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Exam Code: EPPP Practice test 2022 by Killexams.com team
EPPP Examination for Professional Practice of Psychology

The Examination for Professional Practice in Psychology (EPPP) is developed and owned by the Association of State and Provincial Psychology Boards (ASPPB). The EPPP is provided to state and provincial boards of psychology to assist them in their evaluation of the qualifications of applicants for licensure and certification. This standardized knowledge-based examination is constructed by ASPPB with the assistance of its test vendor, Pearson VUE. The EPPP is continuously administered in a computerized delivery format through the Pearson VUE network of computer testing centers. State and provincial psychology boards acting collectively through ASPPB provide support for the testing format. Pearson VUE maintains a network of more than 275 Pearson Professional Centers (PPCs) in the United States and Canada in order to provide access to computer-based testing (CBT) for candidates.
The resources of individual psychologists, ASPPB and its test vendor are used in the ongoing development of and improvements to the EPPP. These combined resources are greater than those available to any individual psychology licensing. The EPPP is only one part of the evaluation procedures used by state and provincial boards to determine candidates readiness to practice the profession of psychology. Most boards supplement the EPPP with other requirements and/or assessment procedures. The EPPP is intended to evaluate the knowledge that the most exact practice analysis has determined as foundational to the competent practice of psychology. Most candidates taking the EPPP have obtained a doctoral degree in psychology, a year of predoctoral supervised experience and appropriate postdoctoral experience. Candidates are expected to have acquired a broad basic knowledge of psychology, regardless of individual areas of concentration. This knowledge, and the candidates ability to apply it, are assessed through the candidates responses to objective, multiple-choice questions that are representative of the field at large. The average pass-rate for doctoral level candidates who are taking the test for the first time exceeds 80% in the most exact demo years.

Regardless of the jurisdiction, in order to sit for the EPPP, individuals seeking licensure must first apply for licensure to the licensing authority in the state, province or territory in which they wish to be licensed. The licensing authority reviews applicants credentials and determines if they meet the requirements established in the laws of the state, province or territory.

Candidates who meet their licensing authorities requirements will be pre-approved by the board to take the EPPP. The board will enter the candidates identifying information into an online EPPP registration system that will enable the candidate to logon and verify her/his account, and that gives access to the application materials. Candidates will be sent two consecutive emails, the 1st advising them that their licensing authority has uploaded their information into the system, and the 2nd with information for them to verify their account and begin the registration process.  Candidates will not be able to log into the registration system until their licensing authority has uploaded their information. Candidates must contact their board to advise that they are ready to test and need to be uploaded to the EPPP registration system.

Candidates may test at any authorized Pearson VUE center that administers the EPPP, regardless of the jurisdiction where they are applying for licensure. Candidates must arrive 30 minutes prior to their scheduled appointment. Please Note: Candidates must have a currently valid, government-issued photo ID (e.g., passport, drivers license, etc.), as well as another piece of identification imprinted with their name and containing a signature or exact photo (e.g., credit card, CPR card, etc.). The first and last name on both forms of ID must match the name on the Authorization to Test email.

Prior to taking the EPPP, candidates will be asked to read and acknowledge their review of the Candidate Acknowledgment Statement. Please note that the Candidate Acknowledgement Statement contains important rules for taking the EPPP and should be read in its entirety before acknowledging that it has been read.
The EPPP is administered under standardized conditions in accordance with procedures established by Pearson VUE for all their testing centers. • Candidates taking the EPPP are allowed: o 5 minutes to agree to the terms of the Candidate Acknowledgement Statement (If you do not agree to the terms within the 5- minute timeframe, the test will be canceled and cannot be reset), o 5 minutes for completion of the tutorial, o 4 hours and 15 minutes for completion of the EPPP and 5 minutes at the end of the test allotted to complete a brief survey. • Candidates with documented disabilities or impairments, who wish to be tested under nonstandard conditions, please see the section regarding “Special Accommodations” on page 7. There are no scheduled breaks during the Exam. Candidates may take breaks whenever they wish; however, the clock on the time allotted for the Exam will continue to run.

Pearson Professional Centers are built to standard specifications and vary primarily on the basis of size. Private modular workstations provide ample workspace, comfortable seating, and proper lighting. Proctors monitor the testing process through an observation window and from within the testing room. Parabolic mirrors mounted on the walls assist proctors in observing the testing process. All testing sessions are videotaped and audio-monitored, and a digitized image of all candidates taking the EPPP will be retained. Computer knowledge is not required to take a computerized examination. Before the examination begins, a basic introductory lesson (tutorial) is presented that explains the process of selecting answers and moving from question to question. Candidates have 5 minutes to complete the tutorial, and are strongly encouraged to review it carefully.

Candidates may select their answers using either the keyboard or the mouse. During the tutorial, candidates will learn how they can skip forward or backward through the EPPP to review questions. Candidates should be sure they understand how to review questions when they take the tutorial. The testing software contains a feature that allows candidates to flag questions they might wish to review later, if time permits. Any question can be flagged, regardless of whether it has been left blank or answered, and will be scored even if it is still marked upon completion of the Exam.
Candidates are encouraged to take notes during the tutorial on whiteboards that can be supplied by the testing center upon request. They are not automatically supplied. Testing center staff will collect whiteboards at the completion of the Examination. Candidates are not allowed to bring their own scratch paper or writing instruments into the testing room. Please Note: There might be some distractions in the testing situation because: • Other candidates may be taking exams that require narrative responses, and there may be keyboard noise.
• Proctors will be entering the testing room on a regular basis to observe activity and to seat other candidates or answer inquiries. • Other minor distractions might include ambient noise from outside the testing room. If a candidate is concerned that these kinds of distractions will affect test performance, he or she may request earplugs and/or noise cancelling headphones after arriving at the testing center. This does not require pre-approval. Candidates are not allowed to bring their own earplugs into the testing room.
The total number of correct responses determines a candidates score. Therefore, it is to the candidates advantage to answer every item, even when uncertain of the correct response. The candidate should choose the single best answer to each item.

Examination for Professional Practice of Psychology
Medical Professional test Questions
Killexams : Medical Professional test Questions - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/EPPP Search results Killexams : Medical Professional test Questions - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/EPPP https://killexams.com/exam_list/Medical Killexams : 6 Steps For Medical Professionals Who Want To Start Their Own Practice

Dr. Rahi Sarbaziha practices Integrative Aesthetics in Beverly Hills and NYC.

One of the most daunting tasks I have ever completed was attending medical school, and the next was starting my own private medical practice. I always knew that I wanted to be a physician, but starting my own practice was a dream that developed over years of working as a resident physician and then as an attending physician in hospital systems. During that time, I realized that the best path to help my patients Improve their health and wellness was to start my own practice. I had no clue how I was going to start, but I knew that as soon as I had the right opportunity to leave the traditional hospital system and start my own journey as a private practitioner, I would.

I started my private practice alone with no business background. I had only the vision of being able to bring integrative aesthetics to my patients and community. This drastic shift in my career did not come easily—there were many ups and downs along the way. But I've learned a lot about starting a medical practice from scratch, and I want to share my knowledge with others who may be thinking about following the same path. Since starting out in a tiny shared office in Santa Monica, California, in 2017, I now have two successful practices in Beverly Hills and New York City with patients and clients who travel widely for their appointments.

Here are six steps to take to shift from working in a more traditional hospital system or medical group to creating the private practice of your dreams.

Choose your practice area.

Determine what practice area you want to specialize in by answering these questions: What makes you happiest? What are you best at treating? And what kind of patients do you want to see?

Find the right location.

When opening your own practice, location really matters. You may want to consider starting in a shared space with other medical professionals who are on the same path as you to make sure this is what you want. You can consult with real estate professionals to see whether they know of any spaces or other doctors who may be leasing an office or room so you can test it out. After doing this for about five months to a year, you should know whether you want to fully pursue this path. If you decide this is not the path for you, you can always go work for a bigger medical group.

Network.

Networking helps you broaden your exposure as well as leverage your diverse expertise and acumen. Be sure to set the right tone and initiate conversations so you can use them as learning opportunities. Take an interest in what your peers do, and try to understand more about what they do. Show genuine interest and connect for no reason at all—ask to meet for a coffee, something light, easy and quick. You may have a project or a roadblock with something that they may be able to offer advice on. This is also a good way to build relationships. Identify opportunities where you and your peers can collaborate or solve a problem together. Lastly, it is also nice to acknowledge their accomplishments and show your appreciation for their success.

Develop marketing skills (or hire someone who has them).

Marketing is key for getting your name, practice and brand out into your community. I love using social media for my practice as it is fun, and I can access a large audience relatively inexpensively. Having a strong social media presence on multiple platforms can help your success. Start frequently posting on social media and create engaging and educational content. Video is key now, so do not be afraid to put yourself out there. There are many courses and companies online to help you with growing your business through social media.

Protect yourself.

All businesses and especially private medical practices, need various forms of insurance for protection. The most basic is malpractice insurance. Each state has its own form of malpractice insurance. Using an insurance broker is helpful when choosing the right plans to protect you and your practice.

Brand yourself.

You are your brand, so be the image of what you practice. Put your health first so your patients can see that. Do not be afraid to put yourself out there on social media, through networking and more.

These are the most basic steps to take to start creating your own practice. Of course, there were be more based on your particular situation, but the above will help you create a strong foundation for your private practice.


Forbes Business Council is the foremost growth and networking organization for business owners and leaders. Do I qualify?


Tue, 09 Aug 2022 02:00:00 -0500 Rahi Sarbaziha en text/html https://www.forbes.com/sites/forbesbusinesscouncil/2022/08/09/6-steps-for-medical-professionals-who-want-to-start-their-own-practice/
Killexams : Texas mom Christina Powell: Longtime medical examiners weigh in as questions swirl about woman's death

NEWYou can now listen to Fox News articles!

Some of the most prominent medical professionals in the field of pathology are weighing in about the investigation related to the death of Texas mom Christina Lee Powell, who was found dead in her car more than two weeks after she was seen rushing out of her San Antonio home. 

Powell, a 39-year-old mom of two boys, was discovered dead on the evening of July 23, in the front passenger seat of her Nissan SUV. Investigators have said so far that they believe her car had been parked there at least a week. 

The Bexar County Medical Examiner’s Office told Fox News Digital on Monday that the cause and manner of Powell’s death remain "pending" as the office awaits the results of further tests. Meanwhile, the San Antonio Police Department could not confirm an Inside Edition report that claims Powell died from an "apparent suicide" after driving straight from her home on July 5 to the parking lot where she was discovered nearly three weeks later. 

Speaking to Fox News Digital on Monday, longtime forensic pathologist Dr. Cyril Wecht said the additional studies likely consist of a toxicology examination, and microscopic testing to check for any disorders. 

TEXAS MOM CHRISTINA LEE POWELL'S AUTOPSY CONDUCTED MONDAY, IS 'PENDING' FURTHER STUDIES: ME'S OFFICE

Undated photos provided by police and loved ones show Christina "Chrissy" Lee Powell, who was last seen on July 5, 2022. (San Antonio Police Department; Courtesy Lauren Leal)

"They’re waiting for toxicology, that’s most important – most important," said Wecht, who has been involved in some of the country’s most high-profile death investigations, including those involving President John F. Kennedy and JonBenét Ramsey. "They’ll also look at tissues microscopically – make sure there’s no evidence of inflammation of the heart or lungs or something like that." 

Dr. Michael Baden, a Fox News contributor and former New York City chief medical examiner, said that, simply put, the need for additional testing means the cause and manner were not immediately obvious.

TEXAS MISSING MOM CHRISTINA LEE POWELL'S BODY FOUND IN PASSENGER SEAT OF CAR IN MALL PARKING LOT

"Mostly, it may mean there are no external marks on the body. If there were a bullet wound, strangulation, for example – trauma – or if in the autopsy they found cancer or heart disease as a cause of death, that would have been released right away," said Baden, who has conducted more than 20,000 autopsies in his five-plus decades as a forensic pathologist. 

"And if the autopsy itself doesn’t reveal the cause of death, then the most likely tests that will be significant would be toxicology, with the idea being… what of the history? If she’s depressed, for example, they might be thinking of, barbiturates, drugs, lethal drugs."

Powell vanished without a trace on the morning of July 5, after she was last seen hurrying out the front door of the San Antonio home she shared with her mother and her oldest son. On the morning of her disappearance, she told her mom she was running late for work.

She was then captured on doorbell camera footage leaving the house around 10:35 a.m. but was never seen again. Powell left behind her cell phone — which had been placed on the bathroom counter — medication and possibly also her Apple Watch when she left. 

She drove off in her Nissan SUV, but never made it the seven miles, or 15 minutes, to her office. 

Claudia Mobley reported her daughter missing the next day. She later told Fox News Digital that her daughter had left home once before, but returned in under a week and Mobley never reported the incident to police.  

Screengrab from doorbell camera footage shows Christina "Chrissy" Powell leaving her San Antonio home on July 5, 2022 (Courtesy Lauren Leal)

Then, the San Antonio Police Department received a call around 6:45 p.m. on July 23, for a report of "an injured sick person" at the Huebner Oaks Center in San Antonio. 

Officers arrived and spoke to a security guard who told them that he was driving through the lot and spotted the 2020 Nissan Rogue, which was later determined to belong to Powell, "that had been parked in the same location for about a week," the San Antonio Police Department said. 

MISSING TEXAS MOM CHRISTINA POWELL: WHAT WE KNOW ABOUT THE SAN ANTONIO PARALEGAL MISSING OVER A WEEK

He "reported a foul odor coming from the vehicle," and looked inside to find the body in the front, passenger seat, police said. 

The windows of the SUV were closed, a law enforcement source told Fox News Digital.

"It had been days," the source added.

There were no obvious signs of trauma to Powell’s body and her purse, which contained identifying information, was also inside. It was not immediately clear if any medication or writings were recovered at the scene. 

CLICK HERE TO GET THE FOX NEWS APP

Wecht noted to Fox News Digital that even when pathologists know what caused Powell's death, they will still need to take it a step further to determine whether it was intentional, accidental, natural or inconclusive. 

He added that the levels of any chemicals found in her system could better explain whether the death was accidental. Hypothetically speaking, he said, evidence of a high volume of medication or alcohol in Powell's system would indicate a more specific intention. 

The mall complex is located approximately four miles away – a 10-minute drive – from her Red Hill Place home. Temperatures in San Antonio reached the 90s, if not higher, during the approximate time Powell’s vehicle was believed to have been parked in the lot.  

If you or someone you know is experiencing suicidal thoughts or a mental health crisis, please contact the Suicide & Crisis Lifeline at 988.

Mon, 01 Aug 2022 08:53:00 -0500 Fox News en text/html https://www.foxnews.com/us/texas-mom-christina-powell-longtime-medical-examiners-weigh-questions-swirl-womans-death
Killexams : Back-to School Health - Creating a medical checklist for students No result found, try new keyword!And while parents have checked off items on their child’s school supply list and shopped for clothes, there could be one more important thing they missed. Health experts recommend adding medical ... Wed, 03 Aug 2022 00:00:00 -0500 en-us text/html https://www.msn.com/en-us/health/wellness/back-to-school-health-creating-a-medical-checklist-for-students/ar-AA10ghR5 Killexams : Your FAQs Answered: Which COVID-19 Test Should You Get?

If you’re wondering about the differences between all of the COVID-19 tests, you’re not alone.

As cases of the COVID-19 Omicron subvariant BA.5 continue to increase across the United States, many people who have either been exposed or have symptoms of the SARS-CoV-2 virus are taking tests to see whether they are positive.

Several testing options are available, including at-home rapid antigen tests, RT-PCRs, and antibody tests.

But knowing which COVID-19 test to take and when to take it can be confusing.

We’ve partnered with Cue Health, a healthcare company that makes lab-quality, portable diagnostic tests for at-home and professional use, to answer some of the most frequently asked questions about COVID-19 testing.

There are three Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved COVID-19 tests in the United States:

  • rapid antigen tests, such as at-home tests
  • molecular tests, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests
  • antibody or serology tests

Rapid antigen and molecular are diagnostic tests that indicate whether you have a SARS-CoV-2 infection. You can take these tests at home, in your doctor’s office, at a testing site, or laboratory using a nasal swab or saliva sample.

Cue Health’s portable testing system offers a PCR-quality COVID-19 test for at-home and on-the-go use and provides results in 20 minutes. The molecular self-testing device offers accurate COVID-19 testing. Customers also get access to 24/7 virtual care with the Cue+™ membership.

According to a May 2021 review, at least one-third of all COVID-19 cases are asymptomatic, with almost 75% of people with a positive PCR test remaining asymptomatic for the duration of the illness.

So, even if you’re not showing symptoms, diagnostic tests are recommended when you’ve been exposed to SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. This is especially true for people who’ve come into close contact with a confirmed case.

An antibody or serology test is a blood test that checks whether you’ve been exposed to or have developed immunity to COVID-19. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends serology tests approximately 1 to 3 weeks after a suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Molecular and antigen tests are the main diagnostic tests that check for a SARS-CoV-2 infection. While both tests can detect active SARS-CoV-2 infections, they work differently.

Molecular tests such as PCR tests are often performed in a clinical or laboratory setting using nasal or throat swabs, or saliva samples. It generally takes about a day to get back the results of a PCR test.

PCR tests can be more accurate than antigen tests because they can detect much smaller amounts of COVID-19 genetic material in your sample. A positive test result indicates the presence of the virus.

Antigen or rapid tests work by detecting specific proteins on the surface of the COVID-19 virus.

While antigen tests are an option at most laboratories or community-based testing sites, they’re also available as at-home kits. These nasal swab kits can provide rapid results in about 15 to 30 minutes.

An antibody test checks for the presence of antibodies in your blood. Antibodies indicate an immune response to a SARS-CoV-2 infection. Antibody tests can’t detect active SARS-CoV-2 infections. But they’re helpful if you have:

  • been exposed to someone with COVID-19 in the past 14 days
  • had an asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection
  • had COVID-19 symptoms but were unable to take a PCR test

They can also detect whether you’ve had a previous infection.

While at-home tests like the rapid antigen test are quick and convenient, they’re not always the most accurate.

When taking a rapid COVID-19 test, timing is important.

The CDC recommends testing when you experience COVID-19 symptoms or if you’re asymptomatic 5 days after exposure. The 5-day timing allows your body to develop a viral load that’s high enough to be detected by the rapid antigen tests.

In April, a study published in JAMA found that symptomatic individuals with an initial negative at-home test tested positive 1 to 2 days later when their viral load increased.

It’s important to note the high incidence of false-negative results with antigen tests. You can have an active SARS-CoV-2 infection but have a negative antigen test because your body has a low viral load.

This is why experts often recommend following up on any negative at-home tests with a PCR test.

A PCR test can be more accurate because it can detect the virus at much lower levels in your system than a rapid antigen COVID-19 test.

But you can receive a false negative test if you take a PCR test too early, like right after exposure. So, while you may have an active SARS-CoV-2 infection, there may not be enough viral genetic material in your demo for the PCR to detect.

Though PCR tests are suitable for detecting active SARS-CoV-2 infections, you should not use them to determine the end of your quarantine period.

Most people are no longer contagious 10 days after the onset of symptoms or a positive test. But because the tests can pick up tiny fragments of the virus, some people may be positive for weeks or more after they’ve recovered and are no longer contagious.

An antibody test can help determine whether you’ve had COVID-19 by measuring IgM, IgG, and IgA blood levels. The presence of these antibodies indicates that you’ve:

  • been exposed to a SARS-CoV-2 infection
  • built up immunity against the COVID-19 virus

While antibody tests can determine whether you’ve had past exposure to the virus, they can’t detect active SARS-CoV-2 infections.

If you’ve completed the CDC’s recommended guidelines for quarantine, an antigen test is more accurate in helping you determine whether to end or continue your isolation.

Also, newer testing methods are emerging, making it possible to get PCR-quality test results at home.

If you suspect you’ve been exposed to COVID-19 or are experiencing symptoms of illness, talk with a doctor right away.

In addition to providing advice on monitoring and evaluating your symptoms, a doctor can help determine which COVID-19 test is right for you.

While no testing method is entirely accurate, knowing the differences between the types of COVID-19 tests can help you choose the best for your situation.

Antigen tests like the rapid at-home tests are convenient, affordable options for at-home testing.

Though molecular or PCR tests take time to process, they’re highly sensitive and are more accurate at detecting an active SARS-CoV-2 infection.

If you suspect you’ve been exposed to COVID-19 and can’t take an antigen or PCR test, an antibody test can help determine whether you’ve had a past infection.

Regular testing is one of the key ways to stop the spread of COVID-19. To find COVID-19 testing near you, visit your state’s health department website or the Department of Health and Human Services to find a comprehensive list of community-based testing sites.

Thu, 07 Jul 2022 02:52:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.healthline.com/health/which-covid-19-test-should-you-get-faqs
Killexams : Medical gaslighting, what is it? What’s the best way to respond to it? No result found, try new keyword!Though gaslighting is commonly viewed as a hallmark of domestic abuse, it can also creep into professional settings, including the medical community. Tue, 02 Aug 2022 06:30:34 -0500 en-us text/html https://www.msn.com/en-us/health/wellness/medical-gaslighting-what-is-it-whats-the-best-way-to-respond-to-it/ar-AA10eFHX Killexams : Vet's 'calendar test' tells owners when it's the right time to put your pet down

Experts at Ohio State University Veterinary Medical Centre, in Columbus, America, have shared 10 questions owners should ask themselves when considering euthanasia for their beloved pet

Losing a pet is a heartbreaking ordeal

Nobody wants to see their close ones in pain - and this goes for animals too.

A vet has shared a 'calendar test' owners can use to determine whether it's the right time to say goodbye to their pet.

Although it may feel 'cruel' to have them put to sleep, it's almost always in their best interest and saves them from living their final days in pain.

Vets at the Ohio State University Veterinary Medical Centre, in Columbus, America, have come up with 10 questions owners should ask themselves as part of their pet's end-of-like treatment.

A statement reads: "Deciding to euthanise your companion animal may be one of the most difficult decisions you ever make.

"Often, well-loved pets are euthanised to minimise unnecessary suffering. The quality of animals’ lives is defined by their overall physical and mental well-being, not just one aspect of their lives."

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Euthanised can minimise an animal's unnecessary suffering (

Image:

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Are they living in pain?

Can they no longer urinate and/or defecate?

Have they started to experience seizures?

Have they become uncontrollably violent or are unsafe to others?

Have they stopped eating?

Are they no longer acting normally?

Do they have a condition that will only worsen with time?

Do you have financial limitations that prohibit treatment?

Has palliative (hospice) care been exhausted or is it not an option?

Has the veterinary team recommended euthanasia?

For owners who know it's time, but do not want to say goodbye to their beloved pet, the team at Ohio State University suggest speaking to your vet to hear their professional opinion.

"Remember how your pet looked and behaved prior to the illness. Sometimes changes are gradual, and therefore hard to recognise. Look at photos or videos of your pet from before the illness," the statement adds.

"Write a concrete list of three to five things your pet likes to do. When your pet is no longer able to enjoy these things, it may be time to discuss euthanasia.

"Mark good and bad days on a calendar. (Some may choose to distinguish morning from evening). This could be as simple as a happy or sad face for good or bad. If the bad days start to outweigh the good, it may be time to discuss euthanasia.

"While your veterinarian cannot make the decision for you, it is helpful for him/her to know that you are considering euthanasia."

A Blue Cross statement reads: "If we have pets in our lives, sooner or later it’s likely we may have to make a decision and act in their best interests concerning the end of their life.

"Sadly, our pets have much shorter lives than us and when illness, injury, or old age affects their quality of life we may need to start thinking about letting them go, peacefully. It’s important to talk it through and be guided by your vet. It helps to plan and be prepared.

"Euthanasia offers a peaceful and painless end to our pet’s life. Sometimes people use the phrase “put to sleep“ or “put down”, but euthanasia is the proper term."

The Blue Cross has a Pet Bereavement Support Service that offers emotional support and information for all ages, with their confidential telephone and email support line service is open everyday from 8.30am to 8.30pm. To contact them, call 0800 096 6606 or email pbssmail@bluecross.org.uk.

Do you have a dog story to share? Email paige.freshwater@reachplc.com.

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Mon, 01 Aug 2022 00:20:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.mirror.co.uk/news/weird-news/vets-calendar-test-tells-owners-27628701
Killexams : Editorial: 'Who the f— is Greg?' and other questions for Texas doctors weighing abortions

Somewhere in Texas, a pregnant woman sits on the test table inside a doctor’s office, walls dressed with illustrations of a fetus, reproductive organs and other charts. She is anxious, twisting her wedding band as her thinking husband stands conversationless beside her. When the doctor arrives, it isn’t good news. “Your baby has a catastrophic brain abnormality,” he tells them, explaining that even if the fetus survived to delivery it would live for only a matter of hours, which would be marked by seizures, suffering and eventual death.

“I wish I could tell you what to do,” he says, “but there’s only one person who can make this choice.”

The woman wipes away tears, steeling herself.

“And that person is Greg,” the doctor says.

“Who the f—is Greg?” her husband asks.

Cut to the smiling portrait of the Texas governor and the magic red phone with a direct line to his office that the doctor uses to explain the situation. After some “sures” and “OKs,” the doctor hangs up. “That’s gonna be a no,” the doctor says. “Best of luck to you,” he adds as the door slams behind him.

Are we laughing or crying? A little bit of both.

The ad put out by the newly formed Mothers Against Greg Abbott political action group circulated on Twitter this week, garnering nearly 18,000 likes by Wednesday morning.

It’s satire, of course. But satire only resonates when it hits truth square in the eye.

Women and doctors have long faced excruciating decisions when pregnancy outcomes threatened the health of the mother. Up until recently however, these decisions had been, by and large, up to just those two people. Following the Supreme Court decision striking down the federal right to abortion, and triggering a wave of legislation criminalizing abortion in many states, doctors are having to parse legal text and weigh criminal penalties before offering potentially life-or-death care.

The woman waiting on the test table, meanwhile, risks fevers, infections, hemorrhages and worse while her doctor considers just how sick she must be, how long she must bleed, how close to death she must be before abortion becomes a legal option.

All of this was anticipated and not just by people fearful of what the overturning of Roe could bring. Here in Texas and elsewhere, we’ve been living in legal limbo for months.

A study at two Dallas-area hospitals found that for pregnant women who would have received the option of abortion in the past due to troubled pregnancies, they were now being forced into dangerous and likely traumatic situations. The risk for some sort of serious health complication nearly doubled among the women included in the study, likely as a result of the restrictive policies Texas had in place even before Roe was overturned. Without Roe, those policies promise to become even stricter.

And what about the “pro-life” goals of those policies? Did the study show that forcing such women to supply birth saved lives? No.

All but one of the 28 cases ended in fetal or infant loss. Of eight infants delivered with some cardiac activity, all but one died within 24 hours, according to the analysis in the American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. The women, meanwhile, suffered a range of negative conditions, including infections, hemorrhaging and other serious concerns in 43 percent of cases. Overall, 57 percent of the patients had some short- or long-term, pregnancy-related health condition compared with just 33 percent of women in similar circumstances who received care in states without the same restrictions and penalties on abortions Texas imposed through Senate Bills 8 and 4.

Though the study was small, its findings were echoed among other researchers.

“People have to be on death’s door to qualify for maternal exemptions to SB8,” one practitioner explained in a recent analysis in the New England Journal of Medicine that interviewed both Texas health professionals and Texans with pregnancy complications.

The array of things that can go wrong in a pregnancy is dizzying, as any expectant parent who’s wandered into the “complicated pregnancy” chapter in their “What to Expect” book knows. It’s also incredibly complicated and technical, connected to a real person whose medical history is entirely unique. That’s why prenatal care — with a medically trained professional — is so important.

We’re not aware of any prenatal care recommendation that actually included a consultation with “Greg,” or any other politician. Yet, women and doctors are dealing with political overreach every day now in test rooms across the state and country.

As written, the Texas trigger law should still allow for abortion in emergency situations but what qualifies as serious enough when a doctor is also facing jail and fines? What about a miscarriage when there is still a faint fetal cardiac flutter for the moment but also increasingly serious potential risks to the woman as she waits? There is too much uncertainty in the language of the bills and the intent behind them.

And that’s to be expected. That’s why politicians have no business writing medical guides and dictating standards of care. But then again, confusion and second-guessing may have been exactly the point of such clumsily crafted laws.

The co-dean of the Rutgers Law School, Kim Mutcherson, whose works focuses on reproductive justice, told NPR that these legislators "want to make it as difficult as possible, and one of the ways that you do that is [by] creating a standard where people don't know with specificity whether what they're doing is right or wrong."

That seems to be the case in Texas where the state is suing the Biden administration over federal guidance that sought to reassure doctors that they had permission to perform abortions in emergency situations, including for ectopic pregnancies in which, because the fertilized egg doesn’t implant in the right place, the pregnancy is not viable and can quickly become life-threatening.

In the real world, there’s no red phone to call up the governor, or lawmakers, to confirm the legality of an abortion in a dire medical situation.

"You have to wait until somebody gets in trouble,” Mutcherson continued. “You have to wait until there's a case. You have to wait until somebody gets arrested. And then you start to understand, 'OK, this is what the parameters are.'” That will take time — time many women don’t have.

So, we ask the ‘pro-life’ champions out there, including those writing the laws binding doctors’ hands and women’s bodily autonomy: how much suffering is enough? How much bleeding out does a woman need to do before her life is worthy? How many women will have to deliver babies, hold them, just to watch them die? How many women will be forced into deadly outcomes that won’t allow them to even make it that far?

Doctors and women need to be the clear authorities on their own health, for emergency care and for miscarriage care. Not Greg. Legislation restricting and criminalizing abortion needs to at least make clear that medical professionals can and should use their own reasonable — and trained — judgment. Prosecutors need to make clear they respect that authority. It won’t restore women’s autonomy but such clarification and reassurance will supply their doctors more room to provide the care they were trained and licensed to give.

And yes, it may also save women’s lives, assuming that’s still a priority.

Thu, 28 Jul 2022 13:22:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://www.houstonchronicle.com/opinion/editorials/article/Editorial-Who-the-f-is-Greg-and-other-17336193.php
Killexams : 26 years waiting for 6 questions: My citizenship journey

Earlier this month, I wrote about my journey to this promised land and 26 years of waiting to reach the moment when I finally take my U.S. citizenship test.

Having been educated at an American university and being a multilingual journalist for 23 years, my knowledge of U.S. government and history was enough to be confident about acing the test. Still, I was a bit nervous -- a common feeling among immigrants interacting with U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services.

No matter who it is -- whether someone with a doctorate or an elderly immigrant who barely speaks English -- everyone gets nervous, said Nora Allen, the USCIS immigration services officer who conducted my citizenship interview and test last Thursday.

In the days leading up to the interview, I'd taken the practice exams and reviewed the 100 civics questions, of which any 10 could be asked on the test. You need to get six answers correct to pass.

It came down to six randomly chosen questions and an unusually kind and friendly immigration services officer who took care and interest in my coming to America story.

If you'd like to test your own civics knowledge, here are the questions I was asked:

• When is the last day you can send in federal income tax forms?

• Where is the Statue of Liberty?

• What is one power of the federal government?

• What is the supreme law of the land?

• If the president can no longer serve, who becomes president?

• Who was the first president of the United States?

Having passed the test, soon I will make a promise of my own to my chosen country when I take the oath of citizenship and pledge my allegiance.

Protecting Dreamers

Last week, the U.S. House approved language protecting "Documented Dreamers." It amends the Child Status Protection Act to protect dependent children of green card applicants and long-term dependent children of employment-based nonimmigrants from aging out of the legal immigration system.

Due to their lawful status in the United States until they turn 21, "Documented Dreamers" are excluded from the temporary deportation protections and work authorization afforded by the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals initiative, which requires a recipient to have "no lawful status on June 15, 2012."

                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

The amendment was based on legislation co-authored by U.S. Rep. Raja Krishnamoorthi of Schaumburg.

"Due to the green card backlog and bottlenecks in our immigration system, many dependent children of green card applicants and employment-based visa holders who have lived most of their lives in the United States are aging out of our legal immigration system as they turn 21," Krishnamoorthi said. "Our amendment would end that, protecting these young people from self-deportation so they can continue to learn, work, and contribute to the country they have known as home."

Immigrant resources

Latino leaders from Highland Park and Highwood will gather at 1 p.m. Monday at the Highland Park Public Library, 494 Laurel Ave., to discuss resources and services available to immigrant communities affected by the Fourth of July mass shooting in Highland Park.

The news conference is being held in partnership with the City of Highland Park, the Highland Park Public Library, the Highwood Public Library and Community Center and more than 12 groups serving area immigrant communities.

Eid fests

Thousands of Muslims gathered this weekend for the Islamic Circle of North America Chicago's three-day Eid Fest that culminated Sunday at the DuPage County Fairgrounds in Wheaton.

Suburban Muslims have two upcoming festivals to celebrate Eid al-Adha, which was observed on Saturday, July 9. It is one of two major Islamic holidays observed at the end of the annual pilgrimage of Hajj to Mecca, Saudi Arabia.

Masjid al Huda in Schaumburg and the Islamic Center of Naperville will each hold community Eid fests on July 23 and Aug. 7, respectively.

The Al Huda Eid Fest will run from 1 to 7 p.m. Saturday at the mosque, 1081 Irving Park Road in Schaumburg. Activities include a bouncy house, obstacle course, pony rides, rock climbing, games and food. Admission is free, but there are charges for rides and food. For more information, call (331) 245-7226.

The Islamic Center of Naperville Eid Fest will run from noon to 7 p.m. Aug. 7, at the Naperville Yard, 1607 Legacy Circle. It will include food, a bazaar, inflatables, face painting and other activities. Entry fee is $5 not including the cost of games and food. Admission is free for children under 2 years.

Round Lake resident Rocio Sanchez recently was named one of the 40 under 40 Emerging Nurse Leaders in Illinois by the Illinois Nurses Foundation. In April, Sanchez was named Advocate Condell Medical Center's 2021 Nurse of the Year.

Round Lake resident Rocio Sanchez recently was named one of the 40 under 40 Emerging Nurse Leaders in Illinois by the Illinois Nurses Foundation. In April, Sanchez was named Advocate Condell Medical Center's 2021 Nurse of the Year. - Courtesy of Advocate Condell Medical Center

Rocio Sanchez of Round Lake recently was named one of the 40 under 40 Emerging Nurse Leaders in Illinois by the Illinois Nurses Foundation.

Sanchez, a first-generation immigrant and first-generation college graduate, began working toward her nursing degree while in high school and has worked as a nurse for nearly six years.

In April, Sanchez was named Advocate Condell Medical Center's 2021 Nurse of the Year. She chairs the Libertyville hospital's Shared Governance Council and the Professional Development Committee, and serves as treasurer-elect of the Hispanic Nurses Association.

Sanchez participated on a medical mission trip to provide care to an underserved region of El Salvador before the COVID-19 pandemic. During the pandemic, she volunteered and trained to work in the emergency department and intensive care unit on Advocate Condell's critical care float team.

"I want to supply back in any way I can -- especially as relates to my Hispanic culture," Sanchez said.

Elgin-area older adults will have an opportunity to experience a "quinceañera," or "fiesta de quince años," a coming-of-age party traditionally celebrated by Latin American families when a girl turns 15 years old.

A quinceañera is a celebration of life, and a collective representation of love and support. The program will begin at 11:30 a.m. July 27, at Lugar, 205 Fulton St., Elgin. It will include music, entertainment and a fashion show. A bilingual program will be offered in the afternoon, with a special performance by Folkloric Dance Group Quetzali.

There will be a meet and greet with Illinois Department on Aging Director Paula Basta.

The event, sponsored by the Elgin Police Department and Senior Services Associates, is open to seniors of all cultures, and backgrounds.

Register by calling Senior Services Associates at (847) 741-0404.

July is Disability Pride Month and July 26 marks the 32nd anniversary of Americans With Disabilities Act, which prohibits discrimination against people with disabilities in employment, transportation, public accommodations, commercial facilities, telecommunications and state and local government services.

Then-President George H.W. Bush signed it into law in 1990.

Today, 40.8 million, or 12.7%, of the U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized population has a disability, according to the Census Bureau's American Community Survey from 2016-2020.

• Share stories, news and happenings from the suburban mosaic at mkrishnamurthy@dailyherald.com.

Sun, 17 Jul 2022 21:30:00 -0500 Madhu Krishnamurthy en-US text/html https://www.dailyherald.com/news/20220718/26-years-waiting-for-6-questions-my-citizenship-journey
Killexams : We Asked College Health Centers How They’ll Deal With Abortion Restrictions. They Aren’t Saying.

Ask a college health center how it’s planning to support students’ reproductive health this fall, and at most you’ll get a generic statement like this one, from the University of Oklahoma:

“Our top focus is supporting the needs, aspirations and well-being of our students. While the university must and will comply with all applicable laws, we remain unwavering in our commitment to serve our students to the fullest extent possible.”

Six weeks after the U.S. Supreme Court overturned Roe v. Wade, opening the door for states to ban abortion, and days before the start of the fall semester, most colleges in states with restrictive abortion laws aren’t making their plans public.

From mid- to late July, The Chronicle called and emailed 50 campus health centers in states with strict limits on abortion to ask whether the ruling is reshaping their policies on contraception, abortion, leaves of absence, and prenatal care. Just over a dozen institutions responded, most with vague statements from the public-relations office. One referred a reporter to a list of services on the campus website; another said the health center was awaiting direction from legal counsel and senior administration. Only three agreed to interviews.

Professional associations, which typically speak on behalf of their members, are treading carefully, too. A spokeswoman for the American College Health Association answered some questions by email but said the group’s president wasn’t available for an interview. The president of the National Association of College and University Attorneys, Ona Alston Dosunmu, said she’d “struck out” in her efforts to get general counsels to go on the record.

“Generally, folks don’t want to get out ahead of their presidents and administrations,” Alston Dosunmu said. “Most of them were like, ‘I’m not touching this with a 10-foot pole.’”

Colleges have reason to be cautious, according to Kimberley Harris, a visiting assistant professor at Texas Tech University School of Law. The legal landscape around abortion is still shifting, with some state bans on hold, and other states threatening to punish people who “aid and abet” an abortion, even if they don’t provide it themselves. This leaves college leaders unsure what they’ll be legally allowed to say and do come fall.

There’s no law preventing me from talking with a student about what her options are.

Publicizing their plans now would carry political risks, too, Harris said. Given how divisive the issue of abortion is, any change in an institution’s policy is sure to please some students and alumni and alienate others. An announcement could also anger state lawmakers, whom public colleges depend on for funding.

Still, some say the secrecy surrounding colleges’ plans to respond to the U.S. Supreme Court’s decision in Dobbs v. Jackson Women’s Health Organization, which ended the constitutional protection for abortion, is adding to the uncertainty and anxiety that many students are feeling right now.

“Not talking about it creates shame, it creates stigma, and it makes students feel unsafe to access these services,” said Cindy Cruz, western-states program director for URGE: Unite for Reproductive & Gender Equity, a youth-led nonprofit.

A Shrinking List of Options

Women between the ages of 20 and 29 account for about 57 percent of all abortions, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. But even before the fall of Roe, few colleges provided abortion on campus. In 2020, less than 3 percent offered medications to end a pregnancy, according to a survey by the American College Health Association.

The vast majority — 87 percent — of surveyed colleges said they referred students to off-campus clinics instead.

“We supply them a handout of resources and let them make their own choices,” said Pinkey Carter, a nurse administrator at South Carolina State University.

Now, with clinics closing across the country, that list of resources is likely to shrink. More than a dozen states now ban abortion from conception or six weeks’ gestation, many of them in the South or Southwest.

At the University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Chris S. Hayes, director of the office of student-health services, has been updating her list as she hears about closures. Before a state ban on abortions took effect, the closest clinic was in Baton Rouge, 45 minutes to an hour away. She’s not sure if it’s still open.

“There’s no law preventing me from talking with a student about what her options are,” Hayes said.

But in some states, there soon could be just such a law. In Texas, private citizens can already sue anyone who “aids or abets” an abortion in Texas, and anti-abortion groups are pushing for the passage of similar laws nationally. Even if they fail, most states have statutes that make it illegal to aid someone in committing a crime — which in several of them now includes abortion.

Under such laws, college employees in states with abortion bans could conceivably be sued for providing students with information about how to obtain abortion pills through the mail or offering them advice on traveling out of state. Colleges that offer emergency funds to students who need to travel for medical care could also be in legal jeopardy.

Though it’s unclear if such a lawsuit would be successful — particularly if the abortion occurred in a state that allows it — the threat of litigation has the potential to muzzle campus clinicians, Harris, of Texas Tech, said. In Texas, campus providers already have to wonder whether the “student” sitting across from them is a plant, out for the $10,000 citizen’s bounty they’ll get if their lawsuit succeeds, she said.

“This is going to shut down a lot of communication between people and their health-care providers,” she said. “If you have providers who are afraid to speak, it’s going to lead to worse health outcomes.”

And it’s not just the health-center staff that college administrators are thinking about, said Natasha J. Baker, a managing attorney at Novus Law Firm, who spoke on a panel on the Dobbs decision at the annual conference of the National Association of College and University Attorneys.

“I can envision a scenario where a well-meaning student-affairs staffer, or resident adviser, or coach is trying to help someone and engaging in what state law would consider aiding and abetting,” Baker said.

There’s also a risk to health-care providers, both on campus and off, who treat patients who arrive in the midst of an incomplete miscarriage or abortion. If they wait to extract the remaining embryo or fetus, the patient could go into septic shock. But if they act with urgency, they could be accused of violating state laws that allow abortion only in cases where the woman’s life is in danger.

As more students turn to medication abortions, this dilemma is going to come up more often, said Lucinda M. Finley, a professor at the University at Buffalo School of Law.

“The exceptions to save the lives of women are very vaguely written,” Finley said. “It puts doctors in the situation of not knowing how imminent the risk to life has to be.”

Closed-Door Conversations

When the Supreme Court struck down Roe in late June, weeks after Politico published a leaked draft opinion, a few college presidents issued statements decrying — or in some cases supporting — the decision.

But the vast majority of presidents stayed silent, unwilling to stick their necks out on such a controversial issue. Several told The Chronicle they were still weighing whether to comment.

In a statement issued the day of the ruling, the American College Health Association called the decision “deeply distressing,” warning that it would “directly endanger college health professionals’ ability to provide evidence-based, patient-centered care, and may place them in legal jeopardy.”

Asked a month later if the association’s members were making any changes in their policies around contraception, abortion, and medical leave as a result of the ruling, a spokeswoman said in an email that data doesn’t yet exist to answer that question. But she said the group had convened a task force to study the issue.

A handful of colleges, including Vanderbilt University and the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, have also announced the formation of task forces. Peter Lake, a professor at Stetson University College of Law, said he expects such panels to proliferate in the coming weeks, at both the campus and association level.

For now, though, most of these committees are keeping their work private. An exception is the University of Michigan, where a 50-member cross-campus task force has created scripts that nurses and clerical staff can use when students call to inquire about abortion access and is currently crafting multimodal methods of communicating with students about their options under current law. The task force includes a student representative and has held forums to solicit students’ views.

“I think what students really want is to be kept up to date,” said Susan Dwyer Ernst, chief of gynecology at the University Health Service.

That’s not easy in Michigan, one of several states with longstanding abortion prohibitions on the books that weren’t enforced during Roe’s reign. Though Republicans who control the state legislature say the nearly century-old law should now take effect, the state’s Democratic governor has sued to block it and was granted a preliminary injunction in May. Lawsuits arguing for both sides are wending their way through the courts, as Republicans work to unseat Gov. Gretchen Whitmer in November.

The university’s task force is preparing for all possible outcomes of the litigation, Ernst said. Anticipating an increase in medication abortions if the 1931 law is enforced, the university has already held a lecture for campus providers on the potential complications. If abortion remains legal, the university may prescribe the pills itself, to ensure students can continue to access services amid an influx of patients from neighboring states with abortion bans.

With bans in place in Ohio; Wisconsin; and, in September, Indiana, the university hospital in Michigan and a local Planned Parenthood clinic are seeing a surge in out-of-state patients, Ernst said.

“We’re looking into all our options and trying to decide what is right for our campus and our student population,” she said.

Though few colleges provide medication abortion now, it will become much more common next year, when a California state law requiring all public colleges to offer the pills takes effect. The Massachusetts legislature passed similar legislation last month, ensuring that all public-college students can obtain medication abortion through the college’s health services or outside resources.

Medication abortion consists of a two-drug regimen that can be safely taken in the first 70 days of pregnancy. The pills can be obtained through the mail or off-campus clinics, but the cost is often prohibitive, with studies in California and Massachusetts putting the average at more than $600.

In California, student insurance or student fees will cover most or all of the cost of the pills. In Massachusetts, students who aren’t on a college insurance plan or a private state plan (both of which cover abortion) can tap into a fund created by the law, the bill’s chief sponsor said.

Cruz, who is leading efforts to educate California students about the new law, said providing the pills on campus will remove the logistical barriers many students face in accessing medication abortion, and will free up space in local clinics for out-of-state patients.

A 2018 study found that close to two-thirds of California students have to travel at least 30 minutes on public transportation to reach the closest noncampus clinic. In Massachusetts, public-college students have to travel an average of 19 miles each way and spend close to three and a half hours on public transit, a 2021 study found.

Students in other states are pushing their colleges to follow California’s lead but so far, have seen little success.

More Discrimination Predicted

While college leaders wrestle with how to respond to the exact Supreme Court decision, students are making their wishes clear, through petitions calling on colleges to provide medication abortion, where it remains legal, and to stock vending machines with Plan B, which prevents pregnancy by delaying ovulation, stopping fertilization, or disrupting implantation of a fertilized egg (close to three-quarters of colleges already offer Plan B in the health center, according to the 2020 survey, but few make it so readily accessible).

“They’re moving from fear into action,” said Tali Ramo, manager of youth organizing for the Planned Parenthood Federation of America.

Students are also advocating for clearer and more standardized medical-leave policies. Under Title IX, the gender-equity law, colleges have long been required to provide accommodations to both pregnant students and students who have an abortion or miscarriage. This can include additional time to complete assignments, or an opportunity to make up a missed test. But implementation of the law has been inconsistent, with much discretion left to individual professors, according to Jessica Lee, director of the Pregnant Scholar Initiative.

“I’ve had students fail because they missed exams when they were at the hospital having a miscarriage,” Lee said.

On the other hand, she’s also represented pregnant students whose professors have asked them why they didn’t have an abortion. The question comes up so often that she included it in her training materials for colleges as an example of something faculty shouldn’t say to a pregnant student.

I’ve had students fail because they missed exams when they were at the hospital having a miscarriage.

As more students are forced to travel out of state for an abortion, or forgo one altogether, both types of pregnancy-related discrimination will become more common, Lee predicted.

Complicating matters, many students don’t want to disclose to their professors that they got an abortion, said Gretchen Ely, a professor of social work at the University of Tennessee at Knoxville who focuses on access to reproductive care. She said colleges should have accommodation policies in place that don’t force students to “spill their entire story.”

So far, the response from college administrations to students’ demands has been noncommittal, along the lines of ‘we hear you, thank you for your passion,” said Ramo, adding that activists won’t be dismissed.

Asked what students want most from their colleges, Ramo said clarity.

“There is a lot colleges can do to help students navigate the confusing array of abortion laws,” she said. “Students want clear, decisive action and commitment to their care.”

The question is, how many colleges are willing to supply them that?

Tue, 09 Aug 2022 07:01:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.chronicle.com/article/we-asked-college-health-centers-how-theyll-deal-with-abortion-restrictions-they-arent-saying
Killexams : Caste bias shadow on All India Institute of Medical Sciences exams

All India Institute of Medical Sciences

File picture

A parliamentary panel has found that caste bias at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences here leads to many Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe MBBS students to be failed repeatedly in their exams, with a rights activist describing the situation as “institutional apartheid”.

The committee on SC/ST welfare, headed by BJP member Kirit Premjibhai Solanki, has in a report on the implementation of the reservation policy at AIIMS, New Delhi, also alleged discrimination against Dalit and tribal candidates during faculty recruitment.

“The committee are given to understand that MBBS students from SC and ST community are declared failed a number of times in the MBBS course at first, second and/ or third stages of professional examination despite sincere efforts by them,” the committee report, presented in the Rajya Sabha on Thursday, says.

“It has been often seen that these students had invariably done very well in theory examinations but declared failed in the practical examinations. This clearly underlines the bias… towards SC/ST students.

“Further, the committee are made to understand that the examiners tend to ask the name of the students and try to judge/ know if a student belongs to SC/ST community. The committee, therefore, recommends that the ministry of health and family welfare should take stern action to check such unfair practice in future.”

The 30-member panel has recommended that AIIMS students be made to take their exams using a code number and not their names, and that the Centre put in place an examination-monitoring system.

It has added that the dean of examinations must scan every instance of a Dalit or tribal student failing an test and submit a comprehensive report to the director-general of health services for necessary action within a stipulated time.

The House panel often examines allegations relating to caste discrimination or the implementation of reservations at specific institutions. It then makes recommendations to the Centre, which is expected to later inform the panel about the actions taken or not taken, with the reasoning behind its decisions.

Gurinder Azad, a Dalit activist who has documented the discrimination faced by Dalit students on campuses, said there was “institutional apartheid” against these communities.

“Here, the fundamental question is what happens afterwards to punish such professors and examiners, and what measures are adopted to prevent such discrimination? I say nothing,” he said.

Azad said another committee had earlier investigated and found caste discrimination at AIIMS.

The Sukhadeo Thorat committee had in 2007 probed complaints that SC and ST students at AIIMS were not allowed to dine or play with others, and would be called to rooms and asked by their peers to supply 10 reasons why reservation should not be scrapped.

Thorat found enough evidence of caste bias and recommended the establishment of an “equal opportunity office” in all internal committees at AIIMS to deal with such complaints.

Manish Kumar, who along with 24 other Dalit and tribal MBBS students at the Vardhman Mahavir Medical College here had in 2010 approached the National Commission for Scheduled Castes (NCSC) with similar complaints, said the House panel’s recommendations should be implemented across the country.

Of the 35 Dalit and tribal MBBS students admitted to Vardhman between 2004 and 2009, as many as 25 — Kumar and the other 24 complainants — were failed repeatedly in one particular subject, physiology.

The NCSC set up a committee in 2011 under former Mumbai University vice-chancellor Bhalchandra Mungekar. It recommended that codes instead of names be used during exams. The institute adopted the measure and most of the complainants passed their physiology exam, Kumar said.

“The recommendations of Mungekar and this parliamentary panel should be implemented in all institutions. The NCSC had publicised the Mungekar report for all institutions to follow, but it did not happen. One after another, we see instances of institutional (caste) bias,” Kumar said.

Faculty posts

Of the 1,111 faculty positions at AIIMS, the posts of 275 assistant professors and 92 professors are vacant.

“The committee are not inclined to accept the frequently stereotype reply of the government that ‘no sufficient number of suitable candidate could be found’ (for reserved posts),” the report says.

It does not specify how many of the vacancies involve posts reserved for SCs and STs.

“This is in fact not a correct picture of assessment of the SC/ST candidates who are equally bright and deserving. But they are deliberately declared as ‘not suitable’ because of wrong biased assessment by the selection committee just to deprive SC/ST candidates of their legitimate rights to be part of faculty member,” the report says.

It recommends that a separate selection panel, where the chairperson and most of the members are Dalit or tribal, be set up for recruitment to the SC/ST posts.

It adds that all vacant faculty positions must be filled within the next three months and that no reserved faculty post should be vacant for more than six months.

Super-speciality

Currently, reservation is not implemented in admission to super-speciality medical courses anywhere as part of a decades-old government policy. The House panel has suggested a change.

“Reservation policy must be enforced in all super-specialty fields at student as well as faculty level strictly to ensure presence of SC and ST faculty members there also,” the report says.

“For the purpose, the committee are of the firm view that effective mechanism be set up to send SC and ST doctors and students to undergo specialised training abroad so that their adequate representation may be seen visibly in all super-specialty fields.”

Sat, 30 Jul 2022 09:22:00 -0500 text/html https://www.telegraphindia.com/india/caste-bias-shadow-on-all-india-institute-of-medical-sciences-exams/cid/1877420
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