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Question: 88
Why should the number of services on a server be limited to required services?
A. Every open service represents a potential vulnerability.
B. Closed systems require special connectivity services.
C. Running extra services makes machines more efficient.
D. All services are inherently stable and secure.
E. Additional services make machines more secure.
Answer: A
Question: 89
Which of the following tests provides testing teams some information about hosts or networks?
A. Partial-knowledge test
B. Full-knowledge test
C. Zero-knowledge test
Answer: A
Question: 90
_______ can mimic the symptoms of a denial-of-service attack, and the resulting loss in productivity can be no less
devastating to an organization.
A. ICMP traffic
B. Peak traffic
C. Fragmented packets
D. Insufficient bandwidth
E. Burst traffic
Answer: D
Question: 91
Which of the following is the MOST important consideration, when developing security- awareness training materials?
A. Training material should be accessible and attractive.
B. Delivery mechanisms should allow easy development of additional materials, to complement core material.
C. Security-awareness training materials should never contradict an organizational security policy.
D. Appropriate language should be used to facilitate localization, should training materials require translation.
E. Written documentation should be archived, in case of disaster.
Answer: C
Question: 92
To comply with the secure design principle of fail-safe defaults, what must a system do if it receives an instruction it
does not understand? The system should:
A. send the instruction to a peer server, to see if the peer can execute.
B. not attempt to execute the instruction.
C. close the connection, and refuse all further traffic from the originator.
D. not launch its debugging features, and attempt to resolve the instruction.
E. search for a close match in the instruction set it understands.
Answer: B
Question: 93
Which of the following statements about the maintenance and review of information security policies is NOT true?
A. The review and maintenance of security policies should be tied to the performance evaluations of accountable
individuals.
B. Review requirements should be included in the security policies themselves.
C. When business requirements change, security policies should be reviewed to confirm that policies reflect the
new business requirements.
D. Functional users and information custodians are ultimately responsible for the accuracy and relevance of
information security policies.
E. In the absence of changes to business requirements and processes, information-security policy reviews should
be annual.
Answer: D
Question: 94
What is mandatory sign-on? An authentication method that:
A. uses smart cards, hardware tokens, and biometrics to authenticate users; also known as three-factor
authentication
B. requires the use of one-time passwords, so users authenticate only once, with a given set of credentials
C. requires users to re-authenticate at each server and access control
D. stores user credentials locally, so that users need only authenticate the first time a local machine is used
E. allows users to authenticate once, and then uses tokens or other credentials to manage subsequent
authentication attempts
Answer: C
Question: 95
One individual is selected from each department, to attend a security-awareness course. Each person returns to his
department, delivering the course to the remainder of the department. After training is complete, each person acts as a
peer coach. Which type of training is this?
A. On-line training
B. Formal classroom training
C. Train-the-mentor training
D. Alternating-facilitator training
E. Self-paced training
Answer: C
Question: 96
Which of the following is a cost-effective solution for securely transmitting data between remote offices?
A. Standard e-mail
B. Fax machine
C. Virtual private network
D. Bonded courier
E. Telephone
Answer: C
Question: 97
Which of the following is MOST likely to cause management to view a security-needs proposal as invalid?
A. Real-world examples
B. Exaggeration
C. Ranked threats
D. Quantified risks
E. Temperate manner
Answer: B
Question: 98
A(n) ________________ is a one-way mathematical function that maps variable values into smaller values of a fixed
length.
A. Symmetric key
B. Algorithm
C. Back door
D. Hash function
E. Integrity
Answer: D
Question: 99
INFOSEC professionals are concerned about providing due care and due diligence. With whom should they consult,
when protecting information assets?
A. Law enforcement in their region
B. Senior management, particularly business-unit owners
C. IETF enforcement officials
D. Other INFOSEC professionals
E. Their organizations legal experts
Answer: E
Question: 100
How do virtual corporations maintain confidentiality?
A. Encryption
B. Checksum
C. Data hashes
D. Redundant servers
E. Security by obscurity
Answer: A
Question: 101
All of the following are possible configurations for a corporate intranet, EXCEPT:
A. Value-added network
B. Wide-area network
C. Campus-area network
D. Metropolitan-area network
E. Local-area network
Answer: A
Question: 102
Which of the following is NOT an auditing function that should be performed regularly?
A. Reviewing IDS alerts
B. Reviewing performance logs
C. Reviewing IDS logs
D. Reviewing audit logs
E. Reviewing system logs
Answer: B
Question: 103
The items listed below are examples of ___________________ controls.
*Procedures and policies
*Employee security-awareness training
*Employee background checks
*Increasing management security awareness
A. Technical
B. Administrative
C. Role-based
D. Mandatory
E. Physical
Answer: B
Question: 104
Digital signatures are typically provided by a ____________________, where a third party verifies a keys
authenticity.
A. Network firewall
B. Security administrator
C. Domain controller
D. Certificate Authority
E. Hash function
Answer: D
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Author

Christine Jonick, Ed.D.

ISBN

978-1-940771-15-1

Print Version

$32.99

Digital Version

Free

The University of North Georgia Press and Affordable Learning Georgia bring you Principles of Financial Accounting. Well-written and straightforward, Principles of Financial Accounting is a needed contribution to open source pedagogy in the business education world. Written in order to directly meet the needs of her students, this textbook developed from Dr. Christine Jonick’s years of teaching and commitment to effective pedagogy.

Features:

  • Peer reviewed by academic professionals and tested by students
  • Over 100 charts and graphs
  • Instructional exercises appearing both in-text and for Excel
  • Resources for student professional development

This textbook is an Open Education Resource. It can be reused, remixed, and reedited freely without seeking permission.

Christine Jonick, Ed.D., is a professor of Accounting in the Mike Cottrell College of Business at the University of North Georgia. She has been with UNG for more than 25 years and received the Excellence in Online Teaching Award from UNG in 2016. Dr. Jonick serves as the chairperson of the American Accounting Association SE Member Engagement Committee and president and board of directors member of the Georgia Association of Accounting Educators.

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Applying the principles of Kwanzaa to advance economic justice

Editor’s note: The following article is an op-ed, and the views expressed are the author’s own. Read more opinions on theGrio.

From Dec. 26 to Jan. 1, many Black families across the United States will celebrate Kwanzaa, which means “first fruits” in Swahili or the agricultural harvest festivals that are found throughout Africa. Growing up, my family didn’t celebrate Kwanzaa or many holidays for that matter. But over time, and especially in the last few years through my work with Black-led nonprofits, foundations and advocacy organizations, I have come to understand Kwanzaa’s importance as a way to recognize the strength of Black communities despite systemic pressures meant to break us.

Stemming from the Black Power Movement and founded in 1966 by educator and activist Maulana Karenga, Kwanzaa is a time to honor Black people and celebrate our contributions, heritage and culture, while acknowledging our shared struggles and our unwavering efforts to overcome them. The holiday encourages people to honor seven principles: unity, self-determination, collective work and responsibility, cooperative economics, purpose, creativity and faith.

Nearly 60 years since its creation the meaning and importance of Kwanzaa continue to resonate. Despite achieving significant progress, Black communities continue to combat systems of oppression, institutional racism, and systemic inequities. These inequities may be most apparent in the racial wealth gap.

As a result of centuries of systemic oppression in housing, our education systems and labor force, and insufficient access to capital and other business opportunities, Black people have faced significant barriers to building wealth. In 2022, the typical white family had about six times as much wealth as the typical Black family. This is not just a problem for Black communities but the entire economy. Over the last 20 years, the racial wealth gap has cost the U.S. economy about $16 trillion.

Yet, despite great challenges, Black people have made significant strides and demonstrated the power of community development efforts in the face of oppression. The example of Black Wall Street comes to mind. In the early 1900s, the all-Black Greenwood community in Tulsa, Oklahoma — like many other Black communities across the South and Midwest during that time — developed their own stores, banks, schools, hotels, newspapers and a hospital. Despite political limitations through Jim Crow laws and the threat of physical violence, Greenwood thrived — with every dollar circulating through the community 50 times before leaving — and became one of the country’s most prosperous communities before it was demolished by a racist mob in the 1921 Tulsa Race massacre. The massacre killed hundreds of people and destroyed years of Black success and wealth-building.

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Black Wall Street demonstrated the power and effectiveness of Black people working together to grow their community, which reflects the fourth principle of Kwanzaa, Ujamaa (cooperative economics). What’s clear from this example and others is that when Black people have the freedom to use their agency to build power and create opportunity, Black communities and other communities of color can and do thrive. What’s also clear is that the United States owes these communities great recompense to right its historic wrongs against them.

The national racial reckoning spurred by the 2020 murder of George Floyd seemed like a step in the right direction, with politicians, corporations, banks and philanthropic organizations committing billions of dollars to advance economic opportunities for Black communities and dismantle systems of oppression. Three years later, much work remains to realize these commitments.

One avenue to advance economic opportunity for Black communities is through the support and funding of Community Development Financial Institutions (CDFIs), which are lenders with a mission to provide fair, responsible financing to communities that mainstream finance doesn’t traditionally reach. In short, they are mission-driven institutions that provide financial services to traditionally underinvested communities. Often situated within the communities they serve and made up of people from the community, CDFIs have a clear-eyed view of the resources communities need. Historically, traditional banking systems have deliberately excluded Black communities and deployed racist lending practices that preyed on Black and low-income people. Today, systemic financial discrimination persists and Black communities are denied access to financial institutions or are faced with high-interest lending practices that prevent them from building and accumulating wealth.

My colleagues and I at Fenton, one of the nation’s leading national full-service, public-interest communications agencies, are proud to work with organizations at the forefront of the movement to move capital to communities of color. With Locus, formerly Virginia Community Capital Social Enterprises, we are partners in its work to ensure that everyone, no matter their background, location or economic status, can live in healthy, thriving communities. We recently partnered with Locus to develop and unveil their new brand and their salient tagline, “community-focused capital.” Its project, the Community Investment ensure Pool (CIGP), an innovative, racial equity-driven credit enhancement tool to support small businesses, the creation of affordable housing, and climate financing in communities of low wealth, recently received nearly $20 million from funders MacKenzie Scott and the Kresge Foundation, increasing its capacity to accelerate community investment and support equity in financing for green energy. Since its founding, Locus has generated over $2 billion in total impact in local communities.

Likewise, we partner with Hope Credit Union, a CDFI headquartered in Jackson, Mississippi, in its efforts to strengthen communities, Strengthen lives and invest in the financial growth of historically distressed communities in the Deep South. Hope recently received $92.6 million in secondary capital from the U.S. Treasury Department’s Emergency Capital Investment Program (ECIP). These funds will enable the nation’s leading Black- and women-owned financial institution to serve more than 150,000 people over the next 10 years. To date, Hope has generated or leveraged more than $3.6 billion in financing that has benefitted over 2 million people in Alabama, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Tennessee.

We also work with the African American Alliance of CDFI CEOs and leading philanthropies that aim to buttress the efforts of CDFIs, including the Annie E. Casey Foundation, the Kresge Foundation, W.K. Kellogg Foundation, and many more. Finally, we work with organizations leading efforts to grow power in these communities and push policies to strengthen them, such as Black Voters Matter and Color Of Change.

Our work with these organizations has shown us that communities thrive when they have equitable access to capital and systems of oppression are eradicated. Black communities and other marginalized ones have been able to overcome significant barriers through their own fortitude and principles like Ujamaa. Imagine what Black Wall Street and its sister communities across the country might be today if our economic and political systems truly upheld the moral imperative to advance equity, racial justice and economic opportunity.

During this seven-day celebration, we reaffirm the history of Kwanzaa, the need for community self-determination and revolutionary social change so that all people can live healthy, prosperous lives.


Donté Donald is a vice president at Fenton, the largest full-service, public-interest communications agency in the country. At Fenton, he works on the firm’s Diversity, Equity, Inclusion and Justice practice, where he focuses on racial equity and economic justice issues in partnership with Black-led nonprofits, CDFIs, foundations, and advocacy organizations.

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Mon, 25 Dec 2023 10:00:00 -0600 en-US text/html https://thegrio.com/2023/12/26/applying-the-principles-of-kwanzaa-to-advance-economic-justice/
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