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Exam Code: 201-450 Practice test 2022 by Killexams.com team
201-450 LPIC-2 test 201, Part 1 of 2, version 4.5

Exam Title : LPIC-2 Linux Engineer
Exam ID : 201-450
90 mins
Questions in test : 60
Passing Score : 500 / 800
Exam Center : LPI Marketplace
Real Questions : LPI LPIC-2 Real Questions
VCE practice test : LPI 201-450 Certification VCE Practice Test

Topic 200: Capacity Planning
200.1 Measure and Troubleshoot Resource Usage
Weight: 6
Description: Candidates should be able to measure hardware resource and network bandwidth, identify and troubleshoot resource problems.

Key Knowledge Areas:
- Measure CPU usage
- Measure memory usage
- Measure disk I/O
- Measure network I/O
- Measure firewalling and routing throughput
- Map client bandwidth usage
- Match / correlate system symptoms with likely problems
- Estimate throughput and identify bottlenecks in a system including networking

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
- iostat
- netstat
- w
- top
- sar
- processes blocked on I/O
- blocks out
- vmstat
- pstree, ps
- Isof
- uptime
- swap
- blocks in

200.2 Predict Future Resource Needs
Weight: 2
Description: Candidates should be able to monitor resource usage to predict future resource needs.

Key Knowledge Areas:
- Use monitoring and measurement tools to monitor IT infrastructure usage.
- Predict capacity break point of a configuration
- Observe growth rate of capacity usage
- Graph the trend of capacity usage
- Awareness of monitoring solutions such as Icinga2, Nagios, collectd, MRTG and Cacti

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
- diagnose
- predict growth
- resource exhaustion

Topic 201: Linux Kernel
201.1 Kernel Components
Weight: 2
Description: Candidates should be able to utilize kernel components that are necessary to specific hardware, hardware drivers, system resources and requirements. This objective includes implementing different types of kernel images, identifying stable and development kernels and patches, as well as using kernel modules.

Key Knowledge Areas:
- Kernel 2.6.x, 3.x and 4.x documentation

Terms and Utilities:
- /usr/src/linux/
- /usr/src/linux/Documentation/
- zImage
- bzImage
- xz compression

201.2 Compiling a kernel
Weight: 3
Description: Candidates should be able to properly configure a kernel to include or disable specific features of the Linux kernel as necessary. This objective includes compiling and recompiling the Linux kernel as needed, updating and noting changes in a new kernel, creating an initrd image and installing new kernels.

Key Knowledge Areas:
- /usr/src/linux/
- Kernel Makefiles
- Kernel 2.6.x/3.x make targets
- Customize the current kernel configuration.
- Build a new kernel and appropriate kernel modules.
- Install a new kernel and any modules.
- Ensure that the boot manager can locate the new kernel and associated files.
- Module configuration files
- Use DKMS to compile kernel modules.
- Awareness of dracut

Terms and Utilities:
- mkinitrd
- mkinitramfs
- make
- make targets (all, config, xconfig, menuconfig, gconfig, oldconfig, mrproper, zImage, bzImage, modules, modules_install, rpm-pkg, binrpm-pkg, deb-pkg)
- gzip
- bzip2
- module tools
- /usr/src/linux/.config
- /lib/modules/kernel-version/
- depmod
- dkms

201.3 Kernel runtime management and troubleshooting
Weight: 4
Description: Candidates should be able to manage and/or query a 2.6.x, 3.x or 4.x kernel and its loadable modules. Candidates should be able to identify and correct common boot and run time issues. Candidates should understand device detection and management using udev. This objective includes troubleshooting udev rules.
Key Knowledge Areas: - Use command-line utilities to get information about the currently running kernel and kernel modules
- Manually load and unload kernel modules
- Determine when modules can be unloaded
- Determine what parameters a module accepts
- Configure the system to load modules by names other than their file name.
- /proc filesystem
- Content of /, /boot/ , and /lib/modules/
- Tools and utilities to analyze information about the available hardware
- udev rules

Terms and Utilities:
- /lib/modules/kernel-version/modules.dep
- module configuration files in /etc/
- /proc/sys/kernel/
- /sbin/depmod
- /sbin/rmmod
- /sbin/modinfo
- /bin/dmesg
- /sbin/lspci
- /usr/bin/lsdev
- /sbin/lsmod
- /sbin/modprobe
- /sbin/insmod
- /bin/uname
- /usr/bin/lsusb
- /etc/sysctl.conf, /etc/sysctl.d/
- /sbin/sysctl
- udevmonitor
- udevadm monitor
- /etc/udev/

Topic 202: System Startup
202.1 Customizing SysV-init system startup
Weight: 3
Description: Candidates should be able to query and modify the behaviour of system services at various targets / run levels. A thorough understanding of the systemd, SysV Init and the Linux boot process is required. This objective includes interacting with systemd targets and SysV init run levels.

Key Knowledge Areas:
- Systemd
- SysV init
- Linux Standard Base Specification (LSB)

Terms and Utilities:
- /usr/lib/systemd/
- /etc/systemd/
- /run/systemd/
- systemctl
- systemd-delta
- /etc/inittab
- /etc/init.d/
- /etc/rc.d/
- chkconfig
- update-rc.d
- init and telinit

202.2 System Recovery
Weight: 4
Description: Candidates should be able to properly manipulate a Linux system during both the boot process and during recovery mode. This objective includes using both the init utility and init-related kernel options. Candidates should be able to determine the cause of errors in loading and usage of bootloaders. GRUB version 2 and GRUB Legacy are the bootloaders of interest. Both BIOS and UEFI systems are covered.

Key Knowledge Areas:
- BIOS and UEFI
- NVMe booting
- GRUB version 2 and Legacy
- grub shell
- boot loader start and hand off to kernel
- kernel loading
- hardware initialisation and setup
- daemon/service initialisation and setup
- Know the different boot loader install locations on a hard disk or removable device.
- Overwrite standard boot loader options and using boot loader shells.
- Use systemd rescue and emergency modes.

Terms and Utilities:
- mount
- fsck
- inittab, telinit and init with SysV init
- The contents of /boot/, /boot/grub/ and /boot/efi/
- EFI System Partition (ESP)
- GRUB
- grub-install
- efibootmgr
- UEFI shell
- initrd, initramfs
- Master boot record
- systemctl

202.3 Alternate Bootloaders
Weight: 2
Description: Candidates should be aware of other bootloaders and their major features.

Key Knowledge Areas:
- SYSLINUX, ISOLINUX, PXELINUX
- Understanding of PXE for both BIOS and UEFI
- Awareness of systemd-boot and U-Boot

Terms and Utilities:
- syslinux
- extlinux
- isolinux.bin
- isolinux.cfg
- isohdpfx.bin
- efiboot.img
- pxelinux.0
- pxelinux.cfg/
- uefi/shim.efi
- uefi/grubx64.efi

Topic 203: Filesystem and Devices
203.1 Operating the Linux filesystem
Weight: 4
Description: Candidates should be able to properly configure and navigate the standard Linux filesystem. This objective includes configuring and mounting various filesystem types.

Key Knowledge Areas:
- The concept of the fstab configuration
- Tools and utilities for handling swap partitions and files
- Use of UUIDs for identifying and mounting file systems
- Understanding of systemd mount units

Terms and Utilities:
- /etc/fstab
- /etc/mtab
- /proc/mounts
- mount and umount
- blkid
- sync
- swapon
- swapoff

203.2 Maintaining a Linux filesystem​
Weight: 3
Description: Candidates should be able to properly maintain a Linux filesystem using system utilities. This objective includes manipulating standard filesystems and monitoring SMART devices.

Key Knowledge Areas:
- Tools and utilities to manipulate and ext2, ext3 and ext4
- Tools and utilities to perform basic Btrfs operations, including subvolumes and snapshots
- Tools and utilities to manipulate XFS
- Awareness of ZFS

Terms and Utilities:
- mkfs (mkfs.*)
- mkswap
- fsck (fsck.*)
- tune2fs, dumpe2fs and debugfs
- btrfs, btrfs-convert
- xfs_info, xfs_check, xfs_repair, xfsdump and xfsrestore
- smartd, smartctl

203.3 Creating and configuring filesystem options
Weight: 2
Description: Candidates should be able to configure automount filesystems using AutoFS. This objective includes configuring automount for network and device filesystems. Also included is creating filesystems for devices such as CD-ROMs and a basic feature knowledge of encrypted filesystems.

Key Knowledge Areas:
- autofs configuration files
- Understanding of automount units
- UDF and ISO9660 tools and utilities
- Awareness of other CD-ROM filesystems (HFS)
- Awareness of CD-ROM filesystem extensions (Joliet, Rock Ridge, El Torito)
- Basic feature knowledge of data encryption (dm-crypt / LUKS)

Terms and Utilities:
- /etc/auto.master
- /etc/auto.[dir]
- mkisofs
- cryptsetup

Topic 204: Advanced Storage Device Administration
204.1 Configuring RAID
Weight: 3
Description: Candidates should be able to configure and implement software RAID. This objective includes using and configuring RAID 0, 1 and 5.

Key Knowledge Areas:
- Software raid configuration files and utilities

Terms and Utilities:
- mdadm.conf
- mdadm
- /proc/mdstat
- partition type 0xFD

204.2 Adjusting Storage Device Access
Weight: 2
Description: Candidates should be able to configure kernel options to support various drives. This objective includes software tools to view & modify hard disk settings including iSCSI devices.

Key Knowledge Areas:
- Tools and utilities to configure DMA for IDE devices including ATAPI and SATA
- Tools and utilities to configure Solid State Drives including AHCI and NVMe
- Tools and utilities to manipulate or analyse system resources (e.g. interrupts)
- Awareness of sdparm command and its uses
- Tools and utilities for iSCSI
- Awareness of SAN, including relevant protocols (AoE, FCoE)

Terms and Utilities:
- hdparm, sdparm
- nvme
- tune2fs
- fstrim
- sysctl
- /dev/hd*, /dev/sd*, /dev/nvme*
- iscsiadm, scsi_id, iscsid and iscsid.conf
- WWID, WWN, LUN numbers

204.3 Logical Volume Manager
Weight: 3
Description: Candidates should be able to create and remove logical volumes, volume groups, and physical volumes. This objective includes snapshots and resizing logical volumes.

Key Knowledge Areas:
- Tools in the LVM suite
- Resizing, renaming, creating, and removing logical volumes, volume groups, and physical volumes
- Creating and maintaining snapshots
- Activating volume groups

Terms and Utilities:
- /sbin/pv*
- /sbin/lv*
- /sbin/vg*
- mount
- /dev/mapper/
- lvm.conf

Topic 205: Network Configuration
205.1 Basic networking configuration
Weight: 3
Description: Candidates should be able to configure a network device to be able to connect to a local, wired or wireless, and a wide-area network. This objective includes being able to communicate between various subnets within a single network including both IPv4 and IPv6 networks.

Key Knowledge Areas:
- Utilities to configure and manipulate ethernet network interfaces
- Configuring basic access to wireless networks

Terms and Utilities:
- ip
- ifconfig
- route
- arp
- iw
- iwconfig
- iwlist

205.2 Advanced Network Configuration and Troubleshooting
Weight: 4
Description: Candidates should be able to configure a network device to implement various network authentication schemes. This objective includes configuring a multi-homed network device and resolving communication problems.

Key Knowledge Areas:
- Utilities to manipulate routing tables
- Utilities to configure and manipulate ethernet network interfaces
- Utilities to analyze the status of the network devices
- Utilities to monitor and analyze the TCP/IP traffic

Terms and Utilities:
- ip
- ifconfig
- route
- arp
- ss
- netstat
- lsof
- ping, ping6
- nc
- tcpdump
- nmap

205.3 Troubleshooting Network Issues
Weight: 4
Description: Candidates should be able to identify and correct common network setup issues, to include knowledge of locations for basic configuration files and commands.

Key Knowledge Areas:
- Location and content of access restriction files
- Utilities to configure and manipulate ethernet network interfaces
- Utilities to manage routing tables
- Utilities to list network states.
- Utilities to gain information about the network configuration
- Methods of information about the recognized and used hardware devices
- System initialization files and their contents (SysV init process)
- Awareness of NetworkManager and its impact on network configuration

Terms and Utilities:
- ip
- ifconfig
- route
- ss
- netstat
- /etc/network/, /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/
- ping, ping6
- traceroute, traceroute6
- mtr
- hostname
- System log files such as /var/log/syslog, /var/log/messages and the systemd journal
- dmesg
- /etc/resolv.conf
- /etc/hosts
- /etc/hostname, /etc/HOSTNAME
- /etc/hosts.allow, /etc/hosts.deny

Topic 206: System Maintenance
206.1 Make and install programs from source
Weight: 2
Description: Candidates should be able to build and install an executable program from source. This objective includes being able to unpack a file of sources.

Key Knowledge Areas:
- Unpack source code using common compression and archive utilities
- Understand basics of invoking make to compile programs
- Apply parameters to a configure script
- Know where sources are stored by default

Terms and Utilities:
- /usr/src/
- gunzip
- gzip
- bzip2
- xz
- tar
- configure
- make
- uname
- install
- patch

206.2 Backup operations
Weight: 3
Description: Candidates should be able to use system tools to back up important system data.

Key Knowledge Areas:
- Knowledge about directories that have to be include in backups
- Awareness of network backup solutions such as Amanda, Bacula, Bareos and BackupPC
- Knowledge of the benefits and drawbacks of tapes, CDR, disk or other backup media
- Perform partial and manual backups.
- Verify the integrity of backup files.
- Partially or fully restore backups.
Terms and Utilities:
- /bin/sh
- dd
- tar
- /dev/st* and /dev/nst*
- mt
- rsync

206.3 Notify users on system-related issues
Weight: 1
Description: Candidates should be able to notify the users about current issues related to the system.

Key Knowledge Areas:
- Automate communication with users through logon messages
- Inform active users of system maintenance

Terms and Utilities:
- /etc/issue
- /etc/issue.net
- /etc/motd
- wall
- /sbin/shutdown
- systemctl

LPIC-2 test 201, Part 1 of 2, version 4.5
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When it comes to managing computer systems, whether in an office environment, on a campus or in an enterprise data center, there’s a long list of tools and technologies SysAdmins need to master. There are numerous certifications can help validate knowledge and skills in those areas.

In addition to server and client configuration and maintenance, many system administrators must understand access controls, network services and resource requirements for applications. They often find themselves working with directory and name services as well as network addressing, database services, web and desktop applications, email, and more.

Making sense of all these different system administrator roles and accompanying certifications is no easy task. After examining various credentials, we came up with a list of our five favorite system administrator certifications for 2019.

The following chart shows the results of an informal job search we conducted that gives you an idea of the relative frequency with which our top five certifications appear in real job postings. While all the certifications are popular, the CompTIA Server+ stands out as the clear favorite.

Job Board Search Results (in alphabetical order, by certification)*

Certification SimplyHired Indeed LinkedIn Jobs Linkup Total
MCSE: Cloud Platform and Infrastructure (Microsoft) 112 247 253 151 773
Oracle Linux System Administrator (Oracle) 311 377 124 304 1,116
RHCE (Red Hat) 507 625 864 286 2,282
Server+ (CompTIA) 98 111 165 25 399
VCP6.5-DCV (VMware)* 219 275 169 192 855

*When searching for VCP – Data Center credentials, we found most job descriptions didn’t indicate a specific version.

Although employers tend to pay SysAdmins less than some of their IT peers, such as network engineers and data architects, a career in system administration is still worth pursuing. SimplyHired reports $77,296 as the national average salary for SysAdmins, in a range from $49,746 to $120,102. Indeed.com pegs averages at $75,967 for plain-vanilla, and $88,032 for senior systems administrators.

MCSE: Microsoft Certified Solutions Expert

The Microsoft Certified Solutions Expert (MCSE) certification has long ruled the hearts and minds of those who work on Microsoft-based systems, servers and clouds. MCSE certifications focus on the latest technologies for business applications, cloud infrastructures, data management and analytics, mobility, and productivity.

But when it comes to system administration certifications in general, the brightest lights are those that address Windows Server at the enterprise and server administrator levels. While these credentials don’t all specifically use “system administrator” in their descriptions, they all fall well inside the roles and responsibilities of system administration jobs. They’re also in high demand in job postings and classified job advertisements.

The MCSE: Cloud Platform and Infrastructure targets IT professionals seeking to promote careers such as information security analysts or computer support specialists. Those obtaining the certification will find that the MCSE: Cloud Platform and Infrastructure credential is designed to validate the skills necessary to effectively run a data center, including networking, storage, systems management, virtualization and identity management.

Note: The Microsoft Certified Solutions Associate (MCSA) is Microsoft’s prevailing mid-range IT certification. It covers most administrative job roles, including system administration at both the desktop and server levels, as well as more specialized job roles that include SQL Server and Office 365. MCSA: Cloud Platform is a gateway certification that feeds into these MCSE certifications.

System administration candidates might also want to take a close look at the MCSE: Productivity credential, which garners nearly as many hits on job boards as the MCSE: Cloud Platform and Infrastructure cert. The MCSE: Productivity focuses on Microsoft Exchange, SharePoint or Skype For Business. Because communications systems and services of all kinds are so important to business, these are good areas for aspiring and practicing system administrators to specialize in.

The Microsoft Certification Program underwent extensive changes in September 2016. Once you earn one of the latest MCSE credentials, you do not have to recertify within three years as used to be the case. However, by passing an elective test each calendar year, you add an entry to your transcript that indicates your commitment to staying current on technologies and expanding your skillset.

MCSE: Cloud Platform and Infrastructure Facts and Figures

Certification Name Microsoft Certified Solutions Expert (MCSE): Cloud Platform and Infrastructure
Prerequisites & Required Courses Any one of the following MCSAs is required:

MCSA: Windows Server 2016

MCSA: Cloud Platform

MCSA: Linux on Azure

MCSA: Windows Server 2012

Number of Exams One additional elective test is required to earn this MCSE. Valid electives include:

70-532 Developing Microsoft Azure Solutions

70-533 Implementing Microsoft Azure Infrastructure Solutions (exam retires December 31, 2018)

70-473 Designing and Implementing Cloud Data Platform Solutions

70-475 Designing and Implementing Big Data Analytics Solutions

70-744 Securing Windows Server 2016

70-745 Implementing a Software-Defined Datacenter

70-413 Designing and Implementing a Server Infrastructure

70-414 Implementing an Advanced Server Infrastructure

70-537 Configuring and Operating a Hybrid Cloud with Microsoft Azure Stack (coming soon)

Candidates are encouraged to check the certification web page for the most current list of qualifying exams.

Cost per Exam $165 per test in the USA
URL https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/learning/mcse-cloud-platform-infrastructure.aspx
Self-Study Materials Visit the certification web page and Microsoft Learning for practice tests, free online training, Microsoft Official Curriculum in-classroom and on-demand course offerings, books, online resources and more.  Candidates will find links to training resources including practice exams, books, video, and formal training on the test web page.

Oracle Linux System Administrator

Although known for its database products and solutions, Oracle also has its own distribution of Linux, geared for the enterprise and designed to support cloud environments. In fact, Oracle Linux is optimized for various Oracle products and platforms, such as Oracle Exadata Database Machine, Oracle Exalytics In-Memory Machine, Oracle Exalogic Elastic Cloud and Oracle Database Appliance.

To support Oracle Linux, the company offers the Oracle Linux System Administrator certification at Associate and Professional levels. A single Oracle Linux Certified Implementation Specialist credential is also offered. We focus on the Oracle Certified Professional (OCP) version in this section.

The OCP Oracle Linux System Administrator certification, currently at version 6 (although version 7 should be coming soon), covers a lot of details. Candidates must be well-versed on the Btrfs file system, control groups, Linux containers, advanced storage administration techniques, Oracle cluster management and package management. The certification also tests for knowledge of dump analysis, dynamic tracing, network and security configuration and more.

The OCP Oracle Linux System Administrator certification requires that candidates first obtain the Oracle Certified Associate (OCA) Oracle Linux 5 and 6 System Administrator certification and pass one exam.

SysAdmins who support Oracle Solaris might be interested in the Oracle Solaris System Administrator certification, which Oracle offers at the Associate and Professional levels. Oracle also offers several server-related certifications for SPARC and Fujitsu servers.

Oracle Linux System Administrator Facts and Figures

RHCE: Red Hat Certified Engineer

In the realm of Linux system administrator certifications, Red Hat certs really stand out. Red Hat’s more senior-level certifications are especially popular among IT professionals as well as the employers who hire them. Those holding the Red Hat Certified Engineer (RHCE) credential qualify for job roles such as senior Linux administrator, senior UNIX administrator, senior systems engineer, infrastructure systems engineer, IT analyst and the like.

The RHCE is regarded as a high-level credential that’s not easy to obtain. Candidates must first obtain the Red Hat Certified System Administrator (RHCSA) credential and then pass a three and a half hour, hands-on, performance-based test that’s intense and demanding. Those who earn the RHCE can go on to earn the Red Hat Certified Architect (RHCA) in Infrastructure credential.

The current RHCE test is based on Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) 7. RHCE certification is valid for three years from the date the certification was achieved. To maintain the certification, a credential holder must pass any RHCA test or pass the RHCE certification test again before the end of the three-year period.

Note: In October 2018, IBM announced that it was acquiring Red Hat for the princely sum of $34 billion. It’s too early to tell what impact this may have on Red Hat certification offerings, if any.

RHCE Facts and Figures

Certification Name Red Hat Certified Engineer (RHCE)
Prerequisites & Required Courses Red Hat Certified System Administrator (RHCSA) certification (does not have be on the same Red Hat Enterprise Linux version). RHCSA requires one exam: EX200 — Red Hat Certified System Administrator (RHCSA).

Note: Courses recommended but not required

Number of Exams One exams:

EX300 – Red Hat Certified Engineer (RHCE) exam, 3.5 hours

Cost per Exam $400 (RHCE test fee only)
URL https://www.redhat.com/en/services/certification/rhce
Self-Study Materials Red Hat Training offers multiple training options, including classroom, virtual, online, video and private onsite. The Red Hat Learning Subscription offers online and video courses, including cloud-based labs, in Basic and Standard subscriptions. Prices vary by geography. Candidates in the U.S. can expect to pay $5,500 (or 19 training units) for the Basic tier and $7,000 (or 24 training units) for the Standard tier.

CompTIA Server+

CompTIA offers a long list of entry-level certifications, such as the A+ for hardware technicians, Network+ for network admins and Security+ for security specialists, all of which are highly regarded in the computing industry. The CompTIA Server+ certification is no exception. Companies such as Intel, HP, Dell, Lenovo, Xerox and Microsoft, as well as the U.S. Department of Defense, recommend or require that their server technicians earn CompTIA Server+.

The Server+ certification test focuses on foundational server-related syllabus that are vendor-neutral in nature, including server hardware, operating systems, storage systems, networking, the IT environment (documentation, diagrams and best practices), security and disaster recovery, virtualization and troubleshooting.

The Server+ credential, along with sufficient experience, is a great asset for individuals seeking a position as a server or network administrator, systems engineer or website administrator. You can also consider it as a stepping stone to a more focused certification, such as the Microsoft Certified Solutions Associate (MCSA) or the Red Hat Certified System Administrator (RHCSA).

Server+ certification requires one exam, SK0-004. CompTIA recommends that candidates have at least 18 months of experience and A+ certification before sitting for the exam.

CompTIA Server+ Facts and Figures

Certification Name CompTIA Server+
Prerequisites & Required Courses Required: None

Recommended: CompTIA A+ certification plus 18 to 24 months of IT experience

Number of Exams One exam: SK0-004 (90 minutes, 100 multiple-choice questions, 750 on a scale of 100-900 required to pass)
Cost per Exam $319. Purchase vouchers through CompTIA Marketplace. test administered by Pearson VUE.
URL https://certification.comptia.org/certifications/server
Self-study Materials Links to practice questions, test objectives, eBooks, and other training resources are available on the certification web page. test study bundles including eBooks and CertMaster practice are available from the CompTIA Marketplace.

VCP6-DCV: VMware Certified Professional 6 – Data Center Virtualization

The VMware family of certifications are must-have credentials for IT professionals interested in the field of virtualization. Offering a comprehensive certification program that encompasses all skills levels, VMware credentials are recognized globally as best in class.

The latest incarnation of the VMware vSphere product is Version 6.5. VMware currently offers two credentials which target vSphere V6.5 users: the VMware Certified Professional 6.5 – Data Center Virtualization and the VMware Certified Advanced Professional 6.5 – Data Center Virtualization (Design and Deploy). It’s anticipated that the VMware Certified Design Expert (VCDX-DCV) will be available soon.

Although Version 6.5 is the newest version of the vSphere product, interested candidates can still certify on vSphere V. 6. The VMware Certified Professional 6 – Data Center Virtualization (VCP6-DCV) is one of VMware’s most popular credentials with more than 100,000 certified credential holders. The VCP6-DCV prepares credential holders for more advanced certifications, including the VMware Certified Advanced Professional (VCAP6-DCV) and the pinnacle cert, VMware Certified Design Expert (VCDX-DCV). For this article, we chose to concentrate on the requirements for the VCP6.5 – DCV since it’s based on the newest version of vSphere.

Training is required for non-credential holders seeking to obtain the VCP6-DCV. VMware offers a variety of training options to meet the training prerequisite: self-paced (on demand), live online and live classroom, some of which include virtual labs. Those possessing a valid VCP5-DCV or VCP6-DCV credential need only pass a delta exam to obtain the credential.

VCP6.5-DCV Facts and Figures

Certification Name VMware Certified Professional 6.5 – Data Center Virtualization (VCP6.5-DCV)
Prerequisites & Required Courses Path 1 (non-VCP credential holders):  Gain vSphere 6.5 experience, attend a required training course, pass either the vSphere 6 or 6.5 Foundations exam, and pass the current VCP6.5–DCV exam

Path 2 (active VCP5-DCV or VCP6-DCV credential holders): Gain vSphere 6.5 experience, pass the VCP6.5–DCV or VCP6.5–DCV Delta exam. Training is recommended but not required.

Path 3 (expired VCP-DCV): Gain vSphere 6.5 experience, attend a required training course, pass either the vSphere 6 or 6.5 Foundations exam, and pass the current VCP6.5–DCV exam

Path 4 (active VCP 6, 6.5 or 7 in a different track): Gain vSphere 6.5 experience and pass the VCP6.5–DCV exam. Training is recommended but not required.

See the VCP6.5-DCV web page for list of current approved training courses.

Number of Exams One or two exams depending on certification path.

Foundation exams:

vSphere 6 Foundations Exam, 2V0-620, 115 minutes, 65 questions

vSphere 6.5 Foundations Exam, 2V0-602, 105 minutes, 70 questions

VMware Certified Professional 6.5 – Data Center Virtualization exams:

VMware Certified Professional 6.5 – Data Center Virtualization, 2V0-622, 105 minutes, 70 questions

VMware Certified Professional 6.5 – Data Center Virtualization Delta, 2V0-622D, 106 minutes, 70 questions

Cost per Exam vSphere Foundations test (V6 or V6.5), $125

VMware Certified Professional 6.5 – Data Center Virtualization exam, $250

VMware Certified Professional 6.5 – Data Center Virtualization Delta exam, $250

URL VCP6.5-DCV:   https://www.vmware.com/education-services/certification/vcp6-5-dcv.html
Self-Study Materials A link to an test guide, training and a practice test (if available) appear on each test page (see the How to Prepare tab). VMware Learning Zone offers test prep subscriptions. Numerous VCP6-DCV study materials are available through Amazon.com. MeasureUp offers a VCP6-DCV practice tests and a practice labs.

Beyond the Top 5: More SysAdmin Certifications

Beyond the five system administrator certifications featured in this article, there are many other certification programs that can help to further the careers and professional development of IT professionals who work in system administration.

It makes sense to investigate the plethora of vendor-specific programs available for those who work with systems from companies such as Brocade, Dell EMC, HPE, IBM, NetApp, Symantec and so forth. Many of them play into key system specialty areas, such as storage, security or virtualization, while others offer a broad range of platforms for these and other technology areas. Here are some examples:

  • IBM Certified System Administrator (and Advanced Administrator), for WebSphere Application Server Network Deployment, AIX, DB2, Connections, Sametime, Lotus Notes, Informix, IBM i and more
  • NetApp Certified Data Administrator (NCDA), geared toward professionals who manage NetApp data storage controllers running the ONTAP operating system
  • ServiceNow Certified System Administrator, aimed at professionals who are adept at configuring, implementing and managing ServiceNow systems

Likewise, vendor-neutral certification programs also offer a variety of interesting and potentially valuable credentials. For example, the LPI LPIC certifications, which had been in our top five list for several years, are well known and widely recognized in IT shops and operations that depend on Linux servers to handle their workloads. It’s best to think of our top five certifications as a good place to start, while also realizing that there are many other options to consider as well.

Tue, 11 Oct 2022 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.businessnewsdaily.com/10752-best-system-administrator-certifications.html
Killexams : Best Linux Certifications

More than 20 years after Linus Torvalds developed Linux, the operating system remains a force in the computing industry. While Linux is not widely used on desktops (making up just over 2.4% of the overall desktop operating system market share in January 2019, according to NetMarketShare), it is extraordinarily strong on the web server side, where it enjoys a market share of almost 54%.

IT professionals invest considerable time learning about server computing for everything from installation, configuration, maintenance and virtualization to application support and security. This also means that many IT professionals are working with and around Linux operating systems daily, often alongside Windows and various UNIX OS brands as well.

The best of the Linux certifications vie for considerable mindshare among IT professionals and present an interesting mix of distribution- or brand-agnostic credentials alongside some pretty formidable vendor-specific credentials. There are multiple well-elaborated certification ladders available to those interested in learning, using, and mastering the Linux operating system environment and all the many bells and whistles it supports.

The results of a job search we conducted on several popular job posting sites show which Linux certifications employers are looking for when hiring new employees. While results vary from day to day (and job board to job board), this table reflects those Linux-related certifications that employers were seeking in the U.S.

Job Board Survey Results (in alphabetical order, by certification)

Certification

SimplyHired

Indeed

LinkedIn Jobs

Linkup

Total

GCUX (SANS GIAC) 30 30 55 12 127
Linux+ (CompTIA) 1,045 1,339 779 547 3,710
LPIC (LPI) 38 41 247 44 370
Oracle Linux OCA 27 31 33 12 103
Oracle Linux OCP 61 69 69 25 224
RHCA (Red Hat) 89 102 190 38 419
RHCE (Red Hat) 467 553 754 267 2,041
RHCSA (Red Hat) 417 504 667 241 1,829

We found that for nearly every certification category listed above, the number of national jobs postings mentioning that certification has increased, in some cases substantially, since we surveyed the same job sites a year ago. Linux system administrators and engineers can expect average earnings in the low $70s and upward, depending on the job role. PayScale lists $70,194 as the average salary for Linux system administrators ($52,000/low and $101,000/high). Glassdoor reports earnings for Linux system administrators averaging $68,884, Linux system engineers at $99,348 and senior Linux system engineers at $122,071.

GCUX: GIAC Certified Unix Security Administrator

The Global Information Assurance Certification (GIAC) program is part of SANS, a highly regarded source of instruction and research in the information security field. SANS also provides breaking news, operates a security alert service and serves on all kinds of government, research and academic information security task forces, working groups and industry organizations.

The SANS GIAC program encompasses 37 information security certifications across several categories, such as cyber defense, penetration testing, incident response and forensics, management, audit, legal, developer and industrial control systems. The GIAC Certified UNIX Security Administrator (GCUX) falls under its Cyber Defense category, and aims at professionals who install, configure, monitor, secure and audit both Unix and Linux systems.

GIAC certifications must be renewed every four years by earning 36 continuing professional experience (CPE) credits. Also, credential holders must pay a certification maintenance fee of $429 every four years.

GCUX Facts & Figures

Certification Name

GIAC Certified Unix Security Administrator (GCUX)

Prerequisites & Required Courses

None; SEC506: Securing Linux/Unix training recommended (classroom, on demand, self-study or private; $6,610)

Number of Exams

One test (75 questions, two hours, minimum passing score 68%)

Cost per Exam

$1,899 without training (called a GIAC certification attempt; includes two free practice exams) $769 as part of a training course $769 retake fee $429 certification renewal

Exams administered by Pearson VUE.

URL

https://www.giac.org/certification/certified-unix-security-administrator-gcux

Self-Study Materials

Practice tests available on the GIAC test preparation page (two tests included in test fee; additional practice tests are $159 each). No GCUX-specific study guides found; GIAC recommends searching for self-study materials based on the GCUX objectives’ knowledge areas and getting practical experience.

Linux+ (CompTIA Linux+ Powered by LPI)

CompTIA exercises extraordinary certification clout at the entry level in many IT niches. This nonprofit has shown itself as willing to team up with more focused IT organizations, associations and consortia to combine their own market reach and visibility with niche smarts and subject matter expertise on loan from various partners.

One great example is the organization’s partnership with the Linux Professional Institute (LPI), which resulted in the CompTIA Linux+ Powered by LPI credential. This unique certification replaced the original CompTIA Linux+ certification in 2010 and uses the same two exams required for LPIC-1 certification.

As a result of this partnership, IT professionals who are serious about Linux can earn both the Linux+ credential and the LPIC-1 at the same time. Candidates must first earn the Linux+ credential and then submit a request to CompTIA asking that their results be sent to LPI to obtain the LPIC-1 certification. CompTIA test records are confidential, so candidates must request that their records be forwarded to LPI when taking the CompTIA Linux+ Powered by LPI exams.

Earning the CompTIA Linux+ Powered by LPI requires candidates to pass two exams. The first covers system architecture, installation and package management, GNU and Unix commands, devices, file systems and standard file system hierarchies. The second test digs into command shells, scripting and data management, user interfaces and desktops, administrative tasks and activities, basic system services, networking fundamentals and security topics. The CompTIA Linux+ Beta test (XK1-004) closed as of October 22, 2018, though candidates who took the test prior to the end date can still access those scores and apply a passing grade to their Linux+ certification. The replacement Linux+ 104 test based on this beta test will become publicly available in April of 2019.

Note that the Linux+ credential is valid for life.

CompTIA Linux+ Powered by LPI Facts & Figures

Certification Name

CompTIA Linux+ Powered by LPI

Prerequisites & Required Courses

None required

Recommended: CompTIA A+, CompTIA Network+ and 12 months of Linux administration experience

Number of Exams

Two exams: LX0-103 and LX0-104 (60 multiple-choice questions each, 90 minutes, 500 required out of 200 to 800 scale to pass). Note that the LX0-104 Beta test is no longer offered as of October 22, 2018; the replacement 104 test becomes publicly available in April of 2019.

Cost per Exam

$200 per exam; prices vary by geography

URL

https://certification.comptia.org/certifications/linux

Self-Study Materials

CompTIA maintains a list of training materials and additional study options, including links to study guides, test crams, practice tests, online and classroom training, CertMaster, and more. Additional third-party reference and review materials can be found on Amazon.

LPI (Linux Professional Institute) Certifications

The Linux Professional Institute (LPI) started up in October of 1999, almost one decade after Linus Torvalds began his pioneering efforts on the Linux kernel. Since then, LPI has become one of the leading certification providers on Linux syllabus and technologies. Given the organization’s distribution-agnostic approach to Linux, it offers excellent coverage of a platform that’s available in many forms and flavors in today’s marketplace.

The LPI Certification (LPIC) program is available in three distinct levels:

  • LPIC-1Linux Administrator: A  junior-level Linux certification with no prerequisites. Candidates must pass two exams that cover basic Linux skills, including installing and configuring Linux on a workstation, working at the command line, performing basic maintenance tasks, and making LAN or internet connections. While you can obtain the LPIC-1 credential directly from LPI, candidates should consider obtaining the CompTIA Linux+ Powered by LPI credential first, which qualifies you for both the Linux+ and LPIC-1 credentials.
  • LPIC-2Linux Engineer: An advanced-level Linux certification that requires an active LPIC-1 certification. Candidates must pass two exams that cover significant Linux skills and topics. The first test covers the kernel, system startup, file system and devices, advanced storage administration, network configuration, system maintenance and capacity planning. The second test covers web services, file sharing, network client management, email services, system security and troubleshooting, and domain name servers.
  • LPIC-3Linux Enterprise Professional Certification: A senior-level Linux certification that requires an active LPIC-2 and passing any single test in the 300 series. Valid test IDs currently include 300: Mixed Environment303: Security, and 304: Virtualization and High Availability. The Mixed Environment test covers Samba (domain integration, user and group management, name services, share configuration and so forth), plus OpenLDAP, and working with Linux and Windows clients. The Security test covers network, operations and application security, as well as cryptography and access controls. High availability cluster storage and management, along with virtualization, are covered in the Virtualization and High Availability exam.

In addition to the LPIC-1, 2 and 3 credentials, LPI also offers an entry-level credential, the Linux Essentials Professional Development Certificate (PDC). Linux Essentials focuses on foundational skills, such as creating and running simple scripts, restoring compressed backups and archives, working with the command line, Linux operating system basics, FOSS, and users/groups and file permissions for public and private directories. Linux Essentials is a great way to get started while gaining the skills and knowledge needed for the more challenging LPIC credentials.

LPI’s newest certification is the LPIC-OT DevOps Tools Engineer, which recognizes the effective use of tools for collaboration during system and software development. There are no prerequisites, and the single test lasts for 90 minutes and has 60 questions.

LPIC credentials are worthwhile for IT pros whose chosen Linux distributions do not warrant their own certification programs, and for those seeking broad, vendor- and distribution-neutral coverage of Linux topics, tools and technologies. They are popular among IT pros and in demand among IT employers.

LPIC-1, LPIC-2 and LPIC-3 Facts & Figures

Certification Name

LPIC-1: Linux Administrator

LPIC-2: Linux Engineer

LPIC-3: Linux Enterprise Professional

Prerequisites & Required Courses

LPIC-1: None, Linux Essentials recommended

LPIC-2: Active LPIC-1 certification

LPIC-3: Active LPIC-2 certification plus completion of one of the 300 series specialty exams

Training is recommended but not required

Number of Exams

LPIC-1: Exam 101-500 and Exam 102-500

LPIC-2: Exam 201-450 and Exam 202-450

LPIC-3: One of the 300 series exams: Mixed Environment (Exam 300-100)

Security (Exam 303-200)

Virtualization and High Availability (Exam 304-200)

Cost per Exam

$200 per exam. Exams administered by Pearson VUE. Linux ID required to register.

URL

http://www.lpi.org/our-certifications/summary-of-certifications

Self-Study Materials

Study guides, courseware knowledge packs, eLearning courses, test crams, practice tests, online and classroom training, Linux Academy subscriptions and more are available at LPI test Preparation, LPI Marketplace and Amazon.

Oracle Linux OCA & OCP

When Oracle bought Sun Microsystems in 2010, it acquired a rich and deep UNIX tradition. Oracle started phasing out Solaris almost immediately after finalizing the Sun acquisition.

Today, Oracle offers associate- and professional-level certifications based on Linux rather than harking back to any kind of UNIX roots. These certifications retain enough of their Sun roots, however, so that courses are not mandatory prerequisites to taking the exams for the two Oracle Linux certifications currently available.

As with other vendor-specific Linux certifications, Oracle’s are most appealing to those who work with or around that distribution, or who wish to work for employers who use those distributions.

OCA and OCP Facts & Figures

Certification Name

Oracle Certified Associate (OCA), Oracle Linux 5 and 6 System Administrator

Oracle Certified Professional (OCP), Oracle Linux 6 System Administrator

Prerequisites & Required Courses

OCA: No prerequisites. Recommended training: Oracle Linux S­­ystem Administration OCP: OCA Linux 5 and 6 System Administrator or Linux Administrator Certified Associate (now retired). Recommended training: Oracle Linux System Administration

Number of Exams

OCA: One exam, 1Z0-100 Oracle Linux 5 and 6 System Administration (150 minutes, 80 questions, 61% to pass) OCP: One exam, 1Z0-105 Oracle Linux 6 Advanced System Administrator (150 minutes, 97 questions, 61% to pass)

Cost per Exam

OCA: $245

OCP: $245

URL

https://education.oracle.com/oracle-linux/oracle-linux-administration/product_295?certPage=true

Self-Study Materials

Oracle offers online and in-class training for its credentials, with hit-or-miss coverage for them on the aftermarket. Start with Amazon searches — check test IDs 1Z0-100 and 1Z0-105 to get a sense for what’s available.

Note: Though there is now an OCA and OCP test available for Oracle Linux 7 System Administrator, Oracle has yet to announce this new certification or release the details of new Linux 7-based certification tests for OCA and OCP candidates.

Oracle Linux 6 Certified Implementation Specialist Certification

The Oracle Linux 6 Certified Implementation Specialist Certification is a certification available for those who sell, design, configure and implement Oracle Linux 6 solutions. Though any candidate can complete this certification, it is most typically achieved by Oracle partner implementation personnel with strong foundational experience in Linux and previous field experience implementing Linux 6.

Red Hat RHCSA, RHCE & RHCA

If there’s one major star in the vendor-specific Linux certification firmament, it’s got to be Red Hat. The company has major market presence and serious duration as a commercial provider of Linux platforms and technologies.

Red Hat offers a typical administrator, engineer, architect certification ladder. Unlike many other such programs, however, it offers highly regarded and valued credentials at each rung, along with demanding and hands-on oriented exams and an excellent training curriculum to match. All exams for the following Red Hat certifications are performance based and last two hours or longer.

The giveaway for Red Hat certifications is that all come with acronyms that start with RH, as follows:

  • Red Hat Certified System Administrator (RHCSA): This foundation certification vets essential skills in handling files, working at the command line and using system documentation, along with managing systems (boot up, identifying processes, start/stop virtual machines, controlling services), configuring storage partitions and logical volumes, and more.
  • Red Hat Certified Engineer (RHCE): This cornerstone certification is designed to test and validate the skills and knowledge necessary to work as a senior-level Linux system administrator. syllabus covered include advanced IP routing and services, managing runtime kernel behavior, working with iSCSI, automating maintenance tasks with shell scripts and working with networking services for Web, FTP, NFS, SMB, SMTP, SSH and more. An RHSCA is a prerequisite for the RHCE.
  • Red Hat Certified Architect (RHCA): Red Hat’s pinnacle certification offers two paths to certification, depending on which prerequisite advanced Red Hat certification credentials you have already completed: Red Hat Certified Enterprise Microservices Developers (RHCEMDs) and Red Hat Certified JBoss Developers (RHCJDs) can earn an RHCA in Enterprise Applications, and Red Hat Certified Engineers (RHCEs) can earn an RHCA in Infrastructure. In general, the five additional exams that must be passed to achieve the RCHA in either Infrastructure or in Enterprise Applications are specific to each area of specialization, though a few of the tests can be used to satisfy the five test requirement in both RHCA tracks. A number of previously available certification exams have been discontinued for new RHCA candidates and renewals, though those exams can still be applied to the RHCA certification if you’ve already passed them. Find out more about discontinued exams that can be counted towards the RHCA credential on the RHCA page under the Candidate Guidance tab.

Because Red Hat Linux is widely used in the business world, the RHCA certification is an excellent choice for those interested in a more platform-focused path into the Linux world. Of course, for those who already work with or around Red Hat, it is a natural certification choice as well.

RHCSA, RHCE and RHCA Facts & Figures

Certification Name:

Red Hat Certified System Administrator (RHCSA)

Red Hat Certified Engineer (RHCE)

Red Hat Certified Architect (RHCA)

Prerequisites & Required Courses

RHCSA: No prerequisites Recommended training:

Windows system administrators: Red Hat System Administration I (RH124) (5 days, $3,400) and II (RH134) (4 days, $3,400)Linux/Unix Administrators, RHCSA Rapid Track Course (RH199) (4 days, $3,700)

RHCE: RHCSA credential Recommended training:

Same as for RHCSA, plus

Red Hat System Administration III (RH254) ($3,400)

RHCA:

RHCE-certified (Infrastructure track) – Candidates currently holding an RHCE certification must pass five additional exams from the Infrastructure track below.

RHCJD/RHCEMD-certified (Enterprise Applications track) – Candidates currently holding an RHCJD or an RHCEMD certification must pass five additional exams from the Enterprise Applications track below.

Number of Exams

RHCSA: One exam, EX200 Red Hat Certified System Administrator (RHCSA) test (2.5 hours) RHCE: One exam, EX300 Red Hat Certified Engineer (RHCE) test (3.5 hours) RHCA: Five exams total depending on whether you have already completed an RHCE certification (for the RHCA Infrastructure track), or an RHCEMD/RHCJD (for the RHCA Enterprise Applications track): An RHCE must pass five exams from the following list to achieve the RHCA in Infrastructure:

EX125 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Ceph Storage Administration exam

EX210 – Red Hat Certified System Administrator in Red Hat OpenStack exam

EX220 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Hybrid Cloud Management exam

EX236 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Gluster Storage Administration exam

EX248 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Enterprise Application Server Administration exam

EX270 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Container Management (Retired)

EX276 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Containerized Application Development (Retired)

EX280 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in OpenShift Administration exam

EX310 – Red Hat Certified Engineer in Red Hat OpenStack

EX318 – Red Hat Certified Virtualization Administrator exam

EX333 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Security: Network Services test (Retired)

EX342 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Linux Diagnostics and Troubleshooting

EX401 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Deployment and Systems Management test (Retired)

EX403 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Deployment and Systems Management exam

EX405 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Configuration Management

EX407 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Ansible Automation exam

EX413 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Server Security and Hardening exam

EX415 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Security: Linux exam

EX423 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Directory Services and Authentication test (Retired)

EX429 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in SELinux Policy Administration test (Retired)

EX436 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in High Availability Clustering exam

EX440 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Messaging Administration exam

EX442 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Linux Performance Tuning exam

RHCSA: One exam, EX200 Red Hat Certified System Administrator (RHCSA) test (2.5 hours) RHCE: One exam, EX300 Red Hat Certified Engineer (RHCE) test (3.5 hours) RHCA: Five exams total depending on whether you have already completed an RHCE certification (for the RHCA Infrastructure track), or an RHCEMD/RHCJD (for the RHCA Enterprise Applications track): An RHCE must pass five exams from the following list to achieve the RHCA in Infrastructure:

EX125 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Ceph Storage Administration exam

EX210 – Red Hat Certified System Administrator in Red Hat OpenStack exam

EX220 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Hybrid Cloud Management exam

EX236 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Gluster Storage Administration exam

EX248 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Enterprise Application Server Administration exam

EX270 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Container Management (Retired)

EX276 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Containerized Application Development (Retired)

EX280 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in OpenShift Administration exam

EX310 – Red Hat Certified Engineer in Red Hat OpenStack

EX318 – Red Hat Certified Virtualization Administrator exam

EX333 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Security: Network Services test (Retired)

EX342 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Linux Diagnostics and Troubleshooting

EX401 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Deployment and Systems Management test (Retired)

EX403 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Deployment and Systems Management exam

EX405 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Configuration Management

EX407 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Ansible Automation exam

EX413 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Server Security and Hardening exam

EX415 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Security: Linux exam

EX423 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Directory Services and Authentication test (Retired)

EX429 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in SELinux Policy Administration test (Retired)

EX436 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in High Availability Clustering exam

EX440 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Messaging Administration exam

EX442 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Linux Performance Tuning exam

EX450 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Data Virtualization exam

RHCEMDs and RHCJD must pass five exams from the following list to achieve the RHCA certification in Enterprise Applications:

EX288 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in OpenShift Application Development exam

EX248 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Enterprise Application Server Administration exam

EX276 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Containerized Application Development test (Retired)

EX280 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in OpenShift Administration exam

EX405 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Configuration Management

EX407 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Ansible Automation exam

EX421 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Camel Development exam

EX427 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Business Process Design exam

EX440 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Messaging Administration exam

EX450 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Data Virtualization exam

EX453 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Fast-Cache Application Development exam

EX465 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Business Rules exam

Cost per Exam

$400 each ($2,000 total RHCA test costs)

URL

www.redhat.com/training/certifications/#certifications

Self-Study Materials

Red Hat skills assessments and other materials can be located on the training page. Red Hat Training includes multiple training options (online, classroom, self-paced, virtual, video and more). Red Hat Learning Subscription includes all online courses in one package; prices vary by geography, candidates can expect to pay $5,500 for a Basic Subscription and $7,000 for a Standard Subscription. Study guides are on Amazon.

Beyond the Top 5: More Linux certifications

Outside the top five Linux credentials and programs covered in this article, other Linux certifications may be worthy of your time and attention.

The Linux Foundation, a membership-based organization, promotes the development of the Linux kernel through collaboration, conferences and education. The organization’s small but respected certification program includes the Linux Foundation Certified System Administrator (LFCS) and the Linux Foundation Certified Engineer (LFCE).

IBM continues to offer a handful of Linux-related certifications. One certification of interest is the Certified Database Administrator, which continues to be in demand for those running DB2 on Linux, Unix and Windows systems.

Many industry experts, including Steven J. Vaughn-Nichols, a long-time user and expert on Linux and Unix operating systems, say that certifications can be an important ingredient in a job candidate’s qualifications. But interviewers should also pay close attention to how many Linux systems candidates have set up, managed or used to get a sense of the scale and scope of their experience.

In other words, when you see a web hosting service advertising for Linux jobs, they’re not looking for people who’ve installed and used Linux at home or in a small business setting; they’re looking for professionals who’ve set up and managed Linux in a highly distributed and virtualized data center environment, with lots of complex networking and services coming into the mix.

Tue, 11 Oct 2022 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.businessnewsdaily.com/10750-best-linux-certifications.html
Killexams : LPI Makes Bullish Cross Above Critical Moving Average No result found, try new keyword!In trading on Wednesday, shares of Laredo Petroleum, Inc (Symbol: LPI) crossed above their 200 day moving average of $73.94, changing hands as high as $74.86 per share. Laredo Petroleum ... Wed, 05 Oct 2022 08:20:00 -0500 text/html https://www.nasdaq.com/articles/lpi-makes-bullish-cross-above-critical-moving-average Killexams : Interesting LPI Put And Call Options For November 18th No result found, try new keyword!Investors in Laredo Petroleum, Inc (Symbol: LPI) saw new options become available this week, for the November 18th expiration. At Stock Options Channel, our YieldBoost formula has looked up and ... Thu, 29 Sep 2022 03:02:00 -0500 text/html https://www.nasdaq.com/articles/interesting-lpi-put-and-call-options-for-november-18th Killexams : Laredo Petroleum Whale Trades For September 28

Someone with a lot of money to spend has taken a bearish stance on Laredo Petroleum LPI.

And retail traders should know.

We noticed this today when the big position showed up on publicly available options history that we track here at Benzinga.

Whether this is an institution or just a wealthy individual, we don't know. But when something this big happens with LPI, it often means somebody knows something is about to happen.

Today, Benzinga's options scanner spotted 17 options trades for Laredo Petroleum.

This isn't normal.

The overall sentiment of these big-money traders is split between 23% bullish and 76%, bearish.

Out of all of the options we uncovered, 16 are puts, for a total amount of $1,217,042, and there was 1 call, for a total amount of $44,010.

What's The Price Target?

Taking into account the Volume and Open Interest on these contracts, it appears that whales have been targeting a price range from $55.0 to $120.0 for Laredo Petroleum over the last 3 months.

Volume & Open Interest Development

In terms of liquidity and interest, the mean open interest for Laredo Petroleum options trades today is 1753.5 with a total volume of 14,493.00.

In the following chart, we are able to follow the development of volume and open interest of call and put options for Laredo Petroleum's big money trades within a strike price range of $55.0 to $120.0 over the last 30 days.

Laredo Petroleum Option Volume And Open Interest Over Last 30 Days

Biggest Options Spotted:

Symbol PUT/CALL Trade Type Sentiment Exp. Date Strike Price Total Trade Price Open Interest Volume
LPI PUT SWEEP BULLISH 10/21/22 $60.00 $281.4K 5.7K 1.0K
LPI PUT SWEEP BULLISH 10/21/22 $60.00 $150.4K 5.7K 1.2K
LPI PUT SWEEP BULLISH 12/16/22 $120.00 $123.9K 26 21
LPI PUT TRADE BEARISH 10/21/22 $60.00 $77.5K 5.7K 487
LPI PUT SWEEP NEUTRAL 10/21/22 $60.00 $76.8K 5.7K 1.5K
Symbol PUT/CALL Trade Type Sentiment Exp. Date Strike Price Total Trade Price Open Interest Volume
LPI PUT SWEEP BULLISH 10/21/22 $60.00 $281.4K 5.7K 1.0K
LPI PUT SWEEP BULLISH 10/21/22 $60.00 $150.4K 5.7K 1.2K
LPI PUT SWEEP BULLISH 12/16/22 $120.00 $123.9K 26 21
LPI PUT TRADE BEARISH 10/21/22 $60.00 $77.5K 5.7K 487
LPI PUT SWEEP NEUTRAL 10/21/22 $60.00 $76.8K 5.7K 1.5K

Where Is Laredo Petroleum Standing Right Now?

  • With a volume of 675,899, the price of LPI is up 13.42% at $62.55.
  • RSI indicators hint that the underlying stock is currently neutral between overbought and oversold.
  • Next earnings are expected to be released in 34 days.

Options are a riskier asset compared to just trading the stock, but they have higher profit potential. Serious options traders manage this risk by educating themselves daily, scaling in and out of trades, following more than one indicator, and following the markets closely.

If you want to stay updated on the latest options trades for Laredo Petroleum, Benzinga Pro gives you real-time options trades alerts.

© 2022 Benzinga.com. Benzinga does not provide investment advice. All rights reserved.

Wed, 28 Sep 2022 20:42:00 -0500 text/html https://www.benzinga.com/markets/options/22/09/29064201/laredo-petroleum-whale-trades-for-september-28
Killexams : Primus Institute of Technology Announces New Information Security Certification Program

IT professionals throughout Southern Africa are invited to take advantage of this opportunity to acquire a highly sought-after and internationally recognized information security certification.

JOHANNESBURG, September 13, 2022--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Primus Institute of Technology (PIT), a newly launched technology training and research organization based in South Africa, is making it easier for African technology professionals to acquire internationally recognized information security credentials. Today, the institute announced the opening of registration for ISO/IEC 27001 Information Security Training and Certification.

This highly sought-after certification course provides requirements for organizations seeking to establish, implement, maintain and continually Excellerate an information security management system. This framework serves as a guideline towards continually reviewing the safety of your information, which will exemplify reliability and add value to services of your organization.

ISO/IEC 27001 Certificate will prove that you have:

  • Obtained the necessary expertise to support an organization to implement an Information Security Management System that complies with ISO/IEC 27001

  • Understood the Information Security Management System implementation process

  • Provide continual prevention and assessments of threats within your organization

  • Higher chances of being distinguished or hired in an Information Security career

  • Understood the risk management process, controls, and compliance obligations

  • Acquired the necessary expertise to manage a team to implement an ISMS

  • The ability to support organizations in the continual improvement process of their Information Security Management System

  • Gained the necessary skills to audit organization’s Information Security Management System

"This is an exciting time for Primus Institute of Technology as we expand our program offerings to break into cybersecurity and risk management. Cybersecurity is a critical industry and our goal is to inspire, support, and empower current and future IT professionals through training and career growth opportunities.

Our partnership with PECB also allows us to deliver top-tier, industry recognized cybersecurity certification courses." – Abe Wakama, founder, Primus Institute of Technology.

ISO/IEC 27001 assists you to understand the practical approaches that are involved in the implementation of an Information Security Management System that preserves the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of information by applying a risk management process. Therefore, implementation of an information security management system that complies with all requirements of ISO/IEC 27001 enables your organizations to assess and treat information security risks that they face.

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Contact Primus Institute of Technology to learn more about becoming a certified ISO27001 information security professional.

- ENDS -

About Primus Institute of Technology

At Primus Institute of Technology our mission is to inspire, support, and empower current and aspiring IT professionals through training and career development workshops.

Our focus since the start has been to provide our trainees and clients the greatest opportunity for success.

With PRIMUS training courses, opportunities are only limited by your imagination. Regardless of your field of expertise, PRIMUS offers training courses that speak to your needs and reflect the latest standards, technologies, approaches, most innovative methods, and practical examples.

View source version on businesswire.com: https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20220912005096/en/

Contacts

PRESS CONTACT
Abe Wakama
training@primusinstitute.co.za
+27120125946

Mon, 12 Sep 2022 17:45:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://www.yahoo.com/now/primus-institute-technology-announces-information-054400113.html
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Killexams : Bearing Lithium Corp. Announces Mailing of Circular and Updates Regarding Securityholder Meeting and Transaction With LPI

Bearing Lithium Corp.

VANCOUVER, British Columbia, Sept. 28, 2022 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- (TSXV: BRZ) Bearing Lithium Corp. (the "Corporation" or "Bearing") announced today that an information circular (the "Information Circular") and other materials (the "Securityholder Materials") will be mailed to the holders of the Corporation's common shares ("Bearing Shares"), stock options and warrants (collectively, the "Securityholders"), in connection with the previously announced meeting of the securityholders of Bearing scheduled to be held on October 28, 2022 at 10:00 a.m. (Vancouver time) (the "Meeting"), to approve the statutory plan of arrangement (the "Arrangement") as previously announced and agreed to pursuant to the arrangement agreement dated June 22, 2022 (the "Arrangement Agreement") among the Corporation, Lithium Power International Limited ("LPI"), a company listed on the Australian Stock Exchange under the symbol "LPI", and LPI Canada Holdings Ltd. ("LPI Canada").

The Arrangement

As previously announced by the Corporation in its June 22, 2022 news release, if the Arrangement is completed, then under the terms of the Arrangement:

  1. LPI will, through LPI Canada, acquire the outstanding common shares of Bearing in exchange for issuing new ordinary shares of LPI ("LPI Shares") to holders of Bearing Shares ("Bearing Shareholders"), on the basis of 0.7 new LPI Shares for each one (1) outstanding Bearing Share;

  2. Bearing stock options and warrants will remain outstanding following the Arrangement and will continue to be exercisable into LPI Shares (using the same exchange ratio as the Bearing Shares); and

  3. Bearing Shareholders as at the date of the Arrangement are expected to receive a cash distribution from Bearing of approximately C$0.015 per Bearing Share (the payment and amount of which is subject to the risk factors described in the Information Circular).

In addition, Bearing Shareholders who continue to hold LPI Shares at the relevant time will be entitled to participate in a spin-out transaction whereby LPI is planning to spin out its Western Australian lithium exploration assets into a separate growth company ("DemergeCo"), and distribute shares in the DemergeCo to all holders of LPI Shares on a pro rata basis at the time of the spin-out, which is expected to occur at a later date following completion of the Arrangement.

The Arrangement was approved by the board of directors of the Corporation and the Corporation’s board of directors recommends that Securityholders vote in favour of the Arrangement. Sequeira Partners provide the board of directors with a fairness opinion, dated June 19, 2022, to the effect that, at the date of such opinion, the consideration to be received by the Bearing Shareholders pursuant to the Arrangement, is fair from a financial point of view to the Bearing Shareholders.

LPI has also separately entered into an agreement with its other joint venture partner (as described in the Information Circular) in the Maricunga Lithium Brine Project in Chile (the "MSB Project") to acquire the remaining 31.13% interest in the MSB Project not owned by Bearing or LPI (the "Joint Venture Partner Transaction"), which if completed in conjunction with the Arrangement, would consolidate a 100% indirect interest in the MSB Project in LPI. Bearing Shareholders will continue to have an interest in the MSB Project as shareholders of LPI.

The Meeting

The Meeting is scheduled to be held at Suite 810 - 789 West Pender Street, Vancouver, BC, V6C 1H2, with the option to participate virtually via live webcast, at 10:00 a.m. (Vancouver time) on October 28, 2022. Securityholders and registered proxyholders that wish to attend the Meeting online, can attend by going to https://meetnow.global/MATWUV4. In order to participate online, Securityholders must have a valid 15-digit control number and proxyholders must have received an email from Computershare containing an invitation code. The record date (the "Record Date") for voting at the Meeting was established as the close of business on September 9, 2022. Securityholders at the Record Date will be entitled to vote on the Arrangement on the basis of one vote per each Bearing Share, Bearing stock option and Bearing warrant held as of the Record Date. The Information Circular provides important and detailed instructions about how to participate at the Meeting, both physically or virtually.

To be approved at the Meeting, the Arrangement requires the affirmative vote of at least 66 2/3% of the votes cast at the Meeting, whether in person or by proxy, by the holders of Bearing Shares, Bearing stock options and Bearing warrants, with all securities voting together as one class.

The deadline for Securityholders (other than Securityholders that participate virtually via webcast) to submit their proxies or voting instructions in order to vote on the Arrangement is 10:00 a.m. (Vancouver time) on October 26, 2022.

Any questions or requests for further information regarding voting at the Meeting should be directed to the Corporation at info@bearinglithium.com.

LPI has already obtained a waiver from the Australian Stock Exchange such that LPI will not require a shareholder meeting to approve the Arrangement. However, LPI will require LPI shareholder approval for approval of the Joint Venture Partner Transaction and Bearing understands that this meeting of LPI shareholders is also scheduled to be held on or about October 28th 2022.

Information Circular

The Information Circular contains, among other things, information regarding procedures for voting on the Arrangement, as well as other background and material information regarding the Arrangement and the Arrangement Agreement. In addition to being mailed to Securityholders, the Information Circular and Securityholder Materials will also be available as follows:

        On Bearing's Website at www.bearinglithium.com; or

        Under Bearing's SEDAR profile at: www.sedar.com.

Any questions or requests for further information regarding voting at the Meeting should be directed to the Corporation at info@bearinglithium.com.

Voting your Securities

Any registered Securityholder who would like to attend the Meeting can join physically at Suite 810 - 789 West Pender Street, Vancouver, BC, V6C 1H2 or can join virtually by going to https://meetnow.global/MATWUV4. In order to participate online, Securityholders must have a valid 15-digit control number and proxyholders must have received an email from Computershare containing an invitation code. During the live webcast, Securityholders and appointed proxyholders will be able to hear the Meeting live and will be able to submit questions and vote while the Meeting is being held.

Securityholders who hold their securities through a broker or other nominee who holds securities (an "Intermediary") should follow the instructions provided by their Intermediary to vote their securities.

Key Dates

The key dates for the above items described above are, or are expected to be, the following:

  1. October 28, 2022: The Meeting will be held at 10:00 a.m. (Vancouver time).

  2. On or about November 1, 2022: the British Columbia Supreme Court will hold the hearing in respect of a final order approving the Arrangement (the "Final Order") at 9:45 a.m.

  3. On or about November 8, 2022: If the Final Order is obtained and all other conditions to closing the Arrangement are satisfied, the steps as set out in the Arrangement will occur in the order and times as set out in the Arrangement.

Bearing Lithium Corp. (“BRZ”) Chairman Gil Playford commented:

“As a holder of LPI Shares, you will continue to have an indirect ownership interest in the MSB Project, but in an ASX-listed company with greater trading volumes and trading liquidity than Bearing. Consolidating the MSB Project into a single entity is expected to yield significant benefits by creating one entity focused on advancing the MSB Project, which is expected to enhance the ability of LPI to arrange financing for the MSB Project, streamline the decision-making process and reduce overheads. In addition, if you continue to hold your LPI Shares, you will have the opportunity to participate in the potential upside created by the spin-out by LPI of its Western Australian lithium exploration assets into DemergeCo.”

About Bearing:

Bearing Lithium Corp (BRZ) is a pure-play lithium company focused on the development of Chile’s next high-grade lithium mine. The Maricunga joint venture (which includes LPI), in which Bearing holds a 17.14% interest, is the highest quality pre-production lithium brine project in South America and has one of the world’s highest-grade lithium resources at 1,167 mg/l lithium and 8,500 mg/l potassium. The September 2021 NI 43-101 compliant resource estimate for the deposit totals 2.9 Mt LCE now all classified as Measured and Indicated. Over $US 67 million has been invested in the Maricunga project to date.

For more Information, please contact:
Ray Baterina
Corporate Secretary
Info@bearinglithium.com
604-262-8835

Forward-Looking Information and Disclaimers

Certain information contained in this press release may contain forward looking statements within the meaning of applicable securities laws. The use of any of the words "continue", "plan", "propose", "would", "will", "believe", "expect", "position", "anticipate", "improve", "enhance" and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements. More particularly and without limitation, this document contains forward-looking statements concerning: the key terms of the Arrangement and the effect of its implementation on holders of Bearing Shares, Bearing stock options and Bearing warrants and the Corporation; stakeholder support for the Arrangement; the expected process for and timing of implementing the Arrangement; the anticipated benefits of the Arrangement for the MSB Project, the scheduling of the Meeting; the completion of the Arrangement, including with respect to obtaining any necessary approvals and satisfying any conditions and the expected timing thereof.

In addition, forward looking statements or information are based on a number of assumptions, including assumptions regarding the expected timing of the Meeting and the closing of the Arrangement, which have been used to develop the forward-looking statements in this press release but which may prove to be incorrect and which have been used to develop such statements and information in order to provide stakeholders with a summary for Securityholders of the expected Arrangement timeline and impact on Bearing's future operations.

Forward-looking statements necessarily involve risks, including, without limitation, the risk that the Arrangement is not completed on the terms described in this press release, or is delayed or is not completed for any reason, including for any reason described in the Information Circular; the ability of the Corporation to receive all necessary regulatory, court and stakeholder approvals in order to complete the Arrangement; the matters to be considered and voted on at the Meeting; the Corporation's position as a minority joint venture partner in the MSB Project in the event that the Arrangement is not completed; the risk that the Arrangement does not yield the benefits that Bearing anticipates; the risk that LPI does not complete the Joint Venture Partner Transaction; the risk that LPI does not complete the spin-out of DemergeCo for any reason; the general regulatory environment in which the Corporation operates; the tax treatment of the Corporation; the general economic, financial, market and political conditions impacting the industry and markets in which the Corporation operates; and the risks identified in the Information Circular.

Events or circumstances may cause real results to differ materially from those predicted, as a result of the risk factors set out and other known and unknown risks, uncertainties, and other factors, many of which are beyond the control of Bearing. Such information may prove to be incorrect and readers are cautioned that the information may not be appropriate for other purposes. Although the Corporation believes that the expectations reflected in such forward looking statements or information are reasonable, undue reliance should not be placed on forward looking statements because the Corporation can provide no assurance that such expectations will prove to be correct.

Readers are cautioned that the foregoing list is not exhaustive of all factors and assumptions which have been used. As a consequence, real results may differ materially from those anticipated in the forward-looking statements. Furthermore, the forward looking statements contained herein are made as at the date hereof and Bearing does not undertake any obligation to update publicly or to revise any of the included forward looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as may be required by applicable securities laws.

This news release does not constitute an offer to sell or a solicitation of an offer to buy any of the securities in the United States. The securities have not been and will not be registered under the U.S. Securities Act or any state securities laws and may not be offered or sold within the United States or to U.S. Persons unless registered under the U.S. Securities Act and applicable state securities laws or an exemption from such registration is available.

NOT FOR DISSEMINATION OR DISTRIBUTION IN THE UNITED STATES AND NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION TO US NEWSWIRE SERVICES.

Reader Advisory

NEITHER THE TSX VENTURE EXCHANGE NOR ITS REGULATION SERVICES PROVIDER ACCEPTS RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE ADEQUACY OR ACCURACY OF THIS RELEASE.

Fri, 30 Sep 2022 06:36:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://finance.yahoo.com/news/bearing-lithium-corp-announces-mailing-000000256.html
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