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Exam Code: VTNE Practice exam 2022 by team
VTNE Veterinary Technician National Examination (VTNE)

Practice Domains No. of Items % of Items
Domain 1. Pharmacy and Pharmacology 18 12%
Domain 2. Surgical Nursing 17 11%
Domain 3. Dentistry 12 8%
Domain 4. Laboratory Procedures 17 12%
Domain 5. Animal Care and Nursing 30 20%
Domain 6. Diagnostic Imaging 11 7%
Domain 7. Anesthesia 22 15%
Domain 8. Emergency Medicine/Critical Care 12 8%
Domain 9. Pain Management/Analgesia 11 7%
Total 150 100%

Domain 1 Pharmacy and Pharmacology (18 items, 12%)
TASK 1A Utilize knowledge of anatomy, physiology and pathophysiology as it applies to the use of pharmacological and biological agents.
TASK 1B Prepare medications in compliance with veterinarian's orders.
TASK 1C Educate the client regarding pharmacological and biological agents administered or dispensed to ensure the safety of the patient/client and efficacy of the products.
TASK 1D Calculate fluid therapy rate.
TASK 1E Calculate medications based on the appropriate dosage in compliance with veterinarian's orders.
TASK 1F Dispense medications in compliance with veterinary orders.
TASK 1G Maintain controlled drug inventory and related log books.
TASK 1H Recognize classifications of drugs, their mechanisms, and clinically relevant side effects.
TASK 1I Store, handle, and safely dispose of pharmacological and biological agents.

Domain 2 Surgical Nursing (17 items, 11%)
TASK 2A Utilize knowledge of anatomy, physiology and pathophysiology as it applies to surgical nursing.
TASK 2B Prepare the surgical environment, equipment, instruments, and supplies to meet the needs of the surgical team and patient.
TASK 2C Prepare patient for surgical procedure.
TASK 2D Function as a sterile surgical technician to ensure patient safety and procedural efficiency.
TASK 2E Function as a circulating (non-sterile) surgical technician to ensure patient safety and procedural efficiency.
TASK 2F Clean instruments by the appropriate method (e.g., manual, soak, or ultrasonic).
TASK 2G Maintain aseptic conditions in surgical suite and during surgical procedures.
TASK 2H Maintain the surgical environment, equipment, instruments, and supplies to meet the needs of the surgical team and patient.
TASK 2I Sterilize equipment and supplies by the appropriate method (e.g., steam, gas).

Domain 3 Dentistry (12 items, 8%)
TASK 3A Utilize knowledge of anatomy, physiology and pathophysiology as it applies to dentistry.
TASK 3B Prepare the environment, equipment, instruments, and supplies for dental procedures.
TASK 3C Perform routine dental prophylaxis (e.g., manual and machine cleaning, polishing).
TASK 3D Educate the client regarding dental health, including prophylactic and post-treatment care.
TASK 3E Maintain the environment, equipment, instruments, and supplies for dental procedures.
TASK 3F Perform oral examination and documentation.
TASK 3G Produce diagnostic dental images and/or radiographs.

Domain 4 Laboratory Procedures (17 items, 12%)
TASK 4A Utilize knowledge of anatomy, physiology and pathophysiology as it applies to laboratory procedures.
TASK 4B Prepare specimens and documentation for in-house or outside laboratory evaluation.
TASK 4C Perform laboratory tests and procedures (including but not limited to microbiology, serology, cytology, hematology, urinalysis, and parasitology).
TASK 4D Maintain laboratory equipment and related supplies to ensure quality of test results and safety of operation.
TASK 4E Maintain specimens for in-house or outside laboratory evaluation.

Domain 5 Animal Care and Nursing (30 items, 20%)
TASK 5A Utilize knowledge of anatomy, physiology and pathophysiology as it applies to patient care and nursing.
TASK 5B Document initial and ongoing evaluations of physical, behavioral, nutritional, clinical procedures, and mentation status of patients to provide optimal patient/client safety and health.
TASK 5C Perform patient nursing procedures (including but not limited to restraint, catheterization, wound management and bandaging) in the implementation of prescribed treatments.
TASK 5D Perform clinical diagnostic procedures (including but not limited to blood pressure measurement, electrocardiography, and oximetry) to aid in diagnosis and prognosis.
TASK 5E Educate clients and the public about animal care (including but not limited to behavior, nutrition, pre- and post-operative care, preventative care, zoonosis) to promote and maintain the health of animals and the safety of clients/public.

Domain 5 Animal Care and Nursing (30 items, 20%)
TASK 5F Provide a safe, sanitary, and comfortable environment for patients to ensure optimal healthcare and client/personnel safety.
TASK 5G Maintain diagnostic equipment and related supplies to ensure quality of test results and safety of operation.
TASK 5H Administer medications via the appropriate routes (e.g., aural, intravenous, subcutaneous).
TASK 5I Collect specimens for in-house or outside laboratory evaluation.
TASK 5J Collect patient information (e.g., signalment, medical history, primary complaint).
TASK 5K Adherence to appropriate disposal protocols of hazardous materials.
TASK 5L Maintain therapeutic treatments (including but not limited to catheters, wound management and bandages).
TASK 5M Manage hospitalized patients (e.g., appetite, TPR, nutritional needs, medication, mentation).
TASK 5N Perform physical rehabilitation as directed.
TASK 5O Provide assistance with the euthanasia process (e.g., disposal, consent, counseling).
TASK 5P Recognize behavioral characteristics of patients.
TASK 5Q Utilize devices and equipment to restrain large animals (e.g., horses, cattle, goats, swine) for treatment per patient safety protocols.
TASK 5R Utilize devices and equipment to restrain small animals (e.g., dogs, cats, birds) for treatment per patient safety protocols.

Domain 6 Diagnostic Imaging (11 items, 7%)
TASK 6A Utilize knowledge of anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology as it applies to diagnostic images.
TASK 6B Produce diagnostic images and/or radiographs (excluding dental) following protocols for quality and operator/patient safety.
TASK 6C Maintain imaging/radiograph equipment and related materials to ensure quality of results and equipment, operator, and patient safety.

Domain 7 Anesthesia (22 items, 15%)
TASK 7A Utilize knowledge of anatomy, physiology and pathophysiology as it applies to anesthesia.
TASK 7B Assist in the development of the anesthetic plan to ensure patient safety and procedural efficacy.
TASK 7C Implement the anesthetic plan (including but not limited to administration of medication and monitoring) to facilitate diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedures.
TASK 7D Prepare anesthetic equipment and related materials to ensure operator and patient safety

Domain 7 Anesthesia (22 items, 15%)
TASK 7E Educate the client about anesthetics and anesthesia to ensure the safety of the patient/client and efficacy of the product(s) or procedure(s).
TASK 7F Maintain anesthetic equipment and related materials to ensure reliable operation.
TASK 7G Maintain a patent airway using endotracheal intubation.
TASK 7H Monitor patients during all stages of anesthesia (pre-, peri-, and post-).
TASK 7I Obtain patient related information in the development of an appropriate anesthetic plan.
TASK 7J Respond appropriately to changes in patient status during all stages of anesthesia.

Domain 8 Emergency Medicine/Critical Care (12 items, 8%)
TASK 8A Utilize knowledge of anatomy, physiology and pathophysiology as it applies to emergency medicine and critical care.
TASK 8B Perform triage of a patient presenting with emergency/critical conditions (including but not limited to shock, acute illness, acute trauma, and toxicity).
TASK 8C Perform emergency nursing procedures (including but not limited to cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), control acute blood loss, and fracture stabilization) in the implementation of prescribed treatments.
TASK 8D Perform critical care nursing procedures (including but not limited to blood component therapy, fluid resuscitation, and ongoing oxygen therapy) in the implementation of prescribed treatments.
TASK 8E Perform ongoing evaluations of physical, behavioral, nutritional, and mentation status of patients in emergency and critical conditions.

Domain 9 Pain Management/Analgesia (11 items, 7%)
TASK 9A Utilize knowledge of anatomy, physiology and pathophysiology as it applies to pain management and analgesia.
TASK 9B Assess need for analgesia in patient.
TASK 9C Educate client regarding patient pain assessment and management to ensure the safety of the patient/client, and efficacy of the product(s) or procedure(s).
TASK 9D Assist in the development and implementation of the pain management plan to optimize patient comfort and/or healing.
1. Anatomy
2. Normal physiology
3. Pathophysiology
4. Common animal diseases
5. Medical terminology
6. Toxicology
7. Applied mathematics (including but not limited to metric system/weights, measures/percentage solutions, dosage calculations)
8. Drug classification
9. Routes of administration of pharmacological and biological agents
10. Legal requirements and procedures for acquiring, preparing, storing, dispensing, documenting and disposing of pharmacological and biological agents
11. Safe handling practices for pharmacological and biological agents
12. Pharmacokinetics (drug absorption, metabolism, excretion), normal and abnormal drug reactions, indications, contraindications, side effects, and interactions
13. Fluid balance and therapy, including calculation
14. Aseptic techniques
15. Patient preparation and positioning techniques (including but not limited to diagnostic imaging, surgery, medical procedures)
16. Surgical procedures
17. Surgical equipment, instruments, and supplies
18. Sterilization techniques and quality assurance for equipment, instruments, and supplies
19. Safety considerations related to surgical equipment, instruments, and supplies
20. Wound closure (including suture materials and patterns, staples, and tissue adhesives)
21. Dental procedures (including but not limited to cleaning, floating, charting, preventive procedures, dental imaging)
22. Dental equipment, instruments, and supplies
23. Safety considerations related to dental procedures
24. trial collection, preparation, analysis, storing, and shipping techniques
25. Laboratory diagnostic principles, procedures, and methodologies (including but not limited to microbiology, serology, cytology, hematology, urinalysis, and parasitology)
26. Quality assurance in the laboratory (including but not limited to maintenance of equipment, verification of test results, calibration, and controls)
27. Normal and abnormal laboratory and diagnostic test results
28. Animal assessment and monitoring techniques, excluding anesthetic monitoring
29. Principles of animal behavior
30. Clinical diagnostic procedures
31. Nutrition
32. Safe animal handling and restraint techniques
33. Animal husbandry
34. Animal nursing procedures and rehabilitation therapies
35. Animal first aid, triage, and emergency/critical care techniques
36. Public health (including but not limited to infection control, zoonosis and epidemiology)
37. Environmental health and safety procedures (including but not limited to handling and disposing
of hazardous material, personal safety, evacuation procedures, safety plans, equipment, and instrumentation)
38. Disease control and prevention techniques (including but not limited to quarantine, isolation, vaccination, wellness care, and herd health)
39. Facility cleaning and disinfection techniques
40. Diagnostic imaging equipment and procedures (including but not limited to radiography, ultrasonography, and contrast studies)
41. Quality assurance and safety for diagnostic imaging
42. Pre- and post-anesthetic assessment and care
43. Anesthetic induction, maintenance, monitoring, and recovery including stages of anesthesia and troubleshooting
44. Pre-anesthetic and anesthetic medications reactions, indications, contraindications, side effects, and interactions
45. Pain assessment and analgesic administration techniques
46. Procedures for care, maintenance, and use of diagnostic, therapeutic, surgical, dental, monitoring, and anesthetic equipment and supplies
47. Professional ethics (including but not limited to the Veterinary Technician Code of Ethics)
48. Techniques for communicating with the veterinary medical team and client
49. Record keeping

Veterinary Technician National Examination (VTNE)
Medical Examination tricks
Killexams : Medical Examination tricks - BingNews Search results Killexams : Medical Examination tricks - BingNews Killexams : A Doctor's 8 Secrets To Staying Young and Adding Years to Your Life No result found, try new keyword!Staying physically and mentally fit can result in a much happier, healthier you. We're here to share exactly how you can add years to your life with secrets that really work, according to an expert. Wed, 20 Jul 2022 09:00:05 -0500 en-us text/html Killexams : UPSC CAPF exam 2022: 5 go-to revision tips to crack the exam No result found, try new keyword!The UPSC CAPF exam 2022 is scheduled to be held on August 7, 2022. Here are five go-to revision tips to crack the exam. Fri, 05 Aug 2022 01:52:00 -0500 en-in text/html Killexams : Simple Tricks to Avoid a "Deadly" Heart Attack, Say Doctors Now No result found, try new keyword!Simple Tricks to Avoid a "Deadly" Heart Attack ... Health spoke with Dr. Bayo Curry-Winchell, Urgent Care Medical Director and Physician, Carbon Health and Saint Mary's Hospital who shares ... Mon, 04 Jul 2022 00:44:00 -0500 en-us text/html Killexams : NEET 2020: Last Minute Preparation Tips And Tricks
NEET 2020: Last Minute Preparation Tips And Tricks
NEET 2020: Preparation tips

Image credit: Shutterstock

New Delhi:

Admissions to medical, dental, and allied disciplines are granted only on the basis of NEET 2020, This year, around 16.84 lakh aspirants have registered for the exam. To perform well in spite of the competition, candidates can utilise certain last minute preparation tips for cracking NEET 2020. Preparation strategies play an important role in the days leading up to the exams. While most of the time is spent on understanding the concepts, subjects, and syllabus as well as their application, the last days need to reinforce all that has been learned so far.

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Here are some of the tips you can follow during the last phase of your NEET 2020 preparations.

Tip 1: Keep The Concepts Clear

It is important to be clear with every concept during the last stretch of preparations to eliminate doubts during the examinations.

Tip 2: Focus On Your Strengths

All aspirants are strong in some syllabus or subjects, and weak in others. Since time management is crucial, students are advised to focus on their strong points and later build on the weaker ones. This will ensure that questions related to the syllabus in which students are strong will fetch good marks. Since NEET has a negative marking system, it is important to restrict and plan according to one’s strengths.

Tip 3: Don’t Start New Topics

During the last phase of preparations, it is hard to understand new concepts considering that time is limited. Candidates are advised not to start with any new syllabus or refer to new books, as this is not the time to do so. The last-minute NEET 2020 preparation should be used to focus only on strengthening familiar syllabus instead of starting new concepts that may end up confusing the candidates.

Tip 4: Revise Quickly With Short Notes

Candidates can keep short notes that sum up the important formulae and syllabus that have a considerable weightage in the exam. These are quick revision notes to help students remember concepts.

Tip 5: Break The Monotony With Regular Breaks

It is difficult for students to continue studying for extended hours with no break. Last-minute preparation for NEET 2020 is also a stressful one. A break is not just necessary but mandatory to break the monotony and supply the overworked brain much needed rest. Taking regular breaks after an interval of study can help boost the concentration levels and can help the mind to perform more efficiently.

Tip 6: Say ‘No’ To Preparation Discussions

A common tendency among aspirants is to discuss their last-minute preparation with others. It is advised to refrain from discussing preparations with friends or family members as no one can predict what will be asked in the exam and how one will perform. The discussion can cause undue stress and undo a lot of their work.

Tip 7: Push Self-doubt Out

It is natural to feel anxious prior to the examinations but experts advise candidates to not mull over mistakes and errors as it would be detrimental to the preparations. Instead, candidates are advised to stay positive, especially during the last days.

Raushan Kumar writes on medical courses at Careers360.

Sun, 02 Aug 2020 17:24:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : 8 ways to Excellerate digestion

Doctors often link poor digestion to several different factors, such as gastrointestinal conditions or stress. Remedies to Excellerate digestion include dietary and lifestyle changes.

Occasional digestive problems are common, and possible causes may range from digestive disorders to specific foods. Symptoms, such as abdominal cramps or bowel changes, usually pass over time, but some simple home remedies may ease discomfort.

This article discusses possible causes of poor digestion, ways to Excellerate digestion, how to clean the stomach, and when to consult medical attention.

The following are examples of possible causes of poor digestion.

Digestive diseases

Diseases that affect the gastrointestinal or digestive tract may cause poor digestion. A few common symptoms of digestive diseases include:

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)

IBS is a common digestive disorder. Between 10 and 15% of adults in the United States deal with IBS symptoms.

People with IBS experience changes in bowel movements in response to stressors. These stressors may include difficult experiences in early life, mental health concerns, or bacterial infections.

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)

Ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease are two forms of IBD. Read on for the differences between the two.

Ulcerative colitis (UC) occurs as a result of abnormal reactions of the immune system. This condition causes inflammation and ulcers on the lining of the large intestine. Approximately 600,000–900,000 people in the United States have UC.

Crohn’s disease is another digestive disorder that affects over 500,000 people in the United States. People with Crohn’s disease experience irritation and inflammation throughout the digestive tract.

Learn more about common digestive issues.

Other causes of poor digestion

  • Processed foods: Foods that are highly processed, like frozen meals or hot dogs, can negatively affect digestion. These foods can spike blood sugar and increase inflammation which may cause poor digestion.
  • Food intolerance: Intolerances may cause a person to have difficulty digesting certain foods and resulting reactions, such as bloating or diarrhea.
  • Medication: Antacids or antibiotics can also cause digestive problems. These issues are side effects, and they should resolve once a person stops taking the medication. Pain control medications also often have side effects on the gut. Opioid medications include:
  • Poor hydration: If a person does not drink sufficient water, this can lead to digestive problems like constipation. Not getting enough fluids can harden stool and reduce the number of bowel movements.
  • Stress: Elevated levels of stress levels can also negatively impact digestion. Excess stress or anxiety may lead to inflammation or diarrhea in certain cases. Stress may worsen symptoms of IBS or IBD.
  • Diabetes: People with diabetes may experience high blood sugar, which may cause gastroparesis which impacts digestion.

Individuals experiencing symptoms of poor digestion should consult a medical professional to find out what may be causing it.

Individuals who experience severe or ongoing digestive problems should consult a doctor. However, for mild digestion concerns, several home remedies may ease the issues.

1. Relaxation

Many people experience stomach discomfort before an exam or a big event, but sustained stress can affect the connection between the brain and the gut, causing ongoing problems.

There is a link between physical and mental health, and reducing stress can have a positive impact on both. The American Psychological Association recommends three key ways to manage stress:

  • having a good support network
  • exercising regularly
  • getting enough sleep

It can be tempting to rush meals on a busy day, but this can cause indigestion and stomach discomfort. Take time to relax, particularly before and after eating.

2. Drink mint tea

Mint tea is a home remedy for nausea and indigestion. To make a simple mint tea:

  1. Set aside 5–10 peppermint or spearmint leaves.
  2. Boil 1 cup of water and leave it to cool slightly.
  3. Pour the water over the leaves and steep for 3–5 minutes.
  4. Add a slice of lemon or a small amount of honey, if desired.

Researchers have found that peppermint oil from the leaves may relieve symptoms of IBS — including stomach pain — in the short term. However, more research is needed to fully understand the science behind this.

3. Exercise

Gentle exercise can help support healthy digestion. Being upright and active allows gravity to help move food through the digestive system. For example, a slow walk around the block may ease bloating and reduce feelings of fullness.

Physical activity increases blood flow to the muscles in the digestive system, which helps move the food along the digestive tract.

4. Reduce gas

Gas can come from swallowing air when eating or drinking. The body also produces gas when digesting food. Trapped gas in the gut can cause bloating and stomach discomfort.

Having a certain amount of gas is healthful, but some activities cause a person to swallow more air than usual, which can increase the amount of gas in the body. Examples of these activities include:

  • chewing gum
  • drinking carbonated drinks
  • eating too quickly
  • wearing dentures that do not fit well

Certain foods create more gas when they go through the digestive system. These include:

Gently rubbing the belly can help gas move through the body, which can help reduce stomach discomfort and bloating.

5. Try fermented foods

Microorganisms such as bacteria have partially or wholly broken down fermented foods. These microorganisms work to preserve food, and they may also benefit gut health.

Bacteria occur naturally in the gut. Some help digest food, but others can cause problems with digestion if they are too abundant in the body. Fermented foods contain bacteria that may help support a healthy digestive system.

Some fermented foods include:

Incorporating these foods into the diet may help Excellerate digestion. More studies are needed in the future to learn more about how fermented foods affect the gut microbiome.

Learn more about examples of fermented foods.

6. Eat more fiber

Fiber has a wide range of health benefits, from lowering cholesterol to reducing the risk of heart disease. It can also help Excellerate digestion by regulating bowel movements.

According to theDietary Guidelines for Americans 2020–2025, the average adult should include around 30 grams of fiber in their daily diet.

Good sources of fiber include:

A person should also drink plenty of liquids to ensure that the fiber absorbs enough water to easily pass through the digestive system.

7. Keep a food diary

Some foods and drinks trigger problems with digestion. These triggers can vary from person to person and keeping a food diary can help with identifying culprits.

Take notes after meals, snacks, and drinks, highlighting any following digestive problems. Then, try cutting out potentially problematic foods and drinks from the diet to see whether symptoms improve.

A nutritionist can advise a person before making any significant diet changes. A food diary will also help medical professionals better understand the situation so they can offer more specific advice.

8. Avoid trigger foods

While people react differently to different foods, some foods and drinks commonly cause problems with digestion.

Examples include:

  • processed foods
  • spices
  • fried foods
  • acidic foods, such as vinegar and citrus fruits like oranges
  • sweeteners, such as fructose
  • alcohol
  • caffeine

Limiting the intake of these can help Excellerate digestion.

Also, fast foods and ready-made meals are high in sugar, salt, and saturated fats. They can be harder for the body to digest and cause problems such as constipation and gas.

A person can use various dietary methods to help clean the stomach and reduce digestive issues.


One of the best ways to promote gut health is following a balanced diet. Many studies have found that not eating a balanced diet can cause or worsen digestive problems.

Certain diet plans can help address digestive health. For example, the Mediterranean diet can help manage digestive disorders like IBS. This diet emphasizes healthy fats from fish, olive oil, whole grains, and vegetables.

Supplements and teas

Supplements and teas may also help cleanse the digestive system. One of the best natural supplements to promote digestive health is ginger. Research has shown that ginger can help reduce nausea and inflammation. Regular ginger consumption can even prevent ulcers and tumors.

Individuals dealing with digestive problems may try adding ginger into their daily routine. Brewing fresh ginger as a tea with lemon and honey can soothe the stomach and reduce inflammation. Or try adding fresh ginger to a green smoothie.

Chamomile tea delivers antioxidants and bloat-reducing properties. Tea with chamomile and honey can help naturally cleanse the stomach. But a person should be sure to consult with a doctor to make sure a new diet or supplement is right for them.

Learn about specific herbal teas for constipation.

If digestive symptoms are ongoing or severe, they may result from an underlying medical condition.

Some common digestive diseases and disorders include:

Individuals who experience symptoms associated with conditions like these should consult a doctor. Severe stomach pain, vomiting, or diarrhea may be signs of a serious health problem.

Digestion problems may be a result of stress or digestive conditions.

Mild digestive problems may respond well to at-home treatments, such as adding or removing certain foods from the diet, exercise, and keeping a food diary. However, more serious issues may require medical attention.

Anyone experiencing new or unexpected digestion problems should consult a medical professional to receive a diagnosis and suitable treatment for their symptoms.

Wed, 27 Jul 2022 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html

The Times of India Tips and Tricks section helps candidates from writing their CV or resume to facing Group Discussions. How often should you update your CV? You will get some useful tips on creating an impactful resume. By practicing the articles on Tips and Tricks you will be able to face the interviews with more confidence. What employers strive to examine besides your qualification for the positions, your motivation for applying, the value you will bring to the company and communication skills required for job interviews....More

Thu, 28 Apr 2022 22:58:00 -0500 text/html
Killexams : Tips and Tricks for Negotiating With a Hospital Billing Department
A man sitting on his couch and looking at his laptop in confusion while making a phone call.

Image source: Getty Images

Billing department employees can be a great source of information and assistance. 

Key points

  • The best way to deal with medical bills is to face them head on -- with assistance from the billing department.
  • It's not unusual to receive a discount or partial debt forgiveness. 

Approximately 90% of Americans have health insurance. But even with insurance coverage, any family can have trouble paying medical expenses. Let's say a person suffers a severely broken leg. For such an injury, surgical treatment typically costs between $17,000 and $35,000. By the time the patient pays their copays and out-of-pocket maximum, they can be out thousands of dollars. 

There's no reason to be shy if you're having trouble covering medical debt. Every day, hospitals work with patients who cannot pay their bills and are accustomed to navigating options. These tips can help you negotiate hospital bills: 

Price shop

This suggestion only works if you're not sitting in the emergency room with a broken bone or suffering from chest pain. In an emergency, always seek treatment first and handle medical bills later. 

However, you should have time to shop for the best price if you're having a scheduled procedure, like a colonoscopy, knee replacement, or non-emergency medical tests. Paying less for a medical procedure does not necessarily mean you'll receive a lower level of care. Medical facilities are owned by various organizations, from non-profits to physician groups. Prices vary by facility. For example, a colonoscopy may be performed in a hospital or an endoscopy center, each with its own price structure. 

Once a medical professional tells you that a procedure is necessary, ask about facility options. Let them know you want to control the cost. As long as the physician has privileges at more than one facility, you'll be able to price shop. 

Call your insurance provider to learn how much your insurance will cover. Some insurance companies offer a cost comparison tool that helps you find the best price in your area. Several online tools can be useful if your insurance company does not provide such a service. They include Fair Health Consumer and Healthcare Bluebook

Offer to pay upfront

If you can afford to pay your portion of the bill but want to score a discount, offer to pay in advance. According to Consumer Reports, 44% of hospitals provide a "prompt-pay" discount. Once you know how much your insurance company will pay, you'll have a good sense of how much you'll owe. The average discount offered to patients who pay their portion of the bill in advance is 20%. Let's say your portion will be $2,000. Paying upfront means you'll save $400.  

Request an out-and-out discount

If you can't pay upfront, ask the billing department to forgive all or part of the bill. How much they'll write off is usually associated with your ability to repay. Be honest with the billing department, explain your situation, and tell them that paying will be difficult. 

Tip: You may need to ask to speak with someone in the billing department who has the authority to offer a discount. 

Check financial assistance

Billing departments often have a list of available sources of financial assistance and are happy to provide you with more information about those resources.  

You may be asked to provide evidence that you can't afford to pay what's owed, and that's a normal part of the process. No one is trying to embarrass you. Rather, the billing department wants to ensure you're matched with the best available option. 

Take advantage of payment plans

Hospitals and other medical facilities typically offer a no-interest repayment plan. Work through your budget to determine how much you can afford to pay each month. Then, enroll in a repayment plan and pay the bill off over time. Given that you won't be required to pay interest, a payment plan beats putting the bill on a credit card or taking out a medical loan.

The last thing you want to deal with as you heal from any medical event is a hard-to-read bill. It's good to know that billing departments are pros at working people through the process. It's all about leaving enough in your bank account to take care of other needs. 

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Mon, 04 Jul 2022 22:16:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : How can I get to sleep easily?

Many people living with insomnia can lie in bed wondering how to fall asleep. When this happens, a person can try using the tips below. Some are long-term lifestyle changes, while others are short-term solutions to try at the moment.

1. Create a consistent sleeping pattern

Going to bed at different times every night is a common habit for many people. However, these irregular sleeping patterns could interfere with sleep because they interrupt the body’s circadian rhythm.

The circadian rhythm is a selection of behavioral, physical, and mental changes that follow a 24-hour cycle. A primary function of the circadian rhythm is to determine whether the body is ready for sleep or not.

This is heavily influenced by a biological clock that releases hormones to induce sleep or wakefulness. Going to bed at the same time every night helps the body clock predict when to induce sleep.

Learn more about the best time to sleep and wake up here.

2. Keep the lights off

Cues such as light also influence the circadian rhythm, which helps the brain and body judge when it is nighttime. Keeping the room as dark as possible when going to bed might help bring on sleep.

3. Avoid napping during the day

Taking naps during the daytime, particularly those that last longer than 2 hours, can also disrupt the circadian rhythm.

One study found that college students who napped at least three times per week and those who napped for longer than 2 hours each time had lower sleep quality than their peers who did not.

After a poor night’s sleep, it is tempting to take a long nap. However, try to avoid this, as it can adversely affect a healthful sleep cycle.

Learn about the ideal nap length here.

4. Get some exercise during the day

Physical exercise has a positive impact on sleep quality.

One 2017 meta-analysis found 29 studies that concluded that exercising may be able to Excellerate the quality or the duration of sleep.

Another 2021 study found that exercising for 60 minutes 4-5 times a week for a period of 8-12 weeks can significantly Excellerate primary insomnia, which is the difficulty in falling or staying asleep.

However, it may be a good idea not to exercise too close to a person’s bedtime, as that may actually disrupt sleep. When taking on an exercise routine, it can be difficult to know where to start. Learn more here.

5. Avoid using your cell phone

The idea that using a mobile device, especially before bed, might be detrimental to sleep is not new.

One 2021 study found that using a mobile screen for more than 8 hours a day or for at least 30 minutes before going to bed can negatively affect sleep. Keeping the mobile device near the pillow while sleeping had a similar association with worse sleep quality.

Like this study, much of the current research has been based on students and young people, so it is unclear whether or not these findings extend to other age groups.

Studies also tend to focus on problem phone use. People who do not use their mobile devices in this way may not be as susceptible to sleep disturbances.

More research is necessary for this area to understand the extent to which phone use can impact sleep.

6. Read a book

Reading books can be relaxing and may help prevent anxious taught patterns that could interfere with a person’s sleep.

A 2021 randomized trial study examining the impact of bedtime practicing on sleep showed that sleep improved for 8-22% more people in the intervention group that read before bed compared to the control group that did not.

However, while practicing before bed can be relaxing, it may be best to avoid actually practicing in bed. A person with insomnia who wakes up in the middle of the night should read in a different room using a dimly lit light.

It is also a good idea to avoid books that might cause strong emotional responses, which could prevent a person from relaxing sufficiently in order to fall asleep.

7. Avoid caffeine

Caffeine is a stimulant. It stimulates wakefulness and can disrupt sleep patterns. It takes about 3-5 hours for the effects of caffeine to wear off. Therefore, it is best to avoid caffeine for at least 4 hours before going to bed.

In some people, consuming caffeine at any time of the day could have a negative impact on sleep quality. For these people, it may be best to avoid caffeine altogether.

8. Try meditation or mindfulness

Meditation and mindfulness can help reduce anxiety, which can often disrupt sleep. Using these techniques can help calm an anxious mind, distracting the person from busy thoughts and allowing them to fall asleep more easily.

A study in older adults with sleeping difficulties found that mindfulness meditation improved sleep quality compared with people who did not practice mindfulness.

9. Don’t wake yourself up

When a person relaxes before bed, they will usually feel sleepy.

A person who is having a hard time falling asleep may actually want to avoid doing things like brushing teeth, removing make-up, washing their face, or entering a brightly lit bathroom right before they get in bed.

It is better to do these activities at least half an hour before bedtime and then take some time to relax in a dimly lit, non-stimulating space before heading to bed. This way a person does not disrupt their natural pre-bed sleepiness.

10. Change your eating habits

What a person eats, particularly in the evening, can have an impact on their sleep. For example, eating a large meal within 1 hour of going to bed may impair a person’s ability to sleep.

Specifically, certain foods might prevent a person from getting quality sleep. For example, though the evidence on this is mixed, some research indicates that eating refined carbohydrates could interfere with sleep quality or trigger insomnia.

Additional research shows that avoiding processed foods and eating a healthy diet comprised of low glycemic index (GI) foods can have a positive influence on the ability to fall and stay asleep. Good foods to eat include whole grains, nuts, low and nonfat dairy, fruit, and vegetables.

However, no matter what a person eats, digesting a meal can take at least 2–3 hours. Lying down during this period can cause discomfort or feelings of nausea and slow the digestive process in some people.

It is best to allow the body enough time to digest a meal before lying down. The exact time this takes will vary from person to person.

11. Get the room temperature right

Being too hot or too cold can have a significant impact on a person’s ability to sleep.

The temperature at which people feel the most comfortable varies, so it is important to experiment with different temperatures.

However, the National Sleep Foundation recommends a bedroom temperature of 60–67°F (16–19ºC) to promote sleep.

12. Try aromatherapy

People have long used aromatherapy to induce relaxation and sleep.

Lavender oil is a popular choice for helping with sleep. However, the evidence for this is mixed, and the benefit may depend on the way the oil is administered, such as topically vs. as an inhalation.

Learn more about aromatherapy here.

13. Find a comfortable position

A comfortable sleeping position is essential for sleep. Frequently changing positions can be distracting, but finding the right spot can make a big difference to the onset of sleep.

Most people find that sleeping on their side is the best position for a good night’s sleep. Learn about the benefits of side sleeping here.

14. Listen to music

Although this may not work for everyone, some people benefit from listening to relaxing music before going to bed.

In a 2019 study, subjects who listened to music before bed reported sleeping better than those who did not.

However, a person’s response to music will depend on their personal preferences. Sometimes, music can be too stimulating and induce anxiety and sleeplessness.

15. Try breathing exercises

Breathing exercises are a very popular relaxation technique. Practicing deep breathing or doing specific patterns of breathing can help people de-stress and take their minds off anxious thoughts. This can be a powerful tool for getting to sleep.

A common option is 4-7-8 breathing. This involves breathing in for 4 seconds, holding the breath for 7 seconds, and exhaling for 8 seconds. This type of deep, rhythmic breathing is relaxing and can promote sleep.

16. Take a hot bath or shower

Taking a bath or shower can be relaxing and help prepare the body for sleep. It can also help Excellerate temperature regulation before bed.

Doing this 1-2 hours before bed for at least 10 minutes may be particularly beneficial, according to research.

Learn more about the benefits of hot and cold showers.

17. Avoid practicing e-books

E-books have become increasingly popular over the past few years.

They have backlit screens, which make them ideal for practicing before bed in a dark room. However, this could negatively affect sleep.

One study gave young adults a printed book and an e-book to read before bed. The researchers found that when using the e-book, the participants took longer to fall asleep.

They were also more alert during the evenings and less alert in the morning compared with when they read the printed book. Such results suggest that e-books could have a negative impact on sleep.

However, the study only involved 12 participants. The researchers also used a study design that meant that the participants read both types of books. It is difficult to determine whether or not exposure to both practicing conditions biased the results.

Few reliable studies exist in this area, and more research is necessary to draw any firm conclusions.

18. Take melatonin

Melatonin is known as “the sleep hormone.” The body produces it to induce drowsiness and sleep in line with the body clock.

People can also take it as a supplement to increase the chance of getting to sleep.

Learn more about melatonin for sleep.

19. Use a comfortable bed

The National Sleep Foundation recommends that to get a good night’s sleep, people may want to sleep on a mattress and pillows that are comfortable and supportive.

Investing in a comfortable mattress could have a positive impact on sleep quality.

20. Avoid noisy environments, if possible

Noise can be distracting, prevent the onset of sleep, and lower the quality of sleep.

A 2016 study found that participants had significantly worse sleep in a hospital setting than at home. The authors of the study found that this was primarily due to the increased level of noise in the hospital.

21. Avoid excessive alcohol consumption

Drinking large amounts of alcohol before bed can have an adverse impact on sleep.

On the one hand, it is a sedative that induces sleepiness, but on the other hand, it can negatively affect the quality of a person’s sleep.

For people already living with insomnia, even a small amount of alcohol could make the condition worse.

Learn more about how alcohol affects the body.

Sun, 17 Jul 2022 11:59:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Take note of the EEOC’s latest COVID-19 guidance


What’s the saying about stubbornness? I think it’s “you can’t teach an old dog new tricks” (or, I guess, in our household it’s “Stephen, you are just like your dad …” – but that quote is not as relevant to the readership). The point is that once we have figured something out, it is hard to change. That is why it is important to always keep apprised of the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission’s latest guidance regarding COVID-19.

As described in more detail below, the EEOC’s July 12 update “makes clear that going forward employers will need to assess whether current pandemic circumstances and individual workplace circumstances justify viral screening testing of employees to prevent workplace transmission of COVID-19.”

Here are seven key takeaways from the EEOC’s recent update:

Mandatory COVID-19 screening is still permissible if certain criteria are met

Under the ADA, a COVID-19 viral test is considered a medical examination, which means an employer that requires such testing for employees to enter or remain on-site must ensure that COVID-19 testing is “job-related and consistent with business necessity.”

n the EEOC’s latest guidance, the agency listed the factors employers should consider when evaluating whether their testing program is job-related and consistent with business necessity:  community transmission levels and the transmissibility of current COVID-19 variants, the accuracy and speed of processing different types of COVID-19 viral tests, as well as employees’ vaccination status, working conditions, and the potential impact of positive cases on operations.

Employers should also review guidance from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and state and local public health authorities. The EEOC cautioned, however, that “CDC and other public health authorities periodically update and revise their recommendations about COVID-19 testing, and FDA may revise its guidance or emergency use authorizations based on new information and changing conditions.” Therefore, employers should regularly check for updates from the relevant government agencies if they have a COVID-19 testing protocol in place or are preparing to implement one.

Antibody tests are not permitted as a condition of re-entering the workplace

Antibody tests are still not considered a good measure of whether an individual has a current COVID-19 infection and shouldn’t be used to determine whether an employee can return to the workplace.

COVID-19 screening questionnaires are still broadly permitted

Employers are still allowed to ask all employees who are physically entering a work site if they have COVID-19 symptoms or have been diagnosed with or tested positive for COVID-19, according to the EEOC. Symptoms include fever, chills, cough, and shortness of breath.

Employers may exclude employees with COVID-19 or associated symptoms from the workplace because their presence would pose a direct threat to the health and safety of others, the agency said. Be aware, however, that employers generally cannot screen employees who work remotely or otherwise do not have in-person contact with co-workers, customers, or other business partners.

‘Return-to-work’ confirmation from a medical professional may be required

If employees miss work because they tested positive for COVID-19, you can require them to provide a note from a qualified medical professional confirming that they may safely return to the work site and are able to perform their job duties. However, employers are not required to ask for a doctor’s note. Instead, they may opt to follow the latest CDC guidance or the applicable state or local public health guidance to determine whether an employee can safely return to the workplace once they have met isolation or quarantine criteria.

Job applicants may be screened for COVID-19 symptoms

Under the EEOC’s ADA guidance, employers are allowed to screen individuals with job offers for COVID-19 symptoms before they start work, but consistency is key. Such screening may be done after making a conditional job offer if all employees in the same type of job who are entering the work site are also screened. Additionally, employers may screen job applicants who come on-site as part of the interview process if everyone who enters the work site – i.e., employees, contractors, and visitors – are also screened.

“The screening is limited to the same screening that everyone else undergoes,” the EEOC explained. “An employer that goes beyond that screening will have engaged in an illegal pre-offer disability-related inquiry and/or medical examination.”

Circumstances should be carefully considered before a job offer is withdrawn

An employer may need a new hire to start working immediately. What options exist if the worker tests positive for COVID-19, has symptoms, or has recently been exposed? If the new hire must report to a work site or would otherwise be in the physical presence of others, the employer may be able to withdraw the job offer in some circumstances.

Start by reviewing – and following – current CDC guidance that outlines when and how the worker can safely end isolation or quarantine, enter a work site, or work in the physical presence of others. When current CDC guidance is followed to address the worker’s specific circumstances, the EEOC states the job offer may be withdrawn if:

the job requires an immediate start date;

the CDC guidance recommends the person not be in proximity to others; and

the job requires such proximity to others, whether at the workplace or elsewhere.

The EEOC noted that the isolation or quarantine period may be short for some workers, and therefore, the employer may be able to briefly delay the start date or allow the new hire to telework if the job duties can be performed remotely.

Compliance with other employment laws should be reviewed

Employers that continue to test workers for COVID-19 should ensure compliance with additional employment laws beyond the ADA. Other federal laws, as well as state and local laws, may provide employees with additional protections. Be sure to consult experienced legal counsel in one’s industry and geographic location for the latest updates.

Ultimately, the changes to the EEOC’s guidance are not meant to suggest whether testing is warranted, the agency noted. “Rather, the revised Q&A acknowledges that evolving pandemic circumstances will require an individualized assessment by employers to determine whether such testing is warranted and consistent with the requirements of the ADA.” As the COVID-19 pandemic evolves, federal agencies will continue to update their guidelines for workplace safety protocols, and employers should review and potentially revise their policies and practices accordingly.

Stephen Scott is a partner in the Portland, Oregon office of Fisher Phillips.

Fri, 05 Aug 2022 01:07:00 -0500 CityBusiness Guest Perspective en-US text/html
Killexams : August 7 Wordle: 5-Letter Words Starting With SM No result found, try new keyword!Word puzzle fans who are having a hard time with today's Wordle may want to check out this guide for some extra clues. Sat, 06 Aug 2022 15:17:23 -0500 en-us text/html
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