where 1 is the highest and 5 is the lowest.

Azerbaijan
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Specialist Diploma from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 90%; or GPA 4.7 out of 5
UK 2:1 degree: 80%; or GPA 4 out of 5
UK 2:2 degree: 70%; or GPA 3.5 out of 5

Bahamas
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) from the University of West Indies.

UK 1st class degree: First Class Honours
UK 2:1 degree: Upper Second Class Honours
UK 2:2 degree: Lower Second Class Honours

Bahrain
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0; or 90 out of 100
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0; or 80 out of 100
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.3 out of 4.0; or 74 out of 100

Bangladesh
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 4 years) from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.2 to 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 to 3.3 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.3 to 2.7 out of 4.0

Offer conditions will vary depending on the institution you are applying from.  For some institutions/degrees we will ask for different grades to above, so this is only a guide. 

Barbados
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from the University of West Indies, Cave Hill or Barbados Community College.

UK 1st class degree: First Class Honours*; or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0**
UK 2:1 degree: Upper Second Class Honours*; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0**
UK 2:2 degree: Lower Second Class Honours*; or GPA 2.4 out of 4.0**

*relates to: the University of West Indies, Cave Hill.

**relates to: Barbados Community College.

Belarus
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Specialist Diploma (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 9 out of 10; or 4.7 out of 5
UK 2:1 degree: 7 out of 10; or 4 out of 5
UK 2:2 degree: 5 out of 10; or 3.5 out of 5

Belgium
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (180 ECTS credits) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 80% or 16/20*; or 78%**
UK 2:1 degree: 70% or 14/20*; or 72%**
UK 2:2 degree: 60% or 12/20*; or 65%**

*Flanders (Dutch-speaking)/ Wallonia (French-speaking)
**German-speaking

Belize
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) from the University of West Indies.

UK 1st class degree: First Class Honours
UK 2:1 degree: Upper Second Class Honours
UK 2:2 degree: Lower Second Class Honours

Benin
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Maitrise or Masters from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 14 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 12 out of 20

Bolivia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Titulo de Bachiller Universitario or Licenciado / Titulo de [subject area] (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 85%* or 80%**
UK 2:1 degree: 75%* or 70%**
UK 2:2 degree: 65%* or 60%**

*relates to: Titulo de Bachiller Universitario

**relates to: Licenciado / Titulo de [subject area] 

Bosnia and Herzegovina
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 9.5 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 8.5 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 7.5 out of 10

Botswana
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 5 years) or Master Degree from the University of Botswana.

UK 1st class degree: 80%
UK 2:1 degree: 70%
UK 2:2 degree: 60%

Brazil
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Título de Bacharel / Título de [subject area] or Título de Licenciado/a (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 8.25 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 7.5 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 6.5 out of 10

The above grades assumes that the grading scale has a pass mark of 5.

Brunei
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Honours degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: First Class Honours
UK 2:1 degree: Upper Second Class Honours
UK 2:2 degree: Lower Second Class Honours

Bulgaria
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 5.75 out of 6.0
UK 2:1 degree: 4.75 out of 6.0
UK 2:2 degree: 4.0 out of 6.0

Burundi
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Diplome d'Etudes Approfondies from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 85%; or 16 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 75%; or 14 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 60%; or 12 out of 20

Cambodia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Masters Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 80%; or GPA 3.5 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: 70%; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: 60%; or GPA 2.35 out of 4.0

Cameroon
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree; Licence; Diplome d'Etudes Superieures de Commerce; Diplome d'Ingenieur de Conception/ Travaux; Doctorat en Medecine/ Pharmacie; or Maitrise or Master 1 from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20; or GPA 3.6 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: 14 out of 20; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: 12 out of 20; or GPA 2.5 out of 4.0

Canada
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Bachelor Honours Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.6 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.2 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.5 out of 4.0

China
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 4 years) from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: 85 to 95%
UK 2:1 degree: 75 to 85%
UK 2:2 degree: 70 to 80%

Offer conditions will vary depending on the institution you are applying from.  Generally, we do not accept applications from students studying at Affiliate Colleges.

Colombia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Licenciado en [subject area] or Titulo de [subject area] (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 4.60 out of 5.00
UK 2:1 degree: 4.00 out of 5.00
UK 2:2 degree: 3.50 out of 5.00

Congo, Dem. Rep. of
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Diplome d'Etudes Approfondies or Diplome d'Etudes Speciales from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20; or 90%
UK 2:1 degree: 14 out of 20; or 80%
UK 2:2 degree: 12 out of 20; or 70%

Congo, Rep. of
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Diplome d'Etudes Superieures or Maitrise from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 14 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 12 out of 20

Costa Rica
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachiller or Licenciado from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 9 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 8 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 7.5 out of 10

Croatia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Advanced Diploma of Higher Education Level VII/1 (Diploma - Visoko obrazovanje) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 4.5 out of 5
UK 2:1 degree: 4 out of 5
UK 2:2 degree: 3 out of 5

Cuba
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Titulo de Licenciado/ Arquitecto/ Doctor/ Ingeniero from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 4.7 out of 5
UK 2:1 degree: 4 out of 5
UK 2:2 degree: 3.5 out of 5

Cyprus
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 8 out of 10; or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: 7.0 out of 10; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: 6.0 out of 10; or GPA 2.5 out of 4.0

Czech Republic
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (180 ECTS credits) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 1.2 out of 4
UK 2:1 degree: 1.5 out of 4
UK 2:2 degree: 2.5 out of 4

The above relates to grading scale where 1 is the highest and 4 is the lowest.

Denmark
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 12 out of 12 (2007 onwards); or 11 out of 13 (before 2007)
UK 2:1 degree: 7 out of 12 (2007 onwards); or 8 out of 13 (before 2007)
UK 2:2 degree: 4 out of 12 (2007 onwards); or 7 out of 13 (before 2007)

Dominican Republic
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Licenciado/ Titulo de [subject area] (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 95/100
UK 2:1 degree: 85/100
UK 2:2 degree: 78/100

Ecuador
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Titulo de Licenciado / Titulo de [subject area] (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 90%; or 9/10; or 19/20; or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: 80%; or 8/10; or 18/20; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: 70%; or 7/10; or 14/20; or GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Egypt
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: 85%; or GPA 3.7 out of 4
UK 2:1 degree: 75%; or GPA 3.0 out of 4
UK 2:2 degree: 65%; or GPA 2.5 out of 4

El Salvador
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Licenciado/ Titulo de [subject area] (minimum 5 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 8.5 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 7.5 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 6.5 out of 10

Eritrea
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Masters Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Estonia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree; University Specialist's Diploma; or Professional Higher Education Diploma from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 4.5 out of 5
UK 2:1 degree: 3.5 out of 5
UK 2:2 degree: 2 out of 5

The above grades assumes that 1 is the pass mark. 

Eswatini
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Masters Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 80%
UK 2:1 degree: 70%
UK 2:2 degree: 60%

Ethiopia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Masters Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.5 out of 4.0

Fiji
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) from one of the following institutions: Fiji National University, the University of Fiji, or the University of South Pacific, Fiji.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 4.0 out of 5.0*; or overall grade A with High Distinction pass**; or GPA 4.0 out of 4.5***
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.33 out of 5.0*; or overall grade B with Credit pass**; or GPA 3.5 out of 4.5***
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.33 out of 5.0*; or overall grade S (Satisfactory)**; or GPA 2.5 out of 4.5***

*relates to Fiji National University

**relate to the University of Fiji

***relates to the University of South Pacific, Fiji

Finland
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree/ Kandidaatti/ Kandidat (minimum 180 ECTS credits) from a recognised institution; or Bachelor degree (Ammattikorkeakoulututkinto/ Yrkeshögskoleexamen) from a recognised University of Applied Sciences.

UK 1st class degree: 4.5 out of 5; or 2.8 out of 3
UK 2:1 degree: 3.5 out of 5; or 2 out of 3
UK 2:2 degree: 2.5 out of 5; or 1.4 out of 3

France
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Licence; Grade de Licence; Diplome d'Ingenieur; or Maitrise from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 14 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 12 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 11 out of 20

Gambia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Masters Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 80%; or GPA 4.0 out of 4.3
UK 2:1 degree: 67%; or GPA 3.3 out of 4.3
UK 2:2 degree: 60%; or GPA 2.7 out of 4.3

Georgia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Specialist Diploma (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 91 out of 100; or 4.7 out of 5
UK 2:1 degree: 81 out of 100; or 4 out of 5
UK 2:2 degree: 71 out of 100; or 3.5 out of 5

Germany
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (180 ECTS credits) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 1.5 out of 5.0
UK 2:1 degree: 2.5 out of 5.0
UK 2:2 degree: 3.5 out of 5.0

The above relates to grading scale where 1 is the highest and 5 is the lowest.

Ghana
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: First Class
UK 2:1 degree: Second Class (Upper Division)
UK 2:2 degree: Second Class (Lower Division)

Greece
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Degrees from recognised selected institutions in the University sector or Degrees (awarded after 2003) from recognised Technological Educational Institutes.

UK 1st class degree: 8 out of 10*; or 9 out of 10**
UK 2:1 degree: 7 out of 10*; or 7.5 out of 10**
UK 2:2 degree: 6 out of 10*; or 6.8 out of 10**

*Relates to degrees from the University Sector.
**Relates to degrees from Technological Educational Institutes.

Grenada
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) from the University of West Indies.

UK 1st class degree: First Class Honours
UK 2:1 degree: Upper Second Class Honours
UK 2:2 degree: Lower Second Class Honours

Guatemala
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Licenciado / Titulo de [subject area] (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 90%
UK 2:1 degree: 80%
UK 2:2 degree: 70%

The above grades assumes that the pass mark is 61% or less.

Guinea
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Master; Maitrise; Diplome d'Etudes Superieures; or Diplome d'Etudes Approfondies from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 14 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 12 out of 20

Guyana
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Graduate Diploma (Postgraduate) or Masters degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Honduras
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Titulo de Licenciado/a / Grado Academico de Licenciatura (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 90%; or 4.7 out of 5; or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: 80%; or 4.0 out of 5; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: 70%; or 3.5 out of 5; or GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Hong Kong
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Honours Degree from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: First Class Honours
UK 2:1 degree: Upper Second Class Honours
UK 2:2 degree: Lower Second Class Honours

Hungary
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor degree (Alapfokozat) or University Diploma (Egyetemi Oklevel) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 4.75 out of 5
UK 2:1 degree: 4 out of 5
UK 2:2 degree: 3.5 out of 5

Iceland
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor degree (Baccalaureus or Bakkalarprof) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 8.25 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 7.25 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 6.5 out of 10

India
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: 70% to 80%
UK 2:1 degree: 60% to 70%
UK 2:2 degree: 50% to 60%

Offer conditions will vary depending on the institution you are applying from.  For some institutions/degrees we will ask for different grades to above, so this is only a guide.  

For India, offers may be made on the GPA scale.

We do not consider the Bachelor of Vocation (B. Voc.) for Masters entry.

Indonesia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Sarjna I (S1) Bachelor Degree or Diploma IV (D4) (minimum 4 years) from selected degree programmes and institutions.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.6 to 3.8 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 to 3.2 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.67 to 2.8 out of 4.0

Offer conditions will vary depending on the institution you are applying from and the degree that you study.

Iran
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 17.5 to 18.5 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 15 to 16 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 13.5 to 14 out of 20

Offer conditions will vary depending on the institution you are applying from.  

Iraq
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 85 out of 100
UK 2:1 degree: 75 out of 100
UK 2:2 degree: 60 out of 100

Ireland
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Honours Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: First Class Honours
UK 2:1 degree: Second Class Honours Grade I
UK 2:2 degree: Second Class Honours Grade II

Israel
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 90%
UK 2:1 degree: 80%
UK 2:2 degree: 65%

Italy
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Laurea (180 ECTS credits) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 110 out of 110
UK 2:1 degree: 105 out of 110
UK 2:2 degree: 94 out of 110

Cote D’ivoire (Ivory Coast)
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Diplome d'Ingenieur; Doctorat en Medicine; Maitrise; Master; Diplome d'Etudes Approfondies; or Diplome d'Etudes Superieures Specialisees from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 14 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 12 out of 20

Jamaica
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) from the University of West Indies (UWI) or a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0; or First Class Honours from the UWI
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0; or Upper Second Class Honours from the UWI
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.4 out of 4.0; or Lower Second Class Honours from the UWI

Japan
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: S overall* or A overall**; or 90%; or GPA 3.70 out of 4.00
UK 2:1 degree: A overall* or B overall**; or 80%; or GPA 3.00 out of 4.00
UK 2:2 degree: B overall* or C overall**; or 70%; or GPA 2.3 out of 4.00

*Overall mark is from the grading scale: S, A, B, C (S is highest mark)
**Overall mark is from the grading scale: A, B, C, D (A is highest mark)

Jordan
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 85%; or GPA of 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: 75%; or GPA of 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: 70%; or GPA of 2.5 out of 4.0

Kazakhstan
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Specialist Diploma from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 3.8 out of 4.0/4.33; or 4.7 out of 5
UK 2:1 degree: 3.33 out of 4.0/4.33; or 4.0 out of 5
UK 2:2 degree: 2.67 out of 4.0/4.33; or 3.5 out of 5

Kenya
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: First Class Honours; or GPA 3.6 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: Second Class Honours Upper Division; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: Second Class Honours Lower Division; or GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Kosovo
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 9.5 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 8.5 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 7.5 out of 10

Kuwait
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.67 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.67 out of 4.0

Kyrgyzstan
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Specialist Diploma (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 4.7 out of 5; or GPA 3.7 out of 4
UK 2:1 degree: 4.0 out of 5; or GPA 3.0 out of 4
UK 2:2 degree: 3.5 out of 5; or GPA 2.4 out of 4

Laos
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Masters Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Latvia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (awarded after 2002) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 9.5 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 7.5 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 6 out of 10

Lebanon
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree; Licence; or Maitrise from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 90% or Grade A; or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0; or 16 out of 20 (French system)
UK 2:1 degree: 80% or Grade B; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0; or 13 out of 20 (French system)
UK 2:2 degree: 70% or Grade C; or GPA 2.5 out of 4.0; or 12 out of 20 (French system)

Lesotho
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Honours Degree (minimum 5 years total HE study); Masters Degree or Postgraduate Diploma from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: 80%
UK 2:1 degree: 70%
UK 2:2 degree: 60%

Liberia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Masters Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 90% or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: 80% or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: 70% or GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Libya
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: 85%; or 3.7 out of 4.0 GPA
UK 2:1 degree: 75%; or 3.0 out of 4.0 GPA
UK 2:2 degree: 65%; or 2.6 out of 4.0 GPA

Liechtenstein
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (180 ECTS credits) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 5.6 out of 6.0
UK 2:1 degree: 5.0 out of 6.0
UK 2:2 degree: 4.4 out of 6.0

Lithuania
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 180 ECTS credits) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 9.5 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 8 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 7 out of 10

Luxembourg
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 14 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 12 out of 20

Macau
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (Licenciatura) (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.5 out of 4.0

Macedonia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Diploma of Completed Higher Education - Level VII/1 or Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 9.5 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 8.5 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 7 out of 10

Madagascar
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Maîtrise; Diplome d'Ingenieur; Diplôme d'Etat de Docteur en Médecine; Diplôme d’Etat de Docteur en Chirurgie Dentaire; Diplôme d'Études Approfondies; Diplôme de Magistère (Première Partie) – also known as Master 1; or Diplôme de Master – also known as Master 2 from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 14 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 12 out of 20

Malawi
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Masters Degree from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: 80% or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: 70% or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: 60% or GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Malaysia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: Class 1; or 3.7 out of 4.0 CGPA
UK 2:1 degree: Class 2 division 1; or 3.0 out of 4.0 CGPA
UK 2:2 degree: Class 2 division 2; or 2.6 out of 4.0 CGPA

Maldives
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (awarded from 2000) from the Maldives National University.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.5 out of 4.0

Malta
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Bachelor Honours Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: First Class Honours; or Category I
UK 2:1 degree: Upper Second Class Honours; or Category IIA
UK 2:2 degree: Lower Second Class Honours; or Category IIB

Mauritius
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: Class I; or 70%
UK 2:1 degree: Class II division I; or 60%
UK 2:2 degree: Class II division II; or 50%

Offer conditions will vary depending on the grading scale used by your institution.

Mexico
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Titulo de Licenciado/ Titulo (Profesional) de [subject area] from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 9.0 to 9.5 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 8.0 to 8.5 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 7.0 to 7.5 out of 10

Offer conditions will vary depending on the grading scale your institution uses.

Moldova
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (Diploma de Licenta) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 9.5 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 8 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 6.5 out of 10

Monaco
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.5 out of 4.0

Mongolia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 4 years) from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.6 out of 4.0; or 90%; or grade A
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.2 out of 4.0; or 80%; or grade B
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.8 out of 4.0; or 70%; or grade C

Montenegro
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Diploma of Completed Academic Undergraduate Studies; Diploma of Professional Undergraduate Studies; or Advanced Diploma of Higher Education from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 9.5 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 8.5 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 7 out of 10

Morocco
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Diplome d'Ecoles Nationales de Commerce et de Gestion; Diplome de Docteur Veterinaire; Doctorat en Medecine; Docteur en Medecine Dentaire; Licence; Diplome d'Inegeniuer d'Etat; Diplome de Doctorat en Pharmacie; or Maitrise from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 13 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 11 out of 20

Mozambique
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Grau de Licenciado (minimum 4 years) or Grau de Mestre from from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 14 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 12 out of 20

Myanmar
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Masters Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 80% or GPA of 4.7 out of 5.0
UK 2:1 degree: 70% or GPA of 4.0 out of 5.0
UK 2:2 degree: 60% or GPA of 3.5 out of 5.0

Namibia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Honours Degree or Professional Bachelor Degree (NQF level 8 qualifications) - these to be awarded after 2008 from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 80%
UK 2:1 degree: 70%
UK 2:2 degree: 60%

Nepal
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 4 years) from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: 80%; or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: 65%; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: 55%; or GPA of 2.4 out of 4.0

Bachelor in Nursing Science are not considered equivalent to UK Bachelor degrees.

Netherlands
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 8 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 7 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 6 out of 10

New Zealand
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) or Bachelor Honours Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: A-*; or First Class Honours**
UK 2:1 degree: B*; or Second Class (Division 1) Honours**
UK 2:2 degree: C+*; or Second Class (Division 2) Honours**

*from a Bachelor degree
**from a Bachelor Honours degree

Nigeria
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 4.50 out of 5.00; or GPA 6.0 out of 7.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.50 out of 5.00; or GPA 4.6 out of 7.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.80 out of 5.00; or GPA 3.0 out of 7.0

Norway
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (180 ECTS credits) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: Overall B grade with at least 75 ECTS (of 180 ECTS min overall) at grade A or above.
UK 2:1 degree: Overall B grade
UK 2:2 degree: Overall C grade

Oman
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.5 out of 4.0

Pakistan
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 4 years) from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.0 to 3.8 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 2.6 to 3.6 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.0 to 3.0 out of 4.0

Offer conditions will vary depending on the institution you are applying from.  For some institutions/degrees we will ask for different grades to above, so this is only a guide. 

Palestine, State of
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 90% or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: 80% or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: 70% or GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Panama
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Licenciado / Titulo de [subject area] (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 91%
UK 2:1 degree: 81%
UK 2:2 degree: 71%

Papua New Guinea
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Honours Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: Class I
UK 2:1 degree: Class II, division A
UK 2:2 degree: Class II, division B

Paraguay
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Titulo de Licenciado / Titulo de [professional title] (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 4.7 out of 5
UK 2:1 degree: 4 out of 5
UK 2:2 degree: 3.5 out fo 5

Peru
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Grado Academico de Bachiller or Titulo de Licenciado/ Titulo (Professional) de [subject area] from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 17 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 14 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 12 out of 20

Philippines
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from selected institutions or Juris Doctor; Bachelor of Laws; Doctor of Medicine; Doctor of Dentistry/ Optometry/ Veterinary Medicine; or Masters Degree from recognised institutions.

UK 1st class degree: 3.6 out of 4.0; or 94%; or 1.25 out of 5
UK 2:1 degree: 3.0 out of 4.0; or 86%; or 1.75 out of 5
UK 2:2 degree: 2.5 out of 4.0; or 80%; or 2.5 out of 5

The above 'out of 5' scale assumes 1 is highest mark and 3 is the pass mark.

Poland
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Licencjat or Inzynier (minimum 3 years) - these must be awarded after 2001 from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 4.8 out of 5.0
UK 2:1 degree: 4.5 out of 5.0
UK 2:2 degree: 3.8 out of 5.0

The above grades are based on the 2 to 5 scale, where 3 is the pass mark and 5 is the highest mark.

Portugal
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Licenciado (minimum 180 ECTS credits) or Diploma de Estudos Superiores Especializados (DESE) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 14 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 12 out of 20

Puerto Rico
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 90/100 or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: 80/100 or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: 70/100 or GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Qatar
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0; or GPA 4.4 out of 5.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0; or GPA 3.6 out of 5.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.4 out of 4.0; or GPA 2.8 out of 5.0

Romania
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 180 ECTS credits) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 9.75 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 8.0 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 7.0 out of 10

Russia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Specialist Diploma from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 4.7 out of 5
UK 2:1 degree: 4.0 out of 5
UK 2:2 degree: 3.5 out of 5

Rwanda
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Honours Degree (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 85%; or 17 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 70%; or 15 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 60%; or 13 out of 20

Saudi Arabia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 4.75 out of 5.0; or GPA 3.75 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.75 out of 5.0; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 5.0; or GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Senegal
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Maîtrise; Master II; Diplôme d'Études Approfondies (DEA); Diplôme d'Études Supérieures Specialisées (DESS); Diplôme d'État de Docteur en Médecine; Diplôme d'Ingénieur; Diplôme de Docteur en Chirurgie Dentaire; or Diplôme de Pharmacien from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 16/20
UK 2:1 degree: 14/20
UK 2:2 degree: 12/20

Serbia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Advanced Diploma of Higher Education from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 9 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 8 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 7 out of 10

Sierra Leone
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (Honours) or a Masters degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: First Class honours; or GPA 4.7 out of 5; or GPA 3.75 out of 4
UK 2:1 degree: Upper Second Class honours; or GPA 4 out of 5; or GPA 3.25 out of 4
UK 2:2 degree: Lower Second Class Honours; or GPA 3.4 out of 5; or GPA 2.75 out of 4

Singapore
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) or Bachelor Honours degree from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 4.3 out of 5.0; or GPA 3.6 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.8 out of 5.0; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 3.3 out of 5.0; or GPA 2.5 out of 4.0

Slovakia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (180 ECTS credits) (minimum 3 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 93%; or 1 overall (on 1 to 4 scale, where 1 is highest mark)
UK 2:1 degree: 86%; or 1.5 overall (on 1 to 4 scale, where 1 is highest mark)
UK 2:2 degree: 72%; or 2.5 overall (on 1 to 4 scale, where 1 is highest mark)

Slovenia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Univerzitetni Diplomant (180 ECTS credits) (minimum 3 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 9.5 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 8 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 7 out of 10

Somalia
Bachelor degrees from Somalia are not considered for direct entry to our postgraduate taught programmes. Holders of Bachelor degrees from Somali National University can be considered for our Pre-Masters programmes on a case by case basis.

South Africa
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: NQF Level 8 qualifications such as Bachelor Honours degrees or Professional Bachelor degrees from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 75%
UK 2:1 degree: 70%
UK 2:2 degree: 60%

South Korea
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 4.2 out of 4.5; or GPA 4.0 out of 4.3; or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.5 out of 4.5; or GPA 3.3 out of 4.3; or GPA 3.2 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.5; or GPA 2.8 out of 4.3; or GPA 2.5 out of 4.0

Spain
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Titulo Universitario Oficial de Graduado en [subject area] (Grado) or Titulo Universitario Oficial de Licenciado en [subject area] (Licenciatura) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 8.0 out of 10; or 2.5 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: 7.0 out of 10; or 2.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: 6.0 out of 10; or 1.5 out of 4.0

Sri Lanka
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (Special or Honours) or Bachelor Degree (Professional) (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.5 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Sudan
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Honours degree from a recognised institution or Bachelor degree in one of the following Professional subjects: Architecture; Dentistry; Engineering; Medicine/Surgery from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 80%
UK 2:1 degree: 65%
UK 2:2 degree: 60%

Sweden
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (Kandidatexamen) or Professional Bachelor Degree (Yrkesexamenfrom) (180 ECTS credits) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: Overall B grade with at least 75 ECTS at grade A or above (180 ECTS minimum overall); or at least 65% of credits graded at VG overall
UK 2:1 degree: Overall B grade (180 ECTS minimum overall); or at least 50% of credits graded at VG overall
UK 2:2 degree: Overall C grade (180 ECTS minimum overall); or at least 20% of credits graded at VG overall.

Switzerland
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor degree (180 ECTS credits) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 5.5 out of 6; or 9 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 5 out of 6; or 8 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 4.25 out of 6; or 7 out of 10

Syria
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 85%
UK 2:1 degree: 75%
UK 2:2 degree: 65%

Taiwan
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: 85 to 90%
UK 2:1 degree: 70 to 75%
UK 2:2 degree: 65 to 70%

Offer conditions will vary depending on the institution you are applying from.  

Tajikistan
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Specialist Diploma or Masters Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 4.7 out of 5
UK 2:1 degree: 4.0 out of 5
UK 2:2 degree: 3.5 out of 5

Tanzania
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 4.4 out of 5.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.5 out of 5.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.7 out of 5.0

Thailand
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.40 to 3.60 out of 4.00
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.00 to 3.20 out of 4.00
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.40 to 2.60 out of 4.00

Offer conditions will vary depending on the institution you are applying from.

Trinidad and Tobago
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0; or First Class Honours from the University of West Indies
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0; or Upper Second Class Honours from the University of West Indies
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.4 out of 4.0; or Lower Second Class Honours from the University of West Indies

Tunisia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Licence; Diplome National d'Architecture; Maitrise; Diplome National d'Ingeniuer; or Doctorat en Medecine / Veterinaire from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 13 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 11 out of 20

Turkey
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.40 to 3.60 out of 4.00
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 2.80 to 3.00 out of 4.00
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.30 to 2.50 out of 4.00

Offer conditions will vary depending on the institution you are applying from.

Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.60 out of 4.00
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.00 out of 4.00
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.50 out of 4.00

Turkmenistan
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Diploma of Higher Education (awarded after 2007) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 4.7 out of 5
UK 2:1 degree: 4.0 out of 5
UK 2:2 degree: 3.5 out of 5

Turks and Caicos Islands
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (accredited by the Council of Community Colleges of Jamaica) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0; or 80%
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.3 out of 4.0; or 75%
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.7 out of 4.0; or 65%

Uganda
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 4.4 out of 5.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 4.0 out of 5.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 5.0

Ukraine
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Specialist Diploma from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 10 out of 12; or 4.7 out of 5
UK 2:1 degree: 8 out of 12; or 4.0 out of 5
UK 2:2 degree: 6 out of 12; or 3.5 out of 5

United Arab Emirates
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.5 out of 4.0

United States of America
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.2 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.5 out of 4.0

Uruguay
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Titulo de Licenciado/ Titulo de [subject area] (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 10 to 11 out of 12
UK 2:1 degree: 7 to 9 out of 12
UK 2:2 degree: 6 to 7 out of 12

Offer conditions will vary depending on the institution you are applying from.

Uzbekistan
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 4 years) or Specialist Diploma from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 90%; or 4.7 out of 5
UK 2:1 degree: 80%; or 4.0 out of 5
UK 2:2 degree: 71%; or 3.5 out of 5

Venezuela
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Titulo de Licenciado/ Titulo de [subject area] from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 81%
UK 2:1 degree: 71%
UK 2:2 degree: 61%

Non-percentage grading scales, for example scales out of 20, 10, 9 or 5, will have different requirements. 

Vietnam
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 8.0 out of 10; or GPA 3.7 out of 4
UK 2:1 degree: 7.0 out of 10; or GPA 3.0 out of 4
UK 2:2 degree: 5.7 out of 10; or GPA 2.4 out of 4

Yemen
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Masters (Majister) degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 90%
UK 2:1 degree: 80%
UK 2:2 degree: 65%

Bachelor Degrees from Lebanese International University (in Yemen) can be considered for entry to postgraduate taught programmes - please see Lebanon for guidance on grade requirements for this.

Zambia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Masters Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 75%; or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: 65%; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: 55%; or GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Zimbabwe
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 4 years) or Bachelor Honours degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 75%
UK 2:1 degree: 65%
UK 2:2 degree: 60%

Wed, 11 May 2022 15:43:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.qmul.ac.uk/postgraduate/taught/coursefinder/courses/electronic-engineering-by-research-msc/
Killexams : Computer Science Bachelor of Science Degree Course Sem. Cr. Hrs. First Year CSCI-141

Computer Science I

This course serves as an introduction to computational thinking using a problem-centered approach. Specific courses covered include: expression of algorithms in pseudo code and a programming language; functional and imperative programming techniques; control structures; problem solving using recursion; basic searching and sorting; elementary data structures such as lists, trees, and graphs; and correctness, testing and debugging. Assignments (both in class and for homework) requiring a pseudo code solution and an implementation are an integral part of the course. An end-of-term project is also required. Lec/Lab 6 (Fall, Spring).

4 CSCI-142

Computer Science II

This course delves further into problem solving by continuing the discussion of data structure use and design, but now from an object-oriented perspective. Key courses include more information on tree and graph structures, nested data structures, objects, classes, inheritance, interfaces, object-oriented collection class libraries for abstract data types (e.g. stacks, queues, maps, and trees), and static vs. dynamic data types. Concepts of object-oriented design are a large part of the course. Software qualities related to object orientation, namely cohesion, minimal coupling, modifiability, and extensibility, are all introduced in this course, as well as a few elementary object-oriented design patterns. Input and output streams, graphical user interfaces, and exception handling are covered. Students will also be introduced to a modern integrated software development environment (IDE). Programming projects will be required. (Prerequisites: CSCI-141 with a grade of C- or better or equivalent course.) Lec/Lab 6 (Fall, Spring, Summer).

4 MATH-181

General Education – Mathematical Perspective A: Project-Based Calculus I

This is the first in a two-course sequence intended for students majoring in mathematics, science, or engineering. It emphasizes the understanding of concepts, and using them to solve physical problems. The course covers functions, limits, continuity, the derivative, rules of differentiation, applications of the derivative, Riemann sums, definite integrals, and indefinite integrals. (Prerequisite: A- or better in MATH-111 or A- or better in ((NMTH-260 or NMTH-272 or NMTH-275) and NMTH-220) or a math placement test score greater than or equal to 70 or department permission to enroll in this class.) Lecture 6 (Fall, Spring, Summer).

4 MATH-182

General Education – Mathematical Perspective B: Project-Based Calculus II

This is the second in a two-course sequence intended for students majoring in mathematics, science, or engineering. It emphasizes the understanding of concepts, and using them to solve physical problems. The course covers techniques of integration including integration by parts, partial fractions, improper integrals, applications of integration, representing functions by infinite series, convergence and divergence of series, parametric curves, and polar coordinates. (Prerequisites: C- or better in (MATH-181 or MATH-173 or 1016-282) or (MATH-171 and MATH-180) or equivalent course(s).) Lecture 6 (Fall, Spring, Summer).

4 MATH-190

General Education – Elective: Discrete Mathematics for Computing

This course introduces students to ideas and techniques from discrete mathematics that are widely used in Computer Science. Students will learn about the fundamentals of propositional and predicate calculus, set theory, relations, recursive structures and counting. This course will help increase students’ mathematical sophistication and their ability to handle abstract problems. (Co-requisites: MATH-182 or MATH-182A or MATH-172 or equivalent courses.) Lecture 3 (Fall, Spring).

3 YOPS-10

RIT 365: RIT Connections

RIT 365 students participate in experiential learning opportunities designed to launch them into their career at RIT, support them in making multiple and varied connections across the university, and immerse them in processes of competency development. Students will plan for and reflect on their first-year experiences, receive feedback, and develop a personal plan for future action in order to develop foundational self-awareness and recognize broad-based professional competencies. Lecture 1 (Fall, Spring).

0  

General Education – First Year Writing (WI)

3  

General Education – Ethical Perspective

3  

General Education – Artistic Perspective

3  

General Education – Global Perspective

3  

General Education – Social Perspective

3 Second Year CSCI-099

Undergraduate Co-operative Education Seminar

This seminar helps students prepare for Computer Science co-operative education employment (“co-op”) by developing job search strategies and materials, and reviewing relevant policies. Students are introduced to RIT’s Office of Career Services and Cooperative Education, and learn about professional and ethical responsibilities for their co-op and subsequent professional experiences. Completion of this seminar and the related assignments are required before a CS student can be registered for co-op. (Prerequisites: This class is restricted to COMPSCI-BS or COMPEX-UND Major students with at least 2nd year standing.) Lecture 1 (Fall, Spring).

0 CSCI-243

The Mechanics of Programming

Students will be introduced to the details of program structure and the mechanics of execution as well as supportive operating system features. Security and performance issues in program design will be discussed. The program translation process will be examined. Programming assignments will be required. (Prerequisite: C- or better in CSCI-140 or CSCI-142 or CSCI-242 or SWEN-124 or CSEC-124 or GCIS-124 or equivalent course.) Lecture 3 (Fall, Spring, Summer).

3 CSCI-488

CS Undergraduate Summer Co-op (summer)

Students perform professional work related to Computer Science for which they are paid. Students must complete a student co-op work report for each term for which they are registered; students are also evaluated each term by their employer. A satisfactory grade is given for co-op when both a completed student co-op work report and a completed, corresponding employer evaluation are received and when both documents are generally consistent. When registered for co-op, students are considered by RIT to have full-time status. In order to register for co-op for summer term, we expect that students will work a minimum of 10 weeks and work a minimum of 35 hours per week. CO OP (Summer).

0 Choose one of the following:

3

    CSCI-262

   Introduction to Computer Science Theory

This course provides an introduction to the theory of computation, including formal languages, grammars, auto-mata theory, computability, and complexity. (Prerequisites: (MATH-190 or MATH-200) and (CSCI-140 or CSCI-141 or CSCI-242 or SWEN-123 or SWEN-124 or CSECI-123 or CSEC-124 or GCIS-123 or GCIS-124) or equivalent courses.) Lecture 3 (Fall, Spring, Summer).

      CSCI-263

   Honors Introduction to Computer Science Theory

This course provides a challenging introduction to the theory of computation with an emphasis on problem solving. courses include formal languages, grammars, auto-mata theory, computability, and complexity. (Prerequisites: (MATH-190 or MATH-200) and (CSCI-140 or CSCI-141 or CSCI-242 or SWEN-123 or SWEN-124 or CSECI-123 or CSEC-124 or GCIS-123 or GCIS-124) or equivalent courses.) Lecture 3 (Fall).

  MATH-241

General Education – Elective: Linear Algebra

This course is an introduction to the basic concepts of linear algebra, and techniques of matrix manipulation. courses include linear transformations, Gaussian elimination, matrix arithmetic, determinants, vector spaces, linear independence, basis, null space, row space, and column space of a matrix, eigenvalues, eigenvectors, change of basis, similarity and diagonalization. Various applications are studied throughout the course. (Prerequisites: MATH-190 or MATH-200 or MATH-219 or MATH-220 or MATH-221 or MATH-221H or equivalent course.) Lecture 3 (Fall, Spring).

3 MATH-251

General Education – Elective: Probability and Statistics I

This course introduces demo spaces and events, axioms of probability, counting techniques, conditional probability and independence, distributions of discrete and continuous random variables, joint distributions (discrete and continuous), the central limit theorem, descriptive statistics, interval estimation, and applications of probability and statistics to real-world problems. A statistical package such as Minitab or R is used for data analysis and statistical applications. (Prerequisites: MATH-173 or MATH-182 or MATH 182A or equivalent course.) Lecture 3 (Fall, Spring, Summer).

3 Choose one of the following:

3

   CSCI-261

   Analysis of Algorithms

This course provides an introduction to the design and analysis of algorithms. It covers a variety of classical algorithms and data structures and their complexity and will equip students with the intellectual tools to design, analyze, implement, and evaluate their own algorithms. (Prerequisites: (CSCI-243 or SWEN-262) and (MATH-190 or MATH-200) or equivalent courses.) Lecture 3 (Fall, Spring).

     CSCI-264

   Honors Analysis of Algorithms

This course provides a challenging introduction to the design and analysis of algorithms with an emphasis on problem solving and algorithmic research. It covers a variety of classical algorithms and data structures and their complexity, as well as deeper coverage of more advanced material; for example, linear programming, approximation algorithms, and randomized algorithms. The course will equip students with the intellectual tools to design, analyze, implement, and evaluate their own algorithms. (Prerequisites: (CSCI-243 or SWEN-262) and (MATH-190 or MATH-200) or equivalent courses.) Lecture 3 (Fall).

  SWEN-261

Introduction to Software Engineering

An introductory course in software engineering, emphasizing the organizational aspects of software development and software design and implementation by individuals and small teams within a process/product framework. courses include the software lifecycle, software design, user interface issues, specification and implementation of components, assessing design quality, design reviews and code inspections, software testing, basic support tools, technical communications and system documentation, team-based development. A term-long, team-based project done in a studio format is used to reinforce concepts presented in class. (Prerequisite: CSCI-140 or CSCI-142 or CSCI-242 or SWEN-124 or CSEC-124 or GCIS-124 or equivalent course.) Lec/Lab 3 (Fall, Spring).

3  

General Education – Elective: Lab Science II†

4  

General Education – Elective

3  

General Education – Natural Science Perspective: Lab Science I‡

4  

General Education – Scientific Principles Perspective†

3 Third Year CSCI-250

Concepts of Computer Systems

An introduction to the hardware and software organization of computer systems. The course emphasizes a multilevel model of computer organization. courses include the digital logic level; the micro architecture level; the machine instruction set level; the operating system level; and the assembly language level. Programming assignments will be required. (Prerequisites: (CSCI-243 or 4003-334) and (MATH-190 or MATH-200 or 1016-366) or equivalent courses.) Lecture 3 (Fall, Spring, Summer).

3 CSCI-320

Principles of Data Management

This course provides a broad introduction to the principles and practice of modern data management, with an emphasis on the relational database model. courses in relational database systems include data modeling; the relational model; relational algebra; Structured Query Language (SQL); and data quality, transactions, integrity and security. Students will also learn approaches to building relational database application programs. Additional courses include object-oriented and object-relational databases; semi-structured databases (such as XML); and information retrieval. A database project is required. (Prerequisites: (MATH-190 or MATH-200) and (CSCI-140 or CSCI-142 or CSCI-242 or SWEN-124 or CSEC-124 or GCIS-124) or equivalent courses.) Lecture 3 (Fall, Spring, Summer).

3 CSCI-331

Introduction to Artificial Intelligence

An introduction to the theories and algorithms used to create artificial intelligence (AI) systems. courses include search algorithms, logic, planning, machine learning, and applications from areas such as computer vision, robotics, and natural language processing. Programming assignments are an integral part of the course. (Prerequisites: (CSCI-243 or SWEN-262) and (MATH-251 or STAT-205) or equivalent courses. Students cannot take and receive credit for this course if they have taken CSCI-630.) Lecture 3 (Fall, Spring, Summer).

3 CSCI-499

Computer Science Undergraduate Co-op (spring)

Students perform professional work related to Computer Science for which they are paid. Students work full time during the term for which they are registered. Students must complete a student co-op work report for each term for which they are registered; students are also evaluated each term by their employer. A satisfactory grade is given for co-op when both a completed student co-op work report and a completed, corresponding employer evaluation are received and when both documents are generally consistent. (Enrollment in this course requires permission from the department offering the course.) CO OP (Fall, Spring).

0  

General Education – Science Elective‡

3  

General Education – Immersion 1 (WI)

3 Fourth Year CSCI-251

Concepts of Parallel and Distributed Systems

This course is an introduction to the organization and programming of systems comprising multiple computers. courses include the organization of multi-core computers, parallel computer clusters, computing grids, client-server systems, and peer-to-peer systems; computer networks and network protocols; network security; multi-threaded programming; and network programming. Programming projects will be required. (Prerequisites: CSCI-243 or SWEN-262 or equivalent courses.) Lecture 3 (Fall, Spring).

3 CSCI-344

Programming Language Concepts

This course is a study of the syntax and semantics of a diverse set of high-level programming languages. The languages chosen are compared and contrasted in order to demonstrate general principles of programming language design and implementation. The course emphasizes the concepts underpinning modern languages rather than the mastery of particular language details. Programming projects will be required. (Prerequisites: CSCI-243 or SWEN-250 or IGME-309 or 4003-334 or 4010-361 or 4080-487) and (MATH-190 or MATH-200) or equivalent courses.) Lecture 3 (Fall, Spring, Summer).

3 CSCI-471

Professional Communications (WI-PR)

This course focuses on developing and improving verbal and written communication skills specific to the discipline of computer science. courses include the different forms of writing in computer science (books, theses, journal articles, technical reports, manuscripts, etc.), writing styles of computer scientists, document readability and usability, documents for career readiness, effective presentations, teamwork and peer review, research methods, experimentation, documenting mathematics and algorithms, proper formatting of graphs, figures, and tables, and ethical, social, and professional issues facing Computer Scientists. This course is approved as Writing Intensive. (This class is restricted to students with at least 4th year standing COMPSCI-BS or COMPSCI-2M) Lecture 3 (Fall, Spring, Summer).

3 SWEN-732

Collaborative Software Development 

This course covers processes, tools, and techniques for software development, in general, and collaborative, distributed software development, in particular. Students will learn how to design a process specific to their organization and development project needs. This includes how to select a software development life-cycle model, how to select and sequence the development and management activities of a collaborative, distributed software development team structure and dynamics, and how to define the work products, tools, and methods used to perform those activities. The Software Process Engineering Metamodel (SPEM, an Object Management Group standard) will serve to graphically describe, analyze, discuss, and Strengthen software development processes. Special attention will be given to collaboration needs and approaches for small and large teams that may be globally distributed. (Prerequisites: This course is restricted to students with graduate standing in Software Engineering program or GCCIS graduate programs who have completed SWEN-601 and SWEN-610 or equivalent courses.) Lecture 3 (Fall).

3 SWEN-746

Model-Driven Development 

Software models help the software engineer to understand, specify, and analyze software requirements, designs, and implementations (code components, databases, support files, etc.). Model-driven development is a software engineering practice that uses tool-enabled transformation of requirements models to design models and then to code and associated implementation artifacts. Students will use the Unified Modeling Language (UML) and other modeling techniques to capture software requirements, designs, and implementations. Students will also use formal modeling methods to semi-automatically transform among the various models and to study the quality attributes of the modeled software, such as performance, reliability, security, and other qualities. (Co-requisites: SWEN-601 and SWEN-610 or equivalent courses.) Lecture 3 (Fall).

3  

General Education – Immersion 2

3  

Computer Science Electives

9  

General Education – Science Elective‡

3 Fifth Year CSCI-499

Computer Science Undergraduate Co-op (fall)

Students perform professional work related to Computer Science for which they are paid. Students work full time during the term for which they are registered. Students must complete a student co-op work report for each term for which they are registered; students are also evaluated each term by their employer. A satisfactory grade is given for co-op when both a completed student co-op work report and a completed, corresponding employer evaluation are received and when both documents are generally consistent. (Enrollment in this course requires permission from the department offering the course.) CO OP (Fall, Spring).

0  

Computer Science Elective

3  

General Education – Immersion 3

3  

General Education – Elective

3  

Open Electives

6 Sixth Year SWEN-640

Research Methods

Overview of the academic research methodologies used in graduate level work. courses include: Writing style, Audience analysis, Research Planning, Experiment design and result analysis, Document structure, Research validation, and the process for submission and review to conferences and journals. In this course the student will identify and develop a detailed thesis or capstone proposal that may be continued in a subsequent course. An in-depth study of a software engineering syllabu will be research focused. The student selects a research problem, conducts background research, and selects appropriate technology and methodologies needed to fully conduct the project. The syllabu is selected by the student and is in agreement with the student’s advisor and committee. The proposal is presented in a scholarly format for approval by the advisor and committee. (Graduate Computing and Information Sciences) Lecture 3 (Spring).

3 SWEN-755

Software Architecture

A system’s software architecture is the first technical artifact that illustrates a proposed solution to a stated problem. For all but the simplest system, the achievement of qualities such as flexibility, modifiability, security, and reliability is critically dependent on the components and interactions defined by the architecture. The course focuses on the definition of architectural structures, the analysis of architectures in terms of trade-offs among conflicting constraints, the documentation of architecture for use over a product’s life cycle, and the role of architecture during coding activities. (Prerequisites: SWEN-601 and SWEN-610 and SWEN-746 or equivalent courses.) Lecture 3 (Fall).

3 SWEN-777

Software Quality Assurance

This course explores the concepts of process and product quality assurance and introduces approaches and support tools used to extract the information needed to assess and evaluate the quality of existing software systems. Major maintenance activities are detailed including unit and regression testing, test case generation, software refactoring, API migrations, bug localization and triage, and predicting technical debt. Students will participate in an active learning approach by exercising and practicing code reviews, software testing tools, and quality frameworks. (Prerequisites: SWEN-601 and SWEN-610 or equivalent courses.) Lecture 3 (Spring).

3 SWEN-799

Independent Study

This course provides the graduate student an opportunity to explore an aspect of software engineering in depth, under the direction of an adviser. The student selects a topic, conducts background research, develops the system, analyses results, and disseminates the project work. The report explains the topic/problem, the student's approach and the results. (Completion of 9 semester hours is needed for enrollment) (Enrollment in this course requires permission from the department offering the course.) Ind Study (Fall, Spring, Summer).

3  

Graduate Elective

3 Seventh Year SWEN-790

Thesis

This course provides the student with an opportunity to execute a thesis project, analyze and document the project in thesis document form. An in-depth study of a software engineering syllabu will be research focused, having built upon the thesis proposal developed prior to this course. The student is advised by their primary faculty adviser and committee. The thesis and thesis defense is presented for approval by the thesis adviser and committee. (Enrollment requires completion of all core courses and permission from the department offering the course.) Thesis 6 (Fall, Spring, Summer).

6  

Graduate Elective

3 Total Semester Credit Hours

150

Fri, 06 May 2022 07:18:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.rit.edu/study/computer-science-bs
Killexams : Structured Data Capture for Oncology

Interoperability, in the context of complex oncology data sets, is the ability to share and reuse data across multiple nodes without semantic, contextual, or structural loss.1 Reuse of data refers primarily to secondary usage in an external data ecosystem for purposes such as patient care, cancer surveillance, research, and clinical trials. Interoperability is greatly enhanced by standardizing the structure of contextually related data fields, before capturing in an electronic health record (EHR) system.

CONTEXT

  • Key Objective

  • Review the current state of the Structured Data Capture (SDC) initiative in the oncology data ecosystem.

  • Knowledge Generated

  • SDC is a computer-readable information model that defines the information content of data-entry forms, supports multiple approaches for SDC data exchange, and enables secondary use of standardized data.

  • Relevance

  • SDC templates allow clinical information to be standardized for data capture before entry into computer systems. SDC is especially valuable for the collection and exchange of rapidly versioned data elements such as those found in pathology data sets, cancer staging, and clinical trials.

For patient care, preservation of structure and context is critical, from the data entry form (DEF) through all downstream clinical reports. Centralized standardization of data entry fields during the data collection design process, with a focus on downstream interoperability and data reuse, has several benefits.2 The design of data fields and DEF structure by centralized expert teams can make data entry more consistent and efficient, aiding in the data entry process. Standardization of data entry with consistent evidence-based data fields helps to ensure complete collection of clinically critical data in a familiar format and enables the generation of consistent, standardized, and structured reports, regardless of EHR vendor, institution, or variations in the cosmetics of DEF and report formats.3-5

Unfortunately, this type of precapture standardization is rarely addressed by EHR vendors. Attempts to standardize and/or aggregate data fields across EHRs after the data are collected often require a significant effort in data aggregation and cleaning and often yield suboptimal results.6,7 The lack of precapture semantic, contextual, and structural standardization is thus a significant barrier to the complex data analyses required in oncology investigations and is a barrier to sharing data with patients, their care teams, and other EHR systems.8

Structured Data Capture (SDC) is an open-source technical framework published by the Quality Research and Public Health committee of the standards organization Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE). SDC was designed to solve the problem of precapture data standardization in an interoperable manner. SDC can be viewed as a model that specifies the structure of related data elements (DEs) and preserves their semantic and contextual integrity. Furthermore, SDC specifies the information content of interoperable DEFs so that the DEF user can capture, store, and exchange complex, context-rich data in standardized DEs.9 An SDC template specifies the content of a DEF that can be rendered by any EHR vendor in a technology-agnostic manner, while maintaining an exact representation of the data definitions, allowing the captured data to be exchanged in an interoperable manner. SDC-based DEFs are particularly useful for designing and exchanging complex oncology data sets, such as those needed for anatomic pathology, biomarkers, and clinical oncology reporting.

Since 2019, SDC has been the delivery format for the electronic Cancer Checklists (eCCs) from the College of American Pathologists (CAPs). These checklists are used by 35%-40% of North American pathologists.10,11 Much of the data captured by these forms are submitted to North American cancer registries for public health surveillance.12,13 Other clinical specialties (eg, radiology and surgery) are exploring the use of SDC for standardizing data entry, delivering standardized clinical reports, and facilitating downstream data usages. The eCC program is described in another paper in this issue.10

The SDC project was initiated in early 2013 by the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC) through its Standards and Interoperability Framework initiative.14 IHE was selected as the organization to host the specification. The IHE profile for SDC was first published in October 2016, is maintained by the IHE SDC Working Group, and is regularly tested at IHE Connectathons.15,16

The ONC also sponsored an attempt to harmonize FHIR Questionnaire with IHE SDC,17 to produce a hybrid, functionally equivalent FHIR SDC model. However, complete harmonization was not achieved, and the two approaches diverged because of differences in objectives and design principles. In 2017, both IHE SDC and FHIR SDC became community-led initiatives. This paper addresses only IHE SDC.

SDC is an information model that describes how various types of generic clinical information should be represented for technology-agnostic data capture. The primary information type addressed by SDC is the DE,18 which includes question-answer sets and fill-in questions, although SDC can also handle standard media types such as images in questions and responses. Each question and answer has a unique identifier (ID), which remains constant unless the contextual semantics of the question or answer changes. To help represent context and control the display of form parts, SDC sections and DEs may be repeated and nested to any level of depth.

The structure of SDC is defined by a set of nested eXtensible Markup Language (XML) schemas. The schemas constrain the structure of SDC XML to recurring patterns and are also used to generate programming code to create the SDC Object Model (OM). The OM is used to generate SDC XML from SDC modeling tools and may also be used to control the behavior of SDC-based DEFs. Details about the SDC Schema set may be found in the SDC Technical Reference Guide.9,19

SDC XML documents (Fig 1) that are used to generate DEFs are called Form Design Files (FDFs). An FDF may be converted to a DEF using a variety of techniques. One popular technique is to use a program (often written in eXtensible Stylesheet Language with Transformations [XSLT]) to convert the FDF into a functional web page, with JavaScript controllers to implement SDC rules and data submission functionality. However, most vendors who support SDC do not use webpages, but instead use proprietary techniques to transform the FDF into their preferred software implementation.

Common Data Elements and Terminologies

SDC can also define common data elements (CDEs). CDEs are DEs that are common across multiple data sets and/or are shared across clinical domains and/or reused in many different FDFs.20,21 SDC’s use of CDEs provides an important layer of data interoperability and reuse by predefining sharable DEs that are needed for the FDF clinical content.22

Ideally, CDEs should be paired with appropriate standard terminologies to optimize interoperability and encourage CDE reuse.23 Terminology standards are critical to provide the semantic meaning and context of CDE components when CDEs are separated from their SDC source, when used by analysts who may not have access to the SDC or CDE definition, or when combining with data sets from non-SDC and/or non-CDE sources. Similarly, SDC DEs also benefit from being mapped to standard terminologies.

The SDC content management workflow is improved by using ancillary SDC mapping files for CDEs and terminologies, rather than placing CDE and terminology metadata directly in FDFs. External FDF maps promote centralized mechanisms for terminology management, validation, distribution, and searching for new and updated code sets, and they also enable the transmission of smaller SDC messages. However, some use cases may require the transmission of terminology codes within the FDF, and SDC supports this model as well.

SDC + Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terms

Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT) is the most comprehensive controlled medical terminology and is broadly adopted internationally. SNOMED CT is polyhierarchical, allowing multiple parent nodes per clinical concept. It is composed of 19 domain hierarchies, such body structure, observable entity, and clinical finding. Each concept may be defined (rendered computable) by specifying supertype(s) and additional defining attributes from the various domain hierarchies. Defined concepts are subjected to computer classification, which moves each concept under its logical parent concepts and creates additional logical concept relationships. The result is a robust searchable ontology that allows for granular, specific concept definitions, concept aggregations, and concept grouping by defining characteristics.24 In 2014, investigators at the University of Nebraska Medical Center began development of SNOMED CT concepts specific to the eCC SDC content to address terminology deficiencies noted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for cancer reporting.25,26 An example of the new SNOMED CT modeling for the eCC SDC templates is provided in Figure 2.

SDC IDs for answer choices change whenever the answer choice semantics change. For SDC questions, the SDC ID changes whenever any change is made to the semantics of the question or any of its child answer choices. This provides clear documentation whenever the DE’s composite semantics changes. However, this level of semantic version control in SDC can be undesirable when stable IDs are desired for querying across DE versions, where SDC IDs are used as query targets. SNOMED CT, when mapped to each SDC question and answer, solves this problem by providing stable semantic IDs for each SDC ID. Additionally, the SNOMED CT ontology provides new opportunities for analytics such as increasing or decreasing the granularity of queries through drilldowns and rollups, which would be impossible with SDC IDs alone. Finally, SNOMED CT provides a robust analytics capability that can survive minor DE version changes that alter SDC IDs.

SDC Data Transmission

When an SDC DEF is filled out, the user’s responses may be stored inside the FDF XML, which is now called an FDF with Responses (FDF-R). The FDF-R may undergo cycles of edit-save-edit revisions before being transmitted (using standard IHE transactions) to one or more end points, such as EHRs and public health agencies. Alternatively, responses may be extracted from the DEF or FDF-R and transmitted in any suitable format, such as North American Association of Central Cancer Registries (NAACCR) Volume V,27 which uses Health Level Seven International (HL7) v.2.5.1, or IHE SDC on FHIR28 (discussed below). While recreating the transmitted DEF at the end point node is a trivial task if the FDF-R is transmitted intact, the question and answer responses can be extracted and reconstructed into an SDC DEF after using any of the above transmission techniques.

SDC on FHIR

The IHE SDC working group is developing a transmission specification for IHE SDC using FHIR as the wrapper or transport mechanism for SDC forms.28 This approach wraps or converts SDC forms to a variety of FHIR resources. A FHIR resource is a reusable data structure that represents a small domain of healthcare information. Examples include patient, practitioner, claim, and location. IHE SDC on FHIR uses the resources named DocumentReference and Observation.29,30 This approach provides seamless interoperability between FHIR and IHE SDC. SDC forms and data are transported in a FHIR DocumentReference wrapper, and the FDF-R question and answer content is parsed into individual FHIR Observation objects.31 The SDC Observations can be processed and queried like any other FHIR data, expanding the downstream usability of the SDC data.

SDC DEs and FHIR Observations both support repurposing of SDC data for reuse in other types of data sets, eg, biospecimen annotations, clinical trial forms, reports, and rules engines. The SDC IDs and mapped terminology codes allow downstream systems to reconstruct the semantic, contextual, and structural aspects of the DEs, and if required, to trace back to the SDC form where the data originated.

SDC-Based Breast Cancer Staging Calculator

One important example of new feature testing involves the implementation of an SDC-based Breast Cancer Staging Calculator (BCSC) that uses the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging application programming interface. New features piloted in the BCSC reference implementation included a more advanced use of skip logic (turning DEF parts of/off depending on the user type [pathologist or oncologist]) the use of surrogate codes in a format required by the staging web service, the aggregation of parameter values from selected answers and user-entered values, the sending of those parameter values to a staging web service (created by AJCC and CDC), return of the values to designated parts of the SDC DEF, generation of a full synoptic report on the basis of the user responses and values returned from the staging web service, and also transmission of that report to a CDC server using the IHE SDC SubmitForm transaction.9 These features are specified declaratively inside the FDF XML, without any procedural code. In the BCSC reference implementation, small JavaScript services were used to read the FDF XML metadata and implement the above behavior when DEF buttons were pressed and when the form results were submitted to the CDC server. This pilot served as a demonstration of a multipart SDC form that is used by three different physicians in sequence to produce an integrated staging report for automating both clinical and pathological AJCC staging. Introducing these features for vendor implementation would likely require 1-2 years of additional work after the project plan is approved by the various stakeholders.

Computable Care Guidelines

The Computable Care Guideline (CCG) technical framework reinterprets written guidelines as interoperable computer operations.34,35 The technical framework is based on the FHIR Clinical Practice Guidelines Implementation Guide by the HL7 Clinical Reasoning Work Group.36 In a CCG, data are collected by SDC form components, which are used to trigger FHIR-based rule blocks called Cards, on the basis of FHIR ActivityDefinition.37 Cards are connected to each other using SDC-derived responses and mapped terminology codes transmitted as FHIR transactions.

For example, a cancer diagnosis or staging guideline can be converted to a set of cascading SDC forms and cards that communicate with an EHR system. As clinical results from the SDC form are saved into the patient’s health record, card instructions will present EHR notifications to appropriate members of the care team with the next steps for their patient.38,39 The DEs inside the SDC forms were mapped to terminology codes that enabled coordination between the DEFs, cards, and the EHR in the demonstration.

Computer-Assisted Reporting and Decision Support (CAR/DS)

The CAR/DS framework (no relationship to CCG Cards) is a machine-readable XML-based definition format for representing radiology reporting clinical guidelines created by the American College of Radiologists.40 Like SDC, CAR/DS is also designed to be an open framework for the creation of additional guidelines. The CAR/DS and SDC groups are developing a pilot to correlate radiology (CAR/DS) and pathology (SDC) cancer diagnoses through the use of FHIR transactions.41 Because CAR/DS and SDC both can capture data at the point of care and then convert them to FHIR Observations, they can be made interoperable through FHIR technology. By mapping common DEs across CAR/DS and SDC templates, radiologists will be able to automate the creation of concordance reports that compare the radiologic diagnosis with the pathologic diagnosis. Concordance reports help radiologists determine the accuracy of their radiographic assessments. A pilot project between American College of Radiologists and CAP is applying this approach to the Thyroid Imaging Reporting & Data System (TI-RADS) and the Thyroid eCC SDC template.

Registry Data Dictionaries and Form Templates

NAACCR maintains an extensive composite data dictionary, known as NAACCR Volume II, for cancer registries.42,43 This data dictionary is complex, containing generic DEs applicable to all tumor types and Site-Specific Data Items applicable only to certain tumors.44 Frequent NAACCR volume II changes are a challenge for the various kinds of software that must be updated and the systems that must analyze changing data sets. Furthermore, NAACCR volume II must maintain compatibility with other cancer data standards such as the eCCs, AJCC staging, and the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, third edition (ICD-O-3) cancer classification system. The CAP and the CDC are exploring ways to represent the NAACCR Volume II DEs in SDC format, on a tumor-specific bases, with one FDF per tumor type. The tumor pathology would be drawn largely from existing eCC CDEs, which are already harmonized with AJCC staging, ICD-O-3 and other clinical standards. In this pilot model, each FDF would serve as both a data dictionary and as a DEF template for registry software vendors, potentially alleviating some of the NAACCR versioning challenges.

Minimal Common Oncology Data Element

The minimal Common Oncology Data Elements (mCODE) project curates a standardized set of oncology data represented as FHIR resources. mCODE resources are designed to promote data transfer between EHRs and other systems such as registries and clinical trials software. mCODE began as a collaboration between ASCO and the MITRE Corporation.45 mCODE data may be collected using a variety of tools, including SDC-based DEFs. Current work is exploring ways to transmit SDC-collected data as mCODE resources. Future work may include mapping from specific SDC DEs to mCODE FHIR resources. Additionally, mCODE DEs may be combined with SDC data using FHIR bundles to create a more comprehensive report.

Other Ongoing SDC Work

Additional ongoing SDC work involves testing of SDC schema enhancements, improving documentation, and piloting new approaches to data bundling, transmission, and downstream use. Examples include pilots using SDC + FHIR bundles containing arbitrarily complex SDC and FHIR content,43 tools to extract and display the transmitted data, bulk data transmissions to facilitate large data sets in public health use cases (Fig 3),46,47 sharing patient data with multiple members of a distributed care team in diverse locations, and automated trigger-based clinical decision support.

In conclusion, IHE SDC is a technology designed to meet both data capture and interoperability needs. Complex, frequently changing, oncology data sets were a major design focus. SDC synergizes with technologies such as FHIR and SNOMED CT to greatly increase the capabilities of standardized structured reporting. Some capabilities include improving guideline adherence, clinical decision support, public health surveillance, and data aggregation for research and clinical trials.

Although most vendors who use SDC opt for desktop application DEF technology, SDC-enabled DEF software is also straightforward to implement using standard web technologies. An open-source, web-based SDC reference implementation is available on the IHE-SDC-WG GitHub.48,49 Because of its flexible and interoperable features, SDC could play an important role in data capture for healthcare by creating centrally standardized DEFs for diseases like cancer and could be leveraged for emerging diseases such as COVID-19.

1. HIMSS: What is Interoperability? HIMSS, 2016. https://www.himss.org/library/interoperability-standards/what-is-interoperability Google Scholar 2. Sluijter CE, van Lonkhuijzen LRCW, van Slooten HJ, et al: The effects of implementing synoptic pathology reporting in cancer diagnosis: A systematic review. Virchows Arch 468:639-649, 2016 Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar 3. Srigley J, Lankshear S, Brierley J, et al: Closing the quality loop: Facilitating improvement in oncology practice through timely access to clinical performance indicators. J Oncol Pract 9:e255-e261, 2013 LinkGoogle Scholar 4. Donahoe L, Bennett S, Temple W, et al: Completeness of dictated operative reports in breast cancer--the case for synoptic reporting. J Surg Oncol 106:79-83, 2012 Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar 5. Temple WJ, Chin-Lenn L, Mack LA: Evaluating population-based breast cancer surgical practice in real time with a web-based synoptic operative reporting system. Am J Surg 207:693-697, 2014 Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar 6. den Broeck JV, Cunningham SA, Eeckels R, et al: Data cleaning: Detecting, diagnosing, and editing data abnormalities. PLOS Med 2:e267, 2005 Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar 7. Windle T, McClay J, Windle J: The impact of domain knowledge on structured data collection and templated note design. Appl Clin Inform 04:317-330, 2013 CrossrefGoogle Scholar 8. Staes C: Solor—The Simple Healthcare Terminology Solution. 2020. http://solor.io/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/White-paper_Achieving-semantic-data-interoperability.pdf Google Scholar 9. IHE Quality Research and Public Health: Structured Data Capture Technical Framework. 2016. http://ihe.net/uploadedFiles/Documents/QRPH/IHE_QRPH_Suppl_SDC.pdf Google Scholar 10. Torous VF, Simpson RW, Balani JP, et al: The College of American Pathologists Cancer Protocols: From optimizing cancer patient care to facilitating interoperable reporting and downstream data use. JCO Clin Cancer Informatics 5:47-55, 2021 Google Scholar 11. Simpson RW, Berman MA, Foulis PR, et al: Cancer biomarkers: The role of structured data reporting. Arch Pathol Lab Med 139:587-593, 2014 Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar 12. Rollison DE, Howlader N, Smith MT, et al: Epidemiology of myelodysplastic syndromes and chronic myeloproliferative disorders in the United States, 2001-2004, using data from the NAACCR and SEER programs. Blood 112:45-52, 2008 Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar 13. North American Association of Central Cancer Registries: Pathology Laboratory Electronic Reporting, Volume V. 2020. https://www.naaccr.org/pathology-laboratory-electronic-reporting/ Google Scholar 14. The Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology: Standards & Interoperability (S&I) Framework|HealthIT.gov. Off Natl Coord Health Inf Technol, 2019. https://www.healthit.gov/topic/interoperability/standards-interoperability-si-framework Google Scholar 15. IHE: IHE Connectathon Overview|IHE USA. IHE. 2019. https://www.iheusa.org/ihe-connectathon-overview Google Scholar 16. O’Donnell K: Radiation exposure monitoring: A new IHE profile. Pediatr Radiol 41:588, 2011 Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar 17. HL7: FHIR Structured Data Capture. HL7 FHIR, 2020. https://build.fhir.org/ig/HL7/sdc/ Google Scholar 18. International Organization for Standardization: ISO/IEC 11179-7:2019 Information technology—Metadata Registries (MDR)—Part 7: Metamodel for Data Set Registration. ISO, 2019. https://www.iso.org/cms/render/live/en/sites/isoorg/contents/data/standard/06/87/68766.html Google Scholar 19. Moldwin R (ed): IHE Structured Data Capture (SDC)Technical Reference Guide (TRG). 2020. https://github.com/IHE-SDC-WG/SDC-Schema-Packages/blob/master/Documentation/CAP%20SDC%20Technical%20Reference%20Guide_v0.42%20(Feb%202020).pdf Google Scholar 20. Crichton C, Davies J, Gibbons J, et al: Metadata-driven software for clinical trials, in 2009 ICSE Workshop on Software Engineering in Health Care, Vancouver, BC, Canada, IEEE, 2009. https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/5069600 CrossrefGoogle Scholar 21. Hruby GW, Hoxha J, Ravichandran PC, et al: A data-driven concept schema for defining clinical research data needs. Int J Med Inf 91:1-9, 2016 Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar 22. Sinaci AA, Laleci Erturkmen GB: A federated semantic metadata registry framework for enabling interoperability across clinical research and care domains. J Biomed Inform 46:784-794, 2013 Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar 23. Sheehan J, Hirschfeld S, Foster E, et al: Improving the value of clinical research through the use of Common Data Elements. Clin Trials Lond Engl 13:671-676, 2016 Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar 24. Campbell WS, Pedersen J, McClay JC, et al: An alternative database approach for management of SNOMED CT and improved patient data queries. J Biomed Inform 57:350-357, 2015 Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar 25. Campbell JR, Talmon G, Cushman-Vokoun A, et al: An extended SNOMED CT concept model for observations in molecular genetics. AMIA Annu Symp Proc 2016:352-360, 2017 Google Scholar 26. Campbell WS, Karlsson D, Vreeman DJ, et al: A computable pathology report for precision medicine: Extending an observables ontology unifying SNOMED CT and LOINC. J Am Med Inform Assoc 25:259-266, 2018 Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar 27. Jones S, Mazuyrk J: Standards for Cancer Registries Volume V: Pathology Laboratory Electronic Reporting, Version 5. 2020. https://www.naaccr.org/pathology-laboratory-electronic-reporting/ Google Scholar 28. Canada Health Infoway, Ontario Health (Cancer Care Ontario): IHE SDC on FHIR. SIMPLIFIERNET. 2019. https://simplifier.net/sdconfhir Google Scholar 29. HL7: DocumentReference—FHIR v4.0.1. HL7 FHIR, 2019. https://www.hl7.org/fhir/documentreference.html Google Scholar 30. HL7: Observation—FHIR v4.0.1. HL7 FHIR, 2019. https://www.hl7.org/fhir/observation.html Google Scholar 31. Francis J: IHE-SDC-WG/IHE-SDC-FHIR-Parser. IHE Structured Data Capture Working Group, 2020. https://github.com/IHE-SDC-WG/IHE-SDC-FHIR-Parser Google Scholar 32. Canadian Partnership Against Cancer: Evaluation of the Electronic Synoptic Pathology Reporting Initiative. Can Partnersh Cancer, 2020. https://www.partnershipagainstcancer.ca/topics/synoptic-pathology-reporting/ Google Scholar 33. Cancer Care Ontario: Synoptic Pathology Reporting. Cancer Care Ont, 2017. https://www.cancercareontario.ca/en/guidelines-advice/treatment-modality/pathology-laboratory-testing/synoptic-pathology-reporting Google Scholar 34. IHE Quality Research and Public Health: Computable Care Guidelines—IHE Wiki. 2020. https://wiki.ihe.net/index.php/Computable_Care_Guidelines Google Scholar 35. Shah H, Allard RD, Enberg R, et al: Requirements for guidelines systems: Implementation challenges and lessons from existing software-engineering efforts. BMC Med Inform Decis Mak 12:16, 2012 Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar 36. HL7: FHIR Clinical Guidelines. HL7 FHIR, 2020. http://build.fhir.org/ig/HL7/cqf-recommendations/index.html Google Scholar 37. HL7: ActivityDefinition—FHIR v4.0.1. 2019. https://www.hl7.org/fhir/activitydefinition.html Google Scholar 38. Boxwala AA, Rocha BH, Maviglia S, et al: A multi-layered framework for disseminating knowledge for computer-based decision support. J Am Med Inform Assoc 18:i132-i139, 2011 Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar 39. Francis J, Goel AK, Ibrahim M, et al: Lung Diagnosis Computable Care Guideline, in Computable Care Guidelines, Cleveland, OH, IHE Connectathon, 2020. https://simplifier.net/guide/LungCancerDiagnosisComputableCareGuidline/Demo Google Scholar 40. Alkasab TK, Bizzo BC, Berland LL, et al: Creation of an open framework for point-of-care computer-assisted reporting and decision support tools for radiologists. J Am Coll Radiol 14:1184-1189, 2017 Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar 41. Kuo MD, Yamamoto S: Next generation radiologic-pathologic correlation in oncology: Rad-path 2.0. Am J Roentgenol 197:990-997, 2011 Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar 42. Thornton M: Data Standards & Data Dictionary, Volume II. 2018. https://www.naaccr.org/data-standards-data-dictionary/ Google Scholar 43. North American Association of Central Cancer Registries: Steering Committees and Subgroups. NAACCR, 2018. https://www.naaccr.org/steering-committees/ Google Scholar 44. Ruhl J, Ward E, Hofferkamp J: Site-Specific Data Item (SSDI) Manual. 2019. https://www.naaccr.org/SSDI/SSDI-Manual.pdf?v=1596228380 Google Scholar 45. mCODE|Minimal Common Oncology Data Elements. 2020. https://mcodeinitiative.org/ Google Scholar 46. HL7: Bundle—FHIR v4.0.1. 2020. https://www.hl7.org/fhir/bundle.html Google Scholar 47. HL7, Boston Children’s Hospital: FHIR Bulk Data Access (Flat FHIR). 2020. https://hl7.org/fhir/uv/bulkdata/ Google Scholar 48. IHE-SDC-WG/SDC-Conformance-Tool. IHE Structured Data Capture Working Group, 2017. https://github.com/IHE-SDC-WG/SDC-Conformance-Tool- Google Scholar 49. IHE-SDC-WG/SDC-Conformance-Tool. IHE Structured Data Capture Working Group, 2017. https://sdcapp.azurewebsites.net/SDCApp/ Google Scholar
Thu, 19 May 2022 03:44:00 -0500 en text/html https://ascopubs.org/doi/10.1200/CCI.20.00103
Killexams : Public Administration

The MPA program is designed to be a part-time program for working adults. All classes meet for full days on weekends, with each course consisting of five class sessions. Students become part of a group that meets on Saturdays and remains together for the duration of the program. Core courses relate to the needs of those intending to serve in administrative and managerial roles in health care, non-profit, and criminal justice organizations.

Elective courses include public sector budgeting and accounting, legal and regulatory issues, computer applications, and specialty courses in health care, non-profit, and criminal justice management. Students who follow the prescribed;course sequence;can expect to complete the program in 15 months, including two summers of academic work.

Sat, 31 Mar 2018 23:02:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.alfred.edu/academics/graduate-programs/public-administration.cfm
Killexams : Udacity Courses No result found, try new keyword!You will learn how to transform hand-drawn app designs into layouts using the XML markup language ... accelerate your journey towards becoming a professional Android Developer. Wed, 11 Aug 2021 19:22:00 -0500 text/html https://www.usnews.com/education/skillbuilder/platform-search/udacity Killexams : Design and Imaging Technology Course Graphic Design Concentration N3DG-110

Basic 3D Modeling

This course is an introduction to the representation of form in three-dimensional space using 3D software. The course focuses on the development of visual and verbal vocabulary as a means of exploring, developing, and understanding 3D modeling techniques. courses include the basics of lines, planes, contour, transforming lines into forms, interaction of lights and surfaces, perspective, resolution of geometry, and rendering. Projects will include modeling organic and inorganic forms, composition and level of detail. Structured assignments develop skills in concept generation, basic form making, techniques and craftsmanship. Emphasis is placed on workflow, teamwork, and the technical and aesthetic aspects of each project. (NTID Supported Students.) Lec/Lab 5 (Fall).

N3DG-115

Intermediate 3D Modeling and Techniques

This course will provide students with an extensive range of strategies for modeling and evaluation of the appropriate methods to use in various 3D design situations. The emphasis on the course will be on researching and problem solving in the areas of environments, interiors, spaces, objects and characters. With these techniques, students will develop intermediate skills in creating complex models of organic and inorganic forms, composition, concept art layout, and level of details. Emphasis is placed on workflow, teamwork, and technical and aesthetic aspects of each project. 3D graphics scripting will be introduced. (Prerequisites: This class is restricted to NTID supported students that have completed N3DG-100 and N3DG-110 or equivalent courses.) Lec/Lab 5 (Spring).

N3DG-220

Principles of 4D Design

In this course, students will learn to develop illustrations and animated elements that use the fourth dimension, to create time-based 3D and 2D graphics. Course content includes historic fundamentals of animation, principles of modern animation, and concepts of motion using 3D and 2D software. An overview of animation and time-based design will be introduced and discussed throughout the semester. Writing and storyboarding techniques for animation will be addressed. Vector and raster animation applications will be used. (Prerequisites: This class is restricted to NTID supported students that have completed NAIS-140 or equivalent course with a minimum grade of C or N3DG-115 or equivalent course.) Lec/Lab 5 (Fall).

NAIS-199

Independent Study-Visual Communications Studies

The description for each Independent Study request will be specified in each student proposal. (Enrollment in this course requires permission from the department offering the course.) Ind Study (Fall, Spring).

NAIS-289

Special Topics-Visual Communications Studies

The description for each Special courses request will be specified in each course proposal. (NTID Supported Students.) Lecture (Fall, Spring).

NGRD-115

Visual Idea Development

This course gives students the opportunity to see themselves, their experiences and their environment as sources of creativity, through a variety of activities which will include classroom discussions; videos of artists; visiting a gallery; keeping documented written and illustrated journals, sketchbooks; and working with a team to do a project. Students learn strategies for developing concepts and organization of thought processes as well as systems to formulate solutions to design problems. The library is used for development of research skills for written and visual content. (NTID Supported Students.) Lec/Lab 5 (Fall).

NGRD-211

Drawing II

This course continues the principles and skills developed in Drawing I, with special emphasis on the human form, including proportion, shading, light and dark, head/facial features, sustained study, and the use of figure within a composition. This course extends the various applications learned in the previous drawing and applies them to still life, drapery studies, and the human form within various environments. The use of the sketchbook will be emphasized for development of composition skills; students will use the library and other resources and will further explore various kinds of drawing materials. (Prerequisites: This class is restricted to NTID supported students that have completed NGRD-111 or equivalent course.) Lec/Lab 5 (Spring).

NGRD-258

Cartooning

In this course, students will learn how to create cartoons, apply storytelling techniques to develop sequential graphic narratives, and develop multi page, multi-strip, or single-panel cartoons. Course content includes understanding the history of cartooning, drawing techniques (both traditional and digital methods), character creation and development, story writing, plot breakdowns, panel to panel sequencing, cartooning, and creating final output in the form of a printed comic book or a online web comic. Writing and breakdowns for cartooning will also be taught. Drawing techniques and software applications are taught and used in the course. (NTID Supported Students.) Lab .

NGRP-110

Digital Photography I

This course gives students an introduction to the tools, techniques and terminology of digital photographic imaging through a series of hands-on activities that will permit each student to investigate the applications of digital photography. Students will be expected to capture images using digital cameras, process digital images using the appropriate software, create quality picture files and prints, and participate in project-related critiques. (NTID Supported Students.) Lec/Lab 5 (Fall, Spring).

NGRP-210

Digital Photography II

Aesthetic/composition considerations will be emphasized. Various genres and markets will be discussed such as photo journalism, portraiture, fine art, advertising and marketing, sports, and still life. This course will also address various technologies for the capturing and converting of multiple static images into more dynamic presentations of environments, and objects. courses will include panoramic stitching, creating virtual tours, creating 360 degree views of 3D objects, and creating dynamic slide shows. Students will be taught basic techniques for studio lighting and will be asked to produce photographs to match an art director sketch or layout. (Prerequisites: This class is restricted to NTID supported students that have completed NGRP-110 or equivalent courses.) Lec/Lab 5 (Spring).

NGRP-220

Videography

This course provides an overview of videography for the web. This is a basic digital video course that introduces the process and procedures involved in digital video production from start to finish. Students will be introduced to videography production techniques, camera operation and formats, digital non-linear editing, titling and lighting for video. Emphasis is on development of ideas, proper operation of video and computer equipment for productions and post-production of digital non-linear edited sequences and their adaptation to different presentation formats for online delivery. (NTID Supported Students.) Lec/Lab 5 (Fall).

NGRP-232

Image Manipulation

This course emphasizes the procedures and skill development required for the efficient and effective manipulation and compositing of digital images in a production environment building on the skills previously learned in Raster and Vector Graphics. This is a production-oriented course with a focus on the non-destructive editing of (primarily raster) digital images. This course includes specialized image manipulation methods such as advanced selection and masking techniques for producing images that blend together into a single composite image. Additional courses include applying production planning techniques to image manipulation, production quality standards, advanced methods and quality criteria for image manipulation, and legal and ethical issues. (Prerequisites: This class is restricted to NTID supported students that have completed NAIS-130 equivalent course with a minimum grade of C.) Lec/Lab 5 (Spring).

NGRP-251

Publication Production

The students will study the use of page layout applications to produce book, magazine, and long format publications. courses include techniques for specifying and applying publication templates; font management and selection; page formats; page and section numbering; headers and footers; text editing; graphics creation, preparation, and placement; color specification and usage; automating a table of contents; using a colophon and other features typical for book and long document publishing formats. Students are introduced to the repurposing of documents for interactive digital media and XML-based document production. (Prerequisites: This class is restricted to NTID supported students that have completed NGRP-250 or equivalent course.) Lec/Lab 5 (Fall).

NGRP-260

Web Design II

This course provides an overview of designing multi-page web sites and being sure they are accessible to audiences with special needs. Students will continue to learn how to use website concepts and design elements learned in Web Design I to successfully to create a multi-page web site. Effective use of color, typography, and design will be applied to website design. Students will continue the study and application of Web design concepts, site navigation, interactivity, and the management of a multi-page web site. Students will develop a web site that combines the advantages of text-based production techniques and graphics-based design with content management systems, with a focus on usability and accessibility. (Prerequisites: This class is restricted to NTID supported students that have completed NAIS-160 or equivalent course.) Lec/Lab 5 (Spring).

NGRP-275

Digital Printing Systems

This course will focus on the operating features of the black & white and color digital production printing systems. Students will learn the job and market capability of the various systems, xerography concepts in monochrome printing, image and paper quality considerations, creation of electronic files and file transfer, and operating procedures. Additional courses include the digital workflow for on-demand book printing and small-format binding. (Prerequisites: This class is restricted to NTID supported students that have completed NAIS-130 and NAIS-150 or equivalent courses with a minimum grade of C.) Lec/Lab 5 (Fall).

Graphic Production Concentration N3DG-110

Basic 3D Modeling

This course is an introduction to the representation of form in three-dimensional space using 3D software. The course focuses on the development of visual and verbal vocabulary as a means of exploring, developing, and understanding 3D modeling techniques. courses include the basics of lines, planes, contour, transforming lines into forms, interaction of lights and surfaces, perspective, resolution of geometry, and rendering. Projects will include modeling organic and inorganic forms, composition and level of detail. Structured assignments develop skills in concept generation, basic form making, techniques and craftsmanship. Emphasis is placed on workflow, teamwork, and the technical and aesthetic aspects of each project. (NTID Supported Students.) Lec/Lab 5 (Fall).

N3DG-115

Intermediate 3D Modeling and Techniques 

This course will provide students with an extensive range of strategies for modeling and evaluation of the appropriate methods to use in various 3D design situations. The emphasis on the course will be on researching and problem solving in the areas of environments, interiors, spaces, objects and characters. With these techniques, students will develop intermediate skills in creating complex models of organic and inorganic forms, composition, concept art layout, and level of details. Emphasis is placed on workflow, teamwork, and technical and aesthetic aspects of each project. 3D graphics scripting will be introduced. (Prerequisites: This class is restricted to NTID supported students that have completed N3DG-100 and N3DG-110 or equivalent courses.) Lec/Lab 5 (Spring).

NAIS-199 

Independent Study - Visual Communications Studies

The description for each Independent Study request will be specified in each student proposal. (Enrollment in this course requires permission from the department offering the course.) Ind Study (Fall, Spring).

NAIS-289

Special courses - Visual Communications Studies

The description for each Special courses request will be specified in each course proposal. (NTID Supported Students.) Lecture (Fall, Spring).

NGRD-115

Visual Idea Development

This course gives students the opportunity to see themselves, their experiences and their environment as sources of creativity, through a variety of activities which will include classroom discussions; videos of artists; visiting a gallery; keeping documented written and illustrated journals, sketchbooks; and working with a team to do a project. Students learn strategies for developing concepts and organization of thought processes as well as systems to formulate solutions to design problems. The library is used for development of research skills for written and visual content. (NTID Supported Students.) Lec/Lab 5 (Fall).

NGRP-210

Digital Photography II

Aesthetic/composition considerations will be emphasized. Various genres and markets will be discussed such as photo journalism, portraiture, fine art, advertising and marketing, sports, and still life. This course will also address various technologies for the capturing and converting of multiple static images into more dynamic presentations of environments, and objects. courses will include panoramic stitching, creating virtual tours, creating 360 degree views of 3D objects, and creating dynamic slide shows. Students will be taught basic techniques for studio lighting and will be asked to produce photographs to match an art director sketch or layout. (Prerequisites: This class is restricted to NTID supported students that have completed NGRP-110 or equivalent courses.) Lec/Lab 5 (Spring).

NGRP-220

Videography

This course provides an overview of videography for the web. This is a basic digital video course that introduces the process and procedures involved in digital video production from start to finish. Students will be introduced to videography production techniques, camera operation and formats, digital non-linear editing, titling and lighting for video. Emphasis is on development of ideas, proper operation of video and computer equipment for productions and post-production of digital non-linear edited sequences and their adaptation to different presentation formats for online delivery. (NTID Supported Students.) Lec/Lab 5 (Fall).

NGRP-232

Image Manipulation

This course emphasizes the procedures and skill development required for the efficient and effective manipulation and compositing of digital images in a production environment building on the skills previously learned in Raster and Vector Graphics. This is a production-oriented course with a focus on the non-destructive editing of (primarily raster) digital images. This course includes specialized image manipulation methods such as advanced selection and masking techniques for producing images that blend together into a single composite image. Additional courses include applying production planning techniques to image manipulation, production quality standards, advanced methods and quality criteria for image manipulation, and legal and ethical issues. (Prerequisites: This class is restricted to NTID supported students that have completed NAIS-130 equivalent course with a minimum grade of C.) Lec/Lab 5 (Spring).

NGRP-251

Publication Production

The students will study the use of page layout applications to produce book, magazine, and long format publications. courses include techniques for specifying and applying publication templates; font management and selection; page formats; page and section numbering; headers and footers; text editing; graphics creation, preparation, and placement; color specification and usage; automating a table of contents; using a colophon and other features typical for book and long document publishing formats. Students are introduced to the repurposing of documents for interactive digital media and XML-based document production. (Prerequisites: This class is restricted to NTID supported students that have completed NGRP-250 or equivalent course.) Lec/Lab 5 (Fall).

NGRP-275

Digital Printing Systems

This course will focus on the operating features of the black & white and color digital production printing systems. Students will learn the job and market capability of the various systems, xerography concepts in monochrome printing, image and paper quality considerations, creation of electronic files and file transfer, and operating procedures. Additional courses include the digital workflow for on-demand book printing and small-format binding. (Prerequisites: This class is restricted to NTID supported students that have completed NAIS-130 and NAIS-150 or equivalent courses with a minimum grade of C.) Lec/Lab 5 (Fall).

Digital Media Concentration N3DG-110

Basic 3D Modeling

This course is an introduction to the representation of form in three-dimensional space using 3D software. The course focuses on the development of visual and verbal vocabulary as a means of exploring, developing, and understanding 3D modeling techniques. courses include the basics of lines, planes, contour, transforming lines into forms, interaction of lights and surfaces, perspective, resolution of geometry, and rendering. Projects will include modeling organic and inorganic forms, composition and level of detail. Structured assignments develop skills in concept generation, basic form making, techniques and craftsmanship. Emphasis is placed on workflow, teamwork, and the technical and aesthetic aspects of each project. (NTID Supported Students.) Lec/Lab 5 (Fall).

N3DG-115

Intermediate 3D Modeling and Techniques

This course will provide students with an extensive range of strategies for modeling and evaluation of the appropriate methods to use in various 3D design situations. The emphasis on the course will be on researching and problem solving in the areas of environments, interiors, spaces, objects and characters. With these techniques, students will develop intermediate skills in creating complex models of organic and inorganic forms, composition, concept art layout, and level of details. Emphasis is placed on workflow, teamwork, and technical and aesthetic aspects of each project. 3D graphics scripting will be introduced. (Prerequisites: This class is restricted to NTID supported students that have completed N3DG-100 and N3DG-110 or equivalent courses.) Lec/Lab 5 (Spring).

NAIS-199

Independent Study- Visual Communications Studies

The description for each Independent Study request will be specified in each student proposal. (Enrollment in this course requires permission from the department offering the course.) Ind Study (Fall, Spring).

NAIS-289

Special courses - Visual Communications Studies

The description for each Special courses request will be specified in each course proposal. (NTID Supported Students.) Lecture (Fall, Spring).

NGRD-211

Drawing II

This course continues the principles and skills developed in Drawing I, with special emphasis on the human form, including proportion, shading, light and dark, head/facial features, sustained study, and the use of figure within a composition. This course extends the various applications learned in the previous drawing and applies them to still life, drapery studies, and the human form within various environments. The use of the sketchbook will be emphasized for development of composition skills; students will use the library and other resources and will further explore various kinds of drawing materials. (Prerequisites: This class is restricted to NTID supported students that have completed NGRD-111 or equivalent course.) Lec/Lab 5 (Spring).

NGRD-258

Cartooning

In this course, students will learn how to create cartoons, apply storytelling techniques to develop sequential graphic narratives, and develop multi page, multi-strip, or single-panel cartoons. Course content includes understanding the history of cartooning, drawing techniques (both traditional and digital methods), character creation and development, story writing, plot breakdowns, panel to panel sequencing, cartooning, and creating final output in the form of a printed comic book or a online web comic. Writing and breakdowns for cartooning will also be taught. Drawing techniques and software applications are taught and used in the course. (NTID Supported Students.) Lab .

NGRP-110

Digital Photography I 

This course gives students an introduction to the tools, techniques and terminology of digital photographic imaging through a series of hands-on activities that will permit each student to investigate the applications of digital photography. Students will be expected to capture images using digital cameras, process digital images using the appropriate software, create quality picture files and prints, and participate in project-related critiques. (NTID Supported Students.) Lec/Lab 5 (Fall, Spring).

NGRP-210

Digital Photography II

Aesthetic/composition considerations will be emphasized. Various genres and markets will be discussed such as photo journalism, portraiture, fine art, advertising and marketing, sports, and still life. This course will also address various technologies for the capturing and converting of multiple static images into more dynamic presentations of environments, and objects. courses will include panoramic stitching, creating virtual tours, creating 360 degree views of 3D objects, and creating dynamic slide shows. Students will be taught basic techniques for studio lighting and will be asked to produce photographs to match an art director sketch or layout. (Prerequisites: This class is restricted to NTID supported students that have completed NGRP-110 or equivalent courses.) Lec/Lab 5 (Spring).

NGRP-232

Image Manipulation

This course emphasizes the procedures and skill development required for the efficient and effective manipulation and compositing of digital images in a production environment building on the skills previously learned in Raster and Vector Graphics. This is a production-oriented course with a focus on the non-destructive editing of (primarily raster) digital images. This course includes specialized image manipulation methods such as advanced selection and masking techniques for producing images that blend together into a single composite image. Additional courses include applying production planning techniques to image manipulation, production quality standards, advanced methods and quality criteria for image manipulation, and legal and ethical issues. (Prerequisites: This class is restricted to NTID supported students that have completed NAIS-130 equivalent course with a minimum grade of C.) Lec/Lab 5 (Spring).

NGRP-260

Web Design II

This course provides an overview of designing multi-page web sites and being sure they are accessible to audiences with special needs. Students will continue to learn how to use website concepts and design elements learned in Web Design I to successfully to create a multi-page web site. Effective use of color, typography, and design will be applied to website design. Students will continue the study and application of Web design concepts, site navigation, interactivity, and the management of a multi-page web site. Students will develop a web site that combines the advantages of text-based production techniques and graphics-based design with content management systems, with a focus on usability and accessibility. (Prerequisites: This class is restricted to NTID supported students that have completed NAIS-160 or equivalent course.) Lec/Lab 5 (Spring).

Sun, 03 Mar 2019 22:43:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.rit.edu/study/design-and-imaging-technology-aos
Killexams : Statistical & Data Sciences

The Minor in Statistical & Data Sciences

The minor in statistical & data sciences consists of six courses, according to the following requirements:

  • Four courses: all core courses required for the major, but not MTH 211
  • Any course satisfying the programming depth requirement for the major
  • Any course satisfying the communication requirement for the major

Should these three requirements be fulfilled with fewer than six courses, any of the courses in SDS or CSC that count toward the major may be counted towards the minor. Ordinarily, no more than one course graded S/U will be counted toward the minor.

The Minor in Applied Statistics

The interdepartmental minor in applied statistics offers students a chance to study statistics in the context of a field of application of interest to the student. The minor is designed with enough flexibility to allow a student to choose among many possible fields of application.

The minor consists of five courses. Among the courses used to satisfy the student’s major requirement, a maximum of two courses can count toward the minor. Ordinarily, no more than one course graded S/U will be counted toward the minor.

Students who have taken AP statistics in high school and received a 4 or 5 on the AP Statistics Examination will not be required to repeat the introductory statistics course, but they will be expected to complete five courses to satisfy the requirements for the minor in applied statistics.

The student must take one of the following courses and no more than one of these courses will count toward the minor. (Students presenting a 4 or 5 on the AP Statistics Examination will receive exemption from this requirement.)

  • PSY 201: Statistical Methods for Undergraduates
  • SDS 201: Statistical Methods for Undergraduates
  • SDS 220: Introduction to Probability and Statistics
  • ECO 220: Introduction to Statistics and Econometrics
  • GOV 203: Empirical Methods in Political Science
  • SOC 201: Evaluating Information
  • SOC 202: Quantitative Research Methods

The student must also take both of the following courses:

  • SDS 290 Research Design and Analysis
  • SDS 291 Multiple Regression

The student must choose two (or more) application courses. Courses not on the following list must be approved by the student’s SDS adviser if they are to count toward the minor.

  • BIO 232: Evolution
  • BIO 230: Genomes and Genetic Analysis
  • BIO 231: Genomes and Genetic Analysis Lab
  • BIO 266: Principles of Ecology
  • BIO 267: Principles of Ecology Laboratory
  • BIO 334: Bioinformatics & Comparative Molecular Bio
  • ECO 240: Econometrics
  • ECO 311: Seminar: courses in Economic Development
  • ECO 351: Seminar: The Economics of Education
  • ECO 362: Seminar: Population Economics
  • ECO 363: Seminar: Inequality
  • ECO 396: Seminar: International Financial Markets
  • EGR 389: Techniques for Modeling Engineering Processes
  • GOV 312: Seminar in American Government
  • MTH 246: Probability
  • PSY 319: Research Seminar in Biological Rhythms
  • PSY 325: Research Seminar in Health Psychology
  • PSY 335: Research Seminar in the Study of Youth and Emerging Adults
  • PSY 358: Research Seminar in Clinical Psychology
  • PSY 369: Research Seminar on Categorization and Intergroup Behavior
  • PSY 373: Research Seminar in Personality Psychology
  • PSY 375: Research Seminar on Political Psychology
  • SOC 202: Methods of Social Research

Students planning to minor in applied statistics should consult with their advisers when selecting applications courses. Some honors theses and special studies courses may apply if these courses focus on statistical applications in a field.

Also see the concentration in statistics within the mathematics major offered by the Department of Mathematics and Statistics.

Sun, 10 Jul 2022 15:34:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.smith.edu/academics/statistics
Killexams : Computer Science MSc

Afghanistan
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Master Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 90%; or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: 80%; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: 70%; or GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Albania
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 9.5 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 8 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 7 out of 10

Algeria
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Licence; Diplome de [subject area]; Diplome d'Etudes Superieures; Diplome de Docteur end Pharmacie; or Diplome de Docteur en Medecine from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 14 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 12 out of 20

Angola
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Grau de Licenciado/a (minimum 4 years) from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: 17 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 15 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 13 out of 20

Argentina
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Titulo/ Grado de Licenciado/ Titulo de [subject area] (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 9 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 7.5 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 6.5 out of 10

Armenia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Specialist Diploma from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 87 out of 100
UK 2:1 degree: 75 out of 100
UK 2:2 degree: 61 out of 100

Australia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) or Bachelor Honours degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: High Distinction; or First Class with Honours
UK 2:1 degree: Distinction; or Upper Second Class with Honours
UK 2:2 degree: Credit; or Lower Second Class with Honours

Austria
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 1.5 out of 5.0
UK 2:1 degree: 2.5 out of 5.0
UK 2:2 degree: 3.5 out of 5.0

The above relates to grading scale where 1 is the highest and 5 is the lowest.

Azerbaijan
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Specialist Diploma from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 90%; or GPA 4.7 out of 5
UK 2:1 degree: 80%; or GPA 4 out of 5
UK 2:2 degree: 70%; or GPA 3.5 out of 5

Bahamas
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) from the University of West Indies.

UK 1st class degree: First Class Honours
UK 2:1 degree: Upper Second Class Honours
UK 2:2 degree: Lower Second Class Honours

Bahrain
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0; or 90 out of 100
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0; or 80 out of 100
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.3 out of 4.0; or 74 out of 100

Bangladesh
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 4 years) from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.2 to 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 to 3.3 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.3 to 2.7 out of 4.0

Offer conditions will vary depending on the institution you are applying from.  For some institutions/degrees we will ask for different grades to above, so this is only a guide. 

Barbados
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from the University of West Indies, Cave Hill or Barbados Community College.

UK 1st class degree: First Class Honours*; or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0**
UK 2:1 degree: Upper Second Class Honours*; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0**
UK 2:2 degree: Lower Second Class Honours*; or GPA 2.4 out of 4.0**

*relates to: the University of West Indies, Cave Hill.

**relates to: Barbados Community College.

Belarus
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Specialist Diploma (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 9 out of 10; or 4.7 out of 5
UK 2:1 degree: 7 out of 10; or 4 out of 5
UK 2:2 degree: 5 out of 10; or 3.5 out of 5

Belgium
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (180 ECTS credits) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 80% or 16/20*; or 78%**
UK 2:1 degree: 70% or 14/20*; or 72%**
UK 2:2 degree: 60% or 12/20*; or 65%**

*Flanders (Dutch-speaking)/ Wallonia (French-speaking)
**German-speaking

Belize
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) from the University of West Indies.

UK 1st class degree: First Class Honours
UK 2:1 degree: Upper Second Class Honours
UK 2:2 degree: Lower Second Class Honours

Benin
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Maitrise or Masters from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 14 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 12 out of 20

Bolivia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Titulo de Bachiller Universitario or Licenciado / Titulo de [subject area] (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 85%* or 80%**
UK 2:1 degree: 75%* or 70%**
UK 2:2 degree: 65%* or 60%**

*relates to: Titulo de Bachiller Universitario

**relates to: Licenciado / Titulo de [subject area] 

Bosnia and Herzegovina
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 9.5 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 8.5 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 7.5 out of 10

Botswana
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 5 years) or Master Degree from the University of Botswana.

UK 1st class degree: 80%
UK 2:1 degree: 70%
UK 2:2 degree: 60%

Brazil
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Título de Bacharel / Título de [subject area] or Título de Licenciado/a (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 8.25 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 7.5 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 6.5 out of 10

The above grades assumes that the grading scale has a pass mark of 5.

Brunei
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Honours degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: First Class Honours
UK 2:1 degree: Upper Second Class Honours
UK 2:2 degree: Lower Second Class Honours

Bulgaria
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 5.75 out of 6.0
UK 2:1 degree: 4.75 out of 6.0
UK 2:2 degree: 4.0 out of 6.0

Burundi
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Diplome d'Etudes Approfondies from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 85%; or 16 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 75%; or 14 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 60%; or 12 out of 20

Cambodia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Masters Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 80%; or GPA 3.5 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: 70%; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: 60%; or GPA 2.35 out of 4.0

Cameroon
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree; Licence; Diplome d'Etudes Superieures de Commerce; Diplome d'Ingenieur de Conception/ Travaux; Doctorat en Medecine/ Pharmacie; or Maitrise or Master 1 from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20; or GPA 3.6 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: 14 out of 20; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: 12 out of 20; or GPA 2.5 out of 4.0

Canada
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Bachelor Honours Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.6 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.2 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.5 out of 4.0

China
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 4 years) from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: 85 to 95%
UK 2:1 degree: 75 to 85%
UK 2:2 degree: 70 to 80%

Offer conditions will vary depending on the institution you are applying from.  Generally, we do not accept applications from students studying at Affiliate Colleges.

Colombia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Licenciado en [subject area] or Titulo de [subject area] (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 4.60 out of 5.00
UK 2:1 degree: 4.00 out of 5.00
UK 2:2 degree: 3.50 out of 5.00

Congo, Dem. Rep. of
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Diplome d'Etudes Approfondies or Diplome d'Etudes Speciales from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20; or 90%
UK 2:1 degree: 14 out of 20; or 80%
UK 2:2 degree: 12 out of 20; or 70%

Congo, Rep. of
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Diplome d'Etudes Superieures or Maitrise from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 14 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 12 out of 20

Costa Rica
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachiller or Licenciado from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 9 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 8 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 7.5 out of 10

Croatia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Advanced Diploma of Higher Education Level VII/1 (Diploma - Visoko obrazovanje) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 4.5 out of 5
UK 2:1 degree: 4 out of 5
UK 2:2 degree: 3 out of 5

Cuba
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Titulo de Licenciado/ Arquitecto/ Doctor/ Ingeniero from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 4.7 out of 5
UK 2:1 degree: 4 out of 5
UK 2:2 degree: 3.5 out of 5

Cyprus
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 8 out of 10; or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: 7.0 out of 10; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: 6.0 out of 10; or GPA 2.5 out of 4.0

Czech Republic
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (180 ECTS credits) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 1.2 out of 4
UK 2:1 degree: 1.5 out of 4
UK 2:2 degree: 2.5 out of 4

The above relates to grading scale where 1 is the highest and 4 is the lowest.

Denmark
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 12 out of 12 (2007 onwards); or 11 out of 13 (before 2007)
UK 2:1 degree: 7 out of 12 (2007 onwards); or 8 out of 13 (before 2007)
UK 2:2 degree: 4 out of 12 (2007 onwards); or 7 out of 13 (before 2007)

Dominican Republic
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Licenciado/ Titulo de [subject area] (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 95/100
UK 2:1 degree: 85/100
UK 2:2 degree: 78/100

Ecuador
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Titulo de Licenciado / Titulo de [subject area] (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 90%; or 9/10; or 19/20; or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: 80%; or 8/10; or 18/20; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: 70%; or 7/10; or 14/20; or GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Egypt
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: 85%; or GPA 3.7 out of 4
UK 2:1 degree: 75%; or GPA 3.0 out of 4
UK 2:2 degree: 65%; or GPA 2.5 out of 4

El Salvador
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Licenciado/ Titulo de [subject area] (minimum 5 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 8.5 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 7.5 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 6.5 out of 10

Eritrea
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Masters Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Estonia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree; University Specialist's Diploma; or Professional Higher Education Diploma from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 4.5 out of 5
UK 2:1 degree: 3.5 out of 5
UK 2:2 degree: 2 out of 5

The above grades assumes that 1 is the pass mark. 

Eswatini
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Masters Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 80%
UK 2:1 degree: 70%
UK 2:2 degree: 60%

Ethiopia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Masters Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.5 out of 4.0

Fiji
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) from one of the following institutions: Fiji National University, the University of Fiji, or the University of South Pacific, Fiji.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 4.0 out of 5.0*; or overall grade A with High Distinction pass**; or GPA 4.0 out of 4.5***
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.33 out of 5.0*; or overall grade B with Credit pass**; or GPA 3.5 out of 4.5***
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.33 out of 5.0*; or overall grade S (Satisfactory)**; or GPA 2.5 out of 4.5***

*relates to Fiji National University

**relate to the University of Fiji

***relates to the University of South Pacific, Fiji

Finland
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree/ Kandidaatti/ Kandidat (minimum 180 ECTS credits) from a recognised institution; or Bachelor degree (Ammattikorkeakoulututkinto/ Yrkeshögskoleexamen) from a recognised University of Applied Sciences.

UK 1st class degree: 4.5 out of 5; or 2.8 out of 3
UK 2:1 degree: 3.5 out of 5; or 2 out of 3
UK 2:2 degree: 2.5 out of 5; or 1.4 out of 3

France
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Licence; Grade de Licence; Diplome d'Ingenieur; or Maitrise from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 14 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 12 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 11 out of 20

Gambia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Masters Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 80%; or GPA 4.0 out of 4.3
UK 2:1 degree: 67%; or GPA 3.3 out of 4.3
UK 2:2 degree: 60%; or GPA 2.7 out of 4.3

Georgia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Specialist Diploma (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 91 out of 100; or 4.7 out of 5
UK 2:1 degree: 81 out of 100; or 4 out of 5
UK 2:2 degree: 71 out of 100; or 3.5 out of 5

Germany
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (180 ECTS credits) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 1.5 out of 5.0
UK 2:1 degree: 2.5 out of 5.0
UK 2:2 degree: 3.5 out of 5.0

The above relates to grading scale where 1 is the highest and 5 is the lowest.

Ghana
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: First Class
UK 2:1 degree: Second Class (Upper Division)
UK 2:2 degree: Second Class (Lower Division)

Greece
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Degrees from recognised selected institutions in the University sector or Degrees (awarded after 2003) from recognised Technological Educational Institutes.

UK 1st class degree: 8 out of 10*; or 9 out of 10**
UK 2:1 degree: 7 out of 10*; or 7.5 out of 10**
UK 2:2 degree: 6 out of 10*; or 6.8 out of 10**

*Relates to degrees from the University Sector.
**Relates to degrees from Technological Educational Institutes.

Grenada
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) from the University of West Indies.

UK 1st class degree: First Class Honours
UK 2:1 degree: Upper Second Class Honours
UK 2:2 degree: Lower Second Class Honours

Guatemala
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Licenciado / Titulo de [subject area] (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 90%
UK 2:1 degree: 80%
UK 2:2 degree: 70%

The above grades assumes that the pass mark is 61% or less.

Guinea
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Master; Maitrise; Diplome d'Etudes Superieures; or Diplome d'Etudes Approfondies from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 14 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 12 out of 20

Guyana
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Graduate Diploma (Postgraduate) or Masters degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Honduras
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Titulo de Licenciado/a / Grado Academico de Licenciatura (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 90%; or 4.7 out of 5; or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: 80%; or 4.0 out of 5; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: 70%; or 3.5 out of 5; or GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Hong Kong
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Honours Degree from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: First Class Honours
UK 2:1 degree: Upper Second Class Honours
UK 2:2 degree: Lower Second Class Honours

Hungary
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor degree (Alapfokozat) or University Diploma (Egyetemi Oklevel) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 4.75 out of 5
UK 2:1 degree: 4 out of 5
UK 2:2 degree: 3.5 out of 5

Iceland
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor degree (Baccalaureus or Bakkalarprof) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 8.25 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 7.25 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 6.5 out of 10

India
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: 70% to 80%
UK 2:1 degree: 60% to 70%
UK 2:2 degree: 50% to 60%

Offer conditions will vary depending on the institution you are applying from.  For some institutions/degrees we will ask for different grades to above, so this is only a guide.  

For India, offers may be made on the GPA scale.

We do not consider the Bachelor of Vocation (B. Voc.) for Masters entry.

Indonesia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Sarjna I (S1) Bachelor Degree or Diploma IV (D4) (minimum 4 years) from selected degree programmes and institutions.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.6 to 3.8 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 to 3.2 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.67 to 2.8 out of 4.0

Offer conditions will vary depending on the institution you are applying from and the degree that you study.

Iran
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 17.5 to 18.5 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 15 to 16 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 13.5 to 14 out of 20

Offer conditions will vary depending on the institution you are applying from.  

Iraq
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 85 out of 100
UK 2:1 degree: 75 out of 100
UK 2:2 degree: 60 out of 100

Ireland
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Honours Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: First Class Honours
UK 2:1 degree: Second Class Honours Grade I
UK 2:2 degree: Second Class Honours Grade II

Israel
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 90%
UK 2:1 degree: 80%
UK 2:2 degree: 65%

Italy
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Laurea (180 ECTS credits) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 110 out of 110
UK 2:1 degree: 105 out of 110
UK 2:2 degree: 94 out of 110

Cote D’ivoire (Ivory Coast)
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Diplome d'Ingenieur; Doctorat en Medicine; Maitrise; Master; Diplome d'Etudes Approfondies; or Diplome d'Etudes Superieures Specialisees from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 14 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 12 out of 20

Jamaica
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) from the University of West Indies (UWI) or a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0; or First Class Honours from the UWI
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0; or Upper Second Class Honours from the UWI
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.4 out of 4.0; or Lower Second Class Honours from the UWI

Japan
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: S overall* or A overall**; or 90%; or GPA 3.70 out of 4.00
UK 2:1 degree: A overall* or B overall**; or 80%; or GPA 3.00 out of 4.00
UK 2:2 degree: B overall* or C overall**; or 70%; or GPA 2.3 out of 4.00

*Overall mark is from the grading scale: S, A, B, C (S is highest mark)
**Overall mark is from the grading scale: A, B, C, D (A is highest mark)

Jordan
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 85%; or GPA of 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: 75%; or GPA of 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: 70%; or GPA of 2.5 out of 4.0

Kazakhstan
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Specialist Diploma from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 3.8 out of 4.0/4.33; or 4.7 out of 5
UK 2:1 degree: 3.33 out of 4.0/4.33; or 4.0 out of 5
UK 2:2 degree: 2.67 out of 4.0/4.33; or 3.5 out of 5

Kenya
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: First Class Honours; or GPA 3.6 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: Second Class Honours Upper Division; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: Second Class Honours Lower Division; or GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Kosovo
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 9.5 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 8.5 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 7.5 out of 10

Kuwait
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.67 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.67 out of 4.0

Kyrgyzstan
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Specialist Diploma (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 4.7 out of 5; or GPA 3.7 out of 4
UK 2:1 degree: 4.0 out of 5; or GPA 3.0 out of 4
UK 2:2 degree: 3.5 out of 5; or GPA 2.4 out of 4

Laos
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Masters Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Latvia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (awarded after 2002) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 9.5 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 7.5 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 6 out of 10

Lebanon
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree; Licence; or Maitrise from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 90% or Grade A; or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0; or 16 out of 20 (French system)
UK 2:1 degree: 80% or Grade B; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0; or 13 out of 20 (French system)
UK 2:2 degree: 70% or Grade C; or GPA 2.5 out of 4.0; or 12 out of 20 (French system)

Lesotho
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Honours Degree (minimum 5 years total HE study); Masters Degree or Postgraduate Diploma from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: 80%
UK 2:1 degree: 70%
UK 2:2 degree: 60%

Liberia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Masters Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 90% or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: 80% or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: 70% or GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Libya
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: 85%; or 3.7 out of 4.0 GPA
UK 2:1 degree: 75%; or 3.0 out of 4.0 GPA
UK 2:2 degree: 65%; or 2.6 out of 4.0 GPA

Liechtenstein
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (180 ECTS credits) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 5.6 out of 6.0
UK 2:1 degree: 5.0 out of 6.0
UK 2:2 degree: 4.4 out of 6.0

Lithuania
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 180 ECTS credits) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 9.5 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 8 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 7 out of 10

Luxembourg
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 14 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 12 out of 20

Macau
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (Licenciatura) (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.5 out of 4.0

Macedonia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Diploma of Completed Higher Education - Level VII/1 or Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 9.5 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 8.5 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 7 out of 10

Madagascar
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Maîtrise; Diplome d'Ingenieur; Diplôme d'Etat de Docteur en Médecine; Diplôme d’Etat de Docteur en Chirurgie Dentaire; Diplôme d'Études Approfondies; Diplôme de Magistère (Première Partie) – also known as Master 1; or Diplôme de Master – also known as Master 2 from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 14 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 12 out of 20

Malawi
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Masters Degree from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: 80% or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: 70% or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: 60% or GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Malaysia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: Class 1; or 3.7 out of 4.0 CGPA
UK 2:1 degree: Class 2 division 1; or 3.0 out of 4.0 CGPA
UK 2:2 degree: Class 2 division 2; or 2.6 out of 4.0 CGPA

Maldives
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (awarded from 2000) from the Maldives National University.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.5 out of 4.0

Malta
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Bachelor Honours Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: First Class Honours; or Category I
UK 2:1 degree: Upper Second Class Honours; or Category IIA
UK 2:2 degree: Lower Second Class Honours; or Category IIB

Mauritius
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: Class I; or 70%
UK 2:1 degree: Class II division I; or 60%
UK 2:2 degree: Class II division II; or 50%

Offer conditions will vary depending on the grading scale used by your institution.

Mexico
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Titulo de Licenciado/ Titulo (Profesional) de [subject area] from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 9.0 to 9.5 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 8.0 to 8.5 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 7.0 to 7.5 out of 10

Offer conditions will vary depending on the grading scale your institution uses.

Moldova
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (Diploma de Licenta) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 9.5 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 8 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 6.5 out of 10

Monaco
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.5 out of 4.0

Mongolia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 4 years) from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.6 out of 4.0; or 90%; or grade A
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.2 out of 4.0; or 80%; or grade B
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.8 out of 4.0; or 70%; or grade C

Montenegro
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Diploma of Completed Academic Undergraduate Studies; Diploma of Professional Undergraduate Studies; or Advanced Diploma of Higher Education from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 9.5 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 8.5 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 7 out of 10

Morocco
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Diplome d'Ecoles Nationales de Commerce et de Gestion; Diplome de Docteur Veterinaire; Doctorat en Medecine; Docteur en Medecine Dentaire; Licence; Diplome d'Inegeniuer d'Etat; Diplome de Doctorat en Pharmacie; or Maitrise from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 13 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 11 out of 20

Mozambique
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Grau de Licenciado (minimum 4 years) or Grau de Mestre from from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 14 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 12 out of 20

Myanmar
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Masters Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 80% or GPA of 4.7 out of 5.0
UK 2:1 degree: 70% or GPA of 4.0 out of 5.0
UK 2:2 degree: 60% or GPA of 3.5 out of 5.0

Namibia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Honours Degree or Professional Bachelor Degree (NQF level 8 qualifications) - these to be awarded after 2008 from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 80%
UK 2:1 degree: 70%
UK 2:2 degree: 60%

Nepal
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 4 years) from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: 80%; or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: 65%; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: 55%; or GPA of 2.4 out of 4.0

Bachelor in Nursing Science are not considered equivalent to UK Bachelor degrees.

Netherlands
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 8 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 7 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 6 out of 10

New Zealand
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) or Bachelor Honours Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: A-*; or First Class Honours**
UK 2:1 degree: B*; or Second Class (Division 1) Honours**
UK 2:2 degree: C+*; or Second Class (Division 2) Honours**

*from a Bachelor degree
**from a Bachelor Honours degree

Nigeria
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 4.50 out of 5.00; or GPA 6.0 out of 7.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.50 out of 5.00; or GPA 4.6 out of 7.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.80 out of 5.00; or GPA 3.0 out of 7.0

Norway
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (180 ECTS credits) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: Overall B grade with at least 75 ECTS (of 180 ECTS min overall) at grade A or above.
UK 2:1 degree: Overall B grade
UK 2:2 degree: Overall C grade

Oman
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.5 out of 4.0

Pakistan
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 4 years) from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.0 to 3.8 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 2.6 to 3.6 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.0 to 3.0 out of 4.0

Offer conditions will vary depending on the institution you are applying from.  For some institutions/degrees we will ask for different grades to above, so this is only a guide. 

Palestine, State of
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 90% or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: 80% or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: 70% or GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Panama
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Licenciado / Titulo de [subject area] (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 91%
UK 2:1 degree: 81%
UK 2:2 degree: 71%

Papua New Guinea
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Honours Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: Class I
UK 2:1 degree: Class II, division A
UK 2:2 degree: Class II, division B

Paraguay
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Titulo de Licenciado / Titulo de [professional title] (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 4.7 out of 5
UK 2:1 degree: 4 out of 5
UK 2:2 degree: 3.5 out fo 5

Peru
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Grado Academico de Bachiller or Titulo de Licenciado/ Titulo (Professional) de [subject area] from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 17 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 14 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 12 out of 20

Philippines
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from selected institutions or Juris Doctor; Bachelor of Laws; Doctor of Medicine; Doctor of Dentistry/ Optometry/ Veterinary Medicine; or Masters Degree from recognised institutions.

UK 1st class degree: 3.6 out of 4.0; or 94%; or 1.25 out of 5
UK 2:1 degree: 3.0 out of 4.0; or 86%; or 1.75 out of 5
UK 2:2 degree: 2.5 out of 4.0; or 80%; or 2.5 out of 5

The above 'out of 5' scale assumes 1 is highest mark and 3 is the pass mark.

Poland
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Licencjat or Inzynier (minimum 3 years) - these must be awarded after 2001 from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 4.8 out of 5.0
UK 2:1 degree: 4.5 out of 5.0
UK 2:2 degree: 3.8 out of 5.0

The above grades are based on the 2 to 5 scale, where 3 is the pass mark and 5 is the highest mark.

Portugal
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Licenciado (minimum 180 ECTS credits) or Diploma de Estudos Superiores Especializados (DESE) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 14 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 12 out of 20

Puerto Rico
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 90/100 or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: 80/100 or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: 70/100 or GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Qatar
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0; or GPA 4.4 out of 5.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0; or GPA 3.6 out of 5.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.4 out of 4.0; or GPA 2.8 out of 5.0

Romania
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 180 ECTS credits) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 9.75 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 8.0 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 7.0 out of 10

Russia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Specialist Diploma from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 4.7 out of 5
UK 2:1 degree: 4.0 out of 5
UK 2:2 degree: 3.5 out of 5

Rwanda
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Honours Degree (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 85%; or 17 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 70%; or 15 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 60%; or 13 out of 20

Saudi Arabia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 4.75 out of 5.0; or GPA 3.75 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.75 out of 5.0; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 5.0; or GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Senegal
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Maîtrise; Master II; Diplôme d'Études Approfondies (DEA); Diplôme d'Études Supérieures Specialisées (DESS); Diplôme d'État de Docteur en Médecine; Diplôme d'Ingénieur; Diplôme de Docteur en Chirurgie Dentaire; or Diplôme de Pharmacien from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 16/20
UK 2:1 degree: 14/20
UK 2:2 degree: 12/20

Serbia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Advanced Diploma of Higher Education from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 9 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 8 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 7 out of 10

Sierra Leone
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (Honours) or a Masters degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: First Class honours; or GPA 4.7 out of 5; or GPA 3.75 out of 4
UK 2:1 degree: Upper Second Class honours; or GPA 4 out of 5; or GPA 3.25 out of 4
UK 2:2 degree: Lower Second Class Honours; or GPA 3.4 out of 5; or GPA 2.75 out of 4

Singapore
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) or Bachelor Honours degree from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 4.3 out of 5.0; or GPA 3.6 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.8 out of 5.0; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 3.3 out of 5.0; or GPA 2.5 out of 4.0

Slovakia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (180 ECTS credits) (minimum 3 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 93%; or 1 overall (on 1 to 4 scale, where 1 is highest mark)
UK 2:1 degree: 86%; or 1.5 overall (on 1 to 4 scale, where 1 is highest mark)
UK 2:2 degree: 72%; or 2.5 overall (on 1 to 4 scale, where 1 is highest mark)

Slovenia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Univerzitetni Diplomant (180 ECTS credits) (minimum 3 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 9.5 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 8 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 7 out of 10

Somalia
Bachelor degrees from Somalia are not considered for direct entry to our postgraduate taught programmes. Holders of Bachelor degrees from Somali National University can be considered for our Pre-Masters programmes on a case by case basis.

South Africa
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: NQF Level 8 qualifications such as Bachelor Honours degrees or Professional Bachelor degrees from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 75%
UK 2:1 degree: 70%
UK 2:2 degree: 60%

South Korea
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 4.2 out of 4.5; or GPA 4.0 out of 4.3; or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.5 out of 4.5; or GPA 3.3 out of 4.3; or GPA 3.2 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.5; or GPA 2.8 out of 4.3; or GPA 2.5 out of 4.0

Spain
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Titulo Universitario Oficial de Graduado en [subject area] (Grado) or Titulo Universitario Oficial de Licenciado en [subject area] (Licenciatura) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 8.0 out of 10; or 2.5 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: 7.0 out of 10; or 2.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: 6.0 out of 10; or 1.5 out of 4.0

Sri Lanka
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (Special or Honours) or Bachelor Degree (Professional) (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.5 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Sudan
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Honours degree from a recognised institution or Bachelor degree in one of the following Professional subjects: Architecture; Dentistry; Engineering; Medicine/Surgery from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 80%
UK 2:1 degree: 65%
UK 2:2 degree: 60%

Sweden
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (Kandidatexamen) or Professional Bachelor Degree (Yrkesexamenfrom) (180 ECTS credits) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: Overall B grade with at least 75 ECTS at grade A or above (180 ECTS minimum overall); or at least 65% of credits graded at VG overall
UK 2:1 degree: Overall B grade (180 ECTS minimum overall); or at least 50% of credits graded at VG overall
UK 2:2 degree: Overall C grade (180 ECTS minimum overall); or at least 20% of credits graded at VG overall.

Switzerland
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor degree (180 ECTS credits) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 5.5 out of 6; or 9 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 5 out of 6; or 8 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 4.25 out of 6; or 7 out of 10

Syria
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 85%
UK 2:1 degree: 75%
UK 2:2 degree: 65%

Taiwan
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: 85 to 90%
UK 2:1 degree: 70 to 75%
UK 2:2 degree: 65 to 70%

Offer conditions will vary depending on the institution you are applying from.  

Tajikistan
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Specialist Diploma or Masters Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 4.7 out of 5
UK 2:1 degree: 4.0 out of 5
UK 2:2 degree: 3.5 out of 5

Tanzania
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 4.4 out of 5.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.5 out of 5.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.7 out of 5.0

Thailand
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.40 to 3.60 out of 4.00
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.00 to 3.20 out of 4.00
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.40 to 2.60 out of 4.00

Offer conditions will vary depending on the institution you are applying from.

Trinidad and Tobago
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0; or First Class Honours from the University of West Indies
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0; or Upper Second Class Honours from the University of West Indies
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.4 out of 4.0; or Lower Second Class Honours from the University of West Indies

Tunisia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Licence; Diplome National d'Architecture; Maitrise; Diplome National d'Ingeniuer; or Doctorat en Medecine / Veterinaire from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 13 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 11 out of 20

Turkey
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.40 to 3.60 out of 4.00
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 2.80 to 3.00 out of 4.00
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.30 to 2.50 out of 4.00

Offer conditions will vary depending on the institution you are applying from.

Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.60 out of 4.00
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.00 out of 4.00
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.50 out of 4.00

Turkmenistan
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Diploma of Higher Education (awarded after 2007) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 4.7 out of 5
UK 2:1 degree: 4.0 out of 5
UK 2:2 degree: 3.5 out of 5

Turks and Caicos Islands
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (accredited by the Council of Community Colleges of Jamaica) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0; or 80%
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.3 out of 4.0; or 75%
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.7 out of 4.0; or 65%

Uganda
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 4.4 out of 5.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 4.0 out of 5.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 5.0

Ukraine
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Specialist Diploma from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 10 out of 12; or 4.7 out of 5
UK 2:1 degree: 8 out of 12; or 4.0 out of 5
UK 2:2 degree: 6 out of 12; or 3.5 out of 5

United Arab Emirates
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.5 out of 4.0

United States of America
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.2 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.5 out of 4.0

Uruguay
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Titulo de Licenciado/ Titulo de [subject area] (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 10 to 11 out of 12
UK 2:1 degree: 7 to 9 out of 12
UK 2:2 degree: 6 to 7 out of 12

Offer conditions will vary depending on the institution you are applying from.

Uzbekistan
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 4 years) or Specialist Diploma from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 90%; or 4.7 out of 5
UK 2:1 degree: 80%; or 4.0 out of 5
UK 2:2 degree: 71%; or 3.5 out of 5

Venezuela
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Titulo de Licenciado/ Titulo de [subject area] from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 81%
UK 2:1 degree: 71%
UK 2:2 degree: 61%

Non-percentage grading scales, for example scales out of 20, 10, 9 or 5, will have different requirements. 

Vietnam
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 8.0 out of 10; or GPA 3.7 out of 4
UK 2:1 degree: 7.0 out of 10; or GPA 3.0 out of 4
UK 2:2 degree: 5.7 out of 10; or GPA 2.4 out of 4

Yemen
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Masters (Majister) degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 90%
UK 2:1 degree: 80%
UK 2:2 degree: 65%

Bachelor Degrees from Lebanese International University (in Yemen) can be considered for entry to postgraduate taught programmes - please see Lebanon for guidance on grade requirements for this.

Zambia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Masters Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 75%; or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: 65%; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: 55%; or GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Zimbabwe
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 4 years) or Bachelor Honours degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 75%
UK 2:1 degree: 65%
UK 2:2 degree: 60%

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