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Nortel Data Networking Technology
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Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol was created to help to overcome the slow convergence
time of 802.1D Spanning Tree. Which statement about Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol is
false?
A. It changes path costs.
B. It uses designated forwarding ports.
C. It decreases the number of port states.
D. It does not block ports like Spanning Tree Protocol does.
Answer: D
Question: 57
Click on the exhibit button.
The Ethernet Switch has three port-based VLANs. Ports 1-3 are in VLAN 1. Ports 4-6 are
in VLAN 2. Ports 7-10 are in VLAN 3. PC A sends a broadcast packet. Which PCs will
see the broadcast?
A. Port 3 on PC B
B. Ports 5, 6 on PC C
C. Port 8 on PC D
D. Ports 9, 10 on PC E
Answer: A
Question: 58
Some Nortel Ethernet Switches and Ethernet Routing Switches use an alternate frame
processing method that allows you to configure four different Ethernet egress options.
One of these options is Untag PVID only. Which statement best describes this option?
18
A. All frames that exit the port will be tagged.
B. All frames that exit the port will be untagged.
C. All frames that are on the same VLAN as the egress port VLAN ID will be tagged,
and all others will be untagged.
D. All frames that are on the same VLAN as the egress port VLAN ID will be untagged,
and all others will be tagged.
Answer: D
Question: 59
With respect to the function of the IEEE 802.1s Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol
(MSTP), which statement is false?
A. MSTP creates a separate spanning tree group for each VLAN.
B. Each VLAN runs the Spanning Tree algorithm only within the VLAN.
C. The MSTI messages allow each spanning tree group to support multiple VLANs.
D. The default spanning tree group in MSTP is called the Common and Internal Spanning
Tree (CIST).
Answer: B
Question: 60
Occasionally, a switch will receive frames faster than it can process them. The buffers on
the switch become congested, and the switch begins to discard incoming frames because
it has no place to store them. If 802.3x flow control is supported, what is the resultant
behavior in a congestion situation?
A. Switches become overloaded.
B. Switch buffer congestion results.
C. The receiving switches send pause frames to slow incoming traffic.
D. The receiving switches discard frames until the overloaded condition is resolved.
Answer: B
Question: 61
An Ethernet switch connects to the core switch with two fiber ports in a link aggregation
group created through LACP. One of the fiber connections was damaged, and the
network administrator wants to create a link aggregation group with the remaining fiber
19
link and two of the copper ports. Which constraint on the link aggregation group must the
administrator be aware of?
A. Links in a link aggregation group may combine multiple speeds and media types.
B. Links in a link aggregation group must operate at the same speed and use the same
media type.
C. Links in a link aggregation group must use the same speed, but can combine multiple
media types.
D. Links in a link aggregation group must use the same media type, but can combine
multiple speeds.
Answer: B
Question: 62
Click on the exhibit button.
PC1 sends a packet to Srv2. The destination address for the frame is 00-00-0c-06-41-7c.
If the address was not in the forwarding database of switch 2, how would the switch 2
treat the packet?
A. Switch 2 would arp to find Srv2.
B. Switch 2 would drop the packet.
C. Switch 2 would flood the packet out all ports.
D. Switch 2 would forward the packet out T1, because that is its default route.
Answer: C
Question: 63
Click on the exhibit button.
20
Four PCs are connected to a switch. PC A needs to communicate with PC D. Which
statement is false?
A. If PC D sends a unicast packet to PC A, PC B and PC C will not see traffic.
B. If PC A sends a unicast packet to PC D, PC B and PC C will see traffic.
C. If PC A issues an ARP to discover the MAC address of PC D, PC B and PC C will see
traffic.
D. f PC A sends a unicast packet to PC D, PC B and PC C will not see traffic.
Answer: B
21
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Nortel Networking helper - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/920-805 Search results Nortel Networking helper - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/920-805 https://killexams.com/exam_list/Nortel Nortel Continues Channel Push In 2008

Nortel Networks is promising 2008 will see more enhancements to its channel program as the Toronto-based vendor adds new training specializations, focuses more on value over volume and enhances its relationships with distributors.

The updates come as Nortel builds upon the two-year plan it launched last March to re-invigorate its stable of VARs and distributors.

David Wilkinson, Nortel's vice president of North American channel strategy, said 2007's decision to revamp its once "unpredictable" Partner Advantage channel program business model resulted in the networking vendor focusing more on value than on volume, downplaying its product breadth and volume thresholds for partner rewards and keying in on the value partners can offer. Wilkinson said roughly 85 percent of Nortel's business goes to the channel in the enterprise space.

Where 2007 saw Nortel's discount structure change to better reward partners who were growing year over year, 2008 will continue on that path, Wilkinson said. Volume will still be rewarded; it just won't be the sole criteria for determining which tier partners fall into. Nortel currently has three partner levels: advantage, premium and elite. Going forward, partner ranking will be based on expertise and specializations along with growth and performance, not just on volume of business, Wilkinson said.

Putting more emphasis on value for its more than 600 contracted solution providers, Wilkinson said, Nortel will continue to offer one discount tied to partner level and then offer a different discount that reflects volume, meaning more partners will get higher discounts.

"We're really looking to drive mutual profitable growth for Nortel and our resellers," he said. "The infrastructure around our Partner Advantage Program wasn't adequate. We had this partner program, but it wouldn't scale."

Scott Davis, executive director of Broken Arrow, Ok.-based solution provider Xeta Technologies, said Nortel's new approach to how it will reward technical and vertical expertise will help him and other Nortel partners be competitive in their respective markets, ensuring resellers get a return on their investments.

"We are very excited to see this program become more formalized," he said.

By the close of the first half of this year, John Stasick, Nortel's director of channel management, said the vendor will offer a total of between six and 10 training specializations, another channel initiative that started last year when Nortel announced its advanced services, unified communications and SMB training specializations. A reseller's partner status is partly based on the number of specializations held by its staff.

The first new specialization for 2008 will be in advanced data -- a culmination of lab work and classroom work on Nortel's higher-level data products and switches -- with others to soon follow. Neither Stasick nor Wilkinson could say specifically what other specializations are on tap.

Stasick said Nortel's training specializations, which focus not only on the technical side, but on the practical side, are in response to market trends and partner needs and can ultimately help Nortel partners round out the skill sets they need to offer their end customers up to date and useful solutions and services.

While technical competency is still a large component, Nortel's specializations also have a "street smart component," Stasick said, meaning partners must have practical experience with solution sets. He said just recognizing the technical component is like recognizing a heart surgeon who reads the text books but has yet to perform an real procedure.

NEXT: Nortel Enhances Distributor Relationship

So far, Wilkinson said, the specializations Nortel has offered are based on 70 percent to 80 percent of the feedback it's received from the partner community.

Davis said specializations help him ensure he has a cross-trained workforce.

"These specializations reward you on the investment you've made in the expertise of your staff," he said. "It allows us to maintain our Nortel competency at an elite designation without all of the empty calories. We invest in our workforce and this is a way for us to get a greater return on our investment."

While Davis said the training specializations are a big boost to Nortel's channel program, he would like to see some more added into the mix. For example, a wireless specialization would help Xeta as wireless becomes more prevalent and reaches a mass adoption phase. Davis said he'd also like to see more vertically focused specializations like lodging and hospitality, health care and finance.

"We would find those very valuable," he said.

As for the new advanced data specialization, Davis said solution providers who haven't nailed down such a specialty will miss out in the future.

"Any company that's not specialized in data in my market has to hang it up," he said.

Along with adding to its lineup of training specializations, Nortel also expects to expand its relationships with distributors, including Westcon, Tech Data, Ingram Micro and Synnex. While VARs will still have direct contacts within Nortel, Wilkinson said the vendor is better aligning its commercial relationships and programs with distributors with the programs it offers resellers.

Wilkinson said Nortel's distribution model was based on a flat fee structure in the past and 2008 will see that program add in more features of the reseller model, ensuring distributors are better rewarded based on partner satisfaction and value. Nortel will also better reward distributors that grow their reseller segments.

"This is one area Nortel has been lagging in, historically," Davis said. "Look at some of the other manufacturers that have found ways to integrate VADs in the value chain and supply chain. Nortel has always been hesitant on that."

Nortel, this year, Davis said, will better embrace distributors and how they can serve their resellers.

"Nortel is really driving that value point," he said. "They really want the VAD to stand in front and let them be the supply chain to their resellers. It's more efficient for everyone involved."

For Xeta, Davis said, it's more attractive to do business with distributors than with Nortel directly, since he goes through the same distributors for solutions from other vendors. Using one distributor, Davis said, boosts his economies of scale while it can also be better for trade credit and financing options.

"It's a neat deal for us strategically, from a business standpoint," he said.

Overall, Wilkinson said, Nortel's goal for 2008 is to simplify and motivate the channel to feel more invested in Nortel and its potential successes, making them integral partners. As Nortel moves into 2008, Wilkinson said the vendor will continue to focus on investing in the channel, maintaining the customer experience and reducing complexity.

"We're trying to make it simple and enable market velocity," he said.

Mon, 11 Dec 2023 21:26:00 -0600 text/html https://www.crn.com/news/networking/205210498/nortel-continues-channel-push-in-2008
Is This Nortel's Year?

If you can count a revamped channel program, a powerful partnership with the world's largest software company and an inspiring new CEO as celestial bodies, then it seems the stars are finally aligned for Nortel Networks.

It's a cosmic occurrence that the company's channel partners have been hoping for: signs that the beleaguered telecommunications company has the wherewithal to recover from the accounting scandal, financial woes and executive turnover that have plagued it since the burst of the dot-com bubble. And signs, more specifically, that the company's languishing enterprise strategy and the channel partnerships that drive it are getting some much- needed attention.

The biggest star on the Nortel horizon these days is undoubtedly President and CEO Mike Zafirovski—or Mike Z., as he's commonly called—who is set this week to unveil a beefed-up unified communications product line at VoiceCon Spring 2007. Zafirovski joined the company 16 months ago, bringing with him a reputation for business acumen and vision honed at his previous gig as president and COO of Motorola—where the crazy-popular RAZR mobile phone debuted under his watch and revitalized the company's handset business—and throughout a 25-year career at General Electric, where he worked closely with Chairman and CEO Jack Welch.

Solution providers say they are seeing evidence of a channel revival at Nortel, and they credit Zafirovski for the resurgence.

"It's clearly happened since Zafirovski hit town," said Tony Parella, president and CEO of Shared Technologies, a Nortel partner in Dallas that's on track to hit approximately $300 million in Nortel-related revenue this year, up from approximately $220 million in 2006. "I think before that, they had no direction. They were lost for a few years trying to dig out of their accounting problems."

Zafirovski is the first to admit that the company's enterprise strategy needs work, and he is reaching out to the channel to help put it back on track, noting that 90 percent of Nortel's enterprise business comes through partners.

"I articulated on our first earnings call that we have very good products but haven't done a good job selling and marketing those products, as well as working closely with our partners," Zafirovski said.

With that in mind, Zafirovski has anointed Nortel's enterprise business as one of his top three focus areas for improvement and growth in 2007, along with a push toward next-generation mobility and convergence and plans to grow services revenue.

"We'll be working pretty much all of this year to significantly enhance our capabilities in the enterprise space," Zafirovski said. "One of the things we're looking at specifically is increasing the velocity of new products—that's No. 1. No. 2 would be working to go from playing defense to playing offense, which includes a very bold relationship with Microsoft, and working closely with our channel partners on programs like IPT 1-2-3, where we are accelerating and simplifying the process of going from PBXes to VoIP." Partners will benefit from all of those steps, he said.

"In totality, the overall experience for our channel partners will be significantly better than it ever has been before," he said.

As part of that commitment, Zafirovski plans this week to unveil new enterprise products at VoiceCon, run by CRN parent CMP Technology, where he is scheduled to deliver a keynote. Set to debut at the Orlando, Fla., show is version 5.0 of Nortel's Communication Server (CS) 1000 IP-PBX platform. With the release, scheduled for availability in the second quarter, Nortel is opening the software to run on industry-standard servers and rolling out simplified pricing. It is also adding integration between its Multimedia Communication Server 5100 and IBM Lotus Notes. New networking gear, the Ethernet Routing Switch 2500 and 4500, will also launch. The family includes Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet switches, advanced quality of service features and support for Power over Ethernet.

NEXT: Nortel's updated partner program

The product debuts follow the March 1 launch of an updated Partner Advantage channel program that puts more emphasis on the value its 600-plus contracted solution providers bring to the table, incorporates rewards for both breadth and depth of expertise instead of just breadth, removes caps on growth incentives and adds a deal-registration initiative.

With the changes, Nortel is rewarding both volume and value by offering one discount that's tied to partner level and a separate discount that's tied to volume, said Eric Schoch, vice president of North American enterprise marketing, channels and distribution, at Nortel, Toronto. The change will increase discounts for many Nortel solution providers. For example, approximately 40 percent of the company's 143 top-level Elite partners will earn higher margins as a result of the new structure, he said.

Nortel also plans in July to publish new criteria for its Advantage, Premier and Elite partner levels, which should open up Elite status by eliminating the requirement for partners in that category to represent Nortel's entire portfolio, he said.

The company has also uncapped back-end rebates of 2 percent to 5 percent given to partners that grow their Nortel revenue. Previously, the initiative had both a floor and a ceiling. "We're now paying for every dollar of growth," Schoch said.

In addition, a deal-registration initiative offers a 5 percent incremental discount across Nortel's enterprise portfolio for new business brought in through the program.

"I am budgeted to spend 15 percent to 20 percent more in discounts and rebates to my partner base in 2007, and that could go up based on their performance," he said.

This will help address one of Nortel's highest hurdles: the buildup of data/voice convergence skills in its partner base.

"Many of their partners are not stepping up to the new converged environment. TDM [Time Division Multiplexing] is the only way they know," said Kristian Guntzelman, chief innovation officer at G and G Interconnects, a former Nortel partner in Cincinnati that now works with Avaya.

Schoch concedes that many of Nortel's partners have struggled to make a full transformation to convergence but said the new incentives as well as free sales training are helping.

The company is in a good position to make a comeback, said Frank Kobuszewski, vice president of the technology solutions group at Syracuse, N.Y.-based CXtec, which sells convergence solutions based on 3Com, Cisco Systems and Nortel products.

"I'm more optimistic than I have been in a long time," said Kobuszewski. CXtec's Cisco solutions are its top convergence seller with Nortel at No. 2, he said. While Cisco outsells Nortel 2 to 1, the interest level in Nortel is on the rise, he said.

"Customers with traditional Nortel telephony in place are asking more now about sticking with Nortel and upgrading with Nortel rather than just ripping it all out and going with Cisco," Kobuszewski said. Cause for more optimism is the fact that 75 percent of CXtec's Nortel customers are still running legacy gear, leaving a huge opportunity for VoIP migration, he said.

Nortel's fourth-quarter U.S. IP telephony sales rose 34 percent year over year. The company maintained its No. 3 spot but outpaced No. 2 Avaya, which grew 22 percent, according to Synergy Research Group. "If Nortel can continue to build on its success, you will see them eat at the market share of the others and we'll see a fight at the top between three players instead of just Cisco and Avaya," said Ryan Olsen, Synergy senior analyst.

NEXT: The Microsoft alliance

Help in driving market-share gains should come from the Innovative Communications Alliance (ICA) Nortel formed with Microsoft last summer to bring joint unified communications solutions to market. That deal is expected to add $1 billion in new revenue to Nortel's coffers through 2009 from product sales and services, and the channel is a key part of the plan.

"The future for our customers is integrating the desktop with the network with the applications, and if our channel partners can't do that, they'll never be able to meet the needs of these transforming enterprises," said Dion Joannou, president of Nortel's North American business. "So we're working very hard with them and with Microsoft to get them trained, to make sure they understand the road map and to link them up with Microsoft partners as well so we have an ecosystem."

The first offerings from ICA are scheduled for availability this year, starting with the CS 1000 integration with Microsoft's wares, followed by other rollouts in the fourth quarter.

Nortel partners and the industry are anxiously awaiting the release of these products to find out just how real the partnership is and how big of a threat it will be to Cisco and Avaya.

"It remains to be seen how serious Microsoft really is or how long Nortel will be the Microsoft favorite," said Robert Keblusek, senior vice president of business development at Sentinel Technologies, a Cisco and Microsoft partner in Downers Grove, Ill. The Microsoft partnership could be a game-changer for Nortel, but Cisco still has an advantage because of its vast experience in the IP space and the integration of its communications products with its routers and switches, he said.

Partners will also see new products this year stemming from a 25 percent increase in R&D spending from 2005 to 2006 and a shift of almost $100 million in R&D funds from the carrier side to the enterprise side of the house, Joannou said. Products from Nortel's joint venture with Korea-based LG Electronics will also hit the North American market this year, including low-end key systems, video phones, SIP phones and in-home WiMAX products, he said.

With Nortel's channel and product pieces seemingly falling into place, Zafirovski is also turning attention to the vendor's service business, which now accounts for 20 percent of the company's roughly $11 billion in sales. "We want to double that as a percentage of revenue over the next three to five years."

The plan raises the specter of channel conflict, but Zafirovski said Nortel's services will be largely complementary to what its solution providers are offering.

He's also still working to settle down Nortel's financial house, which is still not entirely in order. The company last week said it will issue another restatement of earnings and delay the filing of its 2006 annual report. In February the company said it will cut 2,900 jobs throughout the next two years and will shift 1,000 positions to lower-cost locations. That disclosure came one day after the company said Executive Vice President and CFO Peter Currie will step down at the end of April.

Nortel partners said they are unfazed by the departure and just want Zafirovski to continue on the path he has laid out.

"It has come across for the customers that he's doing good things, but speed up. Don't waste time," said Kobuszewski. "The window is continuing to close, and Cisco knows that." So does Mike Z.

Sun, 04 Mar 2007 15:00:00 -0600 text/html https://www.crn.com/news/networking/197700799/is-this-nortels-year
Salvatore Falletta, EdD

Dr. Salvatore Falletta joined Drexel in 2009 and serves as a Clinical Professor of Human Resource Development, Educational Leadership and Management, and Quantitative Methods. Dr. Falletta is currently Program Director for Human Resource Development (HRD) and was the former Director for the HRD program from 2009 to 2014.

Dr. Falletta has over 20 years’ experience in human resources, learning and development, and organization development. Prior to Drexel, he was a Vice President and Chief HR Officer for a Fortune 1000 firm based in the Silicon Valley and has held management positions in human resources at several best-in-class companies, including Nortel Networks, Alltel, Intel Corporation, SAP AG, and Sun Microsystems respectively. While at Intel, Dr. Falletta led the global employee survey program, performed leadership development assessments and organizational behavior research studies, and participated in corporate HR strategy efforts. He also led the learning measurement and evaluation function at Nortel Network's Technical Education Centers. Prior to his corporate career, Dr. Falletta was an administrator at Indiana State University and served over 10 years in the U.S. Air Force (USAF).

Dr. Falletta frequently presents at conferences and has authored or co-authored several books, book chapters, and articles. His research interests include the ethical and privacy issues associated with HR, people, talent, workforce, and learning analytics, evidence-based management and practice, HRD measurement and evaluation models, workforce development, organizational diagnostic models, employee engagement, leader engagement and disengagement, and workforce surveys.

Dr. Falletta is an active member the Academy of Human Resource Development, American Educational Research Association, American Evaluation Association, Association for Talent Development, HR People and Strategy, Society for Human Resource Management, and the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology.

On a personal note, Dr. Falletta was a nationally ranked track runner (1500 and 5000 meters) at the NCAA Division I level during 1980s. He resides in Northern California with his wife (Wendy) and daughter (Sabrina).

Wed, 10 Oct 2018 05:54:00 -0500 en text/html https://drexel.edu/soe/faculty-and-staff/faculty/Falletta-Salvatore/
Wireless Networks at UW

Information Technology provides wireless data network access( IEEE 802.11b/g) in most campus locations (see the Wireless Location Map for currently covered locations). IEEE 802.11a and IEEE 802.11n are provided in areas with high usage or where there is interference in the 802.11b/g frequency range.

Access Methods

  • UWyo – recommended wireless network for UW students, faculty, and staff
  • UWguest – recommended network for UW guests

Additional Details:

  • UWyo utilizes IEEE 802.1x and WPA2. This means that the user’s authentication is very secure and all data that transits over the wireless network is encrypted. Users authenticate via their normal UW username and password. Once properly configured, users can access the wireless network automatically without having to enter a username or password – nor having to select any preferences. This is as convenient as plugging into a hard wired port. UWyo offers network services equivalent to wired ports on the UW data network.

    Instructions for using UWyo.

  • UWguest is an open network. Users authenticate by entering their email address on a captive portal webpage. Once authenticated, users can access the public data network – but cannot access private UW resources that are behind the UW firewall, unless they subsequently create a VPN connection back into UW. Data is not encrypted unless users establish a VPN connection. For example, visiting Professors are encouraged to create a VPN session back to their home institution.

Note: installation and configuration information and procedures are subject to change. Additional help with the installation and configuration of UW-supported software is available:

Faculty/Staff
Contact the IT Help Desk at 766-HELP (4357), option 1.
E-mail Userhelp@uwyo.edu.

Students
E-mail ASU-IT@uwyo.edu.
Contact the IT Help Desk at 766-HELP (4357), option 1.
Come to the student computer lab in the lobby of the Information Technology Center.

Mon, 20 May 2013 07:29:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.uwyo.edu/infotech/services/network/wireless/
How to set up a mesh network with NordVPN Meshnet No result found, try new keyword!Read More. NordVPN has many great features that help you stay safe when doing anything online. NordVPN is one of the most recommended VPNs. It has a unique feature known as Meshnet, which allows you ... Tue, 02 Jan 2024 09:59:00 -0600 https://www.androidpolice.com/nordvpn-meshnet-set-up-guide/ Network services in 2024: 3 off-the-wall ideas

If not VPNs, then what? These three ideas for connectivity might change the network future by rethinking the traditional service provider concept.

“The tusks which clashed in mighty brawls
Of mastodons, are billiard balls.”

So the poet Arthur Guiterman tells us. Time marches on. The days when enterprises built their own networks using routers and digital trunks are, for all practical purposes, gone. Thirty years ago, more than three-quarters of enterprises said that was how their wide-area networks were built, and so the "service" they consumed was the digital pipe. Remember T1 and DDS? But time marched on, and today only 18 of 294 enterprise IT professionals who provided me with information on their WAN in the last six months said they used such digital-pipe services today, other than for access. It's all about the VPN, and 224 of those enterprises think it will be that way for at least five years.

The interesting thing is that five years before the great VPN transformation, only 9 of 174 enterprises thought they'd be abandoning digital pipes. What revolutionary stuff are we ignoring today that will come along to change our network future? Sure, SD-WAN is expanding, but it's not a revolution. Here are the three things that 70 enterprises - the ones that didn't think VPNs are their future - are watching and expecting will bring about major changes as soon as next year.

Cloud-first invisible network

We could call the top change on the list, cited by 68 of the enterprises, the "invisible network". For this group, the top new service concept is…(drum roll) no service at all. Envision an enterprise that uses the cloud as the front-end technology for customers, partners, and workers alike. Everyone uses the internet to get to the cloud, and the cloud connects to the data center. No remote office VPN connections, no SD-WAN, no nothing. Of course, there is a "something." Two, in fact. Part of the old VPN mission is served via Internet access, and part lives inside the cloud provider infrastructure.

Of the 224 enterprise IT leaders who see VPNs stretching out into the dim future, all but 111 think the big problem with this invisible network approach is the reliability and performance of the Internet. The remainder is split among those who say the transition to this model would be "too disruptive" (49), those who say that the underlying cloud-everywhere transformation isn't imminent (48), and those who have compliance or regulatory concerns (15). The 68 who believe in the invisible network think that internet QoS, fears of "disruption," and slow cloud transformation don't hold water, but they concede that new governance policies might be required. Interestingly, of the 224 who say that VPNs will live for at least five years, 201 concede that they won't live for ten.

The undernet relies on 5G network slicing

Obviously, the invisible network option doesn't do much for service provider revenues and profits, so it would be logical to expect a response from the providers. 51 of the enterprises think that providers' response will take the form of what we could call the "undernet" (well, why not; some non-poet already said that below "middleware" was "underware"). This notion combines a couple of concepts that are popular with providers and a couple of concepts users are interested in, to create what's effectively a network that's linked to but underneath the Internet.

In the undernet, 5G network slicing concepts would create a separation of traffic, a subnet where better QoS would be offered. All business traffic wouldn't necessarily ride on the Undernet; both operators and users think that it would be focused more on employee access and high-value applications. The service would look like network-as-a-service (NaaS) in that you could target Undernet handling at specific applications, users, or application/user sessions. What was handled that way would be charged for premium handling, and the NaaS steering mechanism would also provide built-in security.

Given that the biggest objection to the invisible network is internet QoS, the undernet option could not only be an independent service but also could facilitate a shift away from explicit IP VPNs. Some service providers who tell me they're looking at the idea see this as "subducting an MPLS VPN". However, operators face real risks with the approach. One is that it could foster abandonment of MPLS VPNs in favor of a service model that, because it's new, might have to be priced lower. Another is that net neutrality rules in various markets could bar any attempts to offer QoS for a price. Even where they don't, we all know how quickly these rules can change with shifts in the political winds.

Stranger network via alternative fiber access providers

The third potentially revolutionary service option for 2024 is the "stranger network." Enterprises know that network services can be divided into "access" and "transport", and that in the age of the Internet the transport piece of almost every network service is an IP core network that carries Internet traffic. The access network, for business services, is usually provided by a telco or cableco, but over the last decade there have been a number of new access providers, primarily offering fiber connections. Think Google. All of the enterprises I've talked with are aware of these "strangers," and 44 said they were looking at them in 2024, primarily because they were on the average just over half the cost of telco or cableco fiber.

The biggest problem with these players, according to enterprises, is their relatively narrow geographic scope. Most can cover only a single city or county, so enterprises would have to build a network from as many as a dozen different ones, and even then would likely have to rely on their traditional access provider for half of their connectivity, or more. A possible solution to this problem is the use of a managed service provider (MSP) as the access integrator. While most MSPs have focused on internet-and-SD-WAN services to enterprises, eleven of the enterprises told me that at least one MSP had offered them alternative fiber access providers, and four said that an MSP had identified over fifty such providers they could draw on.

MSPs have their own competitive challenges, too, which could force them to think about taking a bigger stake in the Stranger Network opportunity. In the past, SD-WAN services were offered primarily through MSPs, but now most telcos now offer SD-WAN services, and they represent the fastest-growing segment of the SD-WAN market. MSPs need a revenue kicker, and promoting Stranger Networks could be the one.

The strangest thing about stranger networking is that it would shift the notion of "service provider" to be more about service guarantor than provider. Break up networking into a bunch of little federated pieces and there is no big provider to lock you in. You have local facilities, joined to be your network by a support umbrella. Could this encourage municipal fiber, alternative players like Google or Microsoft or Amazon? We have perhaps five thousand utilities in the US, providing gas, electricity, and water. Might they all deploy their own fiber? And remember that despite all the independent electrical utilities, we still have a grid. Access and transport, stranger setwork and the Internet? Stranger things have happened.

You can probably see common threads here. All these off-the-wall concepts are off-the-wall because they break up, in some way, the core of the "service provider" concept, not by eliminating service but by disconnecting it from traditional mechanisms and business models. They're off-the-wall in a business sense, delivering connectivity as always, but through different sources and at a lower price.

So, do enterprises believe that the service provider businesses of the past are under pressure? Of those 294 enterprises, 227 said they believed that in five years, the business of providing network services would be radically different. Of that group, 201 said they believed the signs were already visible, and 218 said that they're either visible now or would be visible in 2024. Maybe off-the-wall isn't that far off after all.

Wed, 13 Dec 2023 10:01:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.networkworld.com/article/1259959/network-services-in-2024-3-off-the-wall-ideas.html
The Learning Network

Student Opinion

How Do You Feel About High School?

Scroll through some work by the winning students and educators who participated in our “What High School Is Like in 2023” multimedia challenge. Then tell us how well the collection captures your experiences.

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Wed, 03 Jan 2024 18:07:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.nytimes.com/section/learning
What Is Social Networking?

What Is Social Networking?

Social networking refers to using internet-based social media sites to stay connected with friends, family, colleagues, or customers. Social networking can have a social purpose, a business purpose, or both through sites like Facebook, X (formerly Twitter), Instagram, and Pinterest.

Social networking is also a significant opportunity for marketers seeking to engage customers. Facebook remains the largest and most popular social network, with 2 billion people using the platform daily, as of Feb 1, 2023. Other popular platforms in the U.S. are Instagram, X, WhatsApp, TikTok, and Pinterest.

Key Takeaways

  • Social networking uses internet-based social media platforms to connect with friends, family, or peers.
  • Some of the most popular social networking sites in the U.S. include Facebook, Instagram, TikTok, WhatsApp, and X.
  • Marketers use social networking to increase brand recognition and encourage brand loyalty.
  • Social media can help connect people with businesses for various needs.
  • There are disadvantages related to social media, including spreading misinformation, concerns posed by user anonymity, and the high cost of using and maintaining social network profiles.

How Social Networking Works

Social networking involves the development and maintenance of personal and business relationships using technology. This is done through the use of social networking sites, such as Facebook, Instagram, and X.

These sites allow people and corporations to connect with one another so they can develop relationships and share information, ideas, and messages.

For Family and Friends

Family members and friends can reconnect and remain connected through personal social networking sites like Facebook. They can share photos and status updates on everyday or important life events. People can also connect with unknown individuals who share the same interests, goals, or experiences. Individuals can find each other through groups, lists, and hashtags—an indexing function that groups topics.

For Marketers

Marketers commonly use social networking to increase brand recognition and encourage brand loyalty. Social media marketing helps promote a brand’s voice and content. It can help make a company more accessible and prominent to new and existing customers.

For example, a frequent X user may learn about a company for the first time through a news feed and decide to buy a product or service. The more exposed people are to a company’s brand, the greater the company's chances of finding and retaining new customers.

Marketers use social networking to Excellerate conversion rates. Building a following provides access to and interaction with new, recent, and longtime customers. Sharing blog posts, images, videos, or comments on social media allows followers to react and engage, visit a company’s website, and become customers.

Major Social Networking Platforms

Facebook

Facebook is a social network that allows users to connect with people, businesses, and organizations. They can post updates and respond to the posts of others. They can share photographs and links to online content. Users can chat live and upload and share videos.

Users can also communicate directly with each other via Facebook Messenger. They can join groups with similar interests and be notified of friends' activities and pages they elect to follow.

Facebook was designed to be open and social. However, while the platform encourages publicly available content, it also has privacy controls that can restrict access to, for instance, friends.

Facebook was created in 2004 by Mark Zuckerberg while he went to Harvard University. Today, it is owned by Meta Platforms (of which Zuckerberg is CEO). Facebook is the world's largest social network, with about 2 billion daily active users.

Instagram

Instagram is a social network that focuses on sharing visual media like photos and videos. It's similar to Facebook in that users create a profile and have a news feed. It allows them to upload media that can be edited with filters and organized by hashtags and geographical tagging. Posts can be shared publicly or with followers.

Users can browse other users' content, view trending content, and follow others. Additionally, they can add the content others upload to their personal feed. Over time, Instagram has added new features, such as Instagram Stories, Instagram Reels, and access to shopping.

Like Facebook, Instagram encourages users to keep their content publicly accessible and lets them set access to approved followers only.

Instagram has its own direct messaging feature. In addition, Facebook Messenger has been incorporated by Instagram so users can direct message Facebook contacts while on Instagram.

Instagram was founded in 2010 by Kevin Systrom and Mike Krieger. In 2012, it was acquired by Meta (formerly Facebook). Instagram boasts 6.18 billion visits per month.

X

X is a social network that allows people to communicate with short messages called tweets. The social platform limits tweets to 280 characters. Users publish posts (formely "tweets") that may be useful, interesting, or even inflammatory for readers.

Many people use X to find people and companies posting appealing, important, or newsworthy content and follow them to receive their stream of tweets for updates.

Posting (or "tweeting") is sometimes referred to as microblogging. It's distinguished by users' ability to scan and distribute content quickly, conveniently, and efficiently. This may account for its popularity with those who want (or need) to get lots of messages out to the world and those who want to follow these social or newsy types.

X is used by professional and citizen journalists, politicians, celebrities, marketers, and more. It was founded as Twitter in 2006 by Jack Dorsey, Noah Glass, Biz Stone, and Evan Williams, and was bought by Elon Musk in Oct. 2022. He changed the name to "X" in July 2023. It is now owned by X Corp., one of Elon Musk's holding companies.

Pinterest

Pinterest is a social networking site that promotes image saving and sharing using a virtual pinboard. It's an innovative platform that facilitates cataloging and organizing meaningful information for individuals.

With Pinterest, account holders find images by browsing the web or Pinterest itself. They then pin (or save) those images to an online pinboard. Multiple pinboards can be set up and organized based on a topic.

Once they've created and built their boards to catalog ideas and interests, users can access them whenever they want. Clicking on the image reveals related information.

Like other social networks, Pinterest users have a feed that exhibits images according to their interests. They can interact by "liking" images, following each other, and posting comments. There's also a feature that provides private messaging.

Pinterest was created by Ben Silbermann, Paul Sciarra, and Evan Sharp in 2009. Pinterest, Inc. owns it, and its CEO is Bill Ready. Pinterest reported approximately 450 million monthly active users globally for 2022.

Special Considerations

There isn't a one-size-fits-all approach to social networking marketing strategies. That's because every business is unique and has a different target demographic, history, and competitive marketplace.

Social networking companies want businesses to pay for their advertising. That's why platforms often restrict a business's reach and the number of responses it may receive through unpaid posts. For example, if a company has 500 followers, followers may not all receive the same post.

The constantly evolving nature of social networking makes it challenging to keep up with changes and influences a company’s marketing success rate.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Social Networking

Social networking can affect individuals and corporations positively and negatively. That's why it's important to weigh the advantages and disadvantages of using these social media sites before getting too heavily involved.

Advantages

  • Social networking allows individuals to make and stay in contact with family and friends that distance and lost connections would otherwise prohibit.
  • People can also connect with unknown individuals who share the same interests and develop new relationships.
  • Social networking also allows companies to connect with new and existing clients.
  • Companies can create, promote, and increase brand awareness through social media.
  • Companies can capitalize on customer reviews and comments promoting products, services, and brands. The more customers post about a company, the more valuable the brand authority can become. This can lead to greater sales and a higher ranking by search engines.
  • Social networking can help establish a brand as legitimate, credible, and trustworthy.
  • Companies may use social networking to demonstrate the quality of their customer service and enrich their relationships with consumers. For example, if a customer complains about a product or service on X, the company may address the issue immediately, apologize, and take action to make it right.

Disadvantages

  • Social networking can facilitate the spread of misinformation about individuals and companies.
  • Due to its online nature, falsehoods can spread like wildfire. This became increasingly prevalent after 2012. One study found that misinformation is 70% more likely than factual information to be shared on X.
  • The detrimental impact of misinformation can create a virtual headache for a company's public relations (PR) department.
  • The anonymous aspect of newfound personal relationships requires caution.
  • Building and maintaining a company profile takes hours each week. Costs add up quickly.
  • Businesses need many followers before a social media marketing campaign starts generating a positive return on investment (ROI). For example, submitting a post to 15 followers does not have the same effect as submitting the post to 15,000 followers.
Pros
  • Allows people to connect with others, including friends and family

  • Companies can reach new and existing clients as well as build and strengthen their brand

  • Corporations can demonstrate their customer service excellence

Cons
  • Helps spread misinformation

  • Complaints about companies can spread and create public relations issues

  • Costs to advertise and develop corporate profiles can be high

  • User anonymity can require caution

Examples of Social Networking

Almost every product or service you use is backed by a company with a social media presence. It's virtually impossible to think of any major corporation that doesn't operate, market, and advertise on social networks.

Tapping into social media is not only a good business practice, it's necessary if you're going to succeed in the corporate world. Here are two examples of companies that are doing it right.

Taco Bell

Popular fast-food chain Taco Bell has more than 1.5 million followers on Instagram and nearly 2 million followers on X. The company knows how to engage people on social media, posting content about its menu offerings, employees, and restaurants. Taco Bell also posts light-hearted tweets and Instagram posts that garner thousands of replies, retweets, and likes.

Taco Bell lobbied for a taco emoji by creating a petition on Change.org in 2014. The company spread the word on social media. The petition garnered 33,000 signatures from Taco Bell enthusiasts. Apple released the taco emoji in October 2015 when it released iOS 9.1.

Kylie Jenner

You don't have to be a corporation to use social media expertly. This is, after all, the age of the influencer. For example, Kylie Jenner has more than 387 million followers on Instagram, 36 million on Snapchat, and 40 million on X.

The young influencer and reality television star uses social media platforms to boost her image and brand name. She is also an entrepreneur who uses social networking to promote her business, Kylie Cosmetics.

The beauty brand earned her a spot on Forbes' list of self-made women, young billionaires, and the Celebrity 100 of 2020. Want proof of her reach? The company's lip kits sold out within 10 minutes of the star tweeting the link to her followers in February 2016.

What Is the Purpose of Social Networking?

Social networking connects individuals and businesses by allowing them to share information, ideas, and messages. Companies also use social networks to create and strengthen brand recognition, promote products and services, and answer customer queries and concerns.

What Are the Benefits of Social Networks?

The benefits of social networks include their ability to help people connect and stay in touch with family, friends, and new contacts; the opportunity they offer businesses to market their brands; their ability to spread useful, even vital, information instantly to individuals and institutions.

Why Are Social Networks Important?

Social networks are important because they allow people to develop relationships that might not be possible due to distances of place and time. They also help boost business productivity when used for public relations, marketing, and advertising purposes.

What Are the Top 10 Social Networking Sites?

Some top social networking sites are Facebook, X, YouTube, WhatsApp, Instagram, WeChat, TikTok, Facebook Messenger, Douyin, QQ, and Sina Weibo.

The Bottom Line

Social networking involves using online social media platforms to connect with new and existing friends, family, colleagues, and businesses. Individuals can use social networking to announce and discuss their interests and concerns with others who may support or interact with them.

Businesses can use social networking to build a brand, sell products, grow a customer base, and strengthen customer relationships and service.

Social networking may have certain disadvantages, but its benefits—including giving individuals and companies a method to spread messages instantly—make it a technology that will continue to be used and developed for years to come.

Tue, 05 May 2015 05:26:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.investopedia.com/terms/s/social-networking.asp
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