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Exam Code: CWAP-403 Practice test 2022 by team
CWAP-403 Certified Wireless Analysis Professional (CWAP)

Exam Name : Wireless Analysis Professional
Exam Number : CWAP-403 CWAP
Exam Duration : 120 minutes
Questions in test : 60
Passing Score : 70%
Recommended Training : Official Wi-Fi Analysis Self Study Kit
Training Class
Exam Registration : PEARSON VUE
Real Questions : CWNP CWAP-403 Real Questions
VCE practice test : CWNP Certified Wireless Analysis Professional Practice Test

Protocol Analysis 15%
1. Capture 802.11 frames using the appropriate methods and locations
- Install monitor mode drivers
- Select appropriate capture device
- Select appropriate capture location
- Capture for an appropriate amount of time based on the problem scenario
- Scanning channels vs. capturing on a single channel
- Capturing in roaming scenarios
- Capture with portable protocol analyzers (laptops)
- Capture with APs, controllers, and other management solutions
- Capture with specialty devices such as handheld analyzers

2. Analyze 802.11 frame captures to discover problems and find solutions
- Use appropriate display filters to view relevant frames and packets
- Use colorization to highlight important frames and packets
- Configure and display columns for analysis purposes
- View frame and packet decodes and understand the information shown and apply it to the analysis process
- Use multiple adapters and channel aggregation to view captures from multiple channels
- Implement protocol analyzer decryption procedures
- View and use captures statistical information for analysis
- Use expert mode for analysis
- View and understand peer maps as they relate to communications analysis

3. Understand and apply the common capture configuration parameters available in protocol analysis tools
- Save to disk
- Packet slicing
- Event triggers
- Buffer options
- Channels and channel widths
- Capture filters
- Channel scanning and dwell time

4. Utilize additional tools that capture 802.11 frames for the purposes of analysis and troubleshooting
- WLAN scanners and discovery tools
- Protocol capture visualization and analysis tools
- Centralized monitoring, alerting and forensic tools

5. Ensure appropriate troubleshooting methods are used with all analysis types
- Define the problem
- Determine the scale of the problem
- Identify probably causes
- Capture and analyze the data
- Observe the problem
- Choose appropriate remediation steps
- Document the problem and resolution

Spectrum Analysis 15%
1. Capture RF spectrum data and understand the common views available in spectrum analyzers
- Install, configure and use spectrum analysis software and hardware
Configure Wi-Fi integration
Save and export capture data
- Capture RF spectrum data using handheld, laptop-based and infrastructure spectrum capture solutions
- Understand and use spectrum analyzer views
Real-time FFT
Waterfall, swept spectrogram, density and historic views
Utilization and duty cycle
Detected devices
WLAN integration views

2. Analyze spectrum captures to identify relevant RF information and issues
- Determine the RF noise floor in an environment
- Determine Signal-to-Noise Ration (SNR) for a given signal
- Locate and identify sources of RF interference
- Identify RF channel utilization
- Analyze a non-Wi-Fi transmitter and its impact on WLAN communications
- Overlapping and non-overlapping adjacent channel interference
- Poor performing or faulty radios

3. Analyze spectrum captures to identify various device signatures
- Identify frequency hopping devices
- Identify various 802.11 PHYs
Channel widths
Primary channel
- Identify non-802.11 devices based on RF behaviors and signatures
Microwave oven
Video devices
Cordless phones

4. Centralized spectrum analysis solutions
- AP-based spectrum analysis
- Sensor-based spectrum analysis

PHY Layers and Technologies 10%
1. Understand and describe the functions and the PLCP and PMD sublayers 2. Apply the understanding of PHY technologies (including PHY headers, preambles, training fields, frame aggregation and data rates) to captured data
- HT

3. Identify and use PHY information provided in pseudo-headers within protocol analyzers
- Pseudo-header formats
Per Packet Information (PPI)
- Signal strength
- Data rate and MCS index
- Length information
- Channel center frequency or received channel
- Channel properties
- Noise

4. Recognize the limits of protocol analyzers in capturing PHY information including NULL data packets and PHY headers 5. Use appropriate capture devices based on an understanding of PHY types
- Supported PHYs
- Supported spatial streams
- Short Guard Interval (SGI)

MAC Sublayer and Functions 25%
1. Understand frame encapsulation and frame aggregation
2. Identify and use MAC information in captured data for analysis
- Management, control, and data frames
- MAC Frame Format
Frame Control Field
To DS and From DS
Address Fields
Frame Check Sequence (FCS)
- 802.11 Management Frame Formats
Information Elements
Association and Reassociation
Probe Request and Probe Response
- Data and QoS Data Frame Formats
- 802.11 Control Frame Formats
Block Acknowledgement and related frames

3. Validate BSS configuration through protocol analysis
- Country code
- Minimum basic rate
- Supported rates
- Beacon intervals
- WMM settings
- RSN settings
- HT and VHT operations
- Channel width
- Primary channel
- Hidden or non-broadcast SSIDs

4. Identify and analyze CRC error frames and retransmitted frames

WLAN Medium Access 10%
1. Understand 802.11 contention algorithms in-depth and know how they impact WLANs
- Distributed Coordination Function (DCF)
Carrier Sense and Energy Detect
Network Allocation Vector (NAV)
Contention Window (CW) and random backoff
Interframe Spacing
- Enhanced Distributed Channel Access (EDCA)
EDCA Function (EDCAF)
Access Categories and Queues
- Wi-Fi Multimedia (WMM)
WMM parameters
WMM Power Save
WMM Admission Control

2. Analyze QoS configuration and operations
- Verify QoS parameters in capture files
- Ensure QoS is implemented end-to-end

802.11 Frame Exchanges 25%
1. Capture, understand, and analyze BSS discovery and joining frame exchanges
- BSS discovery
- 802.11 Authentication and Association
- 802.1X/EAP exchanges
- Pre-shared key authentication
- Four-way handshake
- Group key exchange
- Pre-FT (802.11r) fast secure roaming mechanisms
- Fast BSS Transition (FT) roaming exchanges and fast secure roaming
- Hotspot 2.0 protocols and operations from a client access perspective (ANQP and initial access)
- Neighbor discovery

2. Analyze roaming behavior and resolve problems related to roaming
- Sticky clients
- Excessive roaming
- Channel aggregation for roaming analysis

3. Analyze data frame exchanges
- Data frames and acknowledgement frames
- RTS/CTS data frame exchanges
- QoS data frame exchanges
- Block Acknowledgement exchanges

4. Analyze HT/VHT-specific transmission methods
- Transmit Beamforming (TxBF)
- Frame aggregation (A-MSDU and A-MPDU)

5. Analyze behavior and resolve problems related to MAC layer operations
- Power Save operations
- Protection mechanisms
- Load balancing
- Band Steering

Certified Wireless Analysis Professional (CWAP)
CWNP Professional history
Killexams : CWNP Professional history - BingNews Search results Killexams : CWNP Professional history - BingNews Killexams : National Naval Officers Association celebrates 50th anniversary

Tuesday, August 2, 2022
Scott WyKoff, WBAL NewsRadio 1090 and FM 101.5

The National Naval Officers Association celebrated its 50th anniversary at The Westin Annapolis last week.

Founded in 1972 in Annapolis, the National Naval Officers Association supports the Navy and other sea services in recruiting, retraining and developing a diverse corps. Led by new president and retired Rear Admiral Cedric Pringle, the association works closely with minority communities and educational institutions.

Upwards of 500 attended the conference of current and retired Naval officers. Pringle said the association played a huge role in his career.

"It's extremely cool," Pringle said. "I tell you what in a way has been a key part of not only my career as a retired Navy admiral, but also literally thousands of others who stood on the shoulders of those who founded it in 1972 right here in Annapolis and still continue to benefit from it every single day."

LISTEN: Rear Admiral Cedric Pringle speaks with WBAL NewsRadio's Scott Wykoff

Navy Commander and former association president, Denise McCallaCreary, was the first woman to be elected president of the National Naval Officers Association in the organization's history. She has been with the association since 1982.

"When I joined the National Naval Officers Association in 1982, it was literally my lifeline that helped me through the mentorship and professional training to get me to the rank I am," McCallaCreary said. "So it was an honor to serve I feel like I'm giving back to the association and all that they gave me and pretty much contributed to the quality of life I'm living."

LISTEN: Navy Commander Denise McCallaCreary, speaks with WBAL NewsRadio's Scott Wykoff

Since its inception, the National Naval Officers Association has been supported by the US Naval Academy.

Tue, 02 Aug 2022 07:54:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Pritzker should consider granting clemency for prisoner hoping to get Ph.D.

Johnny Pippins has served 26 years of a 30-year prison sentence for shooting and killing a man he tried to rob with his brother and others in Rock Island in 1996.

He now wants to be a free man, so he can pursue his Ph.D. in sociology at the University of Iowa, which has offered him a full scholarship.

But Pippins, now 52, can't pursue his doctorate — the program has to be completed in person — unless Gov. J.B. Pritzker grants him clemency and an early release.

We urge the governor to strongly consider the request. Time is running out. Pippins’ story of redemption — told in a story published by WBEZ in partnership with the nonprofit newsroom Open Campus — is a testament to the power of education to transform prisoners willing to put in the work of turning their lives around.

It’s unclear whether Pritzker will move forward with Pippins’ application for clemency, and his office hadn't returned our call Monday to tell us what he has planned. But the clock is ticking, since the program Pippins has been accepted into starts Aug. 22, and he cannot ask the university for an extension.

Meanwhile, clemency hearings in Illinois were put on hold earlier this year after state senators rejected two of Pritzker’s nominees to the Prisoner Review Board. The governor has also faced backlash for other pardons involving people who were charged with serious crimes.

But if any prisoner has a solid argument for being released, it seems to us, it’s Pippins. He earned his undergraduate degree at Adams State University and a master's degree in statistical science from the University of Idaho while he was behind bars.

Pippins loved studying as a child. But growing up with an abusive father and in a family that moved often, he got lured into a life of crime. In prison, he turned back to education and earned the free ride for a Ph.D. program — not an easy feat for anyone, let alone an inmate.

Pippins has expressed remorse for his crime, and murder and its consequences should never be taken lightly. The feelings of the victim’s family must also be taken into consideration.

But what also needs to be taken into account is the Rock Island County state's attorney has not filed an objection to Pippins’ clemency petition. Pippins also has the backing of correctional officers and a number of professors.

Men and women who leave prison are expected to be productive members of society, which is a challenge with a criminal record and very little, if any, professional experience. Pippins is on his way to meeting that challenge.

What he needs is a chance to finish.

Want to write a letter to the editor or submit an op-ed for the Sun-Times?See our guidelines.

Mon, 01 Aug 2022 13:00:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Hanover NAACP asks county leaders to reconsider school board appointments

The Hanover NAACP is asking the county board of supervisors to reconsider the appointment of school board members who the organization says have made comments and taken actions opposed to the school division’s goals and mission.

In a Monday open letter, the chapter also asked the supervisors, along with the school board, to participate in professional development instruction in diversity, equity and inclusion related to public education.

Hanover is one of a handful of localities in Virginia where school board members are appointed rather than elected. Each board member is appointed by one of the seven county supervisors and serves a four-year term.

“A new direction is needed,” said Patricia Hunter-Jordan, president of the Hanover NAACP, in the Monday letter. 

“Hanover County’s future will be brighter and more successful with a school division whose board exemplifies and prioritizes diversity, inclusion, and equity,” she wrote. 

The NAACP chapter claimed that certain members of the school board “failed to show respect and understanding of true and inclusive American and Hanover history, and latest current events as they relate to a diverse population, specifically Black and brown students,” “publicly shared false health information” and showed “unwillingness to separate religion from division policy decisions and interactions with the public.”

The chapter pointed in particular to the school board advocating for the removal from school libraries of a book by a Black author that described the experiences of Black Americans and its legal and policy consultation with two anti-LGBTQ groups, the Alliance Defending Freedom and the Family Foundation.

The organization also said it was concerned with the “non-transparent” appointment process, specifically with the appointment of School Board Member John Redd of the Mechanicsville District, who declined to comment on the chapter’s claims to the Virginia Mercury. 

Redd previously served on the school board in the early 1980s before being appointed with a 5-2 vote by the Board of Supervisors last year.

Monday’s open letter said that emails obtained through a Virginia Freedom of Information Act request “show that Mr. Redd’s motivation to seek the seat was in part sparked by his anger over the name changes” made to division schools in 2020. 

In that year, the Hanover School Board renamed two schools formerly known as Lee-Davis High School and Stonewall Jackson Middle School to Mechanicsville and Bell Creek, respectively, as part of a broader push across the state to rename public institutions honoring Confederate officers. 

The chapter claimed that Redd is “unwilling or unable to understand the harm inflicted by the schools’ original names” and  is determined to “punish the community for his hurt feelings through petty agitation over school names in the future.” 

Additionally, the chapter claimed the emails show Redd’s “contempt and harsh religion-based judgment toward not only those who seek social justice and inclusive, honest history instruction … but also toward members of the LGBTQ community, with special venom directed at transgender students.”

The Hanover School Board is currently facing a lawsuit for failing to adopt policies protecting transgender students in accordance with state law and the Virginia Department of Education’s model policies.

Redd was not the only school board member identified in the Monday letter. The Hanover NAACP also claimed that School Board Chair John Axselle III referred to Black people as “colored people” in a 2021 meeting with a parent, opposed students practicing stories from diverse perspectives and did not see a benefit in diversifying teaching staff to increase minority representation.

Axselle did not immediately respond for comment.

Hanover NAACP Open Letter HCPS Board H BoS
Tue, 26 Jul 2022 01:21:00 -0500 Nathaniel Cline en-US text/html
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