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Exam Code: EPPP Practice exam 2023 by Killexams.com team
EPPP Examination for Professional Practice of Psychology

The Examination for Professional Practice in Psychology
(EPPP) is developed and owned by the Association of
State and Provincial Psychology Boards (ASPPB). The EPPP
is provided to state and provincial boards of psychology to
assist them in their evaluation of the qualifications of
applicants for licensure and certification. This
standardized knowledge-based examination is
constructed by ASPPB with the assistance of its test
vendor, Pearson VUE. The EPPP is continuously
administered in a computerized delivery format through
the Pearson VUE network of computer testing centers.
State and provincial psychology boards acting collectively
through ASPPB provide support for the testing format.
Pearson VUE maintains a network of more than 275
Pearson Professional Centers (PPCs) in the United States
and Canada in order to provide access to computer-based
testing (CBT) for candidates.

The resources of individual psychologists, ASPPB and its
test vendor are used in the ongoing development of and
improvements to the EPPP. These combined resources are
greater than those available to any individual psychology
licensing. The EPPP is only one part of the evaluation
procedures used by state and provincial boards to
determine candidates readiness to practice the
profession of psychology. Most boards supplement the
EPPP with other requirements and/or assessment
procedures. The EPPP is intended to evaluate the
knowledge that the most latest practice analysis has
determined as foundational to the competent practice of
psychology. Most candidates taking the EPPP have
obtained a doctoral degree in psychology, a year of predoctoral supervised experience and appropriate
postdoctoral experience. Candidates are expected to have
acquired a broad basic knowledge of psychology,
regardless of individual areas of concentration. This
knowledge, and the candidates ability to apply it, are
assessed through the candidates responses to objective,
multiple-choice questions that are representative of the
field at large. The average pass-rate for doctoral level
candidates who are taking the exam for the first time
exceeds 80% in the most latest sample years.

Regardless of the jurisdiction, in order to sit for the
EPPP, individuals seeking licensure must first apply for
licensure to the licensing authority in the state,
province or territory in which they wish to be licensed.
The licensing authority reviews applicants credentials
and determines if they meet the requirements
established in the laws of the state, province or

Candidates who meet their licensing authorities
requirements will be pre-approved by the board to take
the EPPP. The board will enter the candidates
identifying information into an online EPPP registration
system that will enable the candidate to logon and
verify her/his account, and that gives access to the
application materials. Candidates will be sent two
consecutive emails, the 1st advising them that their
licensing authority has uploaded their information into
the system, and the 2nd with information for them to
verify their account and begin the registration process.
 Candidates will not be able to log into the
registration system until their licensing authority has
uploaded their information. Candidates must contact
their board to advise that they are ready to test and
need to be uploaded to the EPPP registration system.

Candidates may test at any authorized Pearson VUE
center that administers the EPPP, regardless of the
jurisdiction where they are applying for licensure.
Candidates must arrive 30 minutes prior to their
scheduled appointment. Please Note: Candidates must
have a currently valid, government-issued photo ID
(e.g., passport, drivers license, etc.), as well as another
piece of identification imprinted with their name and
containing a signature or latest photo (e.g., credit card,
CPR card, etc.). The first and last name on both forms
of ID must match the name on the Authorization to
Test email.

Prior to taking the EPPP, candidates will be asked to
read and acknowledge their review of the Candidate
Acknowledgment Statement. Please note that the
Candidate Acknowledgement Statement contains
important rules for taking the EPPP and should be read
in its entirety before acknowledging that it has been

The EPPP is administered under standardized conditions
in accordance with procedures established by Pearson
VUE for all their testing centers.
• Candidates taking the EPPP are allowed:
o 5 minutes to agree to the terms of the
Candidate Acknowledgement Statement (If
you do not agree to the terms within the 5-
minute timeframe, the exam will be
canceled and cannot be reset),
o 5 minutes for completion of the tutorial,
o 4 hours and 15 minutes for completion of
the EPPP and 5 minutes at the end of the exam allotted
to complete a brief survey.
• Candidates with documented disabilities or
impairments, who wish to be tested under
nonstandard conditions, please see the section
regarding “Special Accommodations” on page 7.
There are no scheduled breaks during the Exam.
Candidates may take breaks whenever they wish;
however, the clock on the time allotted for the Exam
will continue to run.

Pearson Professional Centers are built to standard
specifications and vary primarily on the basis of size.
Private modular workstations provide ample workspace,
comfortable seating, and proper lighting. Proctors
monitor the testing process through an observation
window and from within the testing room. Parabolic
mirrors mounted on the walls assist proctors in
observing the testing process. All testing sessions are
videotaped and audio-monitored, and a digitized image
of all candidates taking the EPPP will be retained.
Computer knowledge is not required to take a
computerized examination. Before the examination
begins, a basic introductory lesson (tutorial) is
presented that explains the process of selecting answers
and moving from question to question. Candidates have
5 minutes to complete the tutorial, and are strongly
encouraged to review it carefully.

Candidates may select their answers using either the
keyboard or the mouse. During the tutorial, candidates
will learn how they can skip forward or backward
through the EPPP to review questions. Candidates
should be sure they understand how to review
questions when they take the tutorial.
The testing software contains a feature that allows
candidates to flag questions they might wish to review
later, if time permits. Any question can be flagged,
regardless of whether it has been left blank or
answered, and will be scored even if it is still marked
upon completion of the Exam.

Candidates are encouraged to take notes during the
tutorial on whiteboards that can be supplied by the
testing center upon request. They are not automatically
supplied. Testing center staff will collect whiteboards at
the completion of the Examination. Candidates are not
allowed to bring their own scratch paper or writing
instruments into the testing room.
Please Note: There might be some distractions in the
testing situation because:
• Other candidates may be taking exams that require
narrative responses, and there may be keyboard

• Proctors will be entering the testing room on a
regular basis to observe activity and to seat other
candidates or answer inquiries.
• Other minor distractions might include ambient
noise from outside the testing room.
If a candidate is concerned that these kinds of
distractions will affect exam performance, he or she
may request earplugs and/or noise cancelling
headphones after arriving at the testing center. This
does not require pre-approval. Candidates are not
allowed to bring their own earplugs into the testing

The total number of correct responses determines a
candidates score. Therefore, it is to the candidates
advantage to answer every item, even when uncertain
of the correct response. The candidate should choose
the single best answer to each item.

Examination for Professional Practice of Psychology
Medical Professional information source
Killexams : Medical Professional information source - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/EPPP Search results Killexams : Medical Professional information source - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/EPPP https://killexams.com/exam_list/Medical Killexams : Patient Education: The Nurse as Source of Actionable Information


A patient typically leaves the hospital or clinic with a patient education package that has been vetted by department heads, checked and sanitized by the legal department, trimmed and restricted by finance, and augmented by sponsors. The patient has perhaps also spoken to physicians, radiologists, nurses, and administrative staff. Much of the information given to the patient is intended to educate the patient in self-care following the period of dependence upon hospital staff. How does this information help the patient at home when there is no medical staff on hand? Does it tell the patient how to remove the dressing, what to clean the wound with, or what to do if the drainage tubes seem to be clogged? There are questions the patient will simply not think to ask while still at the hospital.

If all patients were physicians or nurses who belonged to the medical community and all ascribed to common conventions and practices, there would be no difference essentially as to who was on which side of the stethoscope; the patient could reasonably be expected to understand exactly what was going on, and why. Each issue the nurse highlighted would fit neatly into demarcated categories and every significance placed on them would be understood and accepted by the patient. After returning home, there would be nothing that was unfamiliar to them about what to do and when to do it.

However, in reality, patients are bricklayers, plumbers, bankers, welders, accountants, teachers, lawyers, and philosophers. They cannot be expected to understand what it is you are doing or saying in the same way as your fellow physicians and nurses are likely to. These real-life patients may demarcate issues and assign significance differently from how the medical professionals do. The resonance will have been lost, and the information will stand alone without the rich context of mutuality that was shared in the previous scenario.

Just as facts are "theory-laden," so also information does not "speak for itself," it is interpreted and acted on through the spectacles and gloves of our beliefs and view of the world. The nurse needs to impinge on patients' world views, conveying the information to them by resignifying and demarcating it in such a way as to make it actionable by the patient.

As an example, one patient had the experience of being given practical instruction that included taking her physically through many sequences and procedures that would prove to be important to her. Her nurses didn't just tell her how to change a dressing or clean the surgical wound, they showed her, and critiqued her techniques. It was not just this practical, actionable knowledge that was imparted, but also the knowledge of where more knowledge resided. The nurse as an information-source stands out.

As it happened, the patient's nurse was changed and the new nurse did not become familiar with the patient's history and could not answer questions about what to do next when a particular test was returned negative. The flow of information had changed and the patient's experience was altered entirely.

Sun, 20 Aug 2023 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/453348
Killexams : Evaluating health information on the internet

Many people use the Internet to get information and make changes in their lifestyle. Unfortunately, information on the Internet is not always reliable. If you make changes in what you do based on unreliable information, you may waste your time and money because you won’t get the results you are aiming for; you may even damage your health.

Before making any changes, you need to determine that the website you consult is providing reliable information. Ask yourself the following questions: 

What is the purpose of this site?

There are many different reasons to develop a website. If you are looking for reliable health information to guide changes in your behaviours, then use websites whose purpose is to help you identify and manage health problems or to Strengthen your health. This is usually the purpose of:

If the purpose of the website is to sell a product or a service, be skeptical about the information presented, as it will likely be chosen to encourage you to buy the product or service. Verify the information you receive from these sites with sources you believe are reliable.

Some websites are established by individuals or a group of people as a way to share their opinions or experiences. They may mean well, but the information they present will likely only support their opinions. These websites often rely on anecdotes or testimonials as the main source of information: This is not evidence.

It can be difficult to determine the purpose of a website that provides opinions; they may present content that leads the reader to believe their opinions are actually facts. The “About Us” section might be unclear or misleading. For example, the website thinktwice.com states that it “encourages an uncensored exchange of vaccine information, and supports every family’s right to accept or reject vaccines.” However, as you navigate through the site you will realize that the content strongly supports rejecting vaccines. You will need to consult other sources of vaccine information to get a balanced perspective. 

Reliable health information websites

The following websites provide reliable, evidence-based information.

Wed, 14 Oct 2020 04:22:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.concordia.ca/cunews/offices/provost/health/topics/evaluate-health-information.html
Killexams : Page settings No result found, try new keyword!Get insights and perspectives from health professionals around the world Health information you can trust ... They are good source of protein. As di...see more latest CONTRIBUTIONS Intermediate ... Sat, 08 Apr 2023 20:14:00 -0500 en-us text/html https://www.msn.com/en-us/health?type=fitnesschallenge&source=healthqnalg Killexams : About Medical News Today

As an organization, MNT strives for a deeper understanding of health.

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We believe that knowledge enables the pursuit of good health and well-being. Using peer reviewed studies, medical experts, and reputable sources, our passionate and curious team of writers and editors unravels the complexities of medical research and science, breaking it down to provide you clear, objective, and accurate health information.

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It’s hard finding health information you can trust, but our editorial team is committed to creating just that. We want you to be confident that Medical News Today provides you with accurate, trustworthy, and unbiased health information, which is why we’re so committed to our editorial process.

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Fri, 21 Jul 2023 05:12:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/about Killexams : Types of Mental Health Professionals No result found, try new keyword!This article is based on reporting that features expert sources. Types of Mental Health Professionals This ... CBT in thinking and information processing, IPT in relationships and social skills ... Wed, 05 May 2021 09:18:00 -0500 text/html https://health.usnews.com/health-care/patient-advice/articles/types-of-mental-health-professionals Killexams : When Mental Health Info Is Obtained Via Social Media

Teen looks on his phone.

Pexels/Michael Burrows

These days almost everyone goes online to look up health information. Googling medical questions and concerns has become a part of everyday life for many of us as the Internet has become an extremely easy way to search for a doctor of any specialty, book appointments and expand one’s knowledge.

Over the past several years, however, the online landscape has evolved quite dramatically with the advent of social media. In fact, much like Google, social media has also become an increasingly important source of mental health-related information, especially for teenagers and young adults.

We recently polled hundreds of teenagers who presented to the psychiatric emergency room at Northwell Health and found that nearly 65% of them listed TikTok as their primary source for mental health information, even more so than Google. While this can sound frightening, it can also represent an exciting opportunity for mental health clinicians and researchers, like me.

There are definitely pros and cons to obtaining mental health information from social media. On the one hand, it provides an excellent opportunity to meet other individuals with similar life experiences, obtain social and emotional support, and connect with experts nearly instantly who can provide access to high-quality information and resources. But on the other hand, it can be very challenging to know which sources can be trusted to provide the most accurate and helpful information, as there is a lot of incorrect and stigmatizing misinformation online.

Further, social media has introduced an entirely new dimension of challenges (and potential opportunities) stemming from their use of algorithms to identify interests and tailor digital content. Unlike Google, once you search for information on social media, these algorithms are designed to strategically select and promote images, videos, and posts that might align with one’s interests or online activity. Such content that has the potential to impact us in ways that we are only beginning to appreciate and understand.

We know that information gathered online can impact many aspects of care, including whether to seek care at all. In psychiatry, as in all other areas of medicine, the earlier the better, but many people (especially young people) wait months to years before finally getting the help that they need. Some never do. The decision to access care is not always easy. The Internet and social media can represent pivotal moments that can shape and influence one’s desire or readiness to access mental health help.

Social media-based algorithms may impact and influence help-seeking in ways that were previously impossible and unimaginable (both for the better and for the worse). As a mental health professional working with young people, who are nearly constantly connected to the Internet, my job is often to help them navigate the wealth of information available online to determine what’s good and what’s bad. A critical question for me and many others in this field is how might a person’s social media feed change or evolve as a result of their online activity and if that change can influence important decisions, like the decision to seek mental health care.

Nearly three decades since the first social media platforms were created, the White House has recently released its report on research priorities and has identified the need to better understand the impact (both good and bad) of social media use on adolescent development as a top research priority. At the same time, the U.S. Surgeon General recently released an advisory highlighting concerns associated with social media use on youth mental health.

Social media companies have received a lot of negative attention regarding the impact of their algorithms on mental health outcomes, especially for young people. While they certainly have the potential to deliver negative digital content, they could theoretically also be used for good, and we need to unpack the impact that the tailored flow of digital information can have on the person absorbing it. We need to move fast to get ahead of the curve if we are to understand how to enhance the benefits and minimize the risks associated with social media use. I believe that social media algorithms can be used to ensure that the information young people are receiving is accurate, helpful, and sound rather than misinformation that stigmatizes mental health and, in turn, steers them away from getting help.

Social media is expanding every day, and we have an opportunity to use it to its full potential and ensure that social media could one day truly live up to what it was meant to be – a place to share, learn and grow.

To find a therapist near you, visit the Psychology Today Therapy Directory.

Tue, 15 Aug 2023 05:25:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/the-health-of-our-youth/202308/when-mental-health-info-is-obtained-via-social-media
Killexams : Referring medical practitioners

Radiological imaging is a major and increasing source of radiation exposure worldwide. Computed tomography (CT) is the largest contributor to medical radiation dose patients receive. Typically, CT scans impart doses to organs that are 100 times higher than doses imparted by other lower dose modalities such as chest X-rays. In general, CT examinations may involve doses (typically an average of 8 mSv) which may be equal to the dose received by several hundreds of chest X-rays (about 0.02 mSv/chest X-ray).

During an IAEA consultation on justification in 2007, it was estimated that up to 50% of examinations may not be necessary. It should be anticipated that part of the increase in global annual mean dose that has been observed recently is due to unjustified radiological procedures. Direct epidemiological data suggest that medical exposure to low doses of radiation even as low as 10-50 mSv might be associated with a small risk of cancer induction in the long term. The fact that a considerable percentage of people may undergo repeated high dose examinations , such as CT (sometimes exceeding 10 mSv per examination) dictates that caution should be used when referring a patient for radiological procedures. Health professionals need to make sure the patient benefits from the procedure and risk is kept minimal. 

However, ensuring maximum benefit to risk ratio for the patient is not a trivial task. Referring medical practitioners, in a large part of the world, lack training in radiation protection and in risk estimation. 97% of practitioners who participated in a study underestimated the dose the patient would receive from diagnostic procedures. The average mean dose was about 6 times higher  than the physicians had estimated. The fundamental principles of radiation protection in medicine are justification and optimization of radiological protection. Referring medical practitioners have a major role in justification. They are responsible in terms of weighing the benefit versus the risk of a given radiological procedure.

» What is justification and what is the framework?

Justification requires that the expected net benefit be positive. According to principles established by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and accepted by major international organizations, the principle of justification applies at three levels in the use of radiation in medicine.

» Is the referring medical practitioner responsible for justification of radiological procedures?

Yes, jointly with the radiological practitioner. As stated above, justification at the third level is the responsibility of the referring medical practitioner, as is the awareness about appropriateness criteria for justification at level 2. According to the BSS, the radiological exposure has to be justified through consultation between the radiological medical practitioner and the referring medical practitioner, as appropriate, or be part of an approved health screening programme.

Since referring medical practitioners usually have the most complete picture of the patient’s health, they should be responsible for the guidance of the patient in undergoing only necessary procedures and benefitting from them. Particularly, this responsibility weighs more on generalists such as primary care providers. In order to facilitate justification in the case of radiological procedures, it is desirable that referring medical practitioners are knowledgeable about radiation effects in regard to the various dose ranges. The referring medical practitioners are responsible for keeping their knowledge about radiation up to date. In support of this, they should be provided education in radiation protection during their medical studies.

» How should justification be practiced and what knowledge is required for proper justification of a radiological procedure?

According to the BSS, the justification of medical exposure for an individual patient shall be carried out through consultation between the radiological medical practitioner and the referring medical practitioner, as appropriate, with account taken, in particular for patients who are pregnant or breast-feeding or paediatric, of:

  • The appropriateness of the request; 
  • The urgency of the procedure; 
  • The characteristics of the medical exposure; 
  • The characteristics of the individual patient; 
  • Relevant information from the patient’s previous radiological procedures. 

Justification should be patient specific. The referring medical practitioner should take into account all clinical aspects regarding the management of every patient separately. Other possible procedures with lower or no exposure, such as ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging, should be considered, if and when appropriate, before proceeding to radiological procedures.

» Is the acquisition of patients’ consent important?

According to the BSS, in order for a symptomatic or asymptomatic patient to undergo a medical procedure that involves ionizing radiation, the patient or the patient’s legally authorized representative should be informed in a timely and clear fashion, of the expected diagnostic or therapeutic benefits of the radiological procedure as well as the radiation risks. Thus, the emphasis is on provision of information.

» When is an investigation useful and what are the reasons that cause unnecessary use of radiation?

According to the guidelines published by the Royal College of Radiologists (RCR),  a useful investigation is one in which the result, either positive or negative, will alter a patient’s management or add confidence to the clinician’s diagnosis. According to the RCR guidelines, there are some reasons that lead to wasteful use of radiation. With emphasis on avoiding unjustified irradiation of patients, the RCR report has provided a check list for physicians referring patients for diagnostic radiological procedures:

  • HAS IT BEEN DONE ALREADY? It is important to avoid repeating investigations which have already been performed relatively recently. Sometimes it is not possible to accurately track the procedures history of patients. Furthermore, patients may not be able to inform the practitioner that they had a similar procedure recently. It is important to attempt retrieving previous patient procedures and reports, or at least procedure history when possible. Digital data stored in electronic databases may help in that direction; 
  • To help in avoiding repeating investigations, it is necessary to establish a tracking system for radiological examinations and patient dose. The IAEA has taken steps towards that direction by setting up the “IAEA Smart-Card” project;
  • DO I NEED IT? Performing investigations that are unlikely to produce useful results should be avoided, i.e. request procedures only if they will change patients’ management. It is important for the practitioner to be sure that the finding that the investigation yields is relevant to the case under study;
  • DO I NEED IT NOW? Investigating too quickly should be avoided. The referring medical practitioner should allow enough time to pass so that the disorder or impact of management of the disorder may be sufficiently evident; 
  • IS THIS THE BEST EXAMINATION? Doing the examination without taking into consideration the optimal contributions of safety, resource utilization and diagnostic outcome should be prevented. Discussion with an imaging specialist may help referring medical practitioners decide on proper modality and technique; 
  • HAVE I EXPLAINED THE PROBLEM? Failure to provide appropriate clinical information and address questions that the imaging investigation should answer should be avoided. Deficiencies here may lead to the wrong technique being used (e.g. the omission of an essential view); 
  • ARE TOO MANY INVESTIGATIONS BEING PERFORMED? Over-investigating. Some clinicians tend to rely on investigations more than others. Some patients take comfort in being investigated. 

» What are the reasons for over-investigating?

There are various reasons that may lead medical practitioners to refer patients for more procedures than needed. Practitioners should be aware of that and take action to avoid such situations. Some of the reasons that lead to over-investigation are the following:

  • Patient wishes. Patients feel more reassured when they are sure that their practitioner has thoroughly investigated their health condition. Some of them connect the quality of care with the number of procedures they undergo and ask their practitioner to subject them to more procedures. There must be a careful balance between informing patients of risks and benefits and the importance of considering patient desires and needs in the decision making process;
  • Financial. Some organizations or doctors get a direct financial benefit related to conflict of interest (also known as self-referral) from subjecting the patients to various procedures mainly because the services in question are provided by these health care professionals. Such practices are unethical and should not be accepted. Financial reasons may also influence a referring medical practitioner’s equity and also equal access to health services; 
  • Defensive medicine. Some professionals rely far more heavily on investigations including radiological procedures than others, possibly to avoid litigation. In the case of radiological procedures, the risk should also be taken into account and exposure limited to the minimum required for a correct diagnosis;
  • Role of media. The opinion of the public on a subject is shaped by many parameters in a society. Media is one of them. For instance, exaggerated publicity in reporting a medical mistake may lead to increased public sensitivity about the subject. Publicity and increased sensitivity are good things and should be encouraged, but when reporting is not scientific but emotion-driven for audience reasons, as is often the case in mainstream media; this may lead to practitioners practicing defensive medicine and patients refusing indicated procedures; both of these scenarios undermine the appropriate practice of medicine; 
  • Role of industry. The medical industry comprises large corporations that compete with each other for market-share. However, one large problem is that time is needed for new or improved technology, and this must be understood and assessed by the scientific community with regard to the cost-benefit ratio. Studies have to be done and sometimes results take time to come. This creates a window of time when misuse of equipment due to knowledge deficiency is possible;
  • Convenience. Sometimes a practitioner may subject a patient to a procedure that the patient has already undergone when imaging films or discs are unavailable, in order to save personal time, instead of checking the patient’s record. This is not relevant with the specific patient’s well-being, and similar convenience driven prescriptions should be avoided. Such practices are also unethical. 

» Is there any guidance available?

During the last 20 years international and national organizations published guidelines for proper justification of radiological procedures. The UK Royal College of Radiologists (RCR) publication "Making the best use of clinical radiology services " has been in print since 1989. The American College of Radiology (ACR) published its guidelines as Appropriateness Criteria. Similar efforts have been undertaken by the Department of Health of Western Australia in Diagnostic Imaging Pathways. 

For references of publications from national societies in Europe, Oceania, and other regions please see publication from Remedios. These publications constitute guidelines and aim to guide referring medical practitioners in the selection of the optimum procedure for a certain clinical problem. In case there are alternative procedures that do not utilize radiation but yield results of similar clinical value, these guidelines encourage the avoidance of radiological procedures.
The cited publications provide very specific guidance to help practitioners perform justification properly. 

» What if the patient whom I refer for a radiological procedure is pregnant?

The responsibility to identify patients that might be pregnant and are unaware of it is shared by the patient, referring medical practitioner and the imaging service providers. Safeguards to avoid inadvertent exposures of the foetus should be observed at all times. 
The “ten day rule” was postulated by ICRP for women of reproductive age. The more latest “28-day rule” allows radiological procedures throughout the complete menstrual cycle unless there is a missed period. When a woman has a missed period, she is considered pregnant unless proven otherwise. 

Even if safeguards are observed, sometimes a pregnant patient may be exposed to radiation. Depending on the radiation dose and the gestation age of the foetus, radiation effects may differ. Radiation risks are most significant during organogenesis in the early foetal period, somewhat less in the second trimester, and least in the third trimester. 

As a rule of thumb one can assume that properly carried out diagnostic radiological  procedures to any part of the body other than the pelvic region or when the primary X-ray beam is not passing through the foetus can be performed throughout pregnancy without significant foetal risk, if clinically necessary and justified. For radiological procedures where the primary beam intercepts the foetus, advice from the medical physicist should be obtained, who will calculate radiation dose to the foetus and, based on that, the practitioner and patient should make a decision. However, doses associated with radiotherapy procedures and interventional procedures are high and they require the attention of experts (including medical or health physicists, practitioners, and sometimes engineers and epidemiologists). In the case when a practitioner is responsible for a patient who has undergone a radiological procedure inadvertently and has subsequently been found to be pregnant, advice from the individuals listed above is needed. For more information, please click here where comprehensive information is provided not only for diagnostic radiology but also for nuclear medicine and radiotherapy.

Read more:

  • Report of a consultation on justification of patient exposures in medical imaging. Rad. Prot. Dosimetry 135 (2009) 137–144. 
  • Brenner, J.D., Doll, R., Goodhead, D.T., Hall, E.J., et al., Cancer risks attributable to low doses of ionizing radiation: Assessing what we really know. P Natl Acad Sci USA 100 (24) (2003) 13761-13766. 
  • Mettler, F.A., Huda, W., Yoshizumi, T.T., Mahadevappa, M., Effective doses in radiology and diagnostic nuclear medicine: A catalog. Radiology 248 (2008) 254-263. 
  • Shiralkar, S., Rennie, A., Snow, M., Galland, R.B., Lewis, M.H., Gower-Thomas, K., Doctors’ knowledge of radiation exposure: questionnaire study. BMJ 327 (2003) 371–372. 
  • INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON RADIOLOGICAL PROTECTION, 2007. Recommendations of the ICRP, Publication 103, Pergamon Press, Oxford (2007). 
  • INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY. International Basic Safety Standards for protecting people and the environment. Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards. General Safety Requirements Part 3. No. GSR Part3 (Interim), IAEA, Vienna (2011). 
  • Royal College of Radiologists. Making the best use of clinical radiology services. Referral guidelines. Sixth edition, London 2007. 
  • Remedios, D., Justification: how to get referring physicians involved. Rad. Prot. Dosimetry (2011) Epub ahead of print, accessed 21 July 2011. 
Tue, 21 Feb 2012 23:54:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.iaea.org/resources/rpop/health-professionals/other-specialities-and-imaging-modalities/referring-medical-practitioners
Killexams : How Health Professionals Can Talk With Families About Race

In our ever-changing world, children are not shielded from the realities of racial injustice and discrimination. As a health professional and a mother, I have encountered numerous instances where the impact of racism on children’s health and well-being could not be ignored.

As my coauthors and I shared in an American Academy of Pediatrics policy statement:

The impact of racism has been linked to birth disparities and mental health problems in children and adolescents. The biological mechanism that emerges from chronic stress leads to increased and prolonged levels of exposure to stress hormones and oxidative stress at the cellular level. Prolonged exposure to stress hormones, such as cortisol, leads to inflammatory reactions that predispose individuals to chronic disease.

In short, research has found that racism harms children’s physical health, as well as their mental health. As health providers, we cannot avoid discussions of race and racism. When we identify a risk factor for a disease, our job as health providers is to educate our patients about how to prevent or decrease their exposure to the risk, like talking to new parents about sleep-related infant deaths.

Race and racism is another risk factor that we should discuss with our patients in our role to Strengthen their health and well-being. These discussions play a crucial part in combating the harmful effects of racism and providing families with the support that they need.

How children learn about race

Children learn about race and racial bias early. As early as six months of age, children notice differences in skin color. As children get older, they learn about race based on what they see and hear from their loved ones and the world they live in. They see that people are treated differently based on characteristics such as skin color, hair texture, hair color, language, gender, and ability. They often have questions about why they look different from other friends or why their friends look different. Children can develop biases based on these experiences.

Children can also experience the effects of racism individually and through the places they learn, live, play, and grow. Children experience the effects of racism through individual acts of discrimination or bias; as bystanders watching others experience racism; and additionally through unequal access and distribution of resources, limited economic opportunity, and unequal enforcement of rights.

Trusted adults in children’s lives, such as parents, caregivers, educators, and health providers, can help children understand their racial and ethnic identity and learn about others. Starting conversations early about race is essential to help children understand differences, get answers to their questions, deal with racial bias, and stand up to racial bias and discrimination. It also normalizes these conversations. 

It is important to include white families and their children in conversations about race, too. Unfortunately, white children are frequently excluded from discussion about race. White children, like children of color, are part of the racial and ethnic diversity spectrum and experience the impacts of racial bias and discrimination.

Talking with families about race

Having conversations about race and racism can be uncomfortable. The strategies below provide ways that health providers can begin to engage with families about the courses of race and racism. By fostering open dialogue, we can empower families to address these sensitive courses and work toward building a more just and equitable society for all children.

Create a culturally safe, supportive, and welcoming environment for patients and their families. This is essential when addressing the Topic of race and racism with families. Here are some ways to do this from our American Academy of Pediatrics policy statement:

Listen and validate experiences. Racism affects individuals differently, and children may have encountered instances of mistreatment or witnessed racism firsthand. Ask families if they want to engage in conversations about race and racism; if a family declines, let them know that you respect their decision and that you are available for future conversations.

For families who want to engage in conversations, encourage them to share their experiences, actively listen, and validate their feelings. By doing so, health professionals demonstrate empathy and provide a platform for families to express themselves. This validation also helps families recognize that their experiences are real and important. I experienced this firsthand when a parent asked for recommendations for mental health providers that reflected their family’s racial background. The family appreciated being heard and receiving information that was best for them.

Educate yourself about race and racism, and share resources. To effectively address race-related issues, health professionals must continually educate themselves about racial disparities, historical contexts, and the impact of racism on health. See the sidebar for examples of educational resources for providers and families, including books, websites, and articles, that provide additional information about the courses of race and racism.

For me, one discussion about race occurred during a well visit with a family of color. After discussing sun safety, the mom asked me if I could recommend a sunscreen that wouldn’t leave a white cast on darker skin. This encounter made me examine how I talked to families and provided guidance on sun safety. During and after this encounter, I researched sunscreen brands for darker skin tones and developed a resource list that I could share with families and colleagues. This discussion matters because skin cancer is preventable and research finds that patients of color are less likely to be counseled about sunscreen use and doctors are less likely to discuss skin type in making recommendations.

Support families in talking to their children about race and racism. Encourage families to engage in critical thinking and reflection by discussing racial stereotypes, biases, and the importance of challenging them. Help them explore ways to foster empathy and understanding toward individuals from diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds. Encourage families to actively seek out opportunities for their children to learn about different cultures, traditions, and histories, such as taking a trip to a cultural museum.

To help with this, you can share resources with families to empower them with knowledge and equip them to have informed conversations with their children. Books, articles, documentaries, and websites can serve as valuable tools in initiating discussions and promoting racial literacy.

Engaging in conversations about race helps children develop empathy, challenge stereotypes, and embrace diversity.

Empower families to take action. Guide families in identifying ways they can actively contribute to dismantling racism and promoting racial equity. Encourage them to engage in advocacy, both at the individual and community levels. Families can participate in community events, join organizations working toward racial justice, and support policies that promote equality.

Emphasize the importance of modeling anti-racist behavior within the family and creating a nurturing environment that fosters inclusivity and respect. In addition, as health professionals, we can help empower families through our own engagement in advocacy for more equitable and just policies and practices that will lead to better health for our families.

Addressing the Topic of race and racism with families is vital for promoting children’s health and well-being. The strategies provided are meant to help health professionals so that they can offer families the tools and knowledge to engage in meaningful conversations about race. As health professionals, we have a unique opportunity to make a positive impact by fostering open dialogue, fostering racial understanding, and working toward a more equitable future for all children.

This essay was adapted from Reflections on Children’s Racial Learning 2023, published by EmbraceRace, an organization that aims to help parents and educators raise a generation that is thoughtful, brave, and informed about race.

Tue, 01 Aug 2023 02:32:00 -0500 en text/html https://greatergood.berkeley.edu/article/item/how_health_professionals_can_talk_with_families_about_race Killexams : Medical forms are littered with jargon that nobody understands. Can ChatGPT help? No result found, try new keyword!Doctors at Brown University and Mass. General are using artificial intelligence to create simplified versions of complicated medical consent forms. Wed, 23 Aug 2023 05:15:39 -0500 en-us text/html https://www.msn.com/ Killexams : Ritual Protein Powder Review

While getting your protein from food sources may be preferable for experts, I will admit that I don’t like a lot of the typical protein sources, such as eggs. I also don’t eat red meat and can’t digest nuts or legumes well, which makes a good protein supplement a regular part of my diet.

I was excited to receive my shipment of Ritual’s Essential Protein Daily Shake 18+. I’m always looking for high-quality protein supplements, as I’m very active.

It took about a week for my first order to arrive. When I opened the box, I enjoyed the bright yellow packaging and inscription “Build a habit—Turn it into a Ritual.” The protein itself comes in a BPA-free resealable pouch, though once opened , I could never get the resealable zipper to work again, so I clipped it shut.

I’ve used a lot of protein powders and found Ritual’s to have a lightweight consistency and no odor. The directions suggested that, for best results, users shake or blend the powder rather than stir. For my first try, I decided to pop it in my blender with only water to taste the flavor on its own. I didn’t find the powder to have any particular taste, which I found to be a bit boring. However, for some, a lack of flavor might be a positive and welcomed benefit.

Next, I mixed the powder with frozen strawberries and bananas. Adding the fruit helped add more flavor, but the taste was still not sweet. Then again, Ritual’s protein powders are sugar-free, meaning you’ll need to add sweetener yourself. In my case, I chose to add honey, which helped.

I liked that the protein powder had a smooth texture when mixed, and left no residue in the bottom of my glass. Since the powder didn’t settle at the bottom, I didn’t have to worry about drinking my shake quickly to make sure I got all the protein. Instead, it stayed blended to the last drop.

I checked the Informed Sport web page against my product, and my batch number was recorded. It actually felt reaffirming to see my number listed along with the 11 other batches of the product that showed up. It feels like that level of transparency is rare with anything these days.

There are only 15 servings in a 1-lb. bag of Ritual’s Essential Protein Daily Shake 18+. For a product that’s marketed as a “daily shake,” I found this serving size to be inadequate. For example, this means a person with a monthly subscription can only have one shake every other day before they run out, if they’re looking to make their product last one month.

It would therefore seem that a “monthly subscription” should be a 2-lb. bag with enough servings for one scoop of powder for every day in a typical month of 30 days. However, that would obviously drive the price up ($80-$88 a month is a hefty amount and would probably not be competitive). The $40-$44 a bag already felt like a good chunk of change when looking at other similar protein supplements on the market (that comes to about $2.70 a serving, which seems comparatively expensive).

Basically, you’re paying extra for quality and transparency.

Wed, 16 Aug 2023 21:04:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://www.forbes.com/health/body/ritual-protein-powder-review/
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