Exact copy of NAPLEX practice questions are here to download

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Exam Code: NAPLEX Practice exam 2022 by Killexams.com team
NAPLEX North American Pharmacist Licensure Examination

The NAPLEX®, or North American Pharmacist Licensure Examination®, measures a candidates knowledge of the practice of pharmacy. It is just one component of the licensure process and is used by the boards of pharmacy as part of their assessment of a candidates competence to practice as a pharmacist.
Before you get started, download the NAPLEX/MPJE Application Bulletin. It contains everything you need to know about the exam, such as:
The two-step process Testing appointment instructions What youll see on the exam How to get your score report
If you dont already have an NABP e-Profile follow the instructions on NABPs website to create one. Verify that your name in your e-Profile matches exactly to your primary and secondary IDs that you will use to be admitted to the testing center (see the Taking Your Exams section for name matching requirements). To update your e-Profile, follow the instructions on the NABP website.
If you are a student, you probably have an NABP e-Profile that was set up for the PCOA. If you forgot your password, use the Forgot Password link and reset it. If you no longer have access to the email address associated with your account, contact NABP Customer Engagement for help.

NABP confirms eligibility to sit for the NAPLEX and MPJE for candidates seeking licensure in the above listed states. If you are seeking licensure for any of these jurisdictions, including via score transfers, you will need to pay an additional non-refundable processing fee of $85. This fee covers both the NAPLEX and MPJE and is valid for a one-year period starting with the date of the initial application.
If you have not passed your exam within that one-year period, you will forfeit the processing fee and will be required to submit a new processing fee if you wish to still take the exam(s).
If you are a new graduate seeking initial licensure in one of the above listed states, you must have an official transcript sent directly from your pharmacy school to NABP before beginning the NAPLEX/MPJE application process. Candidates applying for licensure in Oregon must also submit an official transcript to the Oregon State Board of Pharmacy.

There is a 45-day waiting period after a failed attempt to take the NAPLEX. Candidates may reapply but will not receive a new ATT to schedule an exam until the board reconfirms eligibility and the wait period has been met. Some jurisdictions require a longer waiting period. If you are testing for such a jurisdiction, the longer waiting period applies. The waiting period policy also limits candidates to a maximum of 3 attempts per 12-month period. If you fail the NAPLEX 3 times in a 12-month period, you must wait at least 12 months from the first attempt to reapply.

North American Pharmacist Licensure Examination
Medical Examination Free PDF
Killexams : Medical Examination Free PDF - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/NAPLEX Search results Killexams : Medical Examination Free PDF - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/NAPLEX https://killexams.com/exam_list/Medical Killexams : Orthopaedic Examination Techniques

Orthopaedic Examination Techniques comprehensively covers the basic examination skills and key special tests needed to evaluate the adult and paediatric musculoskeletal system. Chapters are presented in a clear and logical way to allow readers to understand then master the techniques of orthopaedic clinical examination. Written by a diverse group of chapter authors with extensive experience in teaching clinical examination and who use a uniform system that is taught on national courses, every aspect of musculoskeletal examination is covered in the adult and paediatric patient. Numerous illustrations and new clinical photographs help readers to visualise and understand the key techniques, and five new chapters at the end of the book demonstrate the value of clinical examination through more than 80 clinical case examples. Easy-to-follow throughout, this book is invaluable memorizing for trainee orthopaedic surgeons, especially those preparing for the FRCS (Tr&Orth) postgraduate examination, practising orthopaedic surgeons, medical students, physiotherapists, and rheumatologists.

Fri, 22 Apr 2022 19:25:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.cambridge.org/core/books/orthopaedic-examination-techniques/4B2330B31DB9D6A0910CA69DBBD41FB1
Killexams : CareCloud Medical Software Review

The best medical software platforms include comprehensive tools for patient charting, electronic prescribing and lab orders, scheduling and intake, telehealth and plenty of tools to improve medical billing. CareCloud offers a workflow that is so well-designed, virtually any practice can use it. We selected CareCloud as our pick for the medical software with the best workflow because of its user experience and logical arrangement of features. Both factors make navigating the system simple for every member of your healthcare organization.

CareCloud Editor's Score: 84/100

Customization 100
Pricing 85
Consultation 90
Revenue cycle management 87
Setup 60

Why CareCloud Is Best for Workflow

When investigating the best medical software with a streamlined workflow, we found the CareCloud dashboard easy to navigate, offering users access to both electronic medical record (EMR) tools and medical practice management software (PMS) features. The architecture accommodates individual users' preferences to prevent disruptions to your team's workflow. All the tabs you need to access are at the top of your screen. With one click, you can get to billing, scheduling, charts or wherever else you need to go.

We were most impressed with how these tabs combine with a navigational order that resembles how registration and checkout have typically worked in the front office. We liked that there is never a need to navigate between multiple windows and that the software moves seamlessly from one phase of the encounter to the next. For an administrator, the system offers a clear overview of all operations.

The platform's processes were designed to mimic common workflows in the medical world. However, CareCloud is also highly customizable, allowing healthcare organizations to adapt the platform to their unique needs.

Key TakeawayKey takeaway: CareCloud's platform is designed to boost your front-office and patient-encounter workflows, so your staff can efficiently check patients in and out.

What We Like About CareCloud

  • CareCloud is highly customizable to suit your desired workflow.
  • The intuitive interface makes the software easy to navigate, even for users with minimal training.

What We Don't Like About CareCloud

  • Although CareCloud has competitive monthly rates, the setup and implementation fees are higher than those of other providers we reviewed. 
  • The vendor generally requires practices to sign long-term contracts, though some exceptions may be negotiated.


CareCloud's patient experience suite, Breeze, is designed to be user-friendly for both practitioners and patients. In our tests, we found the medical software interface to be straightforward and self-explanatory.

The dashboard is built from tabs on the top of the screen. One click is all it takes to get to critical portals, such as scheduling, billing and patient data. Navigation resembles the patient-encounter steps you'd normally move through, starting with registration and ending with checkout.

On the practice management side, CareCloud allows for extensive customization so you can shape its structure to meet your office's needs. The EMR system is just as flexible, and the company's service team offers EMR training. In speaking with CareCloud representatives, we learned that setup typically takes 90 days. Learn more about setup and implementation below.

CareCloud's Features

Here are CareCloud's key features and the workflow advantages they foster.

Appointment scheduling CareCloud's robust appointment scheduling platform includes numerous filters and extensive color coding.
Billing and claims The CareCloud billing and medical claims suite includes expansive coding libraries and thorough claim scrubbing tools.
Charting and notetaking CareCloud's user-friendly charting and notetaking tools make it easy to access and add information to patient charts.
E-prescribing and labs CareCloud includes reusable order sets that expedite your testing needs and flag potentially dangerous drug interactions.
Patient experience CareCloud's excellent patient experience includes contactless payments, Clover-powered patient kiosks, custom workflows and a dynamic patient portal.
Patient payment Patients can set up payment plans, as well as use their HSA or FSA or other uncommon methods.
Reporting and practice analytics CareCloud's customizable practice analytics and reports show you all the good and bad factors behind your clinical performance.
Retail and e-commerce CareCloud is the only medical software provider we reviewed that allows you to set up and maintain an e-commerce operation for additional revenue.
Revenue cycle management CareCloud's RCM suite has all the tools common among medical billing services.
Telehealth CareCloud's HIPAA-compliant, potentially reimbursable telehealth suite comes with onboarding and training.

Appointment Scheduling

One of the scheduling features we liked most was CareCloud's color-coded and filterable calendar, which is sortable by appointment status and type. This was an easy way to streamline an individual user's workflow. You can choose a daily, weekly or monthly view and filter based on elements such as location or provider. 

In the appointment status view, each status gets its own color. Upcoming appointments are light blue and change to light green when patients check in. After checkout, the color changes to dark blue if the patient's billing is pending, or dark green if the appointment has already been billed. Canceled appointments stand out in red. These color-coding features are among the most extensive we found in the medical software products we reviewed.

Did you know?Did you know?: CareCloud's color-coding appointment scheduling tools are among the most comprehensive of the medical software we examined.

A list view shows the patient's name; the appointment date, time and location; the provider; the appointment type and status; and the patient's insurance eligibility if your front-office staff has Tested it.

CareCloud makes insurance verification easy with individual and batch tools and additional color-coding capabilities. A green check means eligible, a red X means ineligible and a yellow exclamation mark indicates outstanding insurance issues.

CareCloud scheduler
CareCloud's scheduler offers simple color codes in a filterable screen that you can sort by provider, location, exam room, machinery and more.

Source: CareCloud

Billing and Claims

CareCloud's billing platform is integrated with its EMR system for rapid clinical data collection. This makes it speedy and simple to post charges and create claims. After a clinical note is signed, billing staff can verify the codes that CareCloud generates and add any other necessary codes. CareCloud includes a library of ICD-10, CPT, and E&M codes.

You'll also see encounters and bills labeled clearly in the CareCloud platform as unbilled, saved or posted for payer submission. CareCloud displays a complete list of patient checkouts in the unfulfilled encounters menu alongside the patient's information. This information includes the patient's name, appointment type, date, provider, location, insurance and remaining encounter value. With this information, you'll know which unfulfilled encounters to prioritize.

We liked that after claims are submitted and your charges are posted, CareCloud designates all unfulfilled encounters as saved. From your saved claims portal, your billing team can view real-time status updates. Your staff can also see provider information, as well as the final encounter value and ICD-10, E&M, and CPT codes.

Another useful feature is CareCloud's CollectiveIQ rules engine, which scrubs all claims and flags errors that could result in payer rejection or denial. This database is updated regularly with new errors that lead to rejections and denials from clearinghouses and payers nationwide. 

You can also manage denied claims in CareCloud's billing portal. Alongside these claims, you'll see reports flagging the most frequent reasons for denial. If you also sign up for CareCloud's RCM services, you'll see medical billers' real-time progress within this same hub.

CareCloud billing tool
CareCloud's billing tool includes a claims scrubber backed by the company's CollectiveIQ rules engine.

Source: CareCloud

Charting and Notetaking

In CareCloud's charting tool, lists of upcoming appointments and checked-in patients offer an overview of the day's schedule. You'll see which exam rooms patients are located in and a list of completed appointments. We especially appreciated that we could drag and drop to move patients between lists, which we consider a must-have feature for medical software.

Viewing a patient's full chart is as easy as double-clicking their name. We like that CareCloud creates a running list of recently opened patient charts for rapid access, allowing users to easily toggle between charts for recent visits. CareCloud makes reviewing multiple charts at once easy with a series of tabs at the top of the screen. This is perfect for comparing recent charges with notes from the patient encounter without cluttering the display. 

In the CareCloud charting portal, an exam Notes tool lets you use custom or preset templates to streamline your notetaking. In CareCloud's Breeze suite, your notes will automatically populate with a patient's medical history and current information. You can type or use hotkeys or voice-to-text (via M*Modal or Dragon integrations) to take notes while maintaining focus on the patient.

CareCloud's charts offer a unique wand feature that auto-indicates a patient's information as normal and healthy. You can also click a list entry and color it red to mark it as abnormal. When patients describe their symptoms, you can cross-reference the red text on your chart to determine potential causes. We found these tools to be effective methods for improving provider decision-making through readily available information and recommendations.

CareCloud notes
You can take notes in CareCloud with free typing, hotkeys or voice dictation.

Source: CareCloud

E-Prescribing and Labs

CareCloud allows you to create reusable order sets so you can easily convey your patients' testing needs to your staff and third-party practices. The CareCloud eRx suite also provides real-time intelligence at the point of care so you don't prescribe medications that could interact dangerously.

TipTip: E-prescribing is an important tool for nearly every medical practice. Need consultative help in securing access to e-prescribing features? Check out our review of athenahealth's medical software to learn about some particularly great consulting services.

Patient Experience

Compared with other medical software providers, CareCloud's patient experience offerings stand out. Many of its software features that might typically be targeted at practices are instead geared toward patients.

For example, CareCloud's custom workflows are structured around a seamless patient experience, starting with pre-visit updates and reminders via the patient portal. For practices with the Breeze add-on, patients can use on-location Clover-powered check-in and checkout kiosks, which reduces work for the front office. Contactless payment options are also available. [See our Clover review to learn more about the vendor and its products.]

Certain patient or practitioner actions after an appointment will automatically trigger reminders to schedule future appointments so you never miss an opportunity to keep patients on the calendar. CareCloud also includes secure messaging tools to streamline communications with your patients. The platform goes beyond messaging to include loyalty campaigns designed to keep your patients coming back if they have future medical concerns.

Much of CareCloud's patient experience prowess comes from its dynamic patient portal. There, patients can check in and pay well before their appointment. You and your patients can easily communicate before appointments in this portal as well. The CareCloud patient portal also lets patients request, reschedule and set up reminders for upcoming appointments. As they do so, they can easily update their demographic and insurance information, which your staff must approve.

CareCloud visualizations
Visualizations help you and your staff explain trends affecting patients' healthcare and wellness.

Source: CareCloud

Patient Payment

CareCloud couples its comprehensive patient experience suite with unique payment tools. Although some of these features can be found in other medical software, most of CareCloud's strongest patient payment tools are unique. 

One of the most notable features is the ability for patients to build their own payment plans. This way, they can make partial payments if they can't immediately afford the full cost of your services. Chances are, this feature means you'll wait less time to get paid.

When it's time to pay, patients can choose from standard credit cards, health savings accounts (HSAs) and flexible spending accounts (FSAs). CareCloud is the only medical software company we reviewed that makes HSA and FSA payments this easy. 

Did you know?Did you know?: CareCloud is the only medical software we found that streamlines patient payments through HSAs and FSAs. HSAs are typically part of high-deductible health plans.

Before patients pay, they can view a detailed statement that breaks down their current charges. Emailed receipts follow payments, which automatically post to your PMS. 

Given its vast array of patient payment tools, CareCloud asserts that your patient collection rate will be 5% to 10% higher than with other software platforms. CareCloud also estimates you'll earn 10% to 20% more revenue per patient encounter.

Reporting and Practice Analytics

As with most of the medical software platforms we reviewed, CareCloud is equipped with comprehensive practice management and data tools. The platform's financial intelligence spans your entire operation, and you'll see this data in simple reports of your clinical performance. You'll also benefit from predictive analytics that include actionable big data.

The CareCloud analytics and reporting suite includes a customizable dashboard for your data. You can also enable and block report access for specific team members. CareCloud's easily accessible, data-heavy reports are available on both desktop and mobile devices. These reports help you determine all of the factors, both positive and negative, behind your practice's performance. You'll also be able to locate bottlenecks in your collections and billing cycle and solve these problems to bolster performance.

You can filter any reports you generate in CareCloud by payer, provider or staff member, and view them in daily, weekly and monthly formats. Set these customizable reports to generate on a regular schedule and export as PDF, XLS or CSV files.

Retail and E-Commerce

CareCloud is the only medical software we reviewed that includes tools to push your practice beyond standard medical care and into retail and e-commerce. While this capability isn't necessary for all practices, those looking for additional revenue streams may find it helpful.

Through CareCloud, you can set up a web store and manage your inventory, offer sales and discounts, and provide customers with real-time shipping updates. If customers don't complete their purchases before leaving your e-commerce site, you can send them reminders to recover their abandoned carts.

Revenue Cycle Management

CareCloud's RCM suite, CareCloud Concierge, is quite extensive. It stands out especially for its large number of features. CareCloud Concierge fully integrates with almost any EMR or PMS. An account management team will measure your growth with thorough analytics and reporting, and when you contact them, you can expect prompt responses. Beyond data, the account management team will ensure your practice remains in line with the most recent and pressing healthcare industry changes. 

Your account management team will include experts in billing, collection and remittance. These professionals will seek to optimize your payment cycle, and others will post payments, work denials and issue patient statements. Additional billing services include medical claim submission, payer follow-up and negotiations, superbill charge entry, operative report coding, and claim error resolution.

As CareCloud Concierge manages your revenue cycle, it will keep your practice in line with the most recent Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act (MACRA) and ICD-10 regulatory changes. CareCloud Concierge can also assist you in receiving Council for Affordable Quality Healthcare (CAQH) quarterly reattestations, and government, commercial payer and managed care plans.

CareCloud Concierge maintains the above services will increase your collections by at least 7% while cutting your costs, as well as lower the number of days in accounts receivable by 33%.


CareCloud's HIPAA-compliant telehealth platform is included for all practices that use CareCloud and integrates completely with your EMR and PMS. You'll receive onboarding and training support for a seamless start.

The CareCloud telehealth suite includes all the tools you might expect from remote appointment software, including easy appointment starting, clear video and secure connections. Patients can use CareCloud's mobile app to view their appointments, and booking and rescheduling are easy. You can set up automated email and text patient reminders to lessen your administrative burdens.

CareCloud's Cost

CareCloud's prices depend on whether you opt into only its PMS, known as CareCloud Central, or both the EMR (CareCloud Charts) and the PMS. As of 2021, CareCloud's PMS cost $349 per provider per month, which is more affordable than several competitors. For both EMR and PMS, it costs $628 per provider per month. 2022 prices were not available, and it should be noted that – like many products and services in 2022 – CareCloud may have become more expensive. Regardless, in most cases, your plan will tether you to a three-year contract, which may not be ideal for certain practices, though some one-year contracts are available.

You can also opt into Breeze, CareCloud's patient engagement suite, for digital patient check-in, point-of-sale payment and appointment reminders for an extra $199 per provider per month (as of 2021). For RCM, CareCloud charges 3% to 7% of your collections, which is lower than several competitors' rates.

Despite the competitive monthly rates, CareCloud has high setup fees. We've detailed CareCloud's setup process and costs below.

CareCloud Setup

New CareCloud customers can contact the company's professional services team for training. Representatives told us that its customers typically need 90 days to fully implement their health system. However, you'll likely pay a steep fee for setup assistance.

If you need to migrate data from another EMR platform to CareCloud, the process comes with a price tag of up to $5,000. This high fee remains unchanged from previous years, but CareCloud has lowered its implementation fees, which start at $1,000 for medical software. However, even this price could be cost-prohibitive for smaller practices on a budget. 

Key takeaway: CareCloud's setup typically costs thousands of dollars upfront, which may be too expensive for smaller, budget-conscious practices.

For RCM, CareCloud setup starts at $1,000 per provider. The exact price may depend on several variables, including specialty and monthly claims volume. In general, CareCloud's prices may quickly push smaller or lower-volume practices past their limits. (If your practice falls into this category, see our review of Kareo and our athenahealth review for other medical billing software options; neither of these companies charges extra fees for setup.)

CareCloud's implementation fees fall into three tiers – Essentials, Enhanced and Enterprise – as detailed below.


Essentials is CareCloud's $1,000 setup plan, which includes standard, off-the-shelf software configuration. It excludes customization, templates and data importing services, though it does include an introductory call. You'll also be enrolled in electronic data interchange. In addition, CareCloud will develop your interfaces with pharmacies and labs. 

Notably, the Essentials setup plan lacks direct training. However, it does come with access to CareCloud University, which is full of self-guided training materials. It also includes a check-in with your account manager five days after you start implementation. 


For the Enhanced setup, CareCloud charges a percentage of your collections; the exact percentage depends on your claim volume and value. With the Enhanced plan, you get several customization features as you set up your system. CareCloud also provides some guidance and training while overseeing your data importation. 


Enterprise is CareCloud's highest setup tier. You'll need to request a custom quote to find out how much you'd pay for the package, but what you'll get is a fully hands-on, customizable approach to your setup, as well as thorough training. 

CareCloud's Customer Service

After you set up your CareCloud medical software and complete your initial training, the company's customer support team will remain accessible via phone, live chat or help desk ticket. In our interactions with CareCloud's customer service, we found that all of our questions were answered thoroughly and courteously. CareCloud's support team was often proactive about answering our emails and phone calls.

CareCloud's Drawbacks

  • High setup fees: Although CareCloud's monthly fees are competitive, its upfront setup costs are among the highest we found in our research. Other vendors may charge more per month for their services, but setup typically costs little or nothing. Newly opened medical practices or lower-volume offices may prefer these rival medical software providers over Carecloud.
  • Long-term contracts: Most CareCloud clients must sign three-year contracts, which may be too binding for some practices. Although one-year contracts are sometimes available, even these may prove too limiting. Other providers often offer month-to-month contracts.


We spent hours researching medical software, including participating in software demonstrations, phone interviews and customer service calls, as well as doing an analysis of customer service reviews available online, like those listed on the Better Business Bureau's website. 

When seeking the best medical software for workflow, we evaluated how providers' setups streamlined or blocked typical practice workflows. Compared with what we found among competitors, such as in our review of DrChrono and our AdvancedMD review, we determined CareCloud is the top option for workflow because of its smooth user experience, logical arrangement of features and competitive monthly rates.

CareCloud FAQs

What is CareCloud?

CareCloud is a company that provides medical software, such as electronic medical record (EMR) and medical practice management software (PMS), to healthcare practices. It also offers tools for practices looking to add e-commerce to their offerings. Additionally, you can outsource your medical billing to CareCloud through its revenue cycle management (RCM) services.

How much does CareCloud cost?

CareCloud's PMS may cost $349 per provider per month; this pricing is competitive. Combined PMS and EMR with CareCloud could cost $628 per provider per month.

How many patients visit doctors who use CareCloud?

Over 4.5 million patients visit doctors who use CareCloud for their EMR and PMS.

Bottom Line

We recommend CareCloud for ...

  • High-volume medical practices that need a straightforward workflow.
  • Practices in need of a hands-on consultative approach.

We don't recommend CareCloud for ...

  • New or low-volume practices.
  • Practices that can't afford high setup fees or don't want long-term contracts.
Tue, 19 Jul 2022 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.businessnewsdaily.com/16248-carecloud-medical-software.html
Killexams : Safety measures in amateur boxing

“It must be satisfactory to all true lovers of the Art, as a national and progressive institution, to feel that the past few years have witnessed changes—mostly in the right direction—in the science of Boxing.” This was written by Allanson-Winn in 1897.1 Since then, more than 1200 articles have been published on medical and ethical aspects of boxing, usually not differentiating between amateur and professional. Most of the studies have methodological problems: few cases were analysed; there was a lack of adequate controls; in many studies the boxers were about 60 years old and were boxing before safety rules and careful medical supervision had been introduced; the authors could not distinguish between the late impact of the blows and the effects of the ageing process or other factors, such as alcohol consumption, that produce similar clinical and morphological changes in the brain.

During the last two decades, amateur and professional boxing have become completely separate. The main differences are as follows.

  • Amateur boxing uses the same set of rules world wide, whereas professional boxing has different sets of rules.

  • In amateur boxing the main objective is to score points, and the knockout or knockdown is a byproduct. In professional boxing knockout and/or knockdown is an objective.

  • In amateur boxing the wearing of a headguard is mandatory, whereas in professional boxing the use of a headguard is prohibited.

  • In amateur boxing the ringside doctor may suspend the action at any point to examine the boxer and his decision to stop or continue a bout is binding, whereas in professional boxing this rarely happens.

  • In amateur boxing if a boxer is “down” and fails to resume boxing within 10 seconds (KO) or if a boxer is unfit to continue having received several hard blows to the head (RSC-H), he is not allowed to compete or workout in the gym for a specified period of time (at least four weeks). In professional boxing, in theory this is done but not in all cases.2 The medical commission of the International Amateur Boxing Association (AIBA) recorded the statistics of five Olympic Games and eight World Championships between 1980 and 1999 (4043 boxers, 3887 bouts). In 1980 at the Olympic Games, 11% of bouts ended in KO and 6.4% in RSC-H, and bouts were stopped because of injury (mostly to facial areas) in 12.2%. At the World Championships in 1999, the equivalent values were 0.3%, 1.5%, and 0.3%.3


The main reasons are:

  • very careful medical control;

  • use of protective equipment;

  • improved refereeing;

  • new AIBA regulations;

  • sophisticated diagnostic imaging and neuropsychological tests.

All novice boxers undergo a comprehensive medical evaluation, including ophthalmic examination, resting electrocardiogram, and laboratory tests. The medical examination is repeated annually. The results are recorded in the boxer’s record book. No boxer is allowed to compete at any tournament without the production of his/her record book. The AIBA medical handbook contains a list of pathological findings that preclude a person from becoming a boxer.

During a tournament, on the day of the bout the ringside doctor carries out a physical examination before the competition to ensure that the boxer is fully fit to box. This medical check up is also recorded in the boxer’s record book.

During the bout, the ringside doctor has the right to stop the bout for medical reasons. In the case of a knockout, the management follows the guidelines of the Medical handbook of amateur boxing. If there is transient confusion, no loss of consciousness, and the symptoms resolve in 15 minutes (grade I), the doctor should perform a thorough medical examination to determine the need and nature of further medical observation or hospital admission. If the concussion symptoms last for 15 minutes, but there is no loss of consciousness (grade II), after a medical examination the boxer is taken to hospital for a neurological examination and computed tomography. If there is any loss of consciousness, either brief (seconds) or prolonged (minutes), the boxer is immediately transferred to the nearest emergency department by ambulance. Return to boxing depends on the severity of the concussion, but a 28 day rest period is the minimum. Before a boxer is allowed to fight again, he must be passed fit by a neurologist, after examinations by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The decision of the neurologist is recorded in the boxer’s record book.

Repetitive concussion or subconcussive blows to the brain may lead to chronic traumatic brain injury.4 Although studies indicate that amateur boxers do not exhibit any particular signs of neuropsychological5 or cerebral blood flow dysfunction,6 to minimise the risk of this, after repeated KO or RSC-H the rest period is one year or even enforced retirement.

It is debatable whether headguards diminish the impact of a blow, but it is indisputable that, since their mandatory use in amateur boxing, the rate of facial injuries has dramatically diminished.

In amateur boxing the referees watch the athletes more closely than in many other contact sports, and they stop the bout immediately if a boxer is unfit to continue. The increasing rate of RSC (referee stopping the contest) indicates the increased control in the ring.

The modifications of the AIBA rules over the last two decades based on medical considerations have served to protect the boxers.3

The importance of MRI in the early detection of sport related head injuries is well known. In the future new techniques (SPECT, functional MRI) should provide more insights into the pathophysiolgical and functional sequelae of injuries.7

Neuropsychological testing is a promising tool in the early detection of any deterioration in neurocognitive status.8 If a brief, standardised method of neuropsychological testing applicable for worldwide use should become available, it should be introduced as part of the annual medical examination of boxers.

This is not an official statement of the AIBA but is based on AIBA articles and rules and on the recommendations of the AIBA medical handbook (2000).


  1. Allanson-Winn RG. Boxing. London: AD Innes and Co, 1897.

  2. Cantu RC. Boxing and medicine. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 1995:11–16.

  3. Jako P. Modifications of the rules in amateur boxing and their effect reflected in the statistics of Olympic Games and World Championships. Hungarian Review of Sports Medicine2000;LXI:173–81.

  4. Rabadi MH, Jordan BD. The cumulative effect of repetitive concussion in sports. Clin J Sport Med2001;11:194–8.

  5. Butler RJ. Neuropsychological investigation of amateur boxers. Br J Sports Med1994;28:187–90.

  6. Rodriguez G, Vitali P, Nobili F. Long-term effects boxing and judo: choking on brain function. Ital J Neurol Sci1998;19:367–72.

  7. Johnston KM, Ptito A, Chankowsky J, et al. New frontiers in diagnostic imaging in concussive head injury. Clin J Sport Med2001;11:166–75.

  8. McCrea M. Standardized mental status assesment of sport concussion. Clin J Sport Med2001;11:176–81.

Tue, 17 May 2022 13:08:00 -0500 en text/html https://bjsm.bmj.com/content/36/6/394
Killexams : Medical Use Zinc Sulfate Market Analysis by Size, Share, Growth, Trends up to 2027

The MarketWatch News Department was not involved in the creation of this content.

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The report includes an inside and out valuation concerning the future progressions depending on the past information and current conditions of the market. It gives a comprehensive perspective on the worldwide Medical Use Zinc Sulfate Market to settle on astute choices with respect to future changes. The examination group has researched administrators, central participants on the lookout, topographical fracture, item type, and its depiction, and market end-customer applications. It gives assessed deals income from every single section alongside every district. The report includes essential and optional information which is introduced as diagrams and pie graphs for better arrangement. The general report is introduced in a powerful way that includes a fundamental framework, arrangements, and certain realities according to reassurance and cognizance.

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Years to be Considered in this Medical Use Zinc Sulfate Market Report:

History Year: 2017-2019

Base Year: 2020

Estimated Year: 2021

Forecast Year: 2022-2027

Medical Use Zinc Sulfate Market Regional and Country-wise Analysis:

North America (U.S., Canada, Mexico)

Europe (U.K., France, Germany, Spain, Italy, Central & Eastern Europe, CIS)

Asia Pacific (China, Japan, South Korea, ASEAN, India, Rest of Asia Pacific)

Latin America (Brazil, Rest of Latin America)

The Middle East and Africa (Turkey, GCC, Rest of the Middle East and Africa)

The purposes of this analysis are:

  1. To characterize, portray, and check the Medical Use Zinc Sulfate Market based on product type, application, and region.
  2. To estimate and inspect the size of the Medical Use Zinc Sulfate Market (in terms of value) in six key regions, specifically, North and South America, Western Europe, Central & Eastern Europe, the Middle East, Africa, and the Asia-Pacific.
  3. To estimate and inspect the Medical Use Zinc Sulfate Markets at country-level in every region.
  4. To strategically investigate every sub-market about personal development trends and its contribution to the Medical Use Zinc Sulfate Market.
  5. To look at possibilities in the Medical Use Zinc Sulfate Market for shareholder by recognizing excessive-growth segments of the market.

There are 15 Key Chapters Covered in the Global Medical Use Zinc Sulfate Market:

Part 1, Industry Overview of Global Medical Use Zinc Sulfate Market;

Part 2, Classification, Specifications and Definition of Medical Use Zinc Sulfate Market Segment by Regions;

Part 3, Industry Suppliers, Manufacturing Process and Cost Structure, Chain Structure, Raw Material;

Part 4, Specialized Information and Manufacturing Plants Analysis of Medical Use Zinc Sulfate Market, Limit and Business Production Rate, Manufacturing Plants Distribution, R&D Status, and Technology Sources Analysis;

Part 5, Complete Market Research, Capacity, Sales and Sales Price Analysis with Company Segment;

Part 6, Analysis of Regional Market that contains the United States, Europe, India, China, Japan, Korea and Taiwan;

Part 7 and 8, Medical Use Zinc Sulfate Market Analysis by Major Manufacturers, The Medical Use Zinc Sulfate Market Segment Market Analysis (by Type) and (by Application);

Part 9, Regional Market Trend Analysis, Market Trend by Product Type and by Application:

Part 10 and 11, Supply Chain Analysis, Regional Marketing Type Analysis, Global Trade Type Analysis;

Part 12, The Global Medical Use Zinc Sulfate Market industry buyers Analysis;

Part 13, Research Findings/Conclusion, Medical Use Zinc Sulfate Market bargains channel, brokers, wholesalers, vendors examination;

Part 14 and 15, Appendix and information wellspring of Medical Use Zinc Sulfate Market.

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Key Highlights & Touch Points of the Packaged Medical Use Zinc Sulfate Market Worldwide for the Forecast Years 2022-2027:

CAGR of the market during the conjecture time of 2022-2027

Broad data on variables that will enhance the development of the Packaged Medical Use Zinc Sulfate Market over the forthcoming seven years

Precise assessment of the worldwide Packaged Medical Use Zinc Sulfate Market sizeExact assessments of the forthcoming patterns and changes saw in the customer conduct

Development of the worldwide Packaged Medical Use Zinc Sulfate Market industry across the North and South America, Asia Pacific, EMEA, and Latin America

Data about Packaged Medical Use Zinc Sulfate Market development potential

Top to bottom investigation of the business’ serious scene and itemized data opposite on different merchants

Outfitting of itemized data on the elements that will control the development of the Packaged Medical Use Zinc Sulfate Market makers

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Thu, 04 Aug 2022 22:28:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://www.marketwatch.com/press-release/medical-use-zinc-sulfate-market-analysis-by-size-share-growth-trends-up-to-2027-2022-08-05
Killexams : ‘Free’ screening? Know your rights to get no-cost care

An ounce of prevention … well, you know the rest. In medicine, prevention aims to spot problems before they worsen, affecting both a patient's health and finances.

One of the more popular parts of the Affordable Care Act, which allows patients to get certain tests or treatments without forking out cash to cover copayments or deductibles, is based on that idea.

"There are still some gaps that need to be filled," said Katie Keith, a researcher at the Center on Health Insurance Reforms at Georgetown University. But, she said, the law "unquestionably" made preventive care more affordable.

Since late 2010, when this provision of the ACA took effect, many patients have paid nothing when they undergo routine mammograms, get one of more than a dozen vaccines, receive birth control, or are screened for other conditions, including diabetes, colon cancer, depression, and sexually transmitted diseases.

That can translate to big savings, especially when many of these tests can cost thousands of dollars.

Yet this popular provision comes with challenges and caveats, from an ongoing court case in Texas that might overturn it, to complex and obtuse qualifiers that can limit its breadth, leaving patients with medical bills.

KHN spoke with several experts to help guide consumers through this confusing landscape.

Their No. 1 tip: Always check with your own health plan beforehand to ensure that a test, vaccine, procedure, or service you need is covered and that you qualify for the no-cost-sharing benefit. And, if you get a bill from a physician, clinic, or hospital that you think might qualify for no cost sharing, call your insurer to inquire or dispute the charge.

Here are five other things to know:

1. Your insurance matters.

The law covers most types of health insurance, such as qualified health plans under the ACA that consumers have purchased for themselves, job-based insurance, Medicare, and Medicaid. Generally not included are pre-ACA legacy health plans, which were in existence before March 2010 and have not changed since then, and most short-term or limited-benefit plans. Medicare and Medicaid's rules on who is eligible for what tests without cost sharing may vary from those of commercial insurance, and Medicare Advantage plans in some cases may have more generous coverage than the traditional federal program.

2. Not all preventive services are covered.

The federal government currently lists 22 broad categories of coverage for adults, an additional 27 specifically for women, and 29 for children.

To get on those lists, vaccines, screening tests, drugs, and services must have been recommended by one of four groups of medical experts. One of those is the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, a nongovernmental advisory group that weighs the benefits and potential drawbacks of screening tests when used in the general population.

For example, the task force recently recommended lowering the age for colon cancer screening to include people ages 45 through 49. That means more people won't have to wait for their 50th birthday to skip copays or deductibles for screening. Still, younger folks might be left out a bit longer if their health plan applies to the calendar year, which many do, because those plans are not technically required to comply until January.

This area is also one in which Medicare sets its own rules that might differ from the task force's recommendations, said Anna Howard, a specialist in care access at the American Cancer Society Cancer Action Network. Medicare covers stool tests or flexible sigmoidoscopies, which screen for colon cancer, without cost sharing starting at age 50. There is no age limit on screening colonoscopies, although they are restricted to once every 10 years for people at normal risk. Coverage for high-risk patients allows for more frequent screening.

Many of the task force recommendations are limited to very specific populations.

For instance, the task force recommended abdominal aortic aneurysm screening only for men ages 65 to 75 with a history of smoking.

Others, including women, should get tested if their physicians think they have symptoms or are at risk. Such tests then could be diagnostic, rather than preventive, triggering a copayment or deductible charge.

3. There can be limits.

Insurers have leeway on what is allowed under the rules, but they have also been warned that they can't be parsimonious.

California, for example, recently cracked down on insurers who were limiting cost-free testing for sexually transmitted diseases to once a year, saying that wasn't adequate under state and federal laws.

The ACA does set parameters. Federal guidance says stop-smoking programs, for example, must include coverage for medications, counseling, and up to two quit attempts per year.

With contraception, insurers must offer at least one option without copays in most categories of birth control but are not required to cover every single contraceptive product on the market without copays. For example, insurers could choose to focus on generics, rather than brand-name products. (The law also allows employers to opt out of the birth control mandate.)

4. Some tests — often the expensive ones — have special challenges that affect coverage determinations.

As the ACA went into effect, trouble spots emerged. There was a lot of drama around colonoscopies. Initially, patients found they were billed for copayments if polyps were found. But health regulators put a stop to that, saying polyp removal is considered an essential part of the screening exam. Those rules apply currently to commercial insurance and are still phasing in for Medicare.

More recently, federal guidance clarified that patients cannot be charged for colonoscopies ordered following suspicious findings on stool-based tests, such as those mailed to patients' homes, or colon exams using CT scanners.

The rules apply to job-based and other commercial insurance with one caveat: They go into effect for policies whose plan years start in May, so some patients with calendar-year coverage may not yet be included.

At that point, it will be "a gigantic win," said Dr. Mark Fendrick, director of the University of Michigan's Center for Value-Based Insurance Design.

But, he noted, Medicare is not included. He and others are urging Medicare to follow suit.

Such differences in payment rules based on whether an exam is considered a diagnostic or a screening test are a problem for other types of tests, including mammograms.

This recently tripped up Laura Brewer of Grass Valley, California, when she went in for a mammogram and ultrasound in March, six months after a cyst had been noticed in a previous exam by a different radiologist. The earlier test didn't cost her anything, so she was stunned by her bill for more than $1,677 for procedures now considered diagnostic.

"They are giving me the same service and changed it to be diagnostic instead of screening," Brewer said.

Georgetown's Keith pointed out a related complication: It might not be a specific development or symptom that triggers that change. "If patients have a family history and need to get tested more frequently, that is often coded as diagnostic," she said.

5. Vaccines and medicines can be tricky, too.

Dozens of vaccines for children and adults, including those for chickenpox, measles, and tetanus, are covered without cost sharing. So are certain preventive medicines, including certain drugs for breast cancer and statins for high cholesterol. Preexposure medications to prevent HIV — along with much of the associated testing and follow-up care — are also covered without cost to HIV-negative adults at high risk.

So, what's next?

Overall, the ACA has helped lower out-of-pocket costs for preventive care, said Keith. But, like almost everything else with the law, it has also attracted critics.

They include conservatives opposed to some of the free services, who filed the lawsuit in a Texas federal district court that, if it prevails, could overturn or restrict part of the law that provides no cost sharing for preventive care.

A ruling in that case, Kelley v. Becerra — the latest in a series of challenges to the ACA since it took effect — may come this summer and will likely be appealed.

If the ultimate decision invalidates the preventive mandate, millions of patients, including those who buy their own insurance and those who get it through their jobs, could be affected.

"Each insurer or employer would be left to decide which preventive services to cover and whether to do so with cost sharing," said Keith. "So even those who did not lose access to preventive services themselves could have to pay out-of-pocket for all or some preventive care."

Kaiser Health NewsThis article was reprinted from khn.org with permission from the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Kaiser Health News, an editorially independent news service, is a program of the Kaiser Family Foundation, a nonpartisan health care policy research organization unaffiliated with Kaiser Permanente.

Tue, 05 Jul 2022 22:53:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.news-medical.net/news/20220706/e28098Freee28099-screening-Know-your-rights-to-get-no-cost-care.aspx
Killexams : TS EAMCET 2022 answer key released, here's how to download at eamcet.tsche.ac.in

The Telangana State Engineering, Agriculture, and Medical Common Entrance Test (TS EAMCET) 2022 provisional answer key has been made available by the Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University in Hyderabad. The TS EAMCET 2022 answer key can be found on the official website, eamcet.tsche.ac.in, in PDF format. The JNTU has released the TS EAMCET response sheet along with the TS EAMCET preliminary answer key.

Candidates can compare their scores to the EAMCET answer key using the Telangana EAMCET response sheet and then object if there are any discrepancies. Candidates that disagree with the answer key have until August 1 to challenge it.

Here's how to download answer key:

  • Go to the official website - eamcet.tsche.ac.in.

  • Select the "Master Question Papers and Preliminary Keys (E)" link.

  • Select the subject whose TS EAMCET 2022 answer key is required.

  • Download the answer key to check the correct responses.

JNTU Hyderabad conducts the TS EAMCET on behalf of the Telangana State Council of Higher Education (TSCHE). For admission into the various undergraduate (UG) engineering and pharmacy programmes provided by the university and private colleges throughout Telangana, the entrance exam is a must.

(To receive our E-paper on whatsapp daily, please click here. To receive it on Telegram, please click here. We permit sharing of the paper's PDF on WhatsApp and other social media platforms.)

Sat, 30 Jul 2022 07:28:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.freepressjournal.in/education/ts-eamcet-2022-answer-key-released-heres-how-to-download-at-eamcettscheacin
Killexams : Handball load and shoulder injury rate: a 31-week cohort study of 679 elite youth handball players


Shoulder pain and problems represent a significant health burden in senior handball, with reported point prevalence proportions of shoulder pain between 19% and 36% at season start,1–3 and average weekly prevalence proportions of shoulder problems of 28% during the season.1 Also, shoulder pain in senior players has been reported to have an impact on the athletes' performance, training activities1–3 and daily life.2 Early identification and modification of risk factors in youth handball are thus warranted for primary prevention of the subsequent musculoskeletal disorders in adults. However, knowledge about the incidence and risk factors, the integral first step towards injury prevention,4 is lacking in this age group.

Traditionally, studies have investigated associations between non-participation-related risk factors, such as glenohumeral range of motion (ROM),1 ,5–8 shoulder strength1 ,7 ,9 ,10 and scapular control,1 ,11–13 and risk of shoulder injuries among overhead athletes. However, sports injury research needs to move from simple analyses of risk factors and concentrate on how these factors interact among other determinants for injury.14 Injury occurrence results from a combination of possessing different risk factors and participating with these risk factors.15 On this premise, handball participation must be considered a primary risk factor for shoulder injury, while non-participation-related risk factors like strength, glenohumeral ROM and scapular control influence the amount of handball participation a player can tolerate before shoulder injury occurs.16

As a measure of participation, several studies have investigated the relationship between training load and injuries in a variety of sports other than handball, and there is growing evidence that a rapid increase in training load increases the risk of overall injury.17 ,18 However, no studies have investigated if the vulnerability to a rapid increase in competition and training load is influenced by non-participation-related risk factors.

The objectives of the present study of elite adolescent handball players were to investigate if increases in weekly handball load, defined as the cumulative volume of training and competition hours, are associated with increased shoulder injury rates compared with a minor increase or decrease, and if an association is influenced by scapular control, isometric shoulder strength and glenohumeral ROM. The following a priori defined hypotheses (H) were tested:

  • H1. Players who increase their handball load by more than 60% in 1 week, relative to the weekly average of the preceding 4 weeks of handball load, have an increased shoulder injury rate compared with those who increase or decrease below 20%.

  • H2. The association between a moderate increase in handball load (i.e., 20–60% load) and shoulder injury rate will be exacerbated in players with abnormal shoulder characteristics (scapular dyskinesis, reduced shoulder isometric strength and abnormal shoulder ROM). No exacerbation in the association between a high increase in weekly handball load (ie, increase above 60%) and shoulder injury rate will exist in players with abnormal shoulder characteristics.


Study design

In the present cohort study, we followed elite youth handball players for a full competitive handball season over 31 weeks from 13 October 2013 to 11 May 2014. The players were recruited from August to October 2013. Players who were not enrolled at baseline were allowed to enter the study at midseason (1 January to 1 March 2014). Methodological data from this study have previously been reported (Personal communication, 2016. M Møller, N Wedderkopp, G Myklebust, et al. The SPEx sport injury surveillance system is a feasible and valid approach to measure exposures and injuries in elite youth sport). According to the Danish Act on Research Ethics Review of Health Research Projects, The Ethics Committee of Central Denmark Region deemed the study to be exempt from full ethical review (request 89/2013) due to the study design (observational study). Permission for the study was granted by the Danish Data Protection Agency (File 2013-41-2137).


Players were recruited from all Danish First Division U-18 (range 16–18 years of age) teams and First Division U-16 (range 14–16 years of age) teams from clubs as described previously (Personal communication, 2016. M Møller, et al.). All players irrespective of current or previous shoulder pain were eligible for participation in the study. However, players were excluded if they reported a history of (1) previous shoulder surgery, (2) previous glenohumeral dislocation, (3) glenoid labrum tear, (4) rotator cuff tear or (5) fracture in the shoulder region within the previous 6 months.


The primary outcome of interest was any new shoulder injury in the dominant arm, defined as any handball-related shoulder problem irrespective of the need for time loss or medical attention. Injury status was monitored continuously during follow-up using the SMS, phone and medical examination sports injury surveillance (SPEx) system, which has been described in detail elsewhere (Personal communication, 2016. M Møller, et al). Briefly, SPEx obtains weekly injury and handball participation information from players by SMS messaging and, in a case of injury, telephone interview, and physical examination by medical personnel within 1–2 weeks.

The outcome was based on the players' response to the following SMS question in SPEx: Have you been able to participate in handball training and match WITHOUT any physical problems (pain, discomfort, soreness, stiffness) or medical attention or illness during the past week? Injuries were classified as shoulder injury based on the follow-up telephone interview.

Primary exposure

The primary exposure of interest was the weekly change (increase or decrease) in handball playing load defined and calculated as the amount of hours of handball playing (training and match hours)18 derived from players' SMS answers in SPEx in the current week divided by the weekly average amount of playing hours during the preceding 4 weeks.19 For the analyses, we decided a priori to categorise the player's weekly reports of handball load into the following three primary exposure groups: (1) <20% increase or decrease, (2) between 20% and 60% increase or (3) >60% increase in handball load. The cut-off values were chosen based on the weekly mean handball playing hours (estimated to be ∼5 hours/week) in injury-free weeks. Normally this is based on two to three handball-training activities and one match. An increase of 1 hour (20% increase) would be equal to one extra weekly activity, whereas an increase of 60% would equal two or three extra weekly handball activities.

Also, 4-week average periods below 0.74 hours (equals a z-score of −2) were categorised into a fourth group so that a small increase in handball activities within a current week following a very low preceding 4-week average would be excluded from the three primary groups.20 Furthermore, the first 4 weeks of participation in the study, in which it was impossible to calculate the previous 4 weeks’ average, were included in the analyses as a fifth group.

Effect measure modifiers

Factors included in the statistical analyses as modifiers of the effect of handball load on shoulder injuries were the shoulder assessments for scapular control,21 isometric rotational and abduction strength and ROM. (Personal communication, 2016. M Møller, J Attermann, G Myklebust, et al. The reliability of field-based measures of shoulder function in elite youth athletes). All strength measures were adjusted for body weight.

We created cubic splines with 4 knots (using Stata's mkspline command; Stata 14, StataCorp LP, College Station, Texas, USA) to dichotomise the continuous shoulder ROM and strength assessments. Shoulder assessments were thus included in the analyses as presented in table 1.

Table 1

Cut-off values for effect measure modifiers included in the analyses

At baseline, all players attended a shoulder assessment session in the players' club. We aimed to repeat all shoulder assessments for all accepting players during the midseason from 1 January to 1 March 2014.

Owing to poor reliability and agreement, the isometric strength measurement procedures were modified according to our previous results (Personal communication, 2016. M Møller, et al). We recruited four physiotherapists to perform the shoulder assessments for each assessment parameter. The physiotherapists were blinded to the player's SMS injury and exposure reports. For each physiotherapist, we investigated the test–retest reliability on 19 male u-18 handball players (ROM, isometric strength). Inter-reliability for scapular dyskinesis were evaluated on 20 physiotherapy students. During the main study, the physiotherapist assessing ROM stopped after baseline measurements and was replaced with another, whose reliability previously has been established. The shoulder assessment procedures, reliability results and applied statistics are described in detail in online supplementary appendices 1 and 2.

Statistical analysis

Cox proportional hazards regression with frailty was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) using calendar weeks as timescale.22 All observations, in which the players did not report any playing time, were excluded from the analyses. The primary exposure (change in handball load) was included in the analyses as a time-dependent exposure.23 Using this approach allowed us to take the players’ weekly change in handball load into account by enabling all players to transit between the three primary exposure groups by the end of each week during the 31-week follow-up using delayed entry. The categorisation of handball load and the corresponding transition between them was based solely on the player's responses to the SMS questions. Increase below 20% or decrease in handball load was chosen as the reference group because we hypothesised such players would have the lowest injury rate. Test for no difference between survival functions in the three primary exposure groups was used to examine if a difference across the three primary exposure groups existed. Similar to change in handball load, the shoulder assessments (effect measure modifiers) were included as time-dependent covariates, providing players with shoulder follow-up measurements the possibility to transit between strata after ∼15 weeks. Players not tested at follow-up kept their baseline shoulder assessment throughout the study. Handball-specific injuries unrelated to dominant shoulder injuries were included as competing risks. Players were not censored in case of an injury but were censored in case of lack of motivation, or by the end of the 31-week follow-up, whichever came first. The assumption of proportional rates was evaluated by log-minus-log plots. Shoulder injury incidence rate was calculated as the number of new and recurrent injuries during the study divided by the sum of exposure hours expressed in 1000 hours of total exposure hours (match and training). Poisson regression was used to estimate the incidence rate as a function of follow-up time in weeks and to test if this varied over time points during the season. p Values were considered statistically significant at p≤0.05. Medicine students, blinded to the purpose of this study, performed the data entry. All statistical analyses were unblinded conducted in Stata V.14.1 software (StataCorp, College Station, Texas, USA).


The details of the participant flow and the demographics of the study population have previously been reported (M Møller, et al. 2016. In review). The trial of 679 players (44% female), representing 52 teams (of these, 37 U-18), reported 709 new injuries classified by telephone interviews via the SPEx system. Of these, we classified 106 (14%) as shoulder injuries (85 in the dominant arm) incurred during 73 546 playing hours, which corresponds to an incidence rate of 1.4 (95% CI 1.2 to 1.7) per 1000 playing hours. There was a significant change in risk of new shoulder injury during the season (p<0.001) (figure 1).

Figure 1

The weekly predicted incidence proportion of new shoulder injuries during a 31-week handball season in adolescent handball.

The risk factor analysis included 68 shoulder injuries sustained in the dominant arm (eight players and 17 injuries were excluded from the analysis after excluding observations with zero handball load the preceding week). Of the 68 injuries, six players sustained two injuries. Thirty-three out of 68 injuries (49%) were classified as traumatic. The number of players tested and included for each effect measure modification analysis are listed in figure 2.

Figure 2

Numbers of players tested and included in the effect measure modification analyses. Combined scapular control=final assessments of scapular control based on the combined flexion and abduction assessment movements. *Players not tested due to (1) pain during testing, (2) rater absent the testing day, (3) other reasons. †Five players had missing values in weight.

Table 2 illustrates the number of weeks at risk by an increase in handball load groups according to baseline factors.

Table 2

Number (% of total) of weeks at risk included in the analysis by increase in handball load groups* and baseline factors in 671 youth handball players (14 684 weeks at risk)

The crude analysis of the increase in handball exposure above 60% was associated with an increased shoulder injury rate compared with those increasing <20% (table 3).

Table 3

Crude analysis of the association between an increase in handball load* and risk of shoulder-related injuries in handball

Scapular dyskinesis and decreased external rotational strength in 30° rotation significantly modified the effect of handball load if players increased handball load between 20% and 60% (scapular dyskinesis and external rotational strength) or above 60% (external rotational strength). No significant differences across strata of shoulder ROM or abduction strength were found (table 4). We found no differences between the three primary exposure groups in any of the analyses (p values from 0.09 to 0.68).

Table 4

The association between increase* in handball load and risk of shoulder-related injuries in youth handball stratified by shoulder assessments


The present study is the first large cohort study investigating the synergy between participation-related and non-participation-related risk factors for shoulder injuries in sports.

A noticeable effect size (HR=1.91) was observed in the crude analysis. The injury rate was greater among players who increased their handball load by more than 60% compared with those players who decreased or increased their handball load below 20%. In addition, scapular dyskinesis and decreased external strength at 30° rotation exacerbated the effect among players increasing in handball load to a moderate extent (20–60%).

Our a priori hypotheses were supported by these findings. They indicate that a 60% increase in handball load can increase the shoulder injury rate even in players with normal shoulder characteristics. Also, scapular dyskinesis and reduced external rotational strength make players prone to shoulder injury at a moderate increase in handball load, compared with players with normal scapular control and external rotational strength. Importantly, though, if players with scapular dyskinesis or reduced external rotation strength do not increase their handball load by more than 20%, they are not more predisposed to shoulder injury compared with players with normal characteristics. These findings suggest that large weekly increases in handball load are the primary risk factor for shoulder injuries in youth handball. However, reduced external rotational strength also accentuated the effect of handball load on shoulder injury rate at an increase in handball load above 60%, which may indicate that the cut point between a moderate and high increase in handball load should exceed 60%.

We found no significant differences across strata of shoulder abduction and ROM measurements. In fact, there were very small differences in ROM between dominant and non-dominant shoulders (results not shown), and it is likely that the normal soft tissue or/and bony adaptations to the repeated throwing reported in senior female handball2 and from a variety of other sports8 ,24–28 are not yet present in youth handball players.

In general, our results cannot be compared with those of other studies investigating non-participation-related risk factors, as to the best of our knowledge no other studies in overhead sport have examined the synergy between training and competition load and non-participation-related risk factors, but instead compare the crude association between non-participation-related risk factors and the subsequent risk of injury, or do not take sport participation into account.1 ,5–13 ,29

The reported shoulder injury rate of 1.4 per 1000 playing hours was 2.5 times higher (incidence rate ratio 2.5, 95% CI 1.6 to 4.0) than the reported shoulder injury rate of 0.6 per 1000 playing hours previously reported in a similar population using a time-loss definition as injury outcome.30

Methodological considerations

The present study's major strength is the applied statistical analysis that takes the dynamic changing nature of risk factors into account.15 However, our analyses are limited by the number of events that are required to perform these analyses. The effect modifier analyses were further limited by the fact that not all players were tested, which reduced the number of included injuries.

Information problems

Recall bias is limited for injury and handball load reports owing to the high weekly response rates (88–97%) to the SMS part in SPEx and the 95% follow-up rates by telephone classification. Still, the comparisons between injury outcomes from SPEx and on-field and medical observers demonstrated that 10% of all injury registrations were missed by the SPEx sports injury surveillance system, indicating a risk of misclassification. Furthermore, although most players responded rapidly to the SMS messages, it is evident that some players reported their injuries with a delay of 1 week or more (Personal communication, 2016. M Møller, N Wedderkopp, G Myklebust, et al. The SPEx sport injury surveillance system is a feasible and valid approach to measure exposures and injuries in elite youth sport). This is particularly relevant in the applied analyses where the change in handball load the week before an injury was investigated. However, we find it plausible to assume that the potential misclassification of injury status is similar across handball load groups. If this is the case, such non-differential misclassification may lead to bias towards null (no difference in shoulder injury rate between handball load groups). Hence, the association between change in handball load and shoulder injuries is underestimated.

As regards the registration of handball load, we believe that the use of the SPEx sports injury surveillance system ensures more accurate results than would have been obtained in studies analysing handball exposure at a group level using observational methods. Still, there is a risk that some players have been misclassified into wrong weekly exposure groups during the season. However, the players were unaware of the purpose of the analyses. Consequently, they likely have not been motivated to either under-report or over-report their shoulder injuries. Any potential misclassification must thus be non-differential leading to an underestimation of the association between change in handball load and shoulder injuries.

The fact that the same physiotherapists, except for ROM, assessed the players' shoulder profiles twice during the study in order to accommodate the changing injury risk profile throughout the season was a key strength of the present study. The cut points in which the continuous strength and ROM measurements could be translated into dichotomous risk factors were defined in this study. These cut-off values would determine if a player was at increased risk of injury or not. It should be noted that there is a high risk of categorising players into wrong exposure group due to random measurement error, even though, we found no systematic bias and less wide limits of agreement for the newly developed strength and ROM assessments than previously reported (see online supplementary appendix 2). The physiotherapists were blinded to previously reported injuries before the follow-up, and also to the selected cut points. This limits the risk that the physiotherapists unintentionally have influenced the measurements in a particular direction. Therefore, the potential misclassification of the shoulder assessments may have been non-differential leading to an underestimation between the sports participation, the given effect modifier and the shoulder injury.

The above-mentioned potential misclassifications might have prevented us from detecting other associations between handball load and shoulder injury (type 2 error).

Selection problems

U-16 teams were invited to participate in this study only if their U-18 team accepted to take part in this research. Consequently, there is a possibility that the U-16 players included in this study were from more elite clubs, and their handball load habits might not reflect those u-16 players at less elite clubs. Less elite clubs may also have limited recourses, lack of access to medical and support staff. Therefore, these players may sustain more injuries than the u-16 players linked with an elite club participating in this study. This potentially skewed ‘healthy player’ selection might have led to selection bias in this age group.

We found no significant differences in hazards for injuries between players who attended the shoulder assessments and players who did not, limiting the risk of skewed selection, and thus selection bias.


There is a high risk of known and unknown confounding due to the inherent nature of the prospective study design. The potential confounders were, a priori, assumed to be playing position and previous injuries. However, due to the low frequency of shoulder injuries reported in the present study, it was not possible to control for these factors within the analyses, and this is a limitation of this study.


Our findings demonstrated that the shoulder injury rate in elite youth handball players was nearly twice as high in the week following a 60% or greater increase in handball load when compared with a decrease or a small-to-moderate increase in handball load <20%.

In addition, the findings showed that an effect of a moderate increase between 20% and 60% in handball load was exacerbated by the presence of reduced external rotational strength or scapular dyskinesis and that reduced shoulder external rotational strength also exacerbated the effect of large increases in handball load above 60%. Finally, we found 2.5 times higher shoulder injury incidence rate among 14–18-year-old handball players than previously reported.

What are the findings?

  • Large increase in weekly handball load is associated with an increased rate of shoulder injuries in youth handball.

  • Scapular dyskinesis and reduced external rotational strength reduce the amount of increase in handball load a player can tolerate before injury occurs.

  • Shoulder injury incidence in youth handball is more than twice as high as previously reported.

How might it impact on clinical practice in the future?

  • Coaches and support personnel should monitor youth handball players' handball load on an individual basis. Concerted efforts should be made to avoid rapid increases in handball load. Particularly for players with scapular dyskinesis and reduced strength, because players with these certain characteristics may be more vulnerable to shoulder injury already at a moderate increase in handball load.


The authors are grateful to all the players, coaches, physiotherapists, doctors and students for their participation in this study, and thank The Danish Rheumatism Association and Team Danmark for their generous economic support of this study.

Tue, 12 Apr 2022 02:17:00 -0500 en text/html https://bjsm.bmj.com/content/51/4/231
Killexams : Gloves Market: India and China, are Expected to be the Most Lucrative Destination for Manufactures

Gloves are classified into medical / diagnostic gloves and industrial gloves. Further, latex and nitrile gloves are commonly used when treating patients with blood, body fluids or infectious diseases in the healthcare sector in high-risk situations. Gloves play a major role in controlling cross transmission, as gloves help protect against microbial contamination and other health care-related chemicals in patients. Further, protective gloves should be selected based on the hazards involved.

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In addition, raising hygiene awareness among healthcare providers and advances in glove technology. However, toxic reactions to some gloves and high price competition are expected to restrain the market growth. Conversely, developing economies and untapped markets are expected to provide lucrative growth opportunities for market growth over the forecast period. Key factors contributing to the growth of the glove market include safety and hygiene, increase in rubber production and increase in the number of end users.

Medical gloves are essential during the COVID-19 outbreak as they are a part of personal protective equipment (PPE). In addition, rise in cases of COVID-19 cases across the globe is leading to increase in manufacturing and distribution of gloves. In, March 2020, Supermax Corporation Berhad donated 1 million nitrile powder-free medical gloves to COVID-19 frontliners. They are to be distributed to Malaysian government hospitals, police stations and the healthcare industry’s first responders, to combat the Covid-19 outbreak in Malaysia. Therefore, this has concluded that due to the everyday rise in number of cases of corona virus across the globe has made an impact on the disposable gloves industry, by giving opportunities to the key players for expanding the manufacturing of disposable gloves to uplift the industry.

As per the report published by Allied Market Research, titled, the global gloves market is accounted to be at value $48,011.33 in 2017 and expected to reach $1,18,508.55 million by 2025, registering a CAGR of 8.6% during 2021-2025.

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The global gloves market is segmented on the basis of type, industry, and country. Based on the type, the market is segmented into disposable sterile gloves, disposable examination and protective gloves, and consumer gloves. In addition, disposable sterile gloves is further divided into disposable surgical sterile gloves, disposable examination sterile gloves, and other sterile gloves. Further, disposable examination and protective gloves is further divided into disposable nitrile examination and protective gloves, disposable latex examination and protective gloves, disposable vinyl examination and protective gloves, and other disposable examination and protective gloves. Based on industry, the market is segmented into medical, horsecar, cleaning, beauty, food and drinks, pharmaceutical, chemical, automotive, electronics, construction, and others. Region wise, North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and LAMEA.

Key Benefits:
• Quantitative analysis along with the current global gloves market trends from 2017 to 2025 to identify the prevailing opportunities along with the strategic assessment.
• The gloves market forecast is studied from 2021 to 2025.
• The gloves market size and estimations are based on a comprehensive analysis of key developments in the industry.
• A qualitative analysis based on innovative products facilitates strategic business planning.
• The development strategies adopted by the key market players are enlisted to understand the competitive scenario of the market

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Key Market Players
• 3M Company
• Ansell Limited
• Cardinal Health, Inc.
• Honeywell International Inc.
• Hartalega Holdings Berhad
• Kimberly-Clark Corporation
• Kossan Rubber Industries Bhd
• Rubberex Corporation (M) Berhad
• Semperit Ag Holding
• Top Glove Corporation Bhd

Other Reports:
Dental Burs and Endodontic Market
Vietnam Medical Nutrition Market

About Us:

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AMR introduces its online premium subscription-based library Avenue, designed specifically to offer cost-effective, one-stop solution for enterprises, investors, and universities. With Avenue, subscribers can avail an entire repository of reports on more than 2,000 niche industries and more than 12,000 company profiles. Moreover, users can get an online access to quantitative and qualitative data in PDF and Excel formats along with analyst support, customization, and updated versions of reports.

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Wed, 20 Jul 2022 17:55:00 -0500 Allied Analytics en-US text/html https://www.digitaljournal.com/pr/gloves-market-india-and-china-are-expected-to-be-the-most-lucrative-destination-for-manufactures
Killexams : NEET UG 2020: Medical Entrance exam In July; All Latest Updates Here
NEET UG 2020: Medical Entrance exam In July; All Latest Updates Here

NEET UG 2020 exam will be held in July 26

New Delhi:

NEET exam for admission to undergraduate courses will be held on July 26. NEET UG was earlier scheduled on May 3 but the exam had to be postponed due to the nation-wise lockdown announced in response to the coronavirus pandemic. National Testing Agency (NTA), the conducting agency for the medical entrance exam, will release NEET admit cards 15 days before the exam. NTA has also extended the application correction facility till May 31.

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NEET UG exam is held for admission to MBBS and BDS programmes offered at medical and dental institutes.

The format for the NEET exam remains in the pen-paper mode and the syllabus for the exam also remains the same as last year. NEET exam covers Topics in Chemistry, Physics, and Biology (Zoology and Botany) syllabus from class 11 and class 12.

Meanwhile, HRD Minister Ramesh Pokhriyal 'Nishank' unveiled a mock test app, 'Abhyas', for JEE Main and NEET aspirants. Students due to appear for the NEET exam this year can download the app and practice mock tests.

"This timely launch is designed to ensure that no student is left behind in getting exposure to online testing, especially when NTA's Test Practice Centres are shut due to COVID-19 lockdown," Mr Pokhriyal had said during the launch of the app.

Apart from the 'Abhyas' app, several states have also made arrangements for students to practice for the exam. Gujarat Board has released dumps questions for NEET, JEE Main, and GUJCET exam. Tamil Nadu is providing free coaching to NEET aspirants from government schools. Odisha is also providing free NEET coaching to poor students.

Fri, 14 Aug 2020 04:19:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.ndtv.com/education/neet-ug-2020-medical-entrance-exam-in-july-all-latest-updates-here
Killexams : NEET UG 2022 Answer key expected to be out soon, know how to download

The National Eligibility cum Enterance Test (NEET) UG 2022 Answer Key is expected to be released soon.

The candidates will be able to download the UG Answer Key 2022 from .nta.nic.in once the answer key is released.

The (NTA) will also release the OMR response sheet along with the Answer key.

The exam was conducted on July 17, 2022 for the students who wish to get admitted to the undergraduate medical courses in India. The exam was conducted by and a total of 95 per cent candidates appeared for the exam this year.

Candidates will also get an option to raise objections on the answer key released by paying a fee of Rs 1,000 per question.

To view and download the answer key, candidates need to login through their application number and password.

How to download NEET UG 2022 Answer Key?

1. Visit the official website of neet.nta.nic.in.

2. Now click on the link to download the answer key.

3. After this, login using your application number and password.

4. Now, a PDF file of the NEET UG 2022 answer key will appear on your screen.

5. download the NEET UG answer key 2022 and take a print out of it for further reference.

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First Published: Fri, July 29 2022. 22:33 IST

Fri, 29 Jul 2022 05:03:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.business-standard.com/article/education/neet-ug-2022-answer-key-expected-to-be-out-soon-know-how-to-download-122072901471_1.html
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