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EX300 Red Hat Certified Engineer - RHCE

The performance-based Red Hat Certified Engineer (RHCE) exam for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 (EX300) tests to determine if your knowledge, skill, and ability meet those required of a senior system administrator responsible for Red Hat® Enterprise Linux® systems. Red Hat Certified System Administrator (RHCSA®) certification is required to earn RHCE® certification.

The exam based on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 is available via on-site and individual exams until July 1, 2020.

An RHCE certification is earned by a Red Hat Certified System Administrator (RHCSA) who has demonstrated the knowledge, skill, and ability required of a senior system administrator responsible for Red Hat Enterprise Linux systems

Local and remote logins

Review methods for accessing the system and engaging Red Hat Support.

File system navigation

Copy, move, create, delete, link, and organize files while working from the Bash shell prompt.

Users and groups

Manage Linux users and groups and administer local password policies.

File permissions

Control access to files and directories using permissions and access control lists (ACLs).

SELinux permissions

Manage the SELinux behavior of a system to keep it secure in case of a network service compromise.

Process management

Evaluate and control processes running on a Red Hat Enterprise Linux system.

Updating software packages

Download, install, update, and manage software packages from Red Hat and yum package repositories.

Creating and mounting file systems

Create and manage disks, partitions, and filesystems from the command line.

Service management and boot troubleshooting

Control and monitor system daemons and troubleshoot the Red Hat Enterprise Linux boot process.

Network configuration

Configure basic IPv4 networking on Red Hat Enterprise Linux systems.

System logging and ntp

Locate and accurately interpret relevant system log files for troubleshooting purposes.

Logical volume management

Create and manage logical volumes from the command line.

Scheduled processes

Schedule tasks to automatically execute in the future.

Mounting network file systems

Use autofs and the command line to mount and unmount network storage with NFS and SMB.

Firewall configuration

Configure a basic firewall.

Virtualization and kickstart

Automate the installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux on virtual machines with kernel-based virtual machine (KVM) and libvirt.

Managing IPv6 networking

Configure and troubleshoot basic IPv6 networking on Red Hat Enterprise Linux systems.

Configuring link aggregation and bridging

Configure and troubleshoot advanced network interface functionality including bonding, teaming, and local software bridges.

Controlling network port security

Permit and reject access to network services using advanced SELinux and firewalld filtering techniques.

Managing DNS for Servers

Set and verify correct DNS records for systems and configure secure-caching DNS.

Configuring E-mail Delivery

Relay all e-mail sent by the system to a SMTP gateway for central delivery.

Providing block-based storage

Provide and use networked iSCSI block devices as remote disks.

Providing file-based storage

Provide NFS exports and SMB file shares to specific systems and users.

Configuring MariaDB databases

Provide a MariaDB SQL database for use by programs and database administrators.

Providing Apache HTTPD Web Service

Configure Apache HTTPD to provide Transport Layer Security (TLS)-enabled websites and virtual hosts.

Writing Bash scripts

Write simple shell scripts using Bash.

Bash conditionals and control structures

Use Bash conditionals and other control structures to write more sophisticated shell commands and scripts.

Configuring the shell environment

Customize Bash startup and use environment variables, Bash aliases, and Bash functions.

Lab content summary

Managing and troubleshooting systemd services during the boot process

Network configuration and basic troubleshooting

Managing local storage, creating and using file systems

Firewall management with firewalld

Automating installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux® using kickstart

Manage SELinux settings

Using NFS and Samba shared filesystems

iSCSI initiator and target configuration

Domain Name System (DNS) troubleshooting and caching name server

Providing Network File System (NFS) and Server Message Block (SMB) file servers

Apache HTTPD web server management

MariaDB SQL database configuration

Postfix Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) nullclient for servers

Bash scripting for automation

Red Hat Certified Engineer - RHCE
Redhat Certified learn
Killexams : Redhat Certified learn - BingNews Search results Killexams : Redhat Certified learn - BingNews Killexams : Red Hat Certification Guide: Overview and Career Paths

Red Hat Inc. provides open source software solutions to more than 90% of the Fortune 500 companies, including internet service providers, airlines, healthcare companies and commercial banks. The company has been around for more than two decades and is well known for its Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) distribution. Red Hat provides a fully open technology stack, which you can alter to suit your needs – you’re not locked into the vendor’s vision of the software or stack components. Red Hat’s portfolio of products and services also include JBoss middleware, cross-platform virtualization, cloud computing (CloudForms and OpenStack) and much more.

Red Hat offers numerous professional certifications based on its software products, including operating systems, virtualization, storage and cloud-based solutions.

Red Hat certification program overview

The Red Hat certification program aims at system administrators, engineers, architects, enterprise developers, and application administrators, as well as cloud and virtualization administrators, who use RHEL in their IT infrastructures. The certification program aims to ensure that candidates are proficient in RHEL by requiring them to pass performance-based certification exams. Whereas many certification exams ask multiple choice or fill-in-the-blank questions about specific technologies, Red Hat requires you to perform and complete real-world tasks using Red Hat technologies to pass its exams.

Red Hat traditionally offered certification exams only upon completion of a training course. Now you can take a Red Hat exam on your own schedule, outside of training, if you like. Each exam session is performed on a secured system in a professionally proctored testing center. These centers are located in select cities throughout the United States, Europe and Asia.

Once you earn a Red Hat certification, you become a Red Hat Certified Professional. This gives you access to Red Hat Certification Central, which allows you to connect with potential employers, join the Red Hat community, create study groups and collaborate on projects. In addition, you can explore Red Hat’s training options and easily schedule individual exam sessions. Discounts on recertification exams are offered there as well.

Red Hat Administrator, Engineer and Architect certifications

The largest group of Red Hat certifications is geared toward system administrators, engineers and architects. Some of the most popular and sought-after Red Hat certifications reside in this category, such as the Red Hat Certified System Administrator (RHCSA), Red Hat Certified Engineer (RHCE) and Red Hat Certified Architect (RHCA).

The RHCA is probably Red Hat’s most versatile credential. In 2018, Red Hat implemented several changes to the RHCA program. The most notable change is that Red Hat now offers two separate RHCA credentials: the Red Hat Certified Architect in Enterprise Applications and the Red Hat Certified Architect in Infrastructure. Over the past year, Red Hat has retired a great many of its credentials, as you can see from the long list of “Retired Certifications” on the company’s All Certifications page. Candidates who have previously passed certification exams that are now retired may still be able to apply those retired certifications to current certification tracks. Check the certification overview page for each certification to find more details.

RHCSA: Red Hat Certified System Administrator

The RHCSA certification is designed for experienced Red Hat administrators and is required by some organizations to meet U.S. Department of Defense Directive 8570. It’s also a prerequisite credential for the Red Hat Certified Engineer (RHCE).

Red Hat recommends three training classes to prepare for the RHCSA certification. The Windows admin classes are Red Hat System Administration I (RH124) and Red Hat System Administration II (RH134). Candidates may also take a Linux/UNIX admin class – RHCSA Rapid Track Course RH199 – to prepare for the RHCSA exam.

To obtain RHCSA certification, candidates must pass the 2.5 hour RHCSA exam (EX200).

RHCE: Red Hat Certified Engineer

The RHCE certification is geared toward experienced senior system administrators and fulfills requirements of U.S. Department of Defense Directive 8570.

To obtain the RHCE certification, you must first become RHCSA certified. The recommended training for the RHCE certification is based on your skill level. Windows admins with minimal Linux experience should take the Red Hat System Administration I and II (RH124 and RH134) courses, along with the Red Hat System Administration III (RH254) course to prepare for the exam.

Linux or UNIX admins with one to three years of experience should take both the RHCSA Rapid Track Course (RH199) and the Red Hat System Administration III (RH254) courses to prepare for the exam. RHCEs looking to recertify, or candidates who’d like the opportunity to engage in a lab-based review before taking the RHCE exam, should take the RHCE Certification lab (RH299). The certification lab is a four-day, instructor-led opportunity to work through all of the labs from the Red Hat System Administration I, II and III courses, along with the Rapid Track course.

To complete the RHCE certification, you must pass the 3.5-hour RHCE exam (EX300), which is currently based on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.

RHCA: Red Hat Certified Architect

The RHCA certification is the pinnacle cert in the Red Hat Certification program. Red Hat has changed the RHCA program to be more flexible that previous incarnations of the program, depending on the candidate’s particular areas of interest and expertise. Currently, Red Hat offers two RHCA credentials:

  • RHCA in Infrastructure for Red Hat Certified Engineers (RHCE); and
  • RHCA in Enterprise Applications for Red Hat Certified Enterprise Microservices Developer (RHCEMD) or Red Hat Certified JBoss Developers (RHCJD)

Red Hat recommends certain specific certification combinations to achieve the RHCA in Infrastructure or RHCA in Enterprise Applications. Candidates are free to follow the recommended path or select their own certifications based on their professional interests and requirements.

The RHCA in Enterprise Applications has three recommended certifications combinations: application acceleration, and integration; application automation; or DevOps, containers, and OpenShift. While not required, Red Hat recommends that all candidates obtain the Red Hat Certified Specialist in OpenShift Application Development and Red Hat Certified Specialist in Enterprise Application Server Administrations.

There are four recommended certification combinations for the RHCA in Infrastructure: open hybrid cloud; DevOps, containers, and OpenShift; Red Hat OpenStack Platform; and Linux mastery.

RHCA Exams

Certification No. of Req’d Certifications Qualifying Certifcations List
RHCA in Infrastructure 5 Complete five certifications  from the following (listed by recommended combinations):

Open Hybrid Cloud

  • Red Hat Certified Specialist in Hybrid Cloud Management
  • Red Hat Certified Specialist in Gluster Storage Administration
  • Red Hat Certified Specialist in Virtualization
  • Red Hat Certified Specialist in OpenShift Administration
  • Red Hat Certified System Administrator in Red Hat OpenStack
  • Red Hat certified Specialist in Deployment and Systems Management

DevOps, Containers and OpenShift

Red Hat OpenStack Platform

Linux Mastery

  • Red Hat Certified Specialist in Linux Diagnostics and Troubleshooting
  • Red Hat Certified Specialist in Linux Performance Tuning
  • Red Hat Certified Specialist in Server Security and Hardening
  • Red Hat Certified Specialist in Identity Management
  • Red Hat Certified Specialist in High Availability Clustering
  • Red Hat Certified Specialist in Deployment and Systems Management
RHCA in Enterprise Applications 5 Complete five certifications exams from the following (listed by certification combinations):

Recommended certifications regardless of certification combination:

  • Red Hat Certified Specialist in OpenShift Application Development
  • Red Hat Certified Specialist in Enterprise Application Server Administration

Application, Acceleration and Integration

  • Red Hat Certified Specialist in Fast-Cache Application Development
  • Red Hat Certified Specialist in Camel Development
  • Red Hat Certified Specialist in Data Virtualization
  • Red Hat Certified Specialist in Messaging Administration

Application Automation

  • Red Hat Certified Specialist in Business Process Design
  • Red Hat Certified Specialist in Business Rules

DevOps, Containers and OpenShift

  • Red Hat Certified Specialist in Ansible Automation
  • Red Hat Certified Specialist in Configuration Management

The number of recommended training courses varies for each RHCA concentration (RHCS means “Red Hat Certified Specialist” in the preceding table). At present only candidates who’ve already taken the retired exams in the DevOps category can earn RHCA: DevOps (hopefully, Red Hat will rectify this situation, or retire the credential). There is also some overlap in training course recommendations as shown in the table below.

Red Hat Cloud and Virtualization Administrator certifications

Formerly, Red Hat offered certifications geared toward IT professionals familiar with Red Hat virtualization and cloud technologies. In addition to the RHCA: Cloud (mentioned previously in this article), one could find the Red Hat Certified Virtualization Administrator, Red Hat Certified System Administrator in Red Hat OpenStack and the Red Hat Certified Engineer in Red Hat OpenStack. Today, that last item – namely, RHCE in Red Hat OpenStack – is the only remaining member of this category still available.

The Red Hat Certified Engineer in Red Hat OpenStack focuses on IT professionals who possess the skills necessary to install, deploy, and work with Red Hat Ceph Storage, including creation of block devices for Ceph and integration of services with Ceph Storage devices. In addition, Certified Engineers in Red Hat OpenStack can create and manage devices for virtual networks and use the OpenStack Neutron Service. Candidates must possess the Red Hat Certified System Administrator (RHCSA) in Red Hat OpenStack Platform 8 to qualify for the credential. In addition to the RHCSA exam (EX210), candidates must also pass Red Hat Certified System Engineer in Red Hat OpenStack (EX310), a three-hour performance-based exam. Red Hat recommends that candidates take the Red Hat OpenStack System Administration Red Hat OpenStack Administration I (CL 110), II (CL210) and III (CL310) courses to prepare.

Red Hat training and resources

Red Hat offers an extensive training program: in-classroom, online, virtual, remote classroom, onsite team and online learning lab formats are available. Most courses are three to five days in length, depending on delivery format. A remarkably helpful resource is the Red Hat Training Resource Center, which contains links to online tools, references, student guides, a skills assessment and more.

Red Hat now offers the Red Hat Learning Subscription, which gives certification candidates access to a multitude of online, on-demand classes and exam prep videos for an annual subscription fee that varies depending on the specific certification you seek. In addition, Red Hat offers multiple ways for you or your company to save on certification and training costs. Browse the Red Hat Ways to Save page for training bundles and success packs.

You can also find lots of third-party study guidebooks to prepare for certification exams. Just search for “Red Hat Certification” on Amazon and be prepared for a lot of results.

Sun, 30 Jul 2023 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Best Linux Certifications
  • While not widely used on desktops, Linux continues to be an extremely popular operating system for web servers. 
  • There is still strong demand on job boards for candidates holding Linux certifications. 
  • Some of the best Linux certifications available include CompTIA’s Linux+, Red Hat’s RHCSA and Oracle Linux OCP. 
  • This article is for IT professionals interested in Linux who want to learn more about which Linux certifications are best to obtain.

More than 20 years after Linus Torvalds developed Linux, the operating system remains a force in the computing industry. While Linux is not widely used on desktops, it is extraordinarily strong on the web server side, where it enjoys a market share of 48 percent, according to W Techs.

Information technology (IT) professionals invest considerable time learning about server computing for everything from installation, configuration, maintenance and virtualization to application support and security. This also means that many IT professionals are working with and around Linux operating systems daily, often alongside Windows and various UNIX OS brands as well.

The results of a job search we conducted on several popular job posting sites show which Linux certifications employers are looking for when hiring new employees. While results vary from day to day (and job board to job board), this table reflects those Linux-related certifications that employers were seeking in the United States.

Job Board Survey Results (in alphabetical order, by certification)




LinkedIn Jobs



Linux+ (CompTIA)












Oracle Linux OCP






RHCA (Red Hat)






RHCE (Red Hat)






RHCSA (Red Hat)






We found that for nearly every certification category listed above, the number of national jobs postings mentioning that certification has increased or held steady since we surveyed the same job sites a year ago. Linux system administrators and engineers can expect average earnings in the low $90s and upward, depending on the job role. Glassdoor reports earnings for Linux system administrators averaging $94,000, Linux system engineers around $132,000 and senior Linux system engineers at an average range of $144,000 to $232,000

Best Linux Certifications

The best of the Linux certifications vie for considerable mindshare among IT professionals and present an interesting mix of distribution- or brand-agnostic credentials alongside some pretty formidable vendor-specific credentials. There are multiple well-elaborated certification ladders available to those interested in learning, using and mastering the Linux operating system environment and all the many bells and whistles it supports.

The following are our top picks for Linux certifications to pursue.

Linux+ (CompTIA XK0-005)

CompTIA exercises extraordinary certification clout at the entry level in many IT niches. This nonprofit has shown itself as willing to team up with more focused IT organizations, associations and consortia to combine their own market reach and visibility with niche smarts and subject matter expertise on loan from various partners.

CompTIA’s Linux+ is aimed at early career system administrators aiming to increase their abilities to support Linux environments. CompTIA also recently introduced its latest version of the exam, XK0-005, which became the only version of the certification available after XK0-004 retired in January 2023. The new certification exam focuses on the evolving nature of Linux, looking at subjects such as how Linux powers the cloud. subjects also include looking at infrastructure as code, Linux containers and how Linux is used in newer, cutting-edge technologies. 

CompTIA provides a wide range of other certifications, which can complement Linux+. These certifications include infrastructure-related certifications covering cloud and server technologies. 

Linux+ is good for three years, during which time holders can renew the certification by earning 50 continual education credits or by earning approved, high certifications that renew Linux+ automatically as well. 

CompTIA Linux+ Facts & Figures

Certification Name

CompTIA Linux+ 

Prerequisites & Required Courses

None required

Recommended: 12 months hands-on experience working with Linux servers; CompTIA A+ and CompTIA Network+ are also recommended

Number of Exams

One: XK0-005; maximum of 90 multiple choice questions over 90 minutes

Cost per Exam

$358 per exam; prices vary by geography


Self-Study Materials

CompTIA maintains a list of training materials and additional study options, including links to study guides, exam crams, practice tests, online and classroom training, CertMaster and more; additional third-party reference and review materials can be found on Amazon

LPI (Linux Professional Institute) Certifications

The Linux Professional Institute (LPI) started up in October 1999, almost one decade after Linus Torvalds began his pioneering efforts on the Linux kernel. Since then, LPI has become one of the leading certification providers on Linux subjects and technologies.

Given the organization’s distribution-agnostic approach to Linux, it offers excellent coverage of a platform that’s available in many forms and flavors in today’s marketplace.

The LPI Certification (LPIC) program is available in three distinct levels:

  • LPIC-1: A  junior-level Linux certification with no prerequisites. Candidates must pass two exams that cover basic Linux skills, including installing and configuring Linux on a workstation, working at the command line, performing basic maintenance tasks and making LAN or internet connections. 
  • LPIC-2: An advanced-level Linux certification that requires an active LPIC-1 certification. Candidates must pass two exams that cover significant Linux skills and topics. The first exam covers the kernel, system startup, file system and devices, advanced storage administration, network configuration, system maintenance and capacity planning. The second exam covers web services, file sharing, network client management, email services, system security and troubleshooting and domain name servers.
  • LPIC-3: At the senior level, LPI certifications split into three different paths, each of which requires an active LPIC-2 and passing any single exam in the 300 Valid exam IDs currently include 300: Mixed Environment, 303: Security, 305: Virtualization and Containerization and 306: High Availability and Storage Clusters. The Mixed Environment exam covers Samba (domain integration, user and group management, name services, share configuration and so forth), plus OpenLDAP and working with Linux and Windows clients. The Security exam covers network, operations and application security, as well as cryptography and access controls. High availability cluster storage and management, along with virtualization, are covered in the Virtualization and Storage Clusters exam and differing aspects of virtualization and virtual machine deployment are covered in Virtualization and Containerization.

In addition to the LPIC-1, 2 and 3 credentials, LPI also offers an entry-level credential, the Linux Essentials Professional Development Certificate (PDC). Linux Essentials focuses on foundational skills, such as creating and running simple scripts, restoring compressed backups and archives, working with the command line, Linux operating system basics, FOSS and users/groups and file permissions for public and private directories. Linux Essentials is a great way to get started while gaining the skills and knowledge needed for the more challenging LPIC credentials.

LPI also offers the LPIC-OT DevOps Tools Engineer certification, which recognizes the effective use of tools for collaboration during system and software development. There are no prerequisites, and the single exam lasts for 90 minutes and has 60 questions.

LPIC credentials are worthwhile for IT pros whose chosen Linux distributions do not warrant their own certification programs and those seeking broad, vendor- and distribution-neutral coverage of Linux topics, tools and technologies. They are popular among IT pros and in demand among IT employers.

The LPIC and Linux+ exams are great ways to demonstrate broad knowledge of the Linux system without having to specialize in a specific Linux distribution. This is a good pathway for either professions starting off in Linux or those who wish to maintain a wider knowledge base.

LPIC-1, LPIC-2 and LPIC-3 Facts & Figures

Oracle Linux OCP

When Oracle bought Sun Microsystems in 2010, it acquired a rich and deep UNIX tradition. Oracle started phasing out Solaris almost immediately after finalizing the Sun acquisition.

Today, Oracle offers associate- and professional-level certifications based on Linux rather than harking back to any kind of UNIX roots. These certifications retain enough of their Sun roots, however, so that courses are not mandatory prerequisites to taking the exams for the two Oracle Linux certifications currently available.

[Read also: Top Oracle Certifications to Help Your IT Career]

As with other vendor-specific Linux certifications, Oracle’s are most appealing to those who work with or around that distribution or wish to work for employers who use those distributions.

OCP Facts & Figures

Certification Name

Oracle Certified Professional (OCP), Oracle Linux 8 System Administrator

Prerequisites & Required Courses

OCP: Oracle recommends a mix of hands-on experience and taking classes in their learning subscription

Number of Exams

OCP: One exam, 1Z0-106 Oracle Linux 8 Advanced System Administrator (90 minutes, 60 questions and 60 percent to pass)

Cost per Exam

OCP: $245


Self-Study Materials

Oracle offers online and in-class training for its credentials with hit-or-miss coverage for them on the aftermarket; start with Amazon searches — check exam IDs 1Z0-106


If there’s one major star in the vendor-specific Linux certification firmament, it’s got to be Red Hat. The company has a major market presence and a serious duration as a commercial provider of Linux platforms and technologies.

Red Hat offers a typical administrator, engineer, architect certification ladder. Unlike many other such programs, however, it offers highly regarded and valued credentials at each rung, along with demanding and hands-on oriented exams and an excellent training curriculum to match. All exams for the following Red Hat certifications are performance-based and last two hours or longer.

[Read our Red Hat Certification guide next to learn more about the company’s career paths.]

The giveaway for Red Hat certifications is that all come with acronyms that start with RH, as follows:

  • Red Hat Certified System Administrator (RHCSA): This foundation certification vets essential skills in handling files, working at the command line and using system documentation, along with managing systems (boot up, identifying processes, start/stop virtual machines and controlling services), configuring storage partitions and logical volumes and more.
  • Red Hat Certified Engineer (RHCE): This cornerstone certification is designed to test and validate the skills and knowledge necessary to work as a senior-level Linux system administrator. The exam focuses on testing and developing skills necessary for managing systems in a DevOps environment. subjects include automation, management and support of multisystem environments and experience integrating Ansible Automation with other Red Hat technologies.
  • Red Hat Certified Architect (RHCA): Red Hat’s pinnacle certification offers two paths to certification, depending on which prerequisite advanced Red Hat certification credentials you have already completed: Red Hat Certified Enterprise Microservices Developers (RHCEMDs) and Red Hat Certified Cloud-native Developer (RHCCDs) can earn an RHCA in Enterprise Applications and Red Hat Certified Engineers (RHCEs) can earn an RHCA in Infrastructure.

In general, the five additional exams that must be passed to achieve the RCHA in either Infrastructure or Enterprise Applications are specific to each area of specialization, though a few of the tests can be used to satisfy the five exam requirements in both RHCA tracks.

A number of previously available certification exams have been discontinued for new RHCA candidates and renewals, though those exams can still be applied to the RHCA certification if you’ve already passed them. Find out more about discontinued exams that can be counted toward the RHCA credential on the RHCA page under the Candidate Guidance tab.

Because Red Hat Linux is widely used in the business world, the RHCA certification is an excellent choice for those interested in a more platform-focused path into the Linux world. Of course, for those who already work with or around Red Hat, it is a natural certification choice as well. 

Red Hat is a trusted partner for more than 90 percent of organizations in the Fortune 500, making it a strong choice for Linux professionals looking to specialize in a specific Linux distribution.

RHCSA, RHCE and RHCA Facts & Figures

Certification Name:

Red Hat Certified System Administrator (RHCSA)

Red Hat Certified Engineer (RHCE)

Red Hat Certified Architect (RHCA)

Prerequisites & Required Courses

RHCSA: No prerequisites 

Recommended training:

Windows system administrators: Runnin Containers with Red Hat Technical Overview (RH065), Red Hat System Administration I (RH124) and II (RH134

Linux/Unix Administrators, RHCSA Rapid Track Course with exam (RH200)

RHCE: RHCSA credential 

Recommended training:

Same as for RHCSA, plus

Red Hat Enterprise Linux Automation with Ansible (RH294)


RHCE-certified (Infrastructure track) — Candidates currently holding an RHCE certification must pass five additional exams from the Infrastructure track below

RHCEMD/RHCCD-certified (Enterprise Applications track) — Candidates currently holding an RHCJD or an RHCEMD certification must pass five additional exams from the Enterprise Applications track below

Number of Exams

RHCSA: One exam, EX200 Red Hat Certified System Administrator (RHCSA) exam

RHCE: One exam, EX294 Red Hat Certified Engineer (RHCE) exam 

RHCA: Five exams total depending on whether you have already completed an RHCE certification (for the RHCA Infrastructure track) or an RHCEMD/RHCCD (for the RHCA Enterprise Applications track): 

An RHCE must pass at least five exams from the following list to achieve the RHCA in Infrastructure, while also keeping the associated certifications current:

EX180 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Containers and Kubernetes exam

EX188 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Containers exam

EX210 – Red Hat Certified System Administrator in Red Hat OpenStack exam

EX220 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Hybrid Cloud Management exam

EX221 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Cloud-native Integration exam

EX236 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Gluster Storage Administration exam

EX240 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in API Management exam

EX248 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Enterprise Application Server Administration exam

EX260 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Ceph Cloud Storage exam 

EX280 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in OpenShift Administration exam

EX288 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in OpenShift Application Development exam

EX310 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Edge Computing and Networking exam

EX328 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Building Resilient Microservices exam

EX318 – Red Hat Certified Virtualization exam

EX342 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Linux Diagnostics and Troubleshooting exam

EX358 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Services Management and Automation exam

EX362 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Identity Management exam

EX374 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Developing Automation with Ansible Automation Platform exam

EX380 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in OpenShift Automation and Integration exam

EX403 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Deployment and Systems Management exam

EX405 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Configuration Management exam

EX415 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Security: Linux exam

EX436 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in High Availability Clustering exam

EX440 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Messaging Administration exam

EX442 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Linux Performance Tuning exam

EX447 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Advanced Automation: Ansible Best Practices exam

EX457 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Ansible Network Automation exam

EX482 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Event-Driven Application Development exam

RHCEMD/RHCCDs must pass five exams from the following list to achieve the RHCA certification in Enterprise Applications:

EX180 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Containers and Kubernetes exam
EX240 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in API Management exam

EX248 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Enterprise Application Server Administration exam

EX280 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in OpenShift Administration exam

EX288 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in OpenShift Application Development exam

EX405 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Configuration Management exam

EX407 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Ansible Automation exam

EX427 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Business Process Design exam

EX440 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Messaging Administration exam

EX453 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Fast-Cache Application Development exam

EX465 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Business Rules exam

EX447 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Advanced Automation: Ansible Best Practices exam

EX480 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in MultiCluster Management exam

EX482 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Event-Driven Application Development exam

Cost per Exam

$400 each ($2,000 total RHCA exam costs)


Self-study Materials

Red Hat skills assessments and other materials can be located on the training page. Red Hat Training includes multiple training options (online, classroom, self-paced, virtual, video and more). Red Hat Learning Subscription includes all online courses in one package; prices vary by geography, candidates can expect to pay $6,000 for a Basic Subscription and $7,000 for a Standard Subscription; study guides are on Amazon

Another certification to consider: The Linux Foundation

Outside the top four Linux credentials and programs covered in this article, The Linux Foundation certifications may be worthy of your time and attention.

The Linux Foundation, a membership-based organization, promotes the development of the Linux kernel through collaboration, conferences and education. The organization’s small but respected certification program includes the Linux Foundation Certified System Administrator (LFCS).

Many industry experts, including Steven J. Vaughn-Nichols, a long-time user and expert on Linux and Unix operating systems, say that certifications can be an important ingredient in a job candidate’s qualifications. But interviewers should also pay close attention to how many Linux systems candidates have set up, managed or used to get a sense of the scale and scope of their experience.

In other words, when you see a web hosting service advertising for Linux jobs, they’re not looking for people who’ve installed and used Linux at home or in a small business setting; they’re looking for professionals who’ve set up and managed Linux in a highly distributed and virtualized data center environment, with lots of complex networking and services coming into the mix.

Choosing the right certification

Choosing the right certification pathway can help boost your overall skills, knowledge and employability. However, it can be difficult to evaluate exactly which certification is best for you. Certification seekers should first consider whether they want a broader certification to demonstrate overall knowledge of Linux, such as from Linux+ or the LPIC exams, or whether they want to demonstrate knowledge of specific types of Linux, such as from Oracle or Red Hat. Once you’ve determined that, it is simply a question of finding the correct certification to match your skill level. 

Ultimately, pursuing any certification shows your willingness to learn, which will help you stand out to current and former employers. 

Ed Tittel and Earl Follis contributed to this article.

Sun, 30 Jul 2023 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Taashee Linux Academy

Taashee LinuxAcademy :

Taashee has been aleading provider of Linux-based solutions for over two years. Withlong-standing expertise in developing and implementing Linux based programswhich provide high-availability and high performance clusters, it was onlynatural for us to form an academy that gives IT professionals the knowledge todevelop and implement real-time Linux solutions on their own.

As a certified Red Hat training partner, we thoroughly prepare students onofficial curriculum of Red Hat Linux, which leads towards Red Hat CertifiedTechnician (RHCT) and Red Hat Certified Engineer (RHCE) exams. Our superiortrainers, successful instructor led training model, and state-of-the-artfacilities provide IT professionals the knowledge base they need at exam time.

RedHat Linux Certification – It’s Indispensable

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Most IT business CEOs and managers know certification plays a key role inimproving the level of service and support their company provides. Thetechnical skills we teach at Taashee Linux Academy are valuable for theprofessional development of Linux professionals. Also, some HR experts saycertified IT professionals are better team players and remain in their jobslonger.

Highly-QualifiedTaashee Trainers

The Taashee Linux Academy provides thorough instructor-led training to ensureyou learn the fundamentals and hands-on skills you need to earn your Linuxcertification. Our instructors are real-time solutions experts with many hoursof experience in the field. Considering the RHCT and RHCE exams beingperformance based, you can be confident with the knowledge gained in ourtraining would help you excel in your certifications.Our certified instructorscomplement Red Hat course material with substantial practical knowledge andskills from their professions.

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Our well-equipped lab facility at Hyderabad offers the perfect environment tobuild new Linux systems and simulate troubleshooting.  Rest assured, our education center offers thenecessary servers and components for handling complex areas such as Red HatClustering Suite and Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization (RHEV).

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Students participating in our training will receive the official Red Hat®courseware for each module i.e., RH033 - Red Hat Linux Essentials, RH133 - RedHat Linux System Administration and RH253 - Red Hat Linux Network and SecurityAdministration. On completion of each module, you would receive coursecompletion certificate from Red Hat. The training would cover everything fromdisk partitioning to IP aliasing and kernel management to electronic mailmanagement.




Fri, 14 Oct 2022 23:38:00 -0500 text/html
Killexams : 5 Best CentOS Replacement Options for 2023

CentOS Linux 7, the popular free and open-source Linux distribution based on Red Hat Enterprise Linux, has set its end of life for June 2024. The enterprise operating system, loved by scientists, businesses and developers for its reliability, stability and security, has been a leading technology for web hosting, cloud computing, storage servers, networks and software development.

As users consider whether to migrate to CentOS Stream 9, a new upstream distribution that is designed to be a rolling release of Red Hat Enterprise Linux and is not considered a replacement for CentOS, other competitors stand out as good alternatives.

Jump to:

Top CentOS alternatives: Comparison table

In the following chart, we note how five CentOS alternatives compare in terms of performance, migration tools and resources, security and compliance, supported architectures, support and lifecycle, and pricing.

Performance Migration tools and resources Security and compliance Supported architectures Support and lifecycle Pricing
Red Hat Enterprise Linux Highly reliable and robust. Yes. Yes, built-in and automated tools. x86, ARM, IBM Power, IBM Z, IBM LinuxONE and more.

24-7 support is free with the paid plan. 

10-year lifecycle.

Upgrade extensions available.

Pricing starts at $179.
Oracle Linux Advanced performance and reliability. Yes. Yes, built-in tools. x86 (32-bit), x86-64 (64-bit) and aarch64 (64-bit).

24-7 support must be purchased.

10-year lifecycle.

Upgrade extension available.

Free to download, use and distribute. 

Paid versions include Oracle Linux support, Oracle Cloud and Oracle.

Rocky Linux Reliable but under intense development. Yes, but requires advanced knowledge. Yes, but requires advanced knowledge. x86-64-v2, ARM64, ppc64le and s390x.

Community support and commercial support available.

10-year support and upgrade cycle.

Free to download, use and distribute.
AlmaLinux Enterprise-grade but under development. Yes, but requires advanced knowledge. Yes, but requires advanced knowledge. x86_64, aarch64, ppc64le and s390x.

Free community support.

Upgrades and year-support lifecycle vary depending on versions.

Free to download, use and distribute.
Fedora Enterprise- grade, reliable and secure. Yes, built-in advanced features. Yes, built-in, advanced features. x86-64, ARM, PowerPC: PowerPC64 and PowerPC64le, s390x and RISC-V: F.

Forums, documents, bug programs, mailing lists and chat support. 

Supports upgrade from one version to the next.

Free to download, use and distribute.

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What are the best CentOS alternatives?

Since the IBM-owned company decided to restrict the free use of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, a divide has been growing among users. The main question is whether to migrate to commercial Linux providers or open-source, non-commercial community-developed enterprise operating systems.

In this complex landscape of imminent migration, some top names stand out as CentOS’s top alternatives: Red Hat Enterprise Linux, Oracle Linux, Rocky Linux, AlmaLinux and Fedora.

Red Hat Enterprise Linux: Best for large enterprises

Red Hat Enterprise Linux logo.
Image: Red Hat

The first name that emerges as an alternative to CentOS is naturally Red Hat Enterprise Linux, as it’s the open-source operating system on which CentOS is based. Therefore, many users think that going directly to the source is naturally a good idea, and they’re not wrong.

RHEL has gained its reputation among big enterprises for providing a modern, security-oriented OS. Companies with advanced digital resources, technology stacks and workloads use the OS to scale and perform on-premises, on virtual machines or containers and in the cloud. The OS is certified on hundreds of clouds and with thousands of hardware and software vendors.

Figure A

Red Hat Enterprise Linux migration process for CentOS. Image: Red Hat 
Red Hat Enterprise Linux migration process for CentOS. Image: Red Hat


  • Stability and community support: RHEL is a very stable OS designed to be used in mission-critical environments. There is also a large and active community of RHEL users and developers to offer support.
  • Security: Security is at the core of RHEL. The system includes a great number of advanced security features.
  • Official support and benefits: Red Hat provides 24/7 support for RHEL, and all versions have a 10-year life cycle. Plus, Red Hat connects users with its extensive hardware, software and cloud partner ecosystem.
  • Supported architectures: It runs on servers and workstations, and supports a wide range of hardware architectures like x86, ARM, IBM Power, IBM Z and IBM LinuxONE.
  • Automation and management: The OS includes Red Hat Insights, a managed service for analytics and remediation that delivers continuous vulnerability alerts and guidance.
  • Security and compliance: RHEL can simplify risks and automate security and compliance with built-in features like live kernel patching, security profiles, security standards certification and a trusted software supply chain.
  • Migration: From installing to migrating or updating, the vendor offers tools to streamline the processes, whether users are coming from CentOS Linux or another OS.


  • Stable and reliable software.
  • High-performing security and compliance.
  • Well-supported OS.
  • Wide range of features.
  • Large and active community.


  • Not free; commercial pricing can be expensive for small companies.
  • Can be complex to manage.
  • Not as flexible as some other Linux distributions.


RHEL variants include the Server edition and RHEL Workstations, which are optimized to run on high-performance workstations. Additionally, other versions are Linux for Virtual Datacenters, Linux for IBM Power Little Endian and Linux for SAP Solutions.

Pricing starts at $179 for the Workstation, and the most expensive solution, Linux Virtual Datacenters, starts at $2,499.

SEE: For more information, read Red Hat Enterprise Linux 9

Oracle Linux: Best for IT and software development companies

Oracle Linux logo.
Image: Oracle

Oracle Linux is another solid alternative for those looking to migrate from CentOS for several reasons. First of all, Oracle Linux is 100% Red Hat Enterprise Linux compatible. It can handle a wide variety of workloads, heavy-duty databases, application servers and DevOps. Additionally, users can migrate from CentOS to Oracle Linux seamlessly using built-in migration features. And, they will benefit from several features that are not available in CentOS.

Fully compatible with RHEL, Oracle offers a choice of two kernels: the Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel for Oracle Linux or the Red Hat Compatible Kernel.

  • The Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel provides the latest open source innovations, key optimizations and security with a focus on performance, stability and minimal backports by tracking the mainline source code as closely as is practical. It is a Linux kernel built by Oracle and supported through Oracle Linux support. UEK is designed for maximum performance and stability and drives Oracle Cloud and Oracle Engineered Systems, such as Oracle Exadata Database Machine. UEK is well-tested and used to run Oracle’s Engineered Systems, Oracle Cloud Infrastructure and large enterprise deployments for Oracle customers.
  • The Red Hat Compatible Kernel is for Oracle Linux, and it is compatible with the Red Hat Enterprise Linux kernel; this means that software that is compiled for RHEL will also run on Oracle Linux with RHCK.

Oracle Linux is a good choice for businesses and organizations that need a stable, reliable and secure operating system. It is also popular among IT and software companies because of the features listed below.

Figure B

Oracle Linux User interface that shows storage management and disk partition operation.
Oracle Linux User interface that shows storage management and disk partition operation. Image: Oracle


  • Migration: Oracle provides a quick and easy migration path to switch from CentOS Linux or other OS. The company also offers hands-on labs and tutorials to help users throughout the process.
  • DevOps automation: IT companies and software developers leverage the automated DevOps features to accelerate production and deployment. Through these features, Constellation Research users can find five drivers for DevOps automation, recommendations and more.
  • Multi-environment performance and reliability: Oracle Linux is designed to support x86 and Arm architectures across on-premises, multicloud and edge environments. It is also engineered for heavy workloads.
  • Security and compliance: Users can apply security vulnerability fixes without downtime. Oracle Linux can help users detect exploits and use a distribution that has FIPS and Common Criteria certifications to meet compliance.
  • Official support: Oracle Linux support must be purchased. The price for the 24/7 support starts at $499 per year.

Additional features that are not available in CentOS include:

  • Zero-downtime patching with Ksplice.
  • Cloud-native tools such as Kubernetes and Kata Containers.
  • Kernel-based virtual machine virtualization and oVirt-based virtualization manager.
  • Gluster Storage for Oracle Linux.
  • The Btrfs file system (only available with UEK).
  • DTrace dynamic tracing framework (only available with UEK).
  • Oracle Linux Automation Manager and Automation Engine.
  • Oracle Linux Manager utility to assist in patching and errata management.


  • Offers free download, use and distribution.
  • Boasts high-performance, stability, security and reliability.
  • Provides automation for DevOps.
  • Delivers superb support.
  • Offers a wide range of features that CentOS does not.
  • Includes a 100% RHEL compatible migration path for CentOS and other OS users.


  • Support must be purchased.
  • Can be complex to manage.
  • Compliance features require advanced knowledge.


Oracle Linux basic version is free to download, use and distribute; this includes free source code and updates. The Oracle Cloud Infrastructure pricing can be estimated online and the Linux Support plan pricing is available upon request.

SEE: Is Oracle Linux a valid replacement for CentOS? (TechRepublic)

Rocky Linux: Best for die-hard CentOS fans

Rocky Linux.
Image: Rocky Linux

Rocky Linux is a community-supported Linux distribution that was created when CentOS announced its end-of-life cycle. The project is led by the original founder of CentOS, Gregory Kurtzer.

The OS is designed to be a drop-in replacement for CentOS. It responds to the needs of the CentOS community and has received support from Amazon Web Services, Google Cloud, VMware, Open Source Lab and others.

Rocky Linux is an open-source enterprise operating system designed to be 100% bug-for-bug compatible with Red Hat Enterprise Linux; however, as it is under intensive development by the community, it is not yet risk-free.

Figure C 

RockyLinux desktop.
Source: RockyLinux.


  • Migration: Rocky Linux offers support and guides for users to use when migrating from CentOS, CentOS Stream, Alma Linux, RHEL or Oracle Linux. Advanced skills are required for the migration and what Rocky Linux calls “a mildly risk-taking attitude.” A migration script is available free of charge.
  • Production-ready: Despite it still being under development, the OS is enterprise-ready and provides solid stability with regular updates.
  • Community support: The OS has the support of well-known CentOS leaders, as well as the wider community.
  • CentOS features: The OS provides all the main CentOS features that developers and the community are familiar with, making the learning curve a straight line.

SEE: Learn to use Linux for IT and Sysadmin with this training bundle (TechRepublic Academy)


  • Free and open-source.
  • Reliable and secure.
  • Well-supported.
  • Excellent for users familiarized with CentOS.
  • Supported by the CentOS active community.


  • Under intense development.
  • Not risk-free.
  • Requires advanced knowledge.


Rocky Linux is free and provides free upgrades along with a 10-year support lifecycle, all at no cost.

AlmaLinux: Best for those familiar with CentOS

AlmaLinux logo.
Image: Alma Linux

AlmaLinux is another forked version of CentOS, owned and governed by a community of developers. Like RockyLinux, the OS began development when CentOS announced it would no longer offer support or release new versions.

The community behind AlmaLinux assures that the OS will always be free for enterprises, and that they are focused on long-term stability and a robust production-grade platform. The company adopted a Fedora-like distribution for anyone who does not want to pay for RHEL licenses. AlmaLinux is supported by CloudLinux Inc. and other sponsors.


  • Migration: AlmaLinux does not have built-in automated step-by-step technology that guides users through migration. AlmaLinux does offer guides, but only those with advanced skills will be able to follow them (Figure D).
  • Production-ready: AlmaLinux OS is an enterprise-grade server OS. It is a stable Linux distribution and offers regular releases and support. It is designed for critical workloads. The organization provides official images for cloud providers including AWS, generic clouds, Google Cloud, Microsoft Azure, OpenNebula and Oracle Cloud Infrastructure.
  • Community support: The AlmaLinux GitHub organization contains source code and tools used to build AlmaLinux OS and related infrastructure. The Reddit community is in place for users to receive updates and find and provide support. Additionally, other community forums are available.
  • Supported architectures: AlmaLinux supports four architectures: x86_64, aarch64, ppc64le and s390x.
  • Performance and security: AlmaLinux is a very stable operating system that relies on the expertise of experts in the community. It is designed to be used in mission-critical environments, and it has a long history of reliability. It also provides a number of security features, which include SELinux and AppArmor.

Figure D

AlmaLinux CentOS migration process.
Image: AlmaLinux


  • Open-source and free.
  • Migration support.
  • High-grade enterprise distribution OS.
  • CentOS-style features.
  • Large community support.


  • New to the market.
  • Not risk-free.
  • Requires advanced knowledge.
  • Advanced tools such as automation and compliance may vary and depend on the level of user expertise.


AlmaLinux is free. Upgrades and support provided vary depending on the version.

Fedora: Best for programming and rolling release distribution

Fedora logo.
Image: Fedora

Fedora is an innovative platform loved by programmers because it provides cutting-edge technology, is reliable and stable, and is a free and open-source OS packed with features.

Fedora is also a community-supported Linux distribution developed by Red Hat. In concept, it compares more to CentOS Stream than to CentOS because it offers rolling release distribution, giving users access to the latest technology. New features and updates are released on a continuous basis. The new features in Fedora are available before they are released in Red Hat Enterprise Linux. Fedora also invests heavily in graphic user experience and provides easy-to-use, high-quality graphics through modern desktops (Figure E).

Figure E

Fedora Desktop Linux user interface.
Image: Fedora


  • Versions: Fedora is available in Workstation and Server versions as well as for IoT, Cloud and as a Container optimized OS. Each version is updated for approximately 13 months; upgrades between versions are quick and easy.
  • Performance: With Fedora Server, users can run virtual machines and containers, build applications, deploy a server and workloads, and create stable ecosystems.
  • Support: Provides issue tracking, chat support, resources, documentation, community support and more.
  • Rolling releases: Fedora is a rolling release distribution, which means new features and updates are released on a continuous basis. Users have access to the latest software available.
  • Supported architectures: x86-64, ARM, PowerPC: PowerPC64 and PowerPC64le, s390x and RISC-V: F.


  • Free and open source.
  • Built-in migration tools and resources.
  • Cutting-edge operating system, offers rolling releases.
  • Community supported.


  • Advanced skills are required.
  • Setup can be complex.


Fedora is free and provides free upgrades from version to version.

Is CentOS still relevant?

CentOS is still a relevant Linux distribution despite it being on the countdown for its end of life. You could think of CentOS as a very good car that the manufacturer is no longer producing. While you can still use the car and it works perfectly, you will not receive upgrades, new versions or support. In the near future, it is expected to become outdated.

Will there be a CentOS 9?

No, there will not be a CentOS 9. Red Hat announced it would no longer support CentOS as a downstream distribution of RHEL. This means there will be no new versions of CentOS released after CentOS 8.

However, led by a large community and supported by commercial partners, forks of CentOS such as Rocky Linus and AlmaLinux are being developed. These forks are designed to be 100% compatible with CentOS, so they can be used as a drop-in replacement for CentOS.

Is CentOS good in 2023?

While CentOS in 2023 is still a good option, developers and businesses are already looking into migrating to other alternatives.

Having said that, CentOS is still stable, reliable and compatible with a wide range of software in 2023. It is also still free and open-source, and has the support of an active community of users and developers. However, due to the end of CentOS as we know it, it may not be the best choice for everyone in 2023 and beyond.

What is the future of CentOS?

While the future of CentOS is uncertain, the most likely scenario is that one of the organizations developing forks of it becomes the go-to OS for this community by mid-2024 when it reaches its end of life.

On the other side, from Red Hat’s perspective, the future of CentOS is CentOS Stream, which is a new Linux distribution developed by Red Hat, an IBM-owned company. But CentOS Stream is not a replacement for CentOS — it is a different distribution with a completely different focus. It aims to be at the forefront of development by offering users rolling release distribution to test new features and updates before they are released in RHEL. In this way, it is similar to Fedora; also, both are developed by Red Hat, and both offer rolling releases.

How do I choose the best CentOS alternative for my business?

There is no easy answer to this question. When choosing an alternative for CentOS, business leaders should consult with their developers to learn which OS they feel more comfortable with because they will be the ones operating the system.

On the other hand, budget may be a deciding factor, especially for small companies. Additionally, among CentOS users and developers, there is a strong sense of community, support and respect for free open-source projects. Therefore, even if a company has the budget to buy the most expensive licenses, developers may feel more confident and comfortable working with open-source, free technology.

Some users may see the end of life of CentOS as an opportunity to migrate to another OS such as Oracle Linux or Red Hat Enterprise Linux. These more conservative choices offer features that CentOS does not offer.

In the end, the OS you choose must align with your business needs and goals, be flexible, reliable and secure, and provide excellent migration and support. Scaling, automation, upgrades and compliance are also key components to analyze.


CentOS has provided vital services for organizations, companies and developers for many years. While the OS faces the inevitable end of its glory days, there are still solid new and established Linux OS distributions in the market.

From CentOS-inspired community OSs like Rocky Linux or AlmaLinux, to a cutting-edge OS like Fedora, or the big names of Oracle and Red Hat Linux, the options are as diverse as they are rich. It will be up to every business to decide which Linux distribution fits their operational needs.


To write our review and evaluate CentOS competitors and alternatives, we examined sites that compile aggregate data based on Tested user reviews. We also reviewed demos on vendor sites, test-drove the software when possible and scoured through the official sites of all OS providers’ features in this report to evaluate their software, customer service, user-friendliness, price, scalability and more.

Fri, 28 Jul 2023 13:12:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Killexams : Rafay Announces Red Hat OpenShift Certification and Availability in the Red Hat Ecosystem Catalog

Red Hat OpenShift Customers Can Now Consume Rafay's Kubernetes Add-On, Multi-Tenancy and Access Management Capabilities Across Data Centers and Cloud-Based Clusters

Rafay Systems today announced the availability of its Kubernetes Operations Platform (KOP) in the Red Hat Ecosystem Catalog, an open cloud catalog that makes it easy to find and deploy Red Hat-certified software for container-based environments. Enterprises using Red Hat OpenShift in data centers or in the cloud, or those operating a combination of Red Hat OpenShift and managed Kubernetes services, e.g., Amazon Elastic Kubernetes Service (Amazon EKS), Microsoft Azure Kubernetes Service (AKS) and Google Kubernetes Engine (GKE), can consume Rafay's SaaS offering to standardize Kubernetes configuration and policies across all clusters. Customers can also leverage Rafay to centrally and easily standardize multi-tenancy models across Red Hat OpenShift and EKS/AKS/GKE, along with more secure access for developers across clouds and data centers. Enterprises using Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS or Microsoft Azure Red Hat OpenShift can also leverage Rafay capabilities for centralized management and control through a single pane of glass.

The Red Hat Ecosystem Catalog is the official source for discovering certified, enterprise-grade products that enterprises can leverage to achieve their business outcomes. It makes it easier for enterprises to explore and find certified products from Red Hat's ecosystem of enterprise hardware, software and cloud and service providers. The Red Hat Ecosystem Catalog lists tested, Tested and supported enterprise-grade software from Red Hat and its partners that are ready to deploy in enterprise environments today.

"Red Hat OpenShift is supported by an incredibly diverse and robust ecosystem of software partners to offer enterprises a broad range of certified solutions," said Kevin Kennedy, vice president, North America Partner Ecosystem, Red Hat. "We are pleased to collaborate with Rafay to certify its Kubernetes automation solution on Red Hat OpenShift to help customers accelerate their modernization journey across on-premises and cloud environments."

For enterprises deploying Red Hat OpenShift alongside EKS, AKS and/or GKE, Rafay provides the following automation capabilities:

  • Add-On Management and Standardization: Centrally enforce and create standards for add-ons deployed across all clusters (on-premises and in the cloud) through easy-to-use cluster blueprints that are versioned, auditable and consumable via Terraform, GitOps API, CLI and GUI-based workflows. Cluster blueprints can also detect and prevent configuration drift, making it easy for enterprises to manage 100s or 1,000s of clusters
  • Bi-Modal Multi-Tenancy: Support for both namespace and cluster-based tenancy models that enable platform teams to support mature and early Kubernetes users via a singular platform, enabling delivery of cluster and namespace-as-a-service capabilities through self-service workflows. Customers can easily create ServiceNow and Backstage-based workflows for developer self-service
  • Multi-Cluster Access Management and Auditing: Zero-trust access security that enables developers and site reliability engineers to access multiple clusters or namespaces without requiring VPNs, jumphosts, etc., complete with centralized role-based access control (RBAC) and comprehensive user-level auditing

Further, for enterprises employing EKS, AKS and/or GKE in the cloud, the Rafay KOP specifically adds the following automation capabilities:

  • EKS/AKS/GKE Lifecycle Management: Turnkey cluster provisioning, scaling and lifecycle management of EKS, AKS and GKE clusters through deep integration with managed Kubernetes services from public cloud providers. With this capability set, no prior Kubernetes experience is needed in the cloud operations/SRE team to provision and operate Kubernetes clusters in the cloud, resulting in a 75% TCO reduction for enterprise-grade Kubernetes operations.

"Rafay is proud to collaborate with Red Hat to make our next-generation Kubernetes automation solution available to enterprises worldwide through the Red Hat Ecosystem Catalog," said Haseeb Budhani, CEO of Rafay Systems. "Managing modern applications across data centers and cloud environments is a complex and difficult task. With this certification for Rafay's KOP on Red Hat OpenShift, we are committed to making the enterprise Kubernetes journey less daunting."

You can find Rafay's KOP on the Red Hat Ecosystem Catalog here.

Additional Resources

About Rafay Systems

Rafay's cloud-made solution, Kubernetes Operations Platform, provides the automation and governance capabilities that platform teams need to standardize Kubernetes clusters, toolsets and workflows. With Rafay, platform teams at MoneyGram, GuardantHealth, Verizon and many other companies are operating Kubernetes environments across data centers, public cloud and Edge environments with centralized visibility and access control, environment standardization, and guardrail enforcement. As a result, platform teams are able to deliver self-service and automation capabilities that delight developer and operations teams. For more information, please visit

Red Hat and OpenShift are trademarks or registered trademarks of Red Hat, Inc. or its subsidiaries in the U.S. and other countries.

© 2023 Benzinga does not provide investment advice. All rights reserved.

Wed, 26 Jul 2023 01:11:00 -0500 text/html
Killexams : Red Hat CEO on AI moves and source code kerfuffle

At the Red Hat Summit earlier this year, Red Hat deepened its platform capabilities with OpenShift AI to address the needs of organisations that are set to add more artificial intelligence (AI) workloads into the mix of applications that run on OpenShift.

The move is a natural extension of the company’s goal to be the platform of choice for application developers and infrastructure operators to build and run applications in a distributed IT environment that spans public and private clouds, as well as at the edge of the network.

With OpenShift AI, Red Hat is providing a standardised foundation for creating production AI and machine learning models. It has also teamed up with IBM on Ansible Lightspeed, with Big Blue training its Watson Code Assistant to write Ansible automation playbooks.

Red Hat’s AI moves, however, were somewhat overshadowed by the reaction from the open source community over its decision to limit access to the source code of Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) to its customers. The decision, announced about a month after the summit, was aimed at preventing rebuilders from profiting from RHEL code without adding value to the software.

In an interview with Computer Weekly, Red Hat CEO Matt Hicks talks up the company’s efforts to support the use of generative AI across the hybrid cloud environment and the competitive landscape for machine learning operations (MLOps) tooling. He also weighs in on the RHEL source code kerfuffle, and how Red Hat is addressing community concerns over the decision.

Could you unpack some of the key announcements at the recent Red Hat Summit and what they mean for the company moving forward?

Hicks: I’ll start with AI and go backwards because I think it has become pretty clear that AI, by nature, is going to be a hybrid workload. You’re probably going to train models in large environments, and then you’re going to run those models as close to your users as you can. We’ve believed in open hybrid cloud for a long time and that’s an exciting workload that gets customers in the hybrid architecture mentality.

Most enterprise customers, because of things like ChatGPT, are trying to figure out the impact of AI on their business. It gets them to think about how they can do hybrid well, and the bulk of our summit announcements is about setting the foundation for hybrid, whether it’s for traditional apps, cloud-native apps or AI workloads.

We do this in a couple of different ways, starting with the secure supply chain work we’re doing. As you know, technology stacks are changing quickly, and so when you’re delivering a foundation, whether it’s on-premise, in public cloud or eventually towards the edge, understanding the provenance of that foundation and knowing that it’s secure is critical, especially as stuff moves out of your datacentre.

Someone can always go into CentOS and all the code is there to recompose, but our preference for Linux distributions is to add something novel or specialised to make a distribution better in ways that were not before versus reproducing our operating system as close as you can
Matt Hicks, Red Hat

Service Interconnect is the second piece we announced. It makes it easier for applications to connect to components across the hybrid cloud through SSH [secure shell protocol] tunnels and VPNs [virtual private networks]. We’re really excited about that because we believe that AI is not going to exist by itself – it’ll be running next to applications which have to interconnect from training environments to where your business runs today.

The third piece is the developer hub. We’ve seen many enterprises that use OpenShift build their own portals to collect their assets and point their developers to where they should start, such as the images and services to use. That work is so common that if you have a secure foundation, and you build applications that span multiple locations, being able to publish and consume those to enable broader development teams is equally critical.

What about addressing some of the challenges with AI like explainability, particularly with large language models that have billions, even trillions, of parameters?

Hicks: There are two parts to that – there’s one part we do, and the other part depends on the model creator. I’ll talk about the work we did on Ansible Lightspeed with IBM to deliver domain specific AI generation capabilities where you can ask for a playbook, and we’ll generate it for you. While ChatGPT is very broad, this is very specific and suits Ansible really well.

And to your point, one of the things we highlighted was sourcing, specifically where the AI recommendations came from, because we’re in the business of open source. Licensing, copyright and trademark rules are important – you just can’t take any code you want and put it in any other code. We wanted to make sure we demonstrated what could be possible.

Now where this breaks down is actually across the two stacks. With OpenShift, we help to support a whole class of work in DevOps – source code management, peer review, publishing of code, tagging, knowing your release modules, pipelines and then publishing code. That’s what we do really well in OpenShift. We can take this whole collection of stuff and move code from laptops to production.

AI models are not all that different. In terms of the discipline required, you need to know the model you started from. If it’s generative AI, you need to know exactly what data you brought in and how you trained or did refinement training or prompt engineering. You need to be able to track the output and test against it before you publish it into production, so if a result changes, you know where it came from. This is the tricky part as data changes so quickly that you can’t just publish it and not retrain it. Retraining is going to be as constant as code generation.

So, what we do in OpenShift AI is MLOps – pulling in data, training models, and using very similar pipelines as you would with code. But you need to have a foundation model, and this leads to how the model was trained in the first place, which is something that Red Hat does not do. It’s done by the likes of IBM, Meta, OpenAI and other model generators and within Hugging Face, there’s also a lot of open source model generation.

In the case of IBM, they tightly control their model because it was domain specific to Ansible. They tightly controlled what they trained against so they could drive that core attribution at the end. There are two different camps – some train on everything publicly available, giving you those massive parameter models where attribution will always be a challenge. Then, there’s Hugging Face which has a lot of specialised models that may start with a foundation model but are bounded to domains.

Our goal is to make sure we can add that discipline to what you started with. What did you change in terms of data? How did you retrain? What were the results and where was it published? There’s a lot of training right now, but in the next year or two, we think we’ll move more into the inference space and how you iterate becomes critical.

Are there plans to work with other players in the market apart from IBM? Also, Red Hat has deep relationships with hyperscalers which also have MLOps capabilities – what are your thoughts on the competitive landscape?

Hicks: One of the reasons why we don’t do models is that we want to make sure that we’re a platform company. Our job is to run the best models in the best way possible. How can we use RHEL and OpenShift to bridge a model – whichever one it is – to Nvidia, Intel or AMD hardware to drive training and inference? Not being in the model space makes us a natural partner with everybody and it really becomes a hardware statement. How can we get the most out of the training environment on OpenShift distributed computing, and then inference, which a lot of times comes closer to core RHEL or maybe a smaller OpenShift instance. So, that’s the first layer.

The second layer when we look at OpenShift AI is that we partner with a lot of other companies today that add specialised capabilities, whether it’s Starburst that’s looking at function array and others. It’s exciting to see the work that IBM is doing on Watsonx. They’ve utilised OpenShift AI heavily, but they were comfortable with OpenShift to start with. Our goal is to make sure that as a platform company, we have that neutrality and independence. I’m glad we can serve IBM, but there will be other partners as well because there’s just so much specialisation and niche offerings in this space.

We've had this incredible run and opportunity of making Linux, OpenShift and Ansible successful in the enterprise. But the walls of the datacentre are shifting, and new technologies are changing how enterprises build things. That's our next opportunity to tackle and there's still plenty of work going from datacentres to cloud
Matt Hicks, Red Hat

I met with SUSE’s CEO recently and we spoke about the recent decision by Red Hat to limit access to RHEL’s source code to its customers. A lot has been written by Red Hat executives to explain the rationale, but how are you framing the issue for customers and addressing community concerns over the decision?

Hicks: I’ll tackle that in two ways. On the community concerns, I think half of it is people just starting to realise that we brought access to RHEL, whether it’s RHEL for teams or multiple instances available for non-production use or free RHEL available to individuals and hobbyists. Our goal first is, if you are a contributor to Linux, we never want to stand in your way of using our products. And I think we’ve probably removed a lot of those barriers almost a year ago. Is there room to Strengthen as people use RHEL more? Absolutely, and that’s one part of making sure RHEL is available to that audience.

When we get to communities that want to build a specialised Linux or start from some of the work that we’ve done but take it in a different direction, our argument would be that CentOS Stream, in terms of the next version of RHEL, provides you with everything you need. If you want to make more aggressive changes to it, Fedora provides you with everything that you would need. Your contributions there can then flow into RHEL, if we choose.

The bit-for-bit rebuilding of RHEL just doesn’t serve a use case for us. Now, someone can always go into CentOS and all the code is there to recompose, but our preference for Linux distributions is to add something novel or specialised to make a distribution better in ways that were not before versus reproducing our operating system as close as you can.

As for our customers, most of them don’t live in the same world as the community builders. Our source policy with RHEL covers our customer base extremely well, because if you need the source code as a customer, you’ll get them. We have customers that have used RHEL and CentOS, and that’s certainly a decision point for them. But Linux is the most available operating system on the planet, and so they have plenty of options to choose from. We’ll always want to make sure we can serve them with RHEL, but it hasn’t really been a customer challenge.

I’d say the challenge is communities feeling like we took something away from them. And half of that is just not being super familiar with CentOS Stream and not being familiar with the ways that RHEL is available to them. We’ve been in open source for a while and any change you make in open source tends to get really strong reactions. We still hold true to open source – we still open source everything we do, and we still contribute back a tremendous amount for every dollar we make.

In your letter to Red Hat employees about the recent layoffs, you mentioned about the importance of focusing on things that Red Hat does really well. Can you elaborate on what those things are and what you hope to achieve?

Hicks: It’s a great question and I start almost every company meeting saying, ‘Let’s be comfortable that we are a platform company’. We’re going to sit above hardware, and in the world of edge, on new consolidated boxes outside the datacentre. And we’re going to connect that to applications, whether they are traditional applications or new cloud-native apps. And then you’re going to have AI workloads going forward.

Our job, from the RHEL days to middleware with JBoss to OpenShift and distributed computing, is to make sure that developers who want to build with our platform have the widest reach possible. That’s important because there are so many things changing right now. When you look at just the intersection of edge and AI, to be a platform company, we have to serve that market and that class of workload, which means we have to be investing in engineering and sales.

We’ve had this incredible run and opportunity of making Linux, OpenShift and Ansible successful in the enterprise. But the walls of the datacentre are shifting, and new technologies are changing how enterprises build things. That’s our next opportunity to tackle and there’s still plenty of work going from datacentres to cloud. But we have to keep that relentless focus on being a platform and serving those use cases.

That’s what we want to do very well and some of that work is in the operating system space in areas like securing the software supply chain, PyTorch optimisations or Nvidia integration. Some work will go into distributed computing, which is what we’re doing with OpenShift, and there’s a whole lot of work in orchestration around Ansible.

We will certainly invest in areas outside of those three, but if I do my job right, you’ll never see us invest in an area that you can’t pin back to that platform use case. I think that’s a pretty big market for us right now. We know the dynamics of this market, we know how to sell into this market, and we have the talent in this market. There’s enough opportunity in these evolving areas to focus on.

Mon, 21 Aug 2023 11:10:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Best Institutes for online training of NEBOSH Course in Qatar

In recent years, the demand for safety and health professionals has grown significantly across various industries. In Qatar, as the country experiences rapid growth and development, there is a growing need for qualified individuals who can ensure workplace safety and compliance with regulations.

One of the most recognized certifications in this field is the NEBOSH qualification. As the world shifts towards online learning, several platforms now offer NEBOSH courses online in Qatar, providing a flexible and convenient way for aspiring professionals to obtain this valuable certification. In this article, we will explore some of the best platforms that offer training in the field of health and safety and charge very reasonable NEBOSH course fees in Qatar.

Best Online Platforms

Here are some of the best online platforms, located in different areas, that are offering their training services regarding NEBOSH in Qatar. If you are willing to take a NEBOSH training without the hassle of visiting an institute then select any of these online platforms and get yourself enrolled.

1. Astutis

Astutis is a reputable global provider of NEBOSH courses, including IGC and International Diploma. Their online learning platform offers interactive resources, tutor support, and mock exams to help students prepare effectively for their assessments. Astutis has a strong track record in delivering health and safety training, making them a trusted choice for learners in Qatar.

2. RRC International

RRC offers accredited NEBOSH courses online, catering to various qualifications and specialized training. Their platform incorporates multimedia elements, such as videos and animations, to enhance the learning experience. Additionally, RRC’s tutors are experienced professionals who provide personalized support to students throughout their learning journey.

3. 360training

As a provider of NEBOSH-accredited courses in Qatar, 360training focuses on delivering comprehensive health and safety training. Their online platform features a user-friendly interface and a variety of learning materials, making it convenient for learners to access course content and progress at their own pace.

4. Shields

Shields offers a wide range of NEBOSH courses through their online platform, allowing students in Qatar to study for certifications like IGC and International Diploma. They emphasize practical application and real-world scenarios, helping learners develop practical skills and knowledge applicable to their workplaces.

5. Redhat Safety Training & Consulting

Redhat’s online NEBOSH courses focus on health, safety, and environmental qualifications. Their experienced trainers deliver engaging content, and their interactive platform enables students to participate in discussions and collaborative learning experiences.

6. Green World Group

Green World Group specialized in health, safety, and environmental training. Their online NEBOSH courses aim to empower professionals with the necessary skills to create safer work environments. Their learning platform incorporates case studies, quizzes, and practical exercises to reinforce learning outcomes.

7. NIST Institute

NIST provides online NEBOSH courses, including the IGC and International Diploma. Their platform offers a mix of self-paced learning and live sessions with trainers, fostering an interactive and engaging learning environment.

8. Cosmic Institute of Business and Technology (CIBT)

CIBT’s online NEBOSH courses cater to professionals in Qatar seeking to enhance their health and safety knowledge. Their platform is designed to be accessible and user-friendly, making it suitable for learners from diverse backgrounds. If you are finding the best in this list then this is the platform to get training on NEBOSH Course in Qatar.

8. Project Management Institute (PMI)

PMI offers NEBOSH certifications and other safety management courses online. Their platform is tailored to professionals working in project-oriented industries, integrating safety practices into project management frameworks.

9. British Safety Council

The British Safety Council is a well-established organization that provides online NEBOSH courses in Qatar. Their platform delivers up-to-date content, and their courses are aligned with the latest industry standards and regulations.

10. Al Danah Qatar

Al Danah offers a variety of NEBOSH courses online, catering to the needs of safety professionals in Qatar. Their platform may include interactive elements, such as webinars and virtual classrooms, to facilitate effective learning.

11. FutureLearn

FutureLearn hosts NEBOSH-accredited courses from various institutions. Their platform offers a wide range of health and safety courses, allowing learners to choose the most suitable option for their career development.

12. Safety Innovations

Safety Innovations provides NEBOSH courses online, focusing on health, safety, and environmental management in the workplace. Their platform may include practical exercises and case studies to reinforce theoretical concepts.

13. Safety First

Safety First offers online NEBOSH courses for individuals and companies in Qatar. Their platform may provide additional resources, such as downloadable materials and access to expert forums, to support learners throughout their studies.

14. NEBOSH Training Institute

The NEBOSH Training Institute provides a comprehensive range of online NEBOSH courses for professionals in Qatar. Their platform is known for its user-friendly interface and interactive learning materials, making it ideal for learners of all levels.

15. Qatar Skills Academy

Qatar Skills Academy offers NEBOSH-accredited courses online, focusing on occupational health and safety training. Their platform emphasizes practical skills development and provides access to industry experts and experienced tutors.

16. Enertech Qatar

Enertech Qatar specializes in health, safety, and environmental training, offering a variety of NEBOSH courses through its online platform. Their courses are designed to meet industry requirements and standards.

17. HSEI Qatar

HSEI Qatar delivers NEBOSH courses online, focusing on health, safety, and environmental management in the workplace. Their platform may include virtual simulations and interactive workshops to enhance the learning experience.

18. QHSE Academy

QHSE Academy provides online NEBOSH courses that cover various aspects of health, safety, and environmental management. Their platform offers a combination of self-paced learning and live sessions with trainers.


Obtaining a NEBOSH certification is a wise investment for individuals seeking to build a successful career in occupational health and safety. With the convenience and flexibility offered by online learning platforms, aspiring professionals in Qatar can now pursue their NEBOSH qualification without disrupting their daily routines. SafetyHub Education, ProSafety Academy, and SafetyMaster E-Learning are some of the best online platforms that offer NEBOSH courses in Qatar, catering to the diverse needs of students.

Mon, 21 Aug 2023 03:11:00 -0500 Adil Husnain en-US text/html
Killexams : IBM set to deliver mainframe AI services, support

As it previewed in March, IBM is set to deliver an AI-infused, hybrid-cloud oriented version of its z/OS mainframe operating system.

Set for delivery on Sept. 29, z/OS 3.1, the operating system grows IBM’s AI portfolio to let customers securely deploy AI applications co-located with z/OS applications and data, as well as a variety of new features such as container extensions for Red Hat and Linux applications that better support hybrid cloud applications on the Big Iron.

In this release of the mainframe’s OS, AI support is implemented in a feature package called AI System Services for IBM z/OS version 1.1. that lets customers build an AI Framework that IBM says is designed to support initial and future intelligent z/OS management capabilities.

It includes support for key AI lifecycle phases including data ingestion, AI model training, inferencing, AI model quality monitoring, and retraining services, IBM says.

“AI System Services is intended to offer a seamless and simplified installation, setup, and management experience of the AI-infused capabilities without requiring additional data science or AI skills,” IBM wrote in the Announcement Letter detailing the new release.   “It is designed to pave the way for AI use case providers that can harness the foundational AI capabilities to address AI model operationalization requirements, simplify the process to put future AI use cases to work, and accelerate time to market.”

The AI System Services package includes:

Copyright © 2023 IDG Communications, Inc.

Thu, 10 Aug 2023 23:41:00 -0500 en text/html
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