Ensure that you go through these SSAT test prep before test day.

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Exam Code: SSAT Practice exam 2022 by Killexams.com team
SSAT Secondary School Admission Test

The SSAT is a standardized test used by admission officers to assess the abilities of students seeking to enroll in an independent school. The SSAT measures the basic verbal, math, and studying skills students need for successful performance in independent schools. It's an indispensable tool that gives admission professionals an equitable means to assess and compare applicants, regardless of their background or experience.

A nonprofit organization, The Enrollment Management Association provides professional support and advocacy to the enrollment offices of more than 900 independent schools, and administers the gold-standard SSAT to 80,000-plus candidates who apply for admission each year.

The SSAT is not an achievement test, which is a test created to determine a level of skill, accomplishment, or knowledge in a specific area. It does not measure the personal characteristics such as motivation, persistence, or creativity, that also contribute to success in school. Your SSAT score is just one part of your complete application to an independent school and while it is important, it is not the only criterion used in admission decisions.

From the moment you are admitted to the Test Center until the time of dismissal, your test administrator follows precise instructions for the proctoring of the SSAT. Any deviations from these uniform testing conditions are reported immediately. Of course, a student with a disability may apply for testing accommodations, but the processes and procedures for the test's administration remain the same for every student.

You understand and agree that the SSAT is a secure, confidential examination, and its contents are disclosed to candidates in a limited context to permit candidates to take the examination for the purpose of obtaining examination results and submitting them to an independent school as part of its admission process, and for no other purpose. You further understand and agree that the SSAT and all related materials, including confidential examination questions, answer choices and all additional examination content are the sole property of The Association and are protected by United States and international copyright and trade secret laws. You agree that you will not discuss or disclose SSAT content orally, in writing, on the Internet, through social media or through any other medium existing today or invented in the future. You also agree that you will not copy, reproduce, adapt, disclose, or transmit SSAT examination questions or answer choices or any examination content, in whole or in part, or assist or solicit anyone else in doing the same. You further agree that you will not reconstruct examination content from memory, by dictation, or by any other means, for the purpose of sharing that information with any other individual or entity. You further agree and attest that, prior to taking the SSAT examination, you have not solicited, received or reviewed confidential examination questions, answer choices or any other examination content represented or understood to be copied or derived from a prior SSAT examination.

In developing the SSAT, The Association convenes review committees composed of content experts and independent school teachers. The committees reach consensus regarding the appropriateness of the questions. Questions judged to be acceptable after the committee review are then pretested and analyzed. Questions that are statistically sound are ready to be selected and assembled into test forms.

Students should understand the type and number of sections, the length of the sections, and the general types of questions on each section. This information is all found within this handbook. If youve selected for your student to take the CBT, you can also reference Practice Online in order for your student to practice taking a computer-based SSAT. Please be aware that the user interface on Practice Online is different from the user interface that students will experience at Prometric. Furthermore, there are differences regarding the test administration. At Prometric Test Centers, there will be no proctor in the room, and the room will include a varied age-range of test takers, some of whom will be taking a test other than the SSAT. Students will also need to read the instructions on their own.

Secondary School Admission Test
Admission-Tests Secondary mock
Killexams : Admission-Tests Secondary mock - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/SSAT Search results Killexams : Admission-Tests Secondary mock - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/SSAT https://killexams.com/exam_list/Admission-Tests Killexams : Professional Practice 2 (Secondary)

Course planning information

Course notes

All assessments must be submitted.

You need to complete the above course or courses before moving onto this one.

  • 1 Demonstrate how Te Ao Māori is increasingly made present in their teaching practice
  • 2 Develop and demonstrate effective practices for all learners that reflect the New Zealand Teaching Council’s Code of Professional Responsibility and Standards for the Teaching Profession
  • 3 Critically reflect on, and provide evidence of, their professional growth in relation to the New Zealand Teaching Council’s Code of Professional Responsibility and Standards for the Teaching Profession

Learning outcomes can change before the start of the semester you are studying the course in.


Assessment weightings can change up to the start of the semester the course is delivered in.

You may need to take more assessments depending on where, how, and when you choose to take this course.

Explanation of assessment types

Computer programmes
Computer animation and screening, design, programming, models and other computer work.
Creative compositions
Animations, films, models, textiles, websites, and other compositions.
Exam College or GRS-based (not centrally scheduled)
An exam scheduled by a college or the Graduate Research School (GRS). The exam could be online, oral, field, practical skills, written exams or another format.
Exam (centrally scheduled)
An exam scheduled by Assessment Services (centrally) – you’ll usually be told when and where the exam is through the student portal.
Oral or performance or presentation
Debates, demonstrations, exhibitions, interviews, oral proposals, role play, speech and other performances or presentations.
You may be assessed on your participation in activities such as online fora, laboratories, debates, tutorials, exercises, seminars, and so on.
Creative, learning, online, narrative, photographic, written, and other portfolios.
Practical or placement
Field trips, field work, placements, seminars, workshops, voluntary work, and other activities.
Technology-based or experience-based simulations.
Laboratory, online, multi-choice, short answer, spoken, and other tests – arranged by the school.
Written assignment
Essays, group or individual projects, proposals, reports, reviews, writing exercises, and other written assignments.
Tue, 22 Mar 2022 14:10:00 -0500 en-NZ text/html https://www.massey.ac.nz/study/courses/professional-practice-2-secondary-260411/
Killexams : Doctor of Nursing Practice

Drexel's accredited online Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) program is designed for advanced nursing practice leaders seeking a terminal degree in nursing practice and offers an alternative to research-focused doctoral programs. Based on nationally recognized standards by the American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) and consistent with the DNP program accrediting by the Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education (CCNE), the mission of Drexel's DNP program is to prepare individuals to assume leadership roles as executives or practitioners and to apply evidence-based practice to Improve individual, family, and community health outcomes. Nurses who graduate from Drexel's DNP program are well-equipped to fully implement the science developed by nurse researchers in PhD, DNSc, and other research-focused nursing doctorates.

Upon Graduation, You Will Be Able To:

  • Design evidence-driven healthcare delivery approaches using fiscally responsible and environmentally sustainable strategies to meet current and anticipated individual and population health needs across the illness-wellness continuum
  • Execute established steps of evidence-based practice when leading efforts to Improve healthcare quality based on measurable and manageable outcomes
  • Model communication skills necessary to lead and contribute to effective interprofessional collaborations and patient care encounters to accomplish high-quality and mission-driven outcomes
  • Appraise healthcare systems’ delivery processes to Improve quality, accessibility, and/or the sustainability of healthcare enterprises
  • Propose policy initiatives that promote social justice and the health and wellness of all people, including those who are disparaged, oppressed, or vulnerable
  • Appraise practice dilemmas using moral reasoning and legal/ethical analyses to make decisions in practice settings and to create policies that are consistent with professional codes, practice standards, and laws
  • Utilize information systems/technologies to analyze health outcomes for individuals, aggregates, and populations and to evaluate healthcare delivery systems
  • Demonstrate advanced specialty and role competence as an advanced practice registered nurse or as an advanced nurse in a role focused on advanced aggregate/systems/organizational expertise

Clinical Requirements

A total of 1,000 post-baccalaureate precepted clinical hours are required, and are built into the tracks within the curriculum:

  • Core Courses – 200 practice hours
  • Advanced Clinical Expert Category 1 – 380 practice hours
  • Advanced Clinical Expert Category 2 – 600 practice hours
  • Nurse Executive/Leadership Expert Category 1 – 380 practice hours
  • Nurse Executive/Leadership Expert Category 2 – 600 practice hours

You must fill out the Verification of Precepted Clinical/Practicum Hours form with your intended pathway (Advanced Clinical Expert Track or Nurse Executive/Leadership Expert Track.)

DNP Project

Drexel University’s online Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) program blends a core curriculum with real-world practicum experiences that culminates with the creation, execution, and review of an extensive DNP Project. Your final project will be centered around improving health care processes and outcomes through carefully planned practice change. Upon completion of this online DNP program, you will be prepared to utilize your newly found advanced practice knowledge to create a personally driven but faculty mentored project specific to your educational pathway. Each pathway is determined by the number of graduate-level, precepted clinical hours achieved by the time of your admission into the program.

As you embark on your DNP project, a doctorate-prepared Practicum Mentor will need to be assigned (for practicum intensive courses) who may be internal or external to your practice setting. This mentor will provide you with the support and guidance you need throughout the DNP project process. Additional formal or informal experts, mentors, partners, and/or facilitators may provide intermittent or limited support throughout practicum experiences. While your DNP project can be based on your current work setting, it is strongly recommended that you seek opportunities that enhance current networking opportunities while broadening your expertise as it relates to benchmarking, new and different practice models, or other experiences that foster the development of deep and broad knowledge and skills.

The ultimate goal of your final DNP Project is to solution an identified practice problem that offers you an opportunity to enhance care delivery or Improve an outcome. This requires comprehensive research to identify relevant, curated evidence that informs an intervention that typically builds on established quality improvement methodology. After you participate in a DNP Project dissemination activity during Year 2 of the program, your completed DNP Project will be rigorously evaluated.

Archived Webinars

Questions? We're Here to Help!

College of Nursing and Health Professions Program Team

The Doctor of Nursing Practice at Drexel University is accredited by the Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education.
State restrictions may apply to some programs.


The College of Nursing and Health Professions has a compliance process that may be required for every student. Some of these steps may take significant time to complete. Please plan accordingly.

Visit the Compliance pages for more information.

State Regulations and Restrictions

Admissions Criteria

  • Current United States licensure as a registered nurse
  • A Master's Degree in one of the following:
    • Master of Science in Nursing (MSN)
    • Master’s Degree in Health-Related Field*
    • Master of Business Administration (MBA)*
  • Cumulative graduate grade point average (GPA): 3.2 or higher
  • Graduate-level Research Methods course (grade B or higher)
  • Undergraduate or graduate-level Statistics course (grade B or higher)

*If your master’s degree is not in Nursing, a Bachelor's Degree in Nursing (BSN) is required.

Track-Specific Admissions Criteria

  • Advanced Clinical Expert Track Applicants
    Advanced Practice Registered Nurses (Nurse Practitioner, Clinical Nurse Specialist, Nurse Midwife or Nurse Anesthetist) require APRN national certification**
    • Plan of Study Path A
      • Verification of a no fewer than 620 hours of precepted practice hours during graduate studies
    • Plan of Study Path B
      • Verification of 400 to 619 hours of precepted practice hours during graduate studies
  • Nurse Executive/Leadership Expert Track Applicants
    Nurses in Advanced Leadership Roles require advanced national certification OR verification of no fewer than 400 hours of precepted practice hours during graduate studies**
    • Plan of Study Path A
      • Verification of a no fewer than 620 hours of precepted practice hours during graduate studies
    • Plan of Study Path B
      • Verification of 400 to 619 hours of precepted practice hours during graduate studies OR relevant national certification:***
        • American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) Clinical Nurse Leader (CNL) Certification
        • American Nursing Credentialing Center (ANCC) Nurse Executive-Advanced certification (NEA)****
        • American Organization for Nursing Leadership (AONL) Certified in Executive Nursing Practice (CENP)

**You must have no fewer than 400 hours of precepted practice hours completed during graduate studies for DNP Program admission consideration.

***Submit documentation of certification or verification that you're scheduled to take one of these exams no later than August 15, 2023. Those scheduled to take a certification exam will be considered for conditional acceptance for the Fall quarter and will not be permitted to progress in the program until advanced certification is earned and submitted to the DNP program director.

****Applicants with leadership/administrative experience and the NE-BC certification may be considered.

Required Documents

With multiple ways to submit documents, Drexel makes it easy to complete your application. Learn more by visiting our Completing Your Application Guide.

  • Completed application
  • Current United States licensure as a registered nurse
  • Role specific documents:
    • Advanced Practice Registered Nurses
      • License and national certification documents
    • Advanced Roles in Nursing Administration/Leadership
      • American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) Clinical Nurse Leader (CNL) Certification
      • American Credentialing Center (ANCC) Nurse Executive-Advanced Certification (NEA)
      • American Organization of Nurse Executives (AONE) Certified in Executive Nursing Practice (CENP)
      • Other advanced role/specialization certifications will be considered on an individual basis
  • Official transcripts from all universities or colleges and other post-secondary educational institutions attended (including trade schools)
    • Official transcripts must be sent directly to Drexel from the colleges/universities. Transcripts must be submitted in a sealed envelope with the college/university seal over the flap. Transcripts are required regardless of number of credits taken or if the credits were transferred to another school. An admission decision may be delayed if you do not send transcripts from all colleges/universities attended.
    • Transcripts must show course-by-course grades and degree conferrals. If your school does not notate degree conferrals on official transcripts, you must provide copies of any graduate or degree certificates.
    • If your school issues only one transcript for life, you're required to have a course-by-course evaluation completed by an approved transcript evaluation agency.
  • Two letters of recommendation that discuss your academic ability, professionalism, and practice competence
    • Recommenders must have a graduate degree and be practicing in a position to appraise you: specifically, a professor, employer, or professional colleague. The reference may not be from a friend, family member, or workplace/organizational peer or subordinate.
  • Personal statement/essay integrating responses to the following questions in 3 word-processed pages, double-spaced, 10-12 font:
    • Describe the personal attributes and experiences that will promote your success in Drexel University’s online DNP program
    • Discuss your area of practice interest and how you envision the Doctor of Nursing Practice degree professionally benefitting you and the population you serve
    • Identify a practice problem that intrigues you and discuss how you believe the DNP program will be useful in assisting you with developing the skills and expertise needed to Improve or eliminate this problem
  • Curriculum Vitae (CV) or Resume
    • You must identify your current position/job title and include a description of this role
  • Track Request Form (Advanced Clinical Expert Track or Nurse Executive/Leadership Expert Track) with intended pathway as supported by the Verification of Precepted Clinical/Practicum Hours form
  • Additional requirements for International Students

This program is organized into four 10-week quarters per year (as opposed to the traditional two semester system) which means you can take more courses in a shorter time period. One semester credit is equivalent to 1.5 quarter credits. Use our quarter to semester credit converter to calculate the difference.

For full list of courses, please visit Drexel Online.


The baccalaureate degree program in nursing, master's degree program in nursing, Doctor of Nursing Practice program and post-graduate APRN certificate program at Drexel University are accredited by the Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education, 655 K Street, NW, Suite 750, Washington DC 20001, 202.887.6791.

Sat, 21 May 2022 18:39:00 -0500 en text/html https://drexel.edu/cnhp/academics/doctoral/dnp-doctor-nursing-practice/
Killexams : Nursing requirements and FAQs

Please note:
Due to time and resource limitations, the Registrar's Office cannot conduct formal reviews of academic qualifications, transfer credits, or pre-requisites until after an official application has been submitted. 

Q1. Is admission to Nursing based only on academics?

No. In addition to meeting the academic requirements outlined below, all applicants to Dalhousie's Bachelor of Science (Nursing) program are required to complete the CASPer Test, a 90-minute computer-based online assessment. Your CASPer score will be used in combination with your academic performance for admission assessment.

Q2. How is the admission average calculated?

An Admissions Officer will calculate your admissions average.  When your CASPer Test score arrives your Nursing Weighted Score will be calculated using 60% of your admissions average and 40% of your CASPer Test score.

Q3. I’m applying to more than one Health Professions program that requires the CASPer Test.  Do I have to sit more than one test?

Yes, each CASPer Test is designed for a specific Health Professions program.  If you are applying to Occupational Therapy and Nursing, you will need to take the CASPer Test for each program.

Q4. Can I take the Nursing program on a part-time basis?

No. The Nursing program is only available for study on a full-time basis.

Q5. How do I know if I am a Direct Entry applicant or an Advanced Standing applicant?

If you are applying to enter the Nursing program directly from High School, or if you have completed 12 credit hours or LESS of the Advanced Standing pre-requisite post-secondary courses, then you are a Direct Entry applicant.

If you are applying to enter the Nursing program, and you have completed MORE than 12 credit hours of the Advanced Standing pre-requisite post-secondary courses, then you are an Advanced Standing applicant. 

Please note that though completing more than 12 credit hours of the pre-requisites means that you are an Advanced Standing applicant, you must complete/have completed the full 30 credit hours of pre-requisites post-secondary courses in order to be eligible for admission consideration.

Q6. When I apply can I choose to be assessed for Direct Entry or Advanced Standing entry, or both?

No. When you fill out an application you are applying to the Nursing program. You will be placed into either Direct Entry or Advanced Standing entry based on your academic history.  

Q7. What are the admission requirements for Direct Entry?

Admission requirements can be found under Direct entry requirements on this page.

Q8. What are the admission requirements for Advanced Standing?

Admission requirements can be found under Advanced standing entry requirements on this page.

Q9. My undergraduate classes were not taken from Dalhousie. Will they still satisfy admission requirements? 

Academic admissions requirements can be met by attending any recognized university or college. Please refer to our transfer credit equivalencies table for course equivalency information. 

We have also provided below our course descriptions which can serve as a guide.  The final decision on if a course meets academic admissions requirements is made by the Nursing Committee. We encourage you to apply early for a full academic assessment.

Anatomy (ANAT) 1010 – Basic Human Anatomy

An introduction to Human Anatomy.  The student will be able to explain and describe, at a basic level, the gross anatomy and histology of the human body.

English (ENGL) 1100 – Writing for University

An introduction to rhetoric and composition, this course is designed to prepare students to write analytic and research papers. Grammatical and rhetorical terms are addressed, and the course includes a number of assignments to hone writing skills from outline to revision.

Microbiology (MICI) 1100 – Health Science Microbiology

An introduction to microbiology and infectious diseases only for healthcare professionals. It includes a study of the structure and physiology of microorganisms, the ways microorganisms cause disease in man and the way they affect human's well being.

Physiology (PHYL) 1001 or 1011 – Human Physiology 1

This course is the first of two that explore the organization and function of the human body from the level of molecules to organ systems and the integration of systems within the whole organism. Specific Topics in this course include Cellular Physiology with an emphasis on Transport, Metabolism and Communication, the Immune System, Neural, Muscle and Sensory Physiology and Control of Body Movement. Note that PHYL 1001, only, is via online distance course.

Physiology (PHYL) 1002 or 1012  – Human Physiology 2

This course is a continuation of PHYL 1001.03 or PHYL 1011 and explores the organization and function of the human body from the level of molecules to organ systems and the integration of systems within the whole organism. Specific Topics in this course include Endocrine, Cardiovascular, Respiratory, Renal, Acid-Base, Whole Body Metabolism and Reproductive Physiology.

Statistics (STAT) 1060 – Intro Statistics for Science and Health Science

This course provides an introduction to the basic concepts of statistics through extensive use of examples. The Topics include experimental design, descriptive statistics, simple linear regression and the basics of statistical inference. Students will learn to use the statistical package MINITAB.

Q10. What Dalhousie courses satisfy the writing requirement? 

One of any of the courses listed below will satisfy the writing requirement:

  • Creative Writing 1030
  • English 1030, 1005,1015,1025,1040,1050, 1060, 1100
  • German 1026,1027
  • History 1510
  • Performance Studies 1000, 1001, 1002
  • Philosophy 1810, 1820
  • Russian 1020, 1070
  • Oceanography 1001, 1002
  • Sustainability 1000
  • Political Science 1001, 1002
  • Journalism 1002, 1003
  • Science 1111

Q11. How many seats will the program have for admission?

The Nursing program has 96 Direct Entry seats and 96 Advanced Standing seats at the Halifax site. A total of 32 seats will be available at the Yarmouth site, 28 Direct Entry seats and 6 Advanced Standing seats.

Q12. How competitive is admission to the Nursing program?

The Bachelor of Science (Nursing) program is one of Dalhousie’s most competitive programs for admission. There are a limited number of seats for each entry point, and each year a large number of applications are received for those seats. As a result of this, not all qualified applicants can be offered admission to the program.

Q13. Does the program allow Direct Entry admission for non-Nova Scotia residents?

Yes, however the number of seats offered to residents of other Canadian provinces is very limited. Direct Entry seats are primarily reserved for permanent residents of Nova Scotia. Due to residency restrictions and limited capacity, international students are not eligible for admission to this program.

Q14. Does the program allow Advanced Standing admission for non-Nova Scotia residents?

Yes, however the number of seats offered to residents of other Canadian provinces is very limited. Advanced Standing seats are primarily reserved for permanent residents of Nova Scotia. Fall 2022 will be the last start date international applicants to Advanced Standing Nursing will be eligible for admission.

Q15. What is the definition of a Nova Scotia resident?

An applicant is considered to be a resident of Nova Scotia if...

  • the principal residence of the applicant’s parent(s) or guardian is located in Nova Scotia; or
  • if the applicant is independent of his/her parent(s) or guardian, he/she must have lived and worked on a full-time basis in Nova Scotia (not attending school on a full-time basis) for a minimum of one full year; or
  • the applicant or his/her parent(s), guardian or spouse does not meet the preceding requirements as the direct result of a recent employment transfer either in or out of Nova Scotia.

Q16. Who makes the admissions decisions for the Nursing program?

Admissions decisions for the Nursing program are made by the Registrar’s Office.

Q17. Does the School of Nursing have an Affirmative Action Policy for admissions?

Yes. The School of Nursing has an Affirmative Action Policy for residents of Nova Scotia who belong to the African Nova Scotian and Indigenous communities and who self-identify as such on the application for admission.

Q18. I am a Direct Entry applicant. When will I know if I am accepted into the program?

Admission for Direct Entry applicants is pooled and offers will be made to successful applicants in  December and March. If you are offered admission to the program, you will be informed of your acceptance by email. After the two rounds of offers have been made, all remaining pooled applicants will be waitlisted, in the event that seats become available over the summer months. To be eligible for admission in the first round of offers you must have taken one of the CASPer tests offered in November or December.

Q19. I am an Advanced Standing applicant. When will I know if I am accepted into the program?

Admission for Advanced Standing applicants is pooled and offers will be made to successful applicants at the end of January, March and May. If you are offered admission to the program, you will be informed of your acceptance by email. After the last round of offers in May, all remaining pooled applicants will be waitlisted, in the event that seats become available over the summer months. To be eligible for admission in the first round of offers you must have taken one of the CASPer tests offered in November, December or January.

Q20. I have been placed on the waitlist. How will I be informed if a place becomes available for me?

If you are offered admission to the program from the waitlist you will be informed of your acceptance by email and/or phone. 

Please note: We are not able to provide applicants with information regarding their place order on the waitlist.

Q21. Is there an age limit for my Advanced Standing pre-requisite courses to be valid for admission?

Yes. In order to be eligible for Advanced Standing entry admission, the 5 core pre-requisite courses (Anatomy, Physiology, Microbiology, English, and Statistics) cannot be more than 10 years old from the forecasted date of graduation from Dalhousie's Nursing program. Elective pre-requisite courses cannot be more than 15 years old.

For example, Advanced Standing entry students beginning studies in September 2022 will graduate from the Nursing program in October 2024. Therefore, when applying for September 2022 admission, core pre-requisite courses completed earlier than September 2014 are not valid for admission eligibility. Similarly, elective pre-requisite courses completed earlier than September 2009 are not valid for admission eligibility. Any pre-requisite courses that exceed the age limit must be retaken in order to be eligible for Advanced Standing entry admission. These age limits are strictly adhered to with no exceptions. 

Q22. If I am currently completing the Advanced Standing pre-requisite courses will I be included in the pool for all three rounds of offers?

This depends on the number of pre-requisite courses you are enrolled in at the start of your Winter term of studies. Applicants that have two or FEWER of the pre-requisite courses left to complete at the start of the winter term can be included in the pool for the January and March rounds of offers (provided that all other requirements are met). Applicants that are completing MORE than two of the pre-requisite courses in the winter term will be included in the pool for the last round of offers in May ONLY (provided that all other requirements are met). Any applicants that become eligible for admission after the final round of offers in May will be placed on the waitlist. Offers are made from the waitlist if seats become available over the summer months.

Please note: If applicants are retaking any courses to meet the B- requirement, we will wait until the final grade for those courses to review for admission.

Q23. I am an applicant with an international nursing qualification. Can I apply? 

Applicants should contact the relevant Canadian regulating body (e.g. Nova Scotia College of Nurses - NSCN) in order to find out what steps are required to become a registered nurse in Canada. Fall 2022 will be the last start date international applicants to Advanced Standing Nursing will be eligible for admission.

Q24. To which program should I apply to take the Advanced Standing Nursing prerequisites subjects?

The prerequisites can be completed in a Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Science, or as a Special Student, non-degree. You will need to submit an application and have an assessment completed based on the requirements for that program. Please visit dal.ca/admissions to learn more about the requirements.

Q25. Can I use my graduate level work to satisfy admission requirements?

We generally review only undergraduate courses for admission to the Bachelor of Science in Nursing. Some exceptions may be made for courses in Health-related programs.

Q26. Will you consider mature applicants?

The term “mature student” does not refer to an applicant’s age, rather a Canadian citizen or permanent resident over the age of 21 who has completed less than one year of post-secondary study, has not been enrolled in studies for at least two years and who does not currently meet general admission requirements.  Students in this category are ineligible for admission to the Nursing program.

Q27. Is there an age limit for applicants to the BScN?

Applicants of any age who meet the program requirements are welcome to apply.

Q28. Does my health-related work experience supply me an advantage compared to other applicants?

Previous work experience is not evaluated as part of the admission process for the Nursing program.

Sat, 16 Jul 2022 14:40:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.dal.ca/admissions/undergraduate/hs_applicants/nursing-requirements-faqs.html
Killexams : Cambridge IGCSE™ First Language English exam Preparation and Practice

Develop exam confidence in your students and help them to understand grading criteria with model answers, mark schemes and graded trial answers with examiner comments. This full-colour book includes five full tests in line with the revised Cambridge IGCSE First Language English 2020 syllabus to supply your students plenty of opportunity to practise. Ideal for use in the final year of the Cambridge IGCSE course and can be used alongside the Cambridge IGCSE First Language English coursebook or any other coursebook.

Sat, 09 Jul 2022 18:28:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.cambridge.org/nl/education/subject/english/first-language-english/cambridge-igcse-first-language-english-exam-preparation-and-practice
Killexams : BeMo Lesson on How to Stand Out in a Noisy World: Enlist the Right Mentors

Those who have ever pursued post-secondary, graduate, or professional education know that it’s not easy to stand out in your application or impress the admissions committee with a strong interview performance. There are millions of applicants across the United States and Canada each year with perfect stats and extracurricular experiences, so how can you catch the eye of the admissions committees? BeMo Academic Consulting is here to help!

BeMo Academic Consulting is a leader in personalized admissions prep. Whether you are applying to medical school, law school, dentistry school or other graduate programs, BeMo will equip you with the knowledge and tools you need to succeed. BeMo focuses on application review, interview practice and test prep, ensuring that you see the results you always dreamed of.

A Holistic Approach

The traditional view of higher education dictates that high grades and test scores are the ultimate yardstick by which you are judged. But as educational institutions move to a more holistic review of applicants, should we still consider GPA and test scores as a sign of success? Can your grades in high school, your SAT or MCAT score, really tell the whole story? While they remain an important indicator of your academic prowess, standardized tests seem to be losing their grip on the admissions committees, because if stats were still the main indicator of ability, students wouldn’t be browsing forums like MCAT Reddit to find out how they can stand out in their applications. So, what else can a student do to prove that they are the right fit for their dream program? BeMo knows the ins and outs of the admissions process and will guide you in a way that will make you stand out.

The Myth of "Being Yourself"

There is a common erroneous opinion that prevails among applicants and their school advisors that all you need to succeed is “to be yourself”. While it’s certainly important to be genuine and honest in your application components and interview answers, this rule of “being yourself” is not very clear, is it? What does “being yourself” mean when it comes to writing a strong college essay? Or what does it mean “to be yourself” when you are trying to prepare your answer strategies for college admissions interview questions? And if you are trying to articulate why you want to be a doctor in your medical school personal statement or the interview, how can “being yourself” really help?

Furthermore, how can “being yourself” really help you learn, absorb new knowledge, and prepare for a course, a test, or an exam? Organizing and executing the right learning strategy for you is about knowing your strengths and limits. You must be able to identify your knowledge gaps, implement active learning strategies, and customize them to your preferred learning style. This is why MCAT prep or LSAT prep is a huge undertaking! It takes a lot more than passive review of your textbooks to get ready for such monolithic tests. BeMo provides step-by-step guides to help you prepare for these exams and Improve your scores.

The truth is that when it comes to academic admissions and tests, you must be more than yourself — you must be your best self. This does not mean that you can exaggerate your accomplishments or lie about your background. Absolutely not! But you must do a lot of work and reflection to put your best foot forward in your application, interview, and test performance. If you think about it for even a moment, you will realize the simple truth of it: you must do your absolute best to convince the admissions committee that you are the right candidate to admit. In other words, you must be the best and most appropriate “you” for this situation, i.e., a professional. BeMo will help you do just that.

In fact, use the application and interview processes to become your better self. Whether it’s working on your critical thinking skills as you run through your MCAT CARS practice, or honing your written communication skills as you draft and redraft your law school personal statement, MBA personal statement, statement of purpose for graduate school, or building your confidence as you practice answers to some of the most common MBA interview questions — the admissions process is an opportunity to develop skills and qualities that will be useful to you for the rest of your life.

You might be thinking “Is the application process, such a stressful time in my life, really the best time to develop new skills? Can’t I just focus on getting into my program?” Unfortunately, throughout our lives, we are rarely taught skills and behaviors that are necessary for success in the professional realm. Remember your high school years; did you have the chance to learn how to articulate your strengths and weaknesses as a student? Did you learn how to talk about yourself on paper? Did you ever learn how to properly present yourself in a professional interview? Were you taught to compose successful professional or academic applications?

While some of you may have answered yes to some of these questions, most of us were let out of high school, college, or even grad school without any idea of how to successfully present ourselves in professional settings. As soon as we graduate, we must move on to the next step in our career, whether it’s another academic endeavor or a job — but when do we ever have the chance to learn these vital professional skills? Do we need to write a million personal statements to get the hang of it before we are accepted? Do we need to attend a thousand professional interviews to finally develop the necessary interview skills to get our dream job? Luckily, there is another option for acquiring these essential skills — academic admissions consulting.

How BeMo Academic Consulting Can Help

Work with BeMo Academic Consulting to develop these skills! Academic admissions consulting should not be seen as a crutch. Admissions consulting cannot help students who are lazy, uncoachable, and indifferent. There is no miracle crash course that can help a student who does not want to work hard. And while the goal of getting into a program may be the primary reason why you go with an admissions consulting service, it’s more than a way to get in. Consulting is your opportunity to develop life-long skills that are often overlooked by traditional education.

For example, when you are asked “Tell me about yourself” in an essay or an interview, what do you say? Such a simple, and seemingly straight-forward question ends up stunning anyone facing it. Talking about yourself in relevant professional terms is a challenging acquired skill. Writing a compelling narrative relevant to your prompt and discipline is a huge undertaking! How can your story on paper engage the reader enough to make them keep studying until the end? How can your story incite them to invite you to an interview? Just consider how much pressure the writer is under! BeMo Academic Consulting provides you with ample resources that will show you the best way to present yourself.

Talking about yourself in an interview is no easier. Not only are you asked to come up with an answer in real time, but you also cannot clean up your answer as you would be able to do in writing. Furthermore, you cannot memorize an answer to this question because the question “tell me about yourself” is relational. Your answer should highlight and emphasize experiences and skills relevant for the specific program or job you are interviewing with. You cannot simply recycle an answer to this question. All this trouble for just this one question! And there are thousands of medical school interview questions, law school interview questions, or graduate school interview questions you may be asked!

Our goal as admissions consultants is to make sure that when you face a new application, a test, or an interview, you know how to approach them all on your own.

Whether you are writing an application component like the law school diversity statement or crafting your graduate thesis, the skills you develop via consultants are going to stay with you. Not only do our professional consultants help you with brainstorming and editing, but they also Improve your creative and narrative abilities. This means that after you finish working with the admissions consultants, your take-away will be more than successful completion of your project — you will acquire writing skills that you can use in any future professional or academic ventures.

And if you think test prep cannot help you become a professional, think again. While the majority of standardized tests evaluate your knowledge, all of them also assess your analytical and reasoning skills. These are also acquired abilities! So honing a great Logical Reasoning strategy for the LSAT or a failproof MCAT CARS strategy is really key not only for the test, but for your future as a professional.


Another important skill you develop with the help of academic consultants is good judgment. How many of us have wondered what a good resume is? When you prepare a job application, or an academic application component like medical school resumes or MBA resumes, it is important to discern what kind of experiences and skills you should include. Should your years as a camp counselor be part of it? Or should you replace it with a short management position you held for a few weeks? What kinds of skills should you emphasize and demonstrate? It’s not easy to customize your applications for each program — often, it takes experience to make these judgments. A quality consultant can help you learn to exercise this judgment, so you will be able to apply it in other areas of your life as well.

Good judgment is also tremendously important to doing well on standardized tests. For example, a quality MCAT tutor or MCAT prep course will help you with more than content revision. They should help you with developing skills to tackle the unique, passage-based nature of this exam, which requires good judgment and reasoning. BeMo will offer you the most effective resources for increasing your MCAT studying comprehension, reviewing MCAT CARS passages, and applying your knowledge to passage-based MCAT biology, MCAT chemistry, and MCAT psychology questions.


But, probably the most stressful aspect of any admissions process is the interview. While you can craft and perfect your application in the comfort of your home, the interview is immediate, and your performance is what influences admissions committees to make their final decision. This immense pressure means only one thing: your performance must be outstanding. You may know exactly what you want to say in your answers, but there is more to an interview than the content of your responses.

Interview skills are also acquired, which means that you must have interview experience to perform well. This means that the best way to hone your interview skills is by going to dozens of real interviews, or by going through mock interviews. But the former option has two huge shortcomings. One is that it’s unlikely that you will get dozens of interviews to practice. And second, even if you go to dozens and dozens of interviews, you will never learn what you can do to Improve your performance. With BeMo Admissions Consulting, not only will your coach point out behaviors that can be improved, but they will also advise on how you can Improve them, resulting in life-long interview skills that you can apply in any future academic or professional interviews. As you advance in your career, BeMo can help you develop strong interview skills before you attend them, so you never have to deal with the stress or worry of on-the-spot improvisation.

The real value of admissions consulting at BeMo is truly up to you. Graduate school admissions consultants or medical school advisors can provide you with all the tools in the world to succeed but ultimately, it’s up to you whether you choose to accept them. Nobody can make you work hard on your written communication skills or attention to detail, and no one can make you work on your interpersonal skills. But if you see admissions consulting as a way to invest in yourself and your future, you will be successful.

If you want to be your best self, willing to listen to our coaches, and put in the required work, we want to hear from you. Go to BeMoFreeStrategy.com to schedule a free strategy call with one of our admissions experts and we’ll tell you how we can help you make your applications stand out, prepare for your standardized tests, ace your interviews, and most importantly get in. And that’s not all — if we accept you as a student, you may qualify for our bold guarantees.

The Crimson's news and opinion teams—including writers, editors, photographers, and designers—were not involved in the production of this article.

Fri, 25 Mar 2022 22:23:00 -0500 text/html https://www.thecrimson.com/sponsored/article/BeMo-How-To-Stand-Out/
Killexams : CBSE 10th, 12th Board Exams 2022-23 Session From Feb 15. exam Controller Sanyam Bhardwaj Gives Details

New Delhi: The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) will conduct Class 10 and 12 exams for the 2022-23 academic session from February 15 next year, said examination controller Sanyam Bhardwaj. Unlike this year, there will be only one exam at the end of the academic session in 2023.Also Read - CBSE Board exam 2023: Pre-COVID Norms Likely To be Back for Board Exams | Deets Inside

“In light of the lessening of impact of the Covid pandemic across the globe, the board has decided to conduct the 2023 examination from February 15, 2023,” Bhardwaj said. “CBSE has decided to go back to the conventional practice of holding board exams once a year. In 2022, in view of COVID-19, these exams were conducted in two terms,” Bhardwaj had earlier said. Also Read - CBSE 10th, 12th Compartment Exams 2022: Board Issues Important Notice For Schools on cbse.gov.in

The results for the CBSE 2022 examination for Class 10 and 12 were announced on Friday. While 92.7 per cent students have cleared the Class 12 exam, 94.40 pc candidates have passed Class 10 exam. Also Read - CBSE Result 2022 Revaluation Process Begins at cbse.gov.in| Check Important Dates, Fee, Other Details Here

  • Visit the official website, cbseresults.nic.in.2022
  • On the homepage, click on the ‘CBSE Board 10th result’ or ‘CBSE Board 12th result’ link.
  • Enter roll number, date of birth, and school number.
  • Click on the ‘Submit’ button.
  • The online CBSE 10th term 2 result 2022 or CBSE 12th term 2 result 2022 will be displayed on the screen.
  • Save and keep it for future use.
Thu, 21 Jul 2022 23:35:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.india.com/education/cbse-10th-12th-board-exams-2022-23-session-from-feb-15-exam-controller-sanyam-bhardwaj-gives-details-5528509/
Killexams : Routine Amoxicillin for Uncomplicated Severe Acute Malnutrition in Children

Study Site and Population

The study was conducted at four health centers in the rural health district of Madarounfa, Niger. All children presenting to the study centers who were candidates for outpatient treatment of severe acute malnutrition were eligible for inclusion if they lived within 15 km of the center, were available for the 12-week study period, had not been admitted to a nutritional program within the previous 3 months or received any antibiotic within the previous 7 days, had no clinical complications requiring antibiotic treatment, and had no congenital abnormalities. Written informed consent was obtained from each child’s parent or legal guardian. The criteria for outpatient treatment of severe acute malnutrition were an age between 6 and 59 months; a weight-for-height z score of less than −3 according to the 2006 WHO Growth Standards, a mid-upper-arm circumference of less than 115 mm, or both; sufficient appetite according to a test feeding of RUTF; and an absence of clinical complications requiring hospitalization, including bipedal edema. Detailed descriptions of the study population and methods are provided in the Supplementary Appendix and protocol, available with the full text of this article at NEJM.org.

Study Oversight

The study protocol was approved by the Comité Consultatif National d’Éthique, Niger, and Comité de Protection des Personnes, Île-de-France XI, Paris. An independent data and safety monitoring board reviewed study progress and safety events. All authors vouch for the accuracy and completeness of the data and analyses reported. The first, third, and last authors vouch for the fidelity of the study to the protocol.

Study Design and Interventions

This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with the primary aim of examining the effect of routine antibiotic use, as compared with placebo, on nutritional recovery from uncomplicated severe acute malnutrition. Amoxicillin was chosen as the active study medication in accordance with current national guidelines in Niger.

Children were randomly assigned, in a 1:1 ratio and in computer-generated blocks of six, to receive amoxicillin (80 mg per kilogram of body weight per day, divided into two daily doses) or placebo for 7 days. The randomization codes were created with a computerized random-number generator according to site; kept inside opaque, sealed, consecutively numbered envelopes; and opened by a study physician in numerical order. A study nurse administered the first dose of the study medication at the health center and instructed the caregiver in administration of the remaining doses at home. Adherence was evaluated at the first weekly visit through direct questioning of the caregiver and review of a pictorial calendar recording home administration of the study medication. Amoxicillin and placebo (obtained at cost from the Investigational Drug Service, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania) were indistinguishable in color and packaging. All clinical and research staff members were unaware of the treatment assignments.

Study Procedures

All children received standard care for outpatient treatment of uncomplicated severe acute malnutrition, as specified in the guidelines of Médecins sans Frontières and the government of Niger. In brief, at the time of admission to the nutritional program, children received RUTF (170 kcal per kilogram per day; Plumpy’Nut, Nutriset) and routine medicines. Follow-up in the nutritional program was conducted weekly at the health center for a minimum of 3 weeks. During these visits, a medical history was obtained, and a physical examination and anthropometric assessment were performed.16 Children were transferred to inpatient care if they had any clinical complication requiring inpatient management, weight loss of more than 5%, or both between two consecutive visits or if they had no weight gain after 2 weeks. Weekly follow-up data were censored at the time of transfer to inpatient care, but vital status was assessed 2 weeks and 4 weeks after the date of transfer. Children were seen at the study health centers at 4, 8, and 12 weeks after study enrollment, regardless of their status in the nutritional program; physical examination, history taking, and anthropometric assessment were repeated at these follow-up visits.

Laboratory Testing

We collected stool, urine, and blood samples at admission to the nutritional program. In light of the low prevalence of bacterial infection and the relatively high burden of biologic sampling among young children, the data and safety monitoring board recommended obtaining samples from a subset of 1000 children over a period of 12 months. Samples were transported to the Epicenter laboratory in Maradi, Niger, and plated on culture medium for incubation on the day of collection.17 Pathogenic bacteria were identified with the use of standard biochemical techniques, and antimicrobial susceptibility was assessed by means of disk diffusion.18 Bacteremia and bacteriuria were defined as positive blood and urine cultures, respectively. Bacterial gastroenteritis was defined as a stool culture that was positive for a known pathogen and diarrhea. Results of confirmed bacteremia or bacteriuria were made available to the clinical teams within 1 to 3 days. A home visit was made the same day or the next day to determine the clinical status of the child, and appropriate treatment was provided.

Study Outcomes

The primary outcome was nutritional recovery by 8 weeks. Nutritional recovery was documented at or after 3 weeks if a child had a weight-for-height z score of −2 or higher on two consecutive visits and a mid-upper-arm circumference of 115 mm or greater; if there was no acute complication or edema for at least 7 days; and if the child had completed all antibiotic and antimalarial treatments at the time of discharge from the nutritional program.

Secondary outcomes included nonresponse at 8 weeks, death from any cause, default (defined as three or more consecutive missed weekly visits), and transfer to inpatient care. Nonresponse was documented if a child did not meet the criteria for nutritional recovery at 8 weeks.

Statistical Analysis

We calculated that a trial of 1005 children in each group would provide the study with 80% power at a two-sided alpha level of 0.05 to detect a between-group difference in nutritional recovery of at least 5%, assuming an 80% likelihood of nutritional recovery in the amoxicillin group. Allowing for a 20% rate of loss to follow-up, we estimated that we would need to include 1206 children in each group. With an observed likelihood of recovery of 63%, the study had 73% power to detect a 5% difference between groups. All analyses were based on the intention-to-treat principle.

Risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals for each secondary outcome were calculated by means of unadjusted log-binomial regression.19 Between-group comparisons of time to recovery, transfer to inpatient care, and death among children without a response were performed with the use of t-tests. We assumed that the pharmacologic effect of amoxicillin would be greatest in the first 2 weeks after administration and therefore calculated the intervention effect on the likelihood of nutritional recovery and transfer to inpatient care within 2 weeks after admission to the nutritional program. We also assumed that the pharmacologic effect of amoxicillin would be greatest among children with bacterial infection at admission to the nutritional program; therefore, we calculated the intervention effect on the likelihood of nutritional recovery and transfer to inpatient care among children with laboratory-confirmed infection. In additional post hoc analyses, we used a likelihood-ratio test to determine whether the intervention effect varied according to age at baseline (<24 months vs. ≥24 months) and sex. Intervention effects on additional secondary outcomes, including individual signs of infection and gains in weight, height, and mid-upper-arm circumference, were assessed at weeks 1 and 2. Signs of infection included diarrhea (≥3 loose stools in the previous 24 hours), vomiting, fever (axillary temperature >38.5°C), cough, tachypnea, and malaria with fever. We estimated average differences between the groups for gains from baseline (i.e., admission to the nutritional program) in weight, height, and mid-upper-arm circumference at weeks 1, 2, and 4 and at the time of discharge from the nutritional program. The intervention effect was compared between groups with the use of a t-test for weight gain; linear regression, adjusted for baseline anthropometric data, for gains in height and mid-upper-arm circumference; and unadjusted binomial regression for signs of infection. Intention-to-treat analyses were used; all tests were two-sided, with no adjustments for multiple comparisons.

Wed, 20 Jul 2022 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1507024
Killexams : A Randomized Trial of High-Flow Oxygen Therapy in Infants with Bronchiolitis

Trial Design and Oversight

Emergency departments and general pediatric inpatient units in 17 tertiary and regional hospitals in Australia and New Zealand participated in the trial. The human research ethics committee at each participating site approved the trial. The protocol, available with the full text of this article at NEJM.org, has been published previously.19 The trial was overseen by a steering committee with a principal investigator at each site. The authors vouch for the accuracy and completeness of the data and for the fidelity of the trial to the protocol. The first drafts of the manuscript were written by the first and last authors with input from all the authors. Although the intervention could not be masked, all the investigators remained unaware of the trial outcome until all the data were locked at the end of trial in December 2016, after the analysis of data from all recruited patients. The high-flow equipment and consumables for all the trial sites were donated by Fisher and Paykel Healthcare, which had no involvement in the design and conduct of the trial, the analysis of the data, or in the preparation of the manuscript or the decision to submit it for publication.


Infants younger than 12 months of age were eligible for inclusion on presentation to an emergency department or inpatient unit if they had clinical signs of bronchiolitis and a need for supplemental oxygen therapy to keep the oxygen-saturation level in the range of 92 to 98% (or 94 to 98% at the 11 hospitals with higher saturation thresholds for intervention in hypoxemia, in alignment with their institutional practice). Bronchiolitis in an infant was defined according to the American Academy of Pediatrics20 criteria as symptoms of respiratory distress associated with symptoms of a viral respiratory tract infection.5 We excluded critically ill infants who had an immediate need for respiratory support and ICU admission; infants with cyanotic heart disease, basal skull fracture, upper airway obstruction, or craniofacial malformation; and infants who were receiving oxygen therapy at home.

Written informed consent was obtained from all the parents or guardians with the use of either an immediate (prospective) or a deferred (retrospective) consent process (see Section 4.3 in the Supplementary Appendix, available at NEJM.org). At the time of the trial, high-flow therapy was considered to be the normal standard practice in the trial centers; therefore, the ethics committee allowed the deferred-consent process.


A computer-generated randomization sequence with a block size of 10 was used, and infants were stratified according to participating center. Sequentially numbered, sealed, opaque envelopes containing the treatment assignment (in a 1:1 ratio) were opened when eligibility criteria were met. Masking of the assigned treatment was not possible, given the visually obvious differences between the two interventions.

Trial Interventions

Infants in the high-flow group received heated and humidified high-flow oxygen at a rate of 2 liters per kilogram of body weight per minute, delivered by the Optiflow system with the use of an age-appropriate Optiflow Junior cannula and the Airvo 2 high-flow system (Fisher and Paykel Healthcare). The fraction of inspired oxygen (Fio2) for high-flow use was adjusted to obtain oxygen-saturation levels in the range of 92 to 98% (or 94 to 98% at the 11 hospitals with higher saturation thresholds). Weaning of the Fio2 to the level of ambient air (0.21) was permitted at any time to provide the lowest possible oxygen percentage to maintain an oxygen-saturation level of at least 92% (or ≥94% in the 11 specified hospitals). High-flow oxygen therapy was stopped after 4 hours of receiving an Fio2 of 0.21 while oxygen levels were maintained in the expected range.

Infants in the standard-therapy group received supplemental oxygen through a nasal cannula, up to a maximum of 2 liters per minute, to maintain an oxygen-saturation level in the range of 92 to 98% (or 94 to 98%, depending on institutional practice). Weaning from supplemental oxygen was permitted at any time to provide the lowest possible oxygen level delivered to maintain an oxygen-saturation level of at least 92% (or ≥94%).

Enteral feeding was recommended, depending on the clinician’s preference. Oral intake of food (liquid or solid) was allowed, particularly during weaning from the treatment.

Trial Outcomes

The primary outcome was treatment failure that resulted in escalation of care during that hospital admission. At the point of care, the treating clinicians determined the presence of treatment failure if at least three of four clinical criteria were met and clinicians decided that escalation of care was required. The criteria were as follows: the heart rate remained unchanged or increased by any amount since admission (by contrast, a decrease of >5 beats per minute or into the normal range indicated treatment success); the respiratory rate remained unchanged or increased by any amount since admission (by contrast, a decrease of >5 breaths per minute or into the normal range indicated treatment success); the oxygen requirement in the high-flow group exceeded an Fio2 of at least 0.4 to maintain an oxygen-saturation level of at least 92% (or ≥94%, depending on the institution) or the requirement for supplemental oxygen in the standard-therapy group exceeded 2 liters per minute to maintain an oxygen-saturation level of at least 92% (or ≥94%); and the hospital internal early-warning tool triggered a medical review and escalation of care (see below). Clinicians were allowed to escalate therapy if they were concerned for other clinical reasons that were not captured in the four clinical criteria.

All the participating hospitals used an early-warning tool to trigger escalation of care, with 11 of the 17 centers using an identical scoring system and 6 using comparable systems (see Section 4.14 in the Supplementary Appendix). The early-warning tools were all based on multiple physiological and clinical variables that mandated medical review and escalation of care when limits were breached. Escalation of treatment or the level of care was defined as an increase in respiratory support or transfer to an ICU. For infants in the standard-therapy group who received escalation of care, it was suggested to change to high-flow therapy in the inpatient environment at the discretion of the clinician.

Prespecified secondary outcomes included the proportion of infants who were transferred to an ICU, which included admission to an on-site ICU or transfer to an ICU at a tertiary hospital; the duration of hospital stay; the duration of ICU stay; the duration of oxygen therapy; intubation rates; and adverse events. Data regarding treatment that was not specified as part of the trial were recorded, as were data regarding medications. The nine centers that had no on-site ICU had to transport infants who required intensive care to a hospital that provided these pediatric services. A serious adverse event was defined as any event that was fatal, life-threatening, permanently disabling, or incapacitating or that resulted in a prolonged hospital stay.

Statistical Analysis

Assuming a baseline rate of treatment failure of 10% in the standard-therapy group and a 50% lower rate (5%) in the high-flow group, we calculated that 582 infants per group would provide the trial with 90% power at a type I error of 0.05 to show a rate of treatment failure that was significantly lower with high-flow therapy than with standard therapy (see Section 4.4 in the Supplementary Appendix). Assuming a rate of withdrawal or loss to follow-up of approximately 10 to 20%, we calculated an overall trial size of 1400. The primary and secondary outcomes were analyzed on the basis of the assigned treatment group.

Data were analyzed first for all infants who received escalation of care. Data were then analyzed again for all infants who received escalation of care and for whom secondary chart review independently confirmed that at least three of the four clinical criteria for treatment failure had been met. Descriptive statistics were used to report the baseline characteristics of the total trial cohort, according to treatment group. The primary outcome measure for the investigation of the escalation of care due to treatment failure was analyzed with the use of a chi-square test and was reported as the relative risk and the risk difference with 95% confidence intervals and P values. The continuous outcome measure of the duration of hospital stay was approximately normally distributed; hence, Student’s t-test of independent samples was used. Analyses of secondary outcomes were based on the chi-square test for proportions and on Student’s t-tests of independent samples for continuous measures.

Prespecified subgroups included infants who had been born prematurely (at <37 weeks of gestation), infants with a previous hospital admission for respiratory disease, infants with a congenital heart defect, infants younger than 3 months of age and those younger than 6 months of age (with correction for prematurity), and infants presenting to hospitals with an on-site ICU and those without an on-site ICU. A test for interaction between treatment group and subgroup on the basis of a log binomial regression model was used to test for homogeneity of relative risks between subgroups. If there was no evidence of heterogeneity in a subgroup analysis, the overall relative risk was assumed for that subgroup. Exploratory analyses involved patients who received escalation of care.

Wed, 13 Jul 2022 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1714855
Killexams : Packers think top-notch trio may be NFL’s top cornerback crew

GREEN BAY — If the Green Bay Packers’ defense is getting entirely too much hype in advance of training camp — and there’s no doubt that the national NFL pundits are high on second-year defensive coordinator Joe Barry’s guys — at least some of those highfalutin predictions are predicated on what the Packers have in the secondary.

With three starting-caliber cornerbacks in former All-Pro Jaire Alexander, 2021 first-round pick Eric Stokes and last year’s out-of-nowhere star Rasul Douglas, and a pair of experienced, steady safeties in Adrian Amos and Darnell Savage, that’s understandable.

“We’re trying to be the best secondary (in the league),” Douglas boasted. “We’ve got the best two safeties, the best three corners. We’re trying to put that all together.”

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Green Bay Packers cornerback Jaire Alexander intercepts a pass intended for San Francisco 49ers tight end George Kittle, middle, on Sept. 26, 2021. 

But for as good as the group looks on paper, it’s not as if there aren’t questions associated with them.

From Alexander coming back from a major shoulder injury that cost him most of the 2021 season, to the possibility that Douglas simply caught lightning in a bottle after a journeyman’s career to that point, to Stokes’ rookie performance perhaps being slightly overvalued, nothing is guaranteed at corner — not even with three guys who’ve clearly done enough good things to merit high expectations.

At safety, there’s no doubt Amos has been a leader on that side of ball and durable, having started all 54 games the Packers have played (including playoffs). But he enters his fourth season in Green Bay with eight interceptions and no fumble plays in that time, and Savage (eight interceptions, one fumble recovery in 51 total games) had half his interceptions during the 2020 season.

That said, if an already good defensive back group elevates its collective game, on a defense with talent at every level, the offseason hype may very well be warranted.

“Last year from a team standpoint, it was brutal. Devastating. We didn’t hoist the Lombardi Trophy, so in our mind, it’s a failure as a team,” Barry said. “But when you do look at the specifics of the way we played, we played good. But our goal is to play great, and our goal is to play great every single week.

“We’ve got a bunch of guys in that locker room that have that mindset, and we’re chomping at the bit to get started.”

Alexander’s return, both to full health and to the roster with a new four-year, $84 million contract extension, should set the tone. A second-team All-Pro in 2020, he was well on his way to replicating that performance when he went low to tackle Pittsburgh running back Najee Harris on Oct. 3 and injured his shoulder.

While he returned for the team’s season-ending playoff loss to San Francisco, he scarcely played, logging just eight snaps.

For as well as Stokes and Douglas held down the secondary in his absence, Alexander is a field-tilting player who makes everyone else’s life easier by shutting down whoever he’s covering. There’s a reason his new deal made him the highest-paid cornerback in the league.

“You’ve got a young man who did a great job for us a couple years ago, and then got injured last year,” defensive backs coach Jerry Gray said. “I think (the contract) shows the organization cares about what he’s done and they expect him to do the same thing he did a couple years ago.”

Here’s a closer look at the defensive backs as the Packers prepare for training camp, which begins in earnest with the team’s first full-squad practice on Wednesday:

Depth chart

21 Eric Stokes: 6-foot, 194 pounds, 23-year-old, second-year cornerback from Georgia.

23 Jaire Alexander: 5-foot-10, 196 pounds, 25-year-old, fifth-year cornerback from Louisville.

31 Adrian Amos: 6-foot, 214 pounds, 29-year-old, eighth-year safety from Penn State.

26 Darnell Savage: 5-foot-11, 198 pounds, 24-year-old, fourth-year safety from Maryland.

29 Rasul Douglas: 6-foot-2, 209 pounds, 26-year-old, sixth-year safety from West Virginia.

22 Shemar Jean-Charles: 5-foot-10, 184 pounds, 24-year-old, second-year cornerback from Appalachian State.

48 Kabio Ento: 6-foot-1, 187 pounds, 26-year-old, second-year cornerback from Colorado.

25 Keisean Nixon: 5-foot-10, 200 pounds, 25-year-old, fourth-year cornerback from South Carolina.

37 Rico Gafford: 5-foot-10, 184 pounds, 26-year-old, second-year cornerback from Wyoming.

34 Raleigh Texada: 5-foot-10, 191 pounds, 24-year-old, rookie cornerback from Baylor.

43 Kiondre Thomas: 6-foot, 186 pounds, 24-year-old, first-year cornerback from Kansas State.

20 Shawn Davis: 5-foot-11, 202 pounds, 24-year-old, first-year safety from Florida.

24 Tariq Carpenter: 6-foot-3, 230 pounds, 23-year-old, rookie safety from Georgia Tech.

36 Vernon Scott: 6-foot-2, 202 pounds, 24-year-old, third-year safety from TCU.

38 Innis Gaines: 6-foot-1, 202 pounds, 23-year-old, first-year safety from TCU.

45 Tre Sterling: 6-foot, 205 pounds, 23-year-old, rookie safety from Oklahoma State.

Burning Question

Can Alexander regain his dominance?

The admission was startling, although it shouldn’t have been surprising given the straight-shooting Alexander’s track record for brutal honesty. For as well as the Packers defense played in the team’s playoff loss to the 49ers, the unit’s failure to tackle Deebo Samuel on third-and-7 during San Francisco’s game-winning field-goal drive was a decisive play.

And Alexander, leery to make the tackle after his injury, was in perfect position to bring Samuel down short of the first-down marker. Instead, he shied away — something the 2018 first-round pick rarely if ever done before the injury.

Now, he has to get back to being physical as well as being one of the NFL’s top cover corners.

“If it’s September, I make that tackle. For sure. But I had no intention of going into that game and tackling,” Alexander admitted in June. “I had every intention of covering a wide receiver and locking them up.

“In my mind, I wasn’t going to tackle anybody (in that game). And if you watch my coverage, I didn’t need to tackle that night. But I just went into that game not ever expecting to tackle. The thought was to go in on passing downs to avoid stuff like that. And then it just so happened the run came my way and you saw the play. I wasn’t ready to tackle (Samuel).”

On the rise

A year ago in training camp, Stokes was getting a baptism by friendly fire from the quarterback Aaron Rodgers, who was about to embark on his fourth NFL MVP season, and wide receiver Davante Adams, who would break the franchise’s single-season records for catches and receiving yards. The hard lessons paid off, as Stokes played well after some early-season growing pains.

Now, the expectation is for a colossal Year 2 jump.

“I feel way more comfortable. It’s just some things that I’ve got to get used to,” Stokes said. “It’s getting (about) more comfortable, getting more familiar with everything and remembering everything from last year.”

Player to watch

As good as Douglas was last season — and was he ever good — on his way to a team-leading five interceptions (all of which came in crucial moments, with two that he returned for touchdowns), it’s hard to ignore the nomadic NFL existence he’d had before that.

When the Packers signed him off Arizona’s practice squad following Alexander’s injury, they became Douglas’ sixth team in a two-year span. Clearly the team believes Douglas wasn’t a one-year wonder, signing him to a three-year, $21 million deal in free agency after the Adams trade created extra salary-cap space.

“For sure. There’s a lot more,” Douglas replied when asked if he’s motivated to prove last season wasn’t an aberration. “Getting (back) here, I’m ready to put it together now and show.

“A contract means a contract, but at any time, if you’re not doing what you’re supposed to be doing, they can let you go. You just got to keep working.”

Key competition

Who will be the “Star” of the group?

Alexander is a bona fide star, but Gray was coy when asked about who might play the “Star” position in Barry’s scheme — the slot corner spot that is arguably the secondary’s most important spot.

The position requires not only coverage skills but a physicality and willingness to tackle, not to mention blitzing and short-area skills. While Alexander surely fits the bill, it’s worth wondering whether the Packers would rather just play him outside and let him take away half the field. During the defense’s brief 11-on-11 periods during the two-practice mandatory minicamp, Douglas manned the position, even though at 6-foot-2 he’s bigger than the prototype.

“You can’t have too many corners in this league, I’m telling you. These guys are really good on offense and you’ve got to be able to match those guys somehow, some way,” Gray said. “Trust me. I think it’ll be Jaire, I think it’ll be Stokes. I think it’ll be Rasul. It could be Savage. We’ve got a lot of good guys that can play in the slot. That’s the best part that we have here. We don’t have just one guy.

“There’s a lot of action at the (Star), and everybody wants to be in the action. They want to compete. I want guys that want to compete and go out and play.”

Numbers game

Thanks to an offense that turned the ball over just 13 times, the Packers finished third in the NFL in turnover differential at plus-13 last season. That number got a boost from a big uptick in interceptions, as the Packers picked off 18 passes — tied for sixth-most in the NFL last season. That marked an increase of seven INTs over 2020, when Green Bay was tied for 18th in interceptions and had just 18 total takeaways (tied for 25th).

Sun, 24 Jul 2022 11:00:00 -0500 en text/html https://lacrossetribune.com/sports/football/professional/packers-think-top-notch-trio-may-be-nfl-s-top-cornerback-crew/article_9b006e4c-04e8-543d-bd15-b42652a9c187.html
Killexams : ‘There is a need for a nurse registration in older people’s care’

Modern day health and social care dementia practice, as with other conditions, is driven by what is understood to be the current evidence base. This is revealed through research, best practice and expert consensus about the most effective way to care for a person with a condition.

Practice should also be guided by clinical ethics – often better known as medical ethics – but health and social care involves a range of disciplines, not just medicine.

Clinical ethics are based on four main principles: respect for a person’s autonomy, doing good (beneficence), avoiding harm (nonmaleficence) and being fair (justice). It is often felt that respect for a person’s autonomy should trump the other principles.

"Research estimates that older people in the UK are expected to live almost 50% of their remaining lives with a limiting long-term physical or mental health condition"

One of the main goals in dementia care is promoting wellbeing through care that is both person-centred and needs-led while fully embracing the four principles of clinical ethics. However, while these underpin how we care for a person, we must consider how those living with dementia perceive themselves and manage the condition. How do they adapt to their increasing functional decline and understand the ever changing symptoms alongside their increasing disability?

Research estimates that older people in the UK are expected to live almost 50% of their remaining lives with a limiting long-term physical or mental health condition, increasing their need for care and support.

Dementia is largely a condition of old age, and as the condition advances it can often accompany complex health and social care needs, some of which may lead to acute hospital care admission.

People with dementia are no different from their peers without a diagnosis, in that they too desire to cope with their illness and maintain independence and autonomy for as long as possible.

However, their dementia presents many barriers to achieving autonomy. Maintaining autonomy is difficult enough in a world where dementia is little understood, but it appears when admitted to an acute hospital environment these challenges exponentially increase.

A study funded by NIHR revealed care that falls far short of what we should expect when an older person with dementia is admitted into an acute care setting, regardless of the reason for admission.

"Central to all these findings is the need for a specific approach for older people"

It was found that people with dementia appear disadvantaged and indeed experience indirect harm as a result of the admission.

The primary outcome may well be that the reason for their admission is both treated and hopefully resolved, but a secondary outcome seems to be the loss of continence. This brings many questions and concerns to mind, not least that for each of these individuals we have breached clinical ethics on several counts; causing harm by adding to the person functional loss, denying autonomy by removing their right to access to the toilet, a basic right and need and perhaps, lastly, treating this group of people unfairly (unjustly) simply because of their age and their dementia.

On reflection, we could argue that such care is underpinned by unconscious institutional incompetence, but this research adds to a long string of incident reports and research findings that reveal other similar events, such as the the Report of the Mid Staffordshire NHS Foundation Trust Public Inquiry.

Central to all these findings is the need for a specific approach for older people, such as a nurse registration in older people's care, which embraces the often complex care needs of this growing ageing population.

They can no longer be the square peg fitting into the round hole of generalist services without adequately trained individuals to orchestrate their care.

We have a specialist group of doctors – geriatricians – so why not a nurse registration that has its focus on conditions of old age; dementia, frailty, multimorbidity, polypharmacy – I could go on.

Dr Karen Harrison Dening is head of research and publications, Dementia UK

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Sun, 17 Jul 2022 21:00:00 -0500 Sam Gournay en-GB text/html https://www.nursingtimes.net/opinion/there-is-a-need-for-a-nurse-registration-in-older-peoples-care-18-07-2022/
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