Free DMF-1220 PDF and VCE at

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Exam Code: DMF-1220 Practice test 2023 by team
DMF-1220 Data Management Fundamentals

Test Details:
- test Name: DAMA DMF-1220 Data Management Fundamentals
- test Format: Multiple-choice questions
- test Duration: 90 minutes
- Passing Score: Varies (set by DAMA International)
- Prerequisites: None
- Certification Validity: Lifetime

Course Outline: DAMA DMF-1220 Data Management Fundamentals

I. Introduction to Data Management
A. Overview of data management concepts and principles
B. Data management roles and responsibilities
C. Data management challenges and trends

II. Data Governance
A. Data governance framework and components
B. Data governance policies and processes
C. Data quality management and data stewardship

III. Data Architecture and Modeling
A. Data architecture components and layers
B. Data modeling techniques and standards
C. Data integration and interoperability

IV. Data Storage and Operations
A. Data storage technologies and solutions
B. Data security and privacy
C. Data operations and performance management

V. Data Lifecycle Management
A. Data lifecycle stages and activities
B. Data retention and archiving
C. Data disposal and data privacy considerations

Exam Objectives:
- Understand the fundamental concepts and principles of data management
- Apply data governance practices and ensure data quality
- Design and implement data architecture and modeling techniques
- Manage data storage, security, and operations effectively
- Implement data lifecycle management strategies

The syllabus for the DAMA DMF-1220 Data Management Fundamentals course will cover the following topics:
- Introduction to Data Management
- Data Governance
- Data Architecture and Modeling
- Data Storage and Operations
- Data Lifecycle Management

Data Management Fundamentals
DAMA Fundamentals syllabus
Killexams : DAMA Fundamentals syllabus - BingNews Search results Killexams : DAMA Fundamentals syllabus - BingNews Killexams : Syllabus and Course Development

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The Teaching and Learning Center (TLC) supports Drexel University instructors in course development, including the development of course learning goals and the design of assessments and learning activities to meet those goals. This site provides links to a number of resources that can assist instructors in that process, as well as links to important policies and information that instructors at Drexel should use in the creation of their syllabi. In addition to these resources, TLC consultants are available for individual consultations at any stage of the course and syllabus development process.

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Killexams : Supplemental Syllabus Killexams : Supplemental Syllabus

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Killexams : Course Syllabus Information

Research indicates that syllabi can increase student motivation and create equitable learning environments through transparency about key expectations for student learning and engagement. Consistent with the University’s Course Syllabus Policy, all courses at Saint Louis University are expected to have a syllabus, and all syllabi are expected to provide students with basic information about key aspects of the course.

Below are the required syllabus components for all SLU courses, as well as recommended syllabus components and other considerations that can enhance syllabi. Click the down arrows next to each header to expand the text and learn more. 

Please note: Academic units and programs (like the University Core) may require you to include additional information in your syllabus. Please check with program leaders if you need information about additional, program-specific syllabus content you should include. 

Required Syllabus Components

The University's Course Syllabus Policy aims to ensure that all students have access to consistent information about their courses and about University-level policies. The policy identifies nine components that must be a part of every course syllabus. These nine components constitute a minimum; academic units may require additional components, and instructors may choose to include other information. The policy specifies the information that must be included in every course syllabus, but it does not dictate a particular format or order for how this information is presented in a syllabus.  Academic units may require additional components to be included in course syllabi, and individual instructors certainly will want to add other course-specific information, as well. Required syllabus statements are available as a module in the Canvas Commons, for those who wish to import the statements directly into their Canvas courses. Click here for a printer-friendly version.

1. Course Information

a. Course number/section
b. Course meeting time(s) [if applicable]
c. Location [if applicable]
d. Pre-requisites/Co-requisites [if applicable]
e. Catalog Course Description

2. Instructor Information

a. Instructor name (including TA and peer instructors, if applicable)
b. Where, when, and how to contact the instructor

3. Learning

a. List course learning outcomes, objectives, and/or competencies

4. Required Materials and/or Equipment

a. Textbooks and/or course texts
b. Other materials and/or equipment (e.g., calculators, art supplies, lab safety equipment, medical equipment, hardware requirements, software access, virtual proctoring requirements, digital storage devices, special clothing, musical instruments, etc.)

5. Evaluation and Grading

a. List of components on which students will be evaluated (e.g., exams, projects, essays, participation, presentations, etc.)
b. Grading scale(s) governing the course
c. Policy on late or missing work/exams
d. Penalties on missed classes and/or tardiness [if applicable]
e. Catalog Course Description

8. Disability Accommodations

Insert and/or link to the required Disability Accommodations Syllabus Statement
Note: Due to accreditation requirements, regulatory differences, and/or location-specific resources, the School of Law, the School of Medicine, and SLU Madrid have their own standard language for syllabus statements related to disability accommodations. Faculty in those units should seek guidance for syllabus requirements from their dean's office.

9. Title IX

Insert and/or link to the required Title IX Syllabus Statement
Note: Due to accreditation requirements, regulatory differences, and/or location-specific resources, the School of Law, the School of Medicine, and SLU Madrid have their own standard language for syllabus statements related to Title IX. Faculty in those units should seek guidance for syllabus requirements from their dean's office.

Recommended Syllabus Components

In addition to the nine required components listed above, many instructors also find it useful to include information about or guidance on a range of other topics. The following list is drawn from common practices at SLU, as well as from the literature on effective syllabus construction and on creating inclusive courses that support student learning and success. This list is by no means exhaustive or in order of priority. Note: For some academic units, items on this list also may be required. Click here for a printer-friendly version.

Other Course Information
  • An expanded description of the course, its priorities, key concepts, etc.
  • Course schedule with due dates for assignments, exams, reading, and other activities
  • Disclaimer about the possibility of changes to the course schedule
Information about Learning Activities/Assignments
  • Description of informal learning activities students will engage in (e.g., informal in-class activities, participation expectations, service-learning experiences, etc.)
  • Articulation of the link between course assignments/activities and state learning outcomes, objectives, and/or competencies
Additional Information about Academic Honesty
  • Unit-level academic honesty policies and practices [if applicable]
  • Course-specific guidance on academic honesty
  • Statements of professional ethics or codes of conduct [if applicable]
Other Course-Specific Information
  • Insert a basic needs security syllabus statement (like this one, which was developed at SLU to alert students to campus resources for things like food and shelter insecurity)
  • Course etiquette/civility policies or other expectations about interactions between and among members of the class
    • With a significant number of SLU courses now being conducted via various distance education modalities, a University-wide recommended syllabus statement on distance education etiquette is warranted. This statement is recommended for all syllabi for all courses at all locations (except the Madrid Campus) offered by the colleges/schools and other academic units reporting to the University Provost.
  • Information about what will happen in cases of inclement weather
  • Information about relevant safety/security protocols and procedures (e.g., location of eye wash stations, active shooter response, etc.)
  • Distinction between "excused" and "unexcused" absences [if applicable and consistent with University attendance policy]
  • Statement that student work in the course may be used in course/program assessment
  • Information about requirements for experiential/off-campus learning (e.g., liability waiver, background check, internship learning contract, service expectations, etc.)

Other Considerations for Course Syllabi

Below are additional suggestions drawn from the literature on effective syllabus construction and adopted by some SLU instructors. The Reinert Center for Transformative Teaching and Learning can assist instructors who wish to learn more about items on this list. The Reinert Center website also may provide additional information about these considerations. Click here for a printer-friendly version.

Consider Adding a Graphic Syllabus

A graphic/visual representation of the major components of a course can help students connect to the larger purpose of a course and/or to better understand the relationships among the components of the course. Learn more about the content of a graphic syllabus here.

Share your Teaching Philosophy

Sharing a brief description of your philosophy of teaching can give students a way of understanding what they will experience in your course and why.

Articulate What Constitutes Engagement in Your Course

Explaining what constitutes successful "engagement" or "participation" in your course helps to make those expectations explicit and visible for all learners. This can be especially helpful for first-generation and international students, as well as others whose backgrounds may not have prepared them well to understand the "hidden rules" of successful academic engagement.

Share Tips for Success

Consider sharing tips for how to be successful in the course. For example, you might provide guidance on effective study strategies for your particular content area or tips for how to read course content effectively. Generic study or memorizing strategies may not work for your particular discipline or the kinds of concepts or texts you teach. Being transparent about what successful students do in your course or your discipline can help students meet your high expectations.

Thu, 15 Jun 2023 01:05:00 -0500 en text/html Killexams : Syllabus Guidelines

Diversity & Inclusion

Websites with examples of DEI and antiracist statements:

Counseling and Psychological Services (CAPS)

Students may experience stressors that can impact both their academic experience and their personal well-being. These may include academic pressures, relationship challenges, alcohol or other drugs, financial concerns, identity development, body image, etc.

If you are experiencing similar concerns, we encourage you to seek support. Hope College Counseling and Psychological Services (CAPS) is a free and confidential resource. Call 616.395.7945, or visit the top floor of the Bultman Student Center to find the right form of support for you

If the source of your stressors is academic, please contact us or academic advising so we can find solutions together.

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Killexams : Syllabus Statement

In keeping with The New School's policy of providing equal access to individuals with disabilities, instructors are strongly encouraged to include a statement on their syllabus informing students that academic accommodations can be provided on the basis of disability if the student follows the protocol described. The following statement contains all of the elements that should be present. Instructors may want to make changes based on style preference or particular course content. Instructors who need consultation in further developing this statement can contact the director for Disability Services. It is strongly recommended that you also read this statement to the students at the start of each semester when reviewing course policies. Early intervention can make all the difference in helping students achieve academic success. It also shows that the instructor has made a good-faith effort to inform students of their rights and responsibilities in this area and that this effort was made in a timely manner.

Students Disability Services (SDS) assists students with permanent or temporary disabilities in need of academic and programmatic accommodations as required by the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) and Section 504 of the Federal Rehabilitation Act of 1973.

Students with a disability who may need academic accommodations must contact SDS. To register with SDS and begin the request for accommodations, please complete the Disability Self-Identification Form or contact SDS by email at [email protected].

Please note that faculty do not work unilaterally with students to provide accommodations. Accommodation information for instructors must be provided before any arrangements are made through an SDS Accommodation Letter. Students with attendance and/or deadline flexibility needs must contact me to discuss this in advance, so that we can establish guidelines (and include SDS as needed).

Wed, 26 Mar 2014 08:15:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : JEE Main Syllabus 2024 No result found, try new keyword!Physics is one of the major sections of JEE Syllabus 2024. The physics paper will include two sections, sections A and B. Section A will have MCQs and will include the theory part of Physics with ... Tue, 25 Jul 2023 05:49:00 -0500 Killexams : UPSC Political Science Optional Syllabus: download PSIR Syllabus PDF

UPSC Political Science Syllabus: Preparing for UPSC CSE Mains test and optional Political Science and International Relations, then check the topic-wise UPSC Political Science Syllabus for Papers 1 & 2, PDF here.

UPSC Political Science Optional Syllabus 2023: Political Science and International Relations is one of the most popular optional subjects and most common choice of the majority of previous UPSC toppers as the data shows approximately 1300-1800 aspirants choose this optional subject, and approximately 8%-10%of aspirants are placed in the final merit list. However, it is essential to have an inclination or interest towards Political science before finalising it as an optional subject. 

Aspirants must check the Political Science and International Relations (PSIR) Syllabus for UPSC thoroughly and then plan the robust strategy accordingly. As per previous test analysis, it is reported that the questions asked in  Political Science and International Relations subjects are medium level.

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In this blog, we have shared the detailed UPSC PSIR syllabus Pdf along with the preparation strategy and best books to excel in this subject.

UPSC Political Science Optional Syllabus 2023 PDF

The Political Science and International Relations (PSIR) syllabus comprises two papers i.e. Paper I and Paper II. The maximum mark for each paper is 250 marks with a total of 500 marks. Aspirants must check the UPSC Political Science and International Relations syllabus and then pick the right books in order to perform well in the exam. The topic-wise UPSC Political Science and International Relations syllabus for both papers is discussed below.

UPSC IAS Political Science and International Relations Syllabus

Download Here

UPSC Political Science Paper 1 Syllabus

The UPSC Political Science and International Relations Syllabus for Paper I covers syllabus like Political Theory and Indian Politics and Indian Government and Politics. Check the topic-wise UPSC Political Science and International Relations mains Paper I syllabus shared below.

Political Theory and Indian Politics :

  1. Political Theory: meaning and approaches.
  2. Theories of state: Liberal, Neo-liberal, Marxist, Pluiralist, post-colonial and Feminist.
  3. Justice: Conceptions of justice with special reference to Rawl’s theory of justice and its communitarian critiques.
  4. Equality: Social, political and economic; the relationship between equality and freedom; Affirmative action.
  5. Rights: Meaning and theories; different kinds of rights; Concept of Human Rights.
  6. Democracy: Classical and contemporary theories; different models of democracy—representative, participatory and deliberative.
  7. Concept of power: hegemony, ideology and legitimacy.
  8. Political Ideologies: Liberalism, Socialism, Marxism, Fascism, Gandhism and Feminism.
  9. Indian Political Thought: Dharamshastra, Arthashastra and Buddhist Traditions; Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, Sri Aurobindo, M. K. Gandhi, B. R. Ambedkar, M. N. Roy.
  10. Western Political Thought: Plato, Aristotle, Machiavelli, Hobbes, Locke, John S. Mill, Marx, Gramsci, Hannah Arendt.

Indian Government and Politics

  1. Indian Nationalism :

 (a) Political Strategies of India’s Freedom Struggle : Constitutionalism to mass Satyagraha, Noncooperation, Civil Disobedience; Militant and Revolutionary Movements, Peasant and Workers Movements.

 (b) Perspectives on Indian National Movement; Liberal, Socialist and Marxist; Radical Humanist and Dalit.

  1. Making of the Indian Constitution: Legacies of the British rule; different social and political perspectives.
  2. Salient Features of the Indian Constitution: The Preamble, Fundamental Rights and Duties, Directive Principles; Parliamentary System and Amendment Procedures; Judicial Review and Basic Structure doctrine.
  3. (a) Principal Organs of the Union Government: Envisaged role and genuine working of the Executive, Legislature and Supreme Court.

 (b) Principal Organs of the State Government: Envisaged role and genuine working of the Executive, Legislature and High Courts.

  1. Grassroots Democracy : Panchayati Raj and Municipal Government; Significance of 73rd and 74th Amendments; Grassroot movements.
  2. Statutory Institutions/Commissions: Election Commission, Comptroller and Auditor General, Finance Commission; Union Public Service Commission, National Commission for Scheduled Castes, National Commission for Scheduled Tribes, National Commission for Women; National Human Rights Commission, National Commission for Minorities, National Backward Classes Commission.
  3. Federalism: Constitutional provisions; changing nature of centre-state relations; integrationist tendencies and regional aspirations; inter-state disputes.
  4. Planning and Economic Development: Nehruvian and Gandhian perspectives; Role of planning and public sector; Green Revolution, land reforms and agrarian relations; liberalisation and economic reforms.
  5. Caste, Religion and Ethnicity in Indian Politics.
  6. Party System: National and regional political parties, ideological and social bases of parties; Patterns of coalition politics; Pressure groups, trends in electoral behaviour; changing socio-economic profile of Legislators.
  7. Social Movement: Civil liberties and human rights movements; women’s movements; environmentalist movements.

UPSC Political Science Paper 2 Syllabus

The UPSC Political Science and International Relations Syllabus for Paper II covers syllabus like Comparative Political Analysis and International Politics and India and the World. Check the topic-wise UPSC Political Science and International Relations mains Paper II syllabus discussed below.

Comparative Political Analysis and International Politics:

  1. Comparative Politics: Nature and major approaches; Political economy and political sociology perspectives; Limitations of the comparative method.
  2. State in Comparative Perspective: Characteristics and changing nature of the State in capitalist and socialist economies and advanced industrial and developing societies.
  3. Politics of Representation and Participation: Political parties, pressure groups and social movements in advanced industrial and developing societies.
  4. Globalisation: Responses from developed and developing societies.
  5. Approaches to the Study of International Relations: Idealist, Realist, Marxist, Functionalist and Systems theory.
  6. Key Concepts in International Relations: National interest, security and power; Balance of power and deterrence; Transational actors and collective security; World capitalist economy and globalisation.
  7. Changing International Political Order :

(a) Rise of super powers; Strategic and ideological Bipolarity, arms race and cold war; Nuclear threat;

(b) Non-aligned Movement: Aims and achievements.

(c) Collapse of the Soviet Union; Unipolarity and American hegemony; Relevance of non-alignment in the contemporary world.

  1. Evolution of the International Economic System: From Brettonwoods to WTO; Socialist economies and the CMEA (Council for Mutual Economic Assistance); Third World demand for new international economic order; Globalisation of the world economy.
  2. United Nations: Envisaged role and genuine record; Specialized UN agencies—aims and functioning; need for UN reforms.
  3. Regionalisation of World Politics: EU, ASEAN, APEC, AARC, NAFTA.
  4. Contemporary Global Concerns: Democracy, human rights, environment, gender justice, terrorism, nuclear proliferation.

India and the World

  1. Indian Foreign Policy: Determinants of foreign policy; the institutions of policy-making; Continuity and change.
  2. India’s Contribution to the Non-Alignment Movement Different phases; Current role.
  3. India and South Asia :

(a) Regional Co-operation: SAARC-past performance and future prospects.

(b) South Asia as a Free Trade Area.

(c) India’s “Look East” policy.

(d) Impediments to regional cooperation: River water disputes; illegal cross-border migration; Ethnic conflicts and insurgencies; Border disputes.

  1. India and the Global South: Relations with Africa and Latin America; Leadership role in the demand for NIEO and WTO negotiations.
  2. India and the Global Centres of Power: USA, EU, Japan, China and Russia.
  3. India and the UN System: Role in UN Peace-keeping; Demand for Permanent Seat in the Security Council.
  4. India and the Nuclear Question: Changing perceptions and policy.
  5. Recent developments in Indian Foreign Policy: India’s position on the recent crises in Afghanistan, Iraq and West Asia, growing relations with US and Isreal; Vision of a new world order

How to Prepare for UPSC Political Science Syllabus 2023?

Political Science and International Relations is a highly popular optional subject in the UPSC mains exam. It is a common choice among the previous IAS toppers making it a highly competitive subject. With this, they should create an effective UPSC Political science preparation strategy and then study accordingly. Mentioned below are the tips and tricks to cover the entire UPSC Political Science and International Relations syllabus with ease.

  • Analyse Syllabus: One should create a list of important syllabus with the help of the UPSC Political Science and International Relations mains syllabus and assign time to each and every Topic accordingly. 
  • Learn the Basic Concepts: The next tip is to master the concepts of all the syllabus mentioned in the syllabus. For this, they should read the books that are recommended by the experts and previous toppers.
  • Previous Year Papers: Practice UPSC Political Science and International Relations previous year's papers to familiarise yourself with the syllabus and question weightage in the exam.
  • Answer-writing Practice: After covering at least 50% of the syllabus, one should start practising answers in the exam. This will help them to Strengthen their speed of solving questions in less time with accuracy.
  • Attempt Mock Tests: Candidates must attempt mock tests to track the progress of their performance and identify their mistakes. This will help them to focus more on the areas that require improvement.

Booklist for UPSC Political Science Syllabus

A huge variety of UPSC Political Science and International Relations books and resources are available in PDF format and in the local market based on the latest UPSC Political Science and International Relations Mains Syllabus. Let’s look at the paper-wise books for the Political Science and International Relations subject detailed below:

UPSC Political Science Books


Book Name

Paper 1: Section A: Political Theory

An Introduction to Political Theory by O.P Gauba.

A History of Political Thought: Plato to Marx by Subrata Mukherjee and Sushila Ramaswamy.

Political Theory: An Introduction by Rajeev Bhargava and Ashok Acharya, 2nd edition, Pearson.

Western Political Thought: From Socrates to the age of Ideology by Brian. R. Nelson.

Modern Indian Political Thought: Text and Context by Bidyut Chakrabarty and Rajendra Kumar Pandey.

Paper 1: Section B: Indian Government and Politics

Indian Government and Politics by A.S.Narang, Geetanjali Publication

India’s Struggle for Independence by Bipin Chandra.

The Oxford Companion to Politics in India by Niraja Gopal Jayal and Pratap Bhanu Mehta.

Introduction to the Constitution of India by Dr Durga Das Basu.

Paper 2: Section A: Comparative Politics and International Relations

The Globalization of World Politics: An Introduction to International Relations by John Baylis, Steve Smith and Patricia Owens.

IGNOU notes on Comparative Politics.

Theories of Comparative Politics: The Search for a Paradigm Reconsidered by Ronald H. Chilcote.

Global Politics by Andrew Heywood.

Paper 2: Section B: India and the World

International Relations by Mcgraw Hill Education

Indian Foreign Policy: An Overview by Harsh Pant


Which are best books cover UPSC Political Science Mains Optional Syllabus?

Some of the basic books that cover the UPSC Political Science and International Relations syllabus include An Introduction to Political Theory by O.P Gauba, A History of Political Thought: Plato to Marx by Subrata Mukherjee and Sushila Ramaswamy, etc.

How to prepare the UPSC Political Science syllabus?

To prepare well for the Political Science subject, candidates should understand UPSC Political Science and International Relations Syllabus, learn fundamentals and practice unlimited questions from reliable sources.

Is Political Science Syllabus UPSC easy?

Political Science and International Relations is one highly scoring subject among all the optional papers in the UPSC mains exam. As per the past year's analysis, the question asked in Political Science and International Relations papers was medium-level.

What is the UPSC Political Science Optional Syllabus?

The UPSC Political Science and International Relations Syllabus is divided into two papers, i.e., Paper-1 and Paper-2. Paper I covers topics, such i.e. Political Theory and Indian Politics and Indian Government and Politics. Paper II covers syllabus like Comparative Political Analysis and International Politics and India and the World.

Tue, 25 Jul 2023 02:50:00 -0500 text/html
Killexams : Engineering Fundamentals Learning Center

First-Year Engineering Support

The Engineering Fundamentals Learning Center provides assistance (Dillman 208) with day-to-day course homework and concepts in ENG 1001, ENG 1002, ENG 1100, ENG 1101, and ENG 1102. Coaches are also available to help with NX and MATLAB as well as any class projects. Outside of the Learning Center’s hours, Dillman 208 is available to engineering students for engineering classes scheduled between 8 a.m. and 5 p.m.


Appointments are a chance for you to work weekly with a coach on a one-on-one basis. You will have the opportunity to have questions answered about homework, review concepts from class, or study for exams.

How to Sign Up for a Weekly Appointment

Available slots can be found on TimeSlot. If you cannot find a slot that fits into your schedule or need help signing up, please email

Sign Up


Walk-ins provide a chance for you to get some quick help with your first-year engineering classes, MATLAB, or NX. Stop by Dillman 208 anytime during our walk-ins hours (Sunday–Thursday 7–9 p.m.). Walk-ins are only in-person.

Interested in becoming an Engineering Fundamentals Learning Center Coach?

Hiring for the Engineering Fundamentals Learning Center occurs in December for the spring semester and April for the fall semester. For an application, contact

Thu, 13 Aug 2020 13:30:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : The Fundamentals Of Cryptocurrency Investment

(Disclaimer: Author holds investments in ether, bitcoin, EOS and Bitcoin Cash.)

2018 has already been another stellar year for organizations raising money for blockchain and cryptocurrency projects. While initial coin offerings (ICOs) reportedly raised more than $3.69 billion in 2017, the total amount raised this year already stands at a staggering $17.25 billion in late July, according to CoinSchedule.

Should the current trend I've observed in crowdsourced funding for technology companies continue, it will be important for investors to discern the nuances of investing in blockchain technologies and the virtual assets created on top of them, as ICO investors usually receive virtual assets in the form of coins or tokens in return for ether or bitcoin. Here's what you need to know about common blockchains and assets.

Fundamentals Of Currency

To understand cryptocurrencies, investors should first recall the fundamental tenets of currencies: They are typically units of measurement, stores of value and mediums of exchange. Blockchain-based virtual assets — such as cryptographic tokens — often demonstrate these three characteristics of currency. However, as an investor, I advise you to consider if and when these functions are only a byproduct of the objective inscribed by the creators into the asset's software code before investing in a cryptocurrency.

Ethereum's Ether

Ether is a virtual asset on Ethereum. Even in the current bear market, one ether trades at about $292 as of this writing, according to CoinDesk. That puts the market cap of the Ethereum blockchain at $29.66 billion — which isn't far off from the current valuation of NASDAQ-traded Vanguard Total Bond Market ETF.

Ethereum’s Virtual Machine, which allows developers to write programs called "smart contracts," executes if the user makes a payment in its native currency ether. These transaction costs on the Ethereum blockchain are consequently labeled as "gas." Like its real-world counterpart, gasoline, I believe this virtual gas should be valued by investors — not for its currency properties or inherent value but for the utility it fulfills in the Ethereum network. The more applications that are being built and used on the blockchain, the more demand ether is likely to have.


EOS is the virtual asset native to the recently launched blockchain EOS.IO. While providing similar functions as Ethereum, users of the EOS.IO blockchain are not required to pay for transactions in the blockchain’s native asset, "EOS.", which raised a reported $4 billion to fund the launch and rollout of EOS.IO, has according to a July 2018 report allocated about $700 million to grow the EOS.IO ecosystem. Like with other cryptocurrencies, one benefit to investors is that EOS token holders may receive free tokens from projects funded by venture firms supporting blockchain in what is referred to as an airdrop. I believe investors in Ethereum’s ether might also find it valuable to keep at least a small number of EOS in their digital wallets as an easy way to keep track of applications being launched on EOS.IO.

Tokens On The Ethereum Blockchain

The Ethereum blockchain provides an easy-to-navigate, token-generation interface referred to as the ERC20 Token Standard. This standard ensures that all people who control electronic wallets that comply with this standard can receive new tokens generated this way. These tokens can also easily be listed on exchanges that support this Ethereum standard, and most of the more than 200 virtual asset exchanges do.

Tokens created by software engineers on the public Ethereum blockchain are usually coded to fulfill a specific function, such as triggering an event, allowing access or assigning other rights. These tokens are therefore not created as "units of measurement." Consequently, I advise investors to value these tokens according to the overall validity of the system they are being deployed in, using startup investment criteria such as the state of the technology, experience of the team and product market fit. Good starting points for an investor’s research are the LinkedIn profiles of the team members (for qualifications) and activity of the GitHub repository of the project (to track progress). Positive signs are teams led by previously successful technologists and depositories with code development stretching back over a year or more.


The Bitcoin blockchain and its currency, bitcoin (the lower case "b" differentiates the currency from the blockchain and concept), is identified by its original creators in their 2008 whitepaper on the currency as electronic cash (registration required). However, unlike fiat currencies  which are created continuously and as needed by governments — bitcoin's total supply is limited by code to a total of 21 million, making bitcoin inherently scarce. Even though a number of major currencies accept bitcoin as a form of payment, most signals seem to suggest that bitcoin is mostly bought for its "store of value" function. I recommend, therefore, that investors approach bitcoin purchases in the same manner as they would approach the purchase of gold: as a hedge against their stocks or bond holdings.

Pure Cryptocurrencies

A few virtual assets were created for the specific purpose of functioning solely as a cryptocurrency. These cryptocurrencies include Zcash, Dash, Monero and Bitcoin Cash. Zcash publishes transactions on its public blockchain, but the currency's privacy features enable users to conceal the sender, recipient and amount being transacted. Dash  launched as "Darkcoin"  also provides privacy functions to users and is using a self-governed organizational structure referred to as a Decentralized Autonomous Organization.

The value of any currency is mostly determined by the soundness of its monetary policies and inflationary tendencies. Investors seeking to add cryptocurrencies to their portfolio should familiarize themselves with the government models of the blockchains these assets are being created on and follow their specific use cases, which can generally be found in the whitepapers published by these projects. Mainstream adoption, such as when well-known merchants accept the currencies and when U.S. exchanges such as Coinbase add them, is also a positive signal for investors to look as they build a cryptocurrency portfolio.


I believe that blockchains and their applications, such as cryptocurrencies, are likely to play a central role in the future of any investment strategy. However, investing in these assets is not yet well understood. This is likely in part because of their nascent history and because of contradictory handling by government agencies in the U.S. and abroad that seem to incorrectly conflate cryptocurrencies with other blockchain-based assets and functions. I advise investors to look at each blockchain project's individual merits. They should use standard venture investment criteria such as the team or community supporting the technology, the size of the market opportunity and the current development status of the product while differentiating cryptographic currencies from cryptographic assets.

Wed, 29 Aug 2018 00:39:00 -0500 Christian Kameir en text/html
Killexams : Should You Add an AI Policy to Your Syllabus? No result found, try new keyword!When it comes to course and syllabus design, few subjects are as fraught as ChatGPT and other large-language-model tools. In recent months, there’s been no shortage of wild claims: ChatGPT will ... Mon, 31 Jul 2023 07:20:00 -0500 en-US text/html
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