Your success is guaranteed with 1Y0-204 Exam Questions

We are putting such a great effort to provide you with actual Citrix Virtual Apps and Desktops 7 Administration exam questions and answers, along with clarification. Each 1Y0-204 Questions and Answers on has been establish by means of Citrix certified professionals. They are tremendously qualified and certified people, who have several years of professional experience recognized with the Citrix assessments. They check the 1Y0-204 practice exam question according to actual 1Y0-204 test.

Exam Code: 1Y0-204 Practice exam 2023 by team
1Y0-204 Citrix Virtual Apps and Desktops 7 Administration

The 1Y0-204 exam is a 65-question exam written in English. The exam consists of multiple choice items only.

The passing score for this exam is 62%

Time : 90 minutes

The 1Y0-204 exam is intended for IT professionals who install, configure and manage
Citrix Virtual Apps and Desktops 7 either on-premises or in the Citrix Cloud. Those who
install, configure and manage such solutions may hold various job titles such as:

• Systems Administrators/Citrix Administrators

• Desktop Administrators

• Application Administrators

Specifically, candidates should have the following knowledge and skills prior to taking this exam:

• Intermediate knowledge of Microsoft Windows Server

• Install and configure operating system options

• Windows Server roles

• Domain Name System

• Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol


• Basic knowledge of Active Directory

• User rights and permissions

• Delegation of administrative rights

• Active Directory Domain Services

• Active Directory Certificate Services

• Users/Groups

• GPOs

• OUs

• Basic administration skills, including:

• Understanding of networking protocols such as TCP/IP

• Understanding of communication protocols such as RDP

• Understanding of firewall concepts

• Understanding of e-mail administration and account creation

• Understanding of Remote Desktop Services policies and profiles

• Ability to create shares and deliver permission to shared folders/files

• Ability to create and modify AD group policies

• Understanding of VPN technologies

• Understanding of roaming profiles and folder redirection

Knowledge of database concepts

• Securing network communications

• Knowledge of virtualization concepts

• Hypervisor management

• Application virtualization and delivery

• Virtual machine creation

• Architecture of virtual machine attributes such as

• Storage


• Knowledge of user profiles

• Knowledge of Microsoft Folder Redirection

• Knowledge of storage concepts

• Knowledge of desktop operations

• Installation, setup, configuration and maintenance of virtual delivery agent

• Windows 10

• Windows Server 2016

• Managing client devices

• Desktops

• Laptops

• Tablets

• Smartphones

• Thin clients

• High-level knowledge of Cloud concepts

• Private clouds

• Public clouds

• Hybrid clouds

• Cloud-based SaaS

Citrix Virtual Apps and Desktops 7 Administration
Citrix Administration techniques
Killexams : Citrix Administration techniques - BingNews Search results Killexams : Citrix Administration techniques - BingNews Killexams : How to Set Up Scanners in Citrix

Ruri Ranbe has been working as a writer since 2008. She received an A.A. in English literature from Valencia College and is completing a B.S. in computer science at the University of Central Florida. Ranbe also has more than six years of professional information-technology experience, specializing in computer architecture, operating systems, networking, server administration, virtualization and Web design.

Fri, 27 Jul 2018 02:30:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Killexams : Mapping a Printer in Citrix Remotely

Ruri Ranbe has been working as a writer since 2008. She received an A.A. in English literature from Valencia College and is completing a B.S. in computer science at the University of Central Florida. Ranbe also has more than six years of professional information-technology experience, specializing in computer architecture, operating systems, networking, server administration, virtualization and Web design.

Sat, 04 Aug 2018 09:29:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Killexams : AI is the most hyped technology of 2023

There is little surprise that Gartner’s latest research on emerging technology shows that generative AI is reaching a peak in hype.

“The popularity of many new AI techniques will have a profound impact on business and society,” said Arun Chandrasekaran, distinguished vice-president analyst at Gartner. “The massive pretraining and scale of AI foundation models, viral adoption of conversational agents and the proliferation of generative AI applications are heralding a new wave of workforce productivity and machine creativity.”

Beyond generative AI, Gartner identified a number of emerging AI techniques, which offer businesses the potential to boost digital customer experiences, make better business decisions and build sustainable competitive differentiation. These include AI simulation, causal AI, federated machine learning, graph data science, neuro-symbolic AI and reinforcement learning.

Along with AI, Gartner analysts identified three further areas of emerging technology CIOs should start looking at.

The first of these is human-centric security and privacy. As Gartner points out, human error is the chief cause of security incidents and data breaches. Gartner defines a human-centric security and privacy programme as one that weaves a security and privacy fabric into the organisation’s digital design.

“Numerous emerging technologies are enabling businesses to create a culture of mutual trust and awareness of shared risks in decision making between many teams,” Gartner said.

The list of emerging tech identified by Gartner that help to achieve human-centric security and privacy technologies include AI trust, risk and security management; cyber security mesh architecture; generative cyber security AI; homomorphic encryption; and post-quantum cryptography.

Developer experience (DevX) is the second area CIOs should be building up, according to Gartner. The analyst firm said DevX is critical for most enterprises’ digital initiative success. Key technologies that are enhancing DevX include AI-augmented software engineering, API-centric SaaS, GitOps, internal developer portals, open source programme office and value stream management platforms.

Gartner pointed out that DevX is also vital for attracting and retaining top engineering talent, keeping team morale high and ensuring that work is motivating and rewarding.

Pervasive cloud is the third emerging area of IT identified in Gartner Hype cycle for emerging technologies 2023 report. Gartner believes that over the next 10 year, cloud computing will evolve into a pervasive and an essential driver of business innovation. To enable this pervasive adoption, cloud computing is becoming more distributed and, if Gartner’s assumptions are correct, will be focused on vertical industries.

The analyst firm recommended that CIOs implement automated operational scaling, offer their team access to cloud-native platform tools, and provide adequate governance to maximise value from cloud investments.

Melissa Davis, vice-president analyst at Gartner, said: “As the technologies in this hype cycle are still at an early stage, there is significant uncertainty about how they will evolve. Such embryonic technologies present greater risks for deployment, but potentially greater benefits for early adopters.”

Tue, 15 Aug 2023 23:15:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Best System Administrator Certifications for 2023
  • Certification programs help system administrators stand out from their peers while expanding and validating their skills. 
  • Certification training and testing help IT professionals earn professional credibility and more power to direct and control their career paths. 
  • Numerous certifications are available, but several are exceptionally valued and respected. 
  • This article is for system administrators and IT professionals who want to expand their knowledge and professional credibility through certification programs.

System administrators are the glue holding together business operations, ensuring smooth-running IT infrastructures. The role requires in-demand career skills that range from server and client configuration and maintenance to access controls, network services and application resource requirements. SysAdmins may even work with more user-facing products, like directory and name services, network addressing, database services, web and desktop applications, and email. They’re often the company “tech expert” – sometimes at several organizations simultaneously. 

System administrator certifications help IT professionals navigate their career paths, expand their knowledge and demonstrate their expertise to managers and employers. SysAdmin certs may even help you secure managerial and executive level jobs and higher pay.

If you’re a SysAdmin specializing in database services, consider exploring the best database certifications for database administrators and developers.

Best system administrator certifications

After examining various credentials, we developed this list of our five favorite system administrator certifications for 2023. These certifications are geared toward various experience levels, product interests and skill sets. They can foster your development within system administration, encourage you to explore new areas of expertise, and help you set and achieve career goals

1. Microsoft Certified: Azure Solutions Architect Expert 

Many businesses operate within Microsoft ecosystems, making Microsoft certifications extremely valuable and sought after. However, Microsoft has overhauled its certification processes in latest years, replacing broad certificates like Microsoft Certified Solutions Expert with a wider variety of role-based certification options divided into the following roles: 

  • Data engineer
  • Data scientist
  • Artificial intelligence engineer
  • Security engineer
  • DevOps engineer
  • Functional consultant
  • Developer
  • Administrator
  • Solutions architect 

Certifications come in beginner, intermediate, and expert levels, based on applicants’ experience. 

Various system administrators may find some Microsoft certifications more advantageous than others. However, the Azure Solutions Architect Expert is the most in-demand certification for a SysAdmin with IT operation experience.  

The Azure Solutions Architect Expert certification is ideal for someone with extensive experience using Azure to solve problems and make decisions for a business’s tech needs. Candidates must have experience with every level of IT operations as well as DevOps. Candidates will be tested on their knowledge and ability to design solutions for data storage, identity, infrastructure and more using Azure. 

This certification combines elements of system administration, Azure implementation and solutions architect experience. Candidates should have one prerequisite qualification: the Azure Administrator Associate certification.  

If you have solutions architect experience, check out our list of the best enterprise architect certifications. Credentials at the architect level can lead to some of the highest-paid tech industry positions.

Microsoft Certified: Azure Solutions Architect Expert facts and figures

2. Professional Oracle Linux 8 System Administrator 

Although Oracle is known for its database products and solutions, it also distributes Linux products geared for the enterprise and designed to support cloud environments. Oracle Linux is optimized for various Oracle products and platforms, such as:

  • Oracle Exadata Database Machine
  • Oracle Exalytics In-Memory Machine
  • Oracle Exalogic Elastic Cloud
  • Oracle Database Appliance

To support Oracle Linux, the company offers several Oracle Linux System Administrator learning paths. It also provides several standalone Linux administration courses. Oracle’s Linux certifications are considered among the best Linux certifications to earn. We’ll highlight the Professional Oracle Linux 8 System Administrator certification below. 

The OCP Oracle Linux System Administrator certification, currently at version 8, covers many tools and processes. Candidates must be well-versed in:

  • Linux file systems
  • Control groups
  • Container concepts
  • Advanced storage administration techniques
  • Oracle cluster management 
  • Using Ksplice Uptrack commands 

The certification also tests for knowledge of network bonding, task automation, security configuration and more. 

SysAdmins who support Oracle Solaris might also be interested in the Oracle Solaris System Administrator certification, which Oracle offers at the Associate and Professional levels. Oracle also offers a Cloud Database Migration and Integration Professional certificate

Professional Oracle Linux 8 System Administrator certification facts and figures

Oracle certifications are vendor-specific certifications to advance your networking career and are frequently sought after by SysAdmins.

3. RHCE: Red Hat Certified Engineer

In the realm of Linux system administrator certifications, Red Hat certifications stand out. Red Hat’s more senior-level certifications are especially popular among IT professionals and the firms that hire them. Those holding the Red Hat Certified Engineer (RHCE) credential qualify for highly competitive job roles, including the following:

  • Senior Linux administrator
  • Senior UNIX administrator
  • Senior systems engineer
  • Infrastructure systems engineer
  • IT analyst 

The RHCE is considered a high-level credential that’s not easy to obtain. Candidates must first obtain the Red Hat Certified System Administrator (RHCSA) credential. The RHCE credential expands the RHCSA’s understanding of automation in multisystem environments. Candidates must then pass an intense, demanding, four-hour, hands-on, performance-based exam. Those who earn the RHCE can go on to earn the Red Hat Certified Architect (RHCA) in Infrastructure credential.

Candidates can choose a path based on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 or Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8. RHCE certification is valid for three years from the date the certification was achieved. To maintain the certification, a credential holder must pass any RHCA exam or pass the RHCE certification exam again before the end of the three years.

See our Red Hat certification guide for additional Red Hat professional certifications based on software products, virtualization, storage and cloud-based solutions.

RHCE facts and figures

Certification name Red Hat Certified Engineer (RHCE)
Prerequisites and required courses

Red Hat Certified System Administrator (RHCSA) certification via one exam: EX200 Red Hat Certified System Administrator

Recommended courses: 

  • Red Hat System Administration I (RH124)
  • Red Hat System Administration II (RH134)
  • Red Hat System Administration III: Linux Automation with Ansible (RH294)

Note: Courses are not required, but Red Hat requests that candidates who opt out of the courses demonstrate equivalent experience.

Number of exams One exam: EX294 Red Hat Certified Engineer exam
Cost per exam $400 (RHCE exam fee only)
Self-study materials Several online education resources, including, offer courses to help you prepare for the RHCE exam. In addition, some books are available with resources to help you study for the test.

4. CompTIA Server+

CompTIA certifications, such as the A+ for hardware technicians, Network+ for network admins and Security+ for security specialists, are highly regarded in the computing industry. The CompTIA Server+ certification is no exception. 

Companies such as Intel, HP, Dell, Lenovo, Xerox and Microsoft recommend or require their server technicians to earn CompTIA Server+ credentials.

The Server+ certification exam focuses on fundamental, vendor-neutral server-related topics, including:

  • Server hardware
  • Operating systems
  • Storage systems
  • Networking
  • The IT environment (documentation, diagrams and best practices)
  • Security and disaster recovery
  • Virtualization 
  • Troubleshooting

Individuals seeking positions across the system administration world, including data technician, network administrator, IT technician and data center engineer, can benefit from CompTIA Server+ certification. This certification also provides new IT professionals with an excellent foundation for more specialized certifications.

Candidates for the Server+ certification take one exam: SK0-005. CompTIA recommends that candidates have at least two years of practical experience working with servers and either CompTIA A+ certification or comparable knowledge. This certification also stands out because it does not expire – certification is good for life. 

CompTIA Server+ facts and figures

Certification name CompTIA Server+
Prerequisites and required courses Required: None Recommended: CompTIA A+ certification plus 18 to 24 months of IT experience
Number of exams One exam: SK0-005 (90 minutes, 90 multiple-choice and performance-based questions; 750 on a scale of 100 to 900 required to pass)
Cost per exam $358; purchase vouchers through CompTIA Marketplace; exam administered by Pearson VUE
Self-study materials Links to practice questions, exam objectives, e-books and other training resources are available on the certification page. exam study bundles, including e-books and CertMaster practice, are available from the CompTIA Marketplace.

5. VCAP-DCV Design 2022: VMware Certified Advanced Professional – Data Center Virtualization Design 2022

VMware certifications are must-have credentials for IT professionals interested in virtualization. With a comprehensive certification program encompassing all skill levels, VMware credentials are recognized globally as the best in their class of professional certifications.  

The latest incarnation of the VMware vSphere product is Version 8. VMware offers five credentials related to the vSphere product:

  • Certified Technical
  • Certified Professional
  • Certified Advanced Professional (Data Center Virtualization Design)
  • Certified Advanced Professional (Data Center Virtualization Deploy)
  • Certified Design Expert 

VMware also offers a wide range of badges for specific product applications. We’re highlighting the intermediate certification: Certified Advanced Professional – Data Center Virtualization Design. 

Training is required for non-credential holders seeking to obtain the VCAP-DCV credential. VMware offers various training options to meet the training prerequisite: self-paced (on demand), live online and live classroom – some of which include virtual labs. Those possessing a valid VCAP-DCV Design certificate must attend a training course or pass the VCAP-DCV Design exam. 

VCAP-DCV Design 2022 facts and figures

Certification name VMware Certified Advanced Professional – Data Center Virtualization 2022 (VCAP-DCV)
Prerequisites and required courses Path 1 (non-VCP credential holders): Earn the VCP-DCV 2022 and pass the VCAP-DCV Design exam. Additional training courses are recommended but not required. 

Path 2 (active VCAP-DCV Design or Deploy 2019 or newer credential holders): Pass the VCAP-DCV Design exam. Training is recommended but not required.

Path 3 (VCAP-CMA Design or Deploy 2019 or newer, VCAP-DTM Design or Deploy 2019 or newer, VCAP-NV Design or Deploy 2019 or newer holders): Earn the VCP-DCV 2022 and pass the VCAP-DCV Design exam. Training is recommended but not required. 

Path 4 (VCAP-DCV Design 2021 holder): Either attend the training course in 2022 or pass the VCAP-DCV Design exam.  Path 5 (VCAP6.5-DCV Design or Deploy or older): Earn the VCP-DCV 2022 and pass the VCAP-DCV Design exam. Training is recommended but not required. 

Number of exams Professional DCV exam (130 minutes, 70 single and multiple-choice questions; must score 300 out of 500 to pass)

Exam for certification: VCAP-DCV Design Exam (150 minutes, 60 single and multiple-choice questions; must score 300 out of 500 to pass)

Cost per exam Professional DCV exam: $250 VCAP-DCV Design exam: $450 
Self-study materials VMware offers a downloadable exam guide for each exam. VMware Customer Connect Learning offers exam prep subscriptions.

Earning the best IT certifications, including system admin certs, is an excellent career advancement tool for amassing and validating your skills and knowledge.

Beyond the top 5: More SysAdmin certifications

In addition to the five system administrator certifications we highlighted above, many other certification programs can help further the careers and professional development of IT professionals in system administration.

It makes sense to investigate the plethora of vendor-specific programs available for those who work with systems from companies like Brocade, Dell EMC, HPE, IBM, NetApp and Symantec. Many play into critical system specialty areas, such as storage, security and virtualization, while others offer a broad range of platforms for these and other technology areas. 

Here are some examples:

  • IBM Certified System Administrator MQ V9.1: IBM Certified System Administrator MQ V9.1 is for SysAdmins who cover admin activities such as migrating, configuration, availability, performance tuning and problem determination.
  • NetApp Certified Data Administrator (NCDA): NCDA is geared toward professionals who manage NetApp data storage controllers running the ONTAP operating system.
  • ServiceNow Certified System Administrator: ServiceNow Certified System Administrator is aimed at professionals adept at configuring, implementing and managing ServiceNow systems.

Vendor-neutral certification programs also offer a variety of interesting and potentially valuable credentials. For example, Linux Professional Institute certifications are well known and widely recognized in IT shops and operations that depend on Linux servers to handle their workloads. 

Tech professionals may also want to consider certifications in adjacent fields, including big data certifications, starter cybersecurity certifications and project management certifications.

Job board search results (in alphabetical order by certification)

The following chart shows the results of an informal job search we conducted to deliver you an idea of the relative frequency with which our top five certifications appear in real job postings. While all the certifications are popular, the CompTIA Server+ stands out as the clear favorite.

Certification SimplyHired Indeed LinkedIn Jobs Linkup Total
Microsoft Certified: Azure Solutions Architect Expert (Microsoft) 1,722 4,281 554 2,711 9,268
Oracle Linux 8 System Administrator (Oracle) 1,831 2,232 166 765 4,994
RHCE (Red Hat) 417 527 1,015 1,972 3,931
Server+ (CompTIA) 6,817 5,082 1,125 4,182 17,206
VCAP-DCV Design 2022  (VMware)* 2,884 2,885 220 4,932 10,921

* When searching for VCP – Data Center credentials, we found most job descriptions didn’t indicate a specific version.

Although employers tend to pay SysAdmins less than some of their IT peers, such as network engineers and enterprise IT architects, a career in system administration is still worth pursuing. SimplyHired reports $79,283 as the national average salary for system administrators, with a range of $49,718 to $136,224. similarly reports that $76,942 is the average base salary for system administrators, while senior system administrators can expect an average salary of around $92,803.  

Building a dynamic IT skill set

IT systems are dynamic. They grow with companies and change with evolving technology. Therefore, it’s important for system administrators to nourish their skills. Certifications and training show you’re qualified to handle the responsibilities of your desired position while demonstrating your willingness to learn and grow. 

As you move through your career in system administration, you may want to branch into new specialties or software. Fortunately, in addition to receiving certifications, you can access many excellent courses and educational resources to help you continue to grow in your field. 

Ed Tittel and Kim Lindros contributed to the reporting and writing in this article.

Sun, 30 Jul 2023 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Medication Administration Through Enteral Feeding Tubes

Abstract and Introduction


Purpose: An overview of enteral feeding tubes, drug administration techniques, considerations for dosage form selection, common drug interactions with enteral formulas, and methods to minimize tube occlusion is given.
Summary: Enteral nutrition through a feeding tube is the preferred method of nutrition support in patients who have a functioning gastrointestinal tract but who are unable to be fed orally. This method of delivering nutrition is also commonly used for administering medications when patients cannot swallow safely. However, several issues must be considered with concurrent administration of oral medications and enteral formulas. Incorrect administration methods may result in clogged feeding tubes, decreased drug efficacy, increased adverse effects, or drug–formula incompatibilities. Various enteral feeding tubes are available and are typically classified by site of insertion and location of the distal tip of the feeding tube. Liquid medications, particularly elixirs and suspensions, are preferred for enteral administration; however, these formulations may be hypertonic or contain large amounts of sorbitol, and these properties increase the potential for adverse effects. Before solid dosage forms are administered through the feeding tube, it should be determined if the medications are suitable for manipulation, such as crushing a tablet or opening a capsule. Medications should not be added directly to the enteral formula, and feeding tubes should be properly flushed with water before and after each medication is administered. To minimize drug–nutrient interactions, special considerations should be taken when administering phenytoin, carbamazepine, warfarin, fluoroquinolones, and proton pump inhibitors via feeding tubes. Precautions should be implemented to prevent tube occlusions, and immediate intervention is required when blockages occur.
Conclusion: Successful drug delivery through enteral feeding tubes requires consideration of the tube size and placement as well as careful selection and appropriate administration of drug dosage forms.


When oral intake is inadequate or not recommended for a prolonged period of time, patients may require an alternative method of feeding, either enterally or parenterally. Enteral nutrition (EN) through a feeding tube is the preferred method of nutrition support for patients with a functioning gastrointestinal (GI) tract. EN offers several theoretical advantages over parenteral nutrition, including lower cost, greater convenience, decreased infectious complications, and enhanced host immune function. Another beneficial effect includes improved maintenance of GI mucosal structure and function, which could possibly prevent gut atrophy and bacterial translocation.[1,2,3,4]

Another advantage of enteral feeding tubes is that they provide convenient access to the GI tract; therefore, these devices are frequently used for medication administration in patients who cannot swallow safely. Several issues must be considered with concurrent administration of oral medications and enteral formulas, particularly continuous tube feeding, because incorrect administration methods may result in clogged feeding tubes, decreased drug effectiveness, increased adverse effects, or drug–formula incompatibilities.[5] This article provides a general overview of enteral feeding tubes, drug administration techniques, considerations for dosage form selection, common drug interactions with enteral formulas, and methods to minimize tube occlusions.

Wed, 11 May 2022 06:45:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : How to Handle Extreme Stress No result found, try new keyword!If you’re coping with an extremely stressful situation, consider using the following techniques to manage and ease those feelings. Deploying multiple stress management strategies can help you ... Sat, 15 Aug 2020 23:07:00 -0500 text/html Killexams : America's Dangerous Pipelines

An analysis of oil and gas pipeline safety in the United States reveals a troubling history of spills, contamination, injuries and deaths.

This time-lapse video shows pipeline incidents from 1986 to 2013, relying on publicly available data from the federal Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration. Only incidents classified as “significant” by the agency are shown in the video. “Significant” incidents include those in which someone was hospitalized or killed, damages amounted to more than $50,000, more than 5 barrels of highly volatile substances or 50 barrels of other liquid were released, or where the liquid exploded or burned.

Upworthy calls this video "one time-lapse Big Oil doesn't want you to see."

According to the data, since 1986 there have been nearly 8,000 incidents (nearly 300 per year on average), resulting in more than 500 deaths (red dots on the video), more than 2,300 injuries (yellow dots on the video), and nearly $7 billion in damage. 

Since 1986 pipeline accidents have spilled an average of 76,000 barrels per year or more than 3 million gallons. This is equivalent to 200 barrels every day.   

Oil is by far the most commonly spilled substance, followed by natural gas and gasoline. The data does not separate oil by whether it is light crude or heavy crude typical of tar sands oil, which has proven exceedingly difficult to clean up and is the variety that would flow in the Keystone XL pipeline. 

There are a number of reasons for pipeline spills, including damage during excavation operations, metal failure, improper operation and corrosion.

Pipeline failures are concentrated in states with a long history of oil and gas development like Texas and California, but have caused damage to people, property and the environment in all 48 contiguous states. 

In most cases, cleanup of pipeline spills is only partially successful, leaving tens of thousands of barrels of oil on our land or in our water.  On average, the government's data shows that more than 31,000 barrels of oil or other substances are not cleaned up following pipeline incidents, and in some years many more barrels are left, polluting our environment for years to come.   

Tue, 18 Aug 2020 15:40:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : VMware Advances Autonomous Workspaces with AI-Powered Integrations No result found, try new keyword!Today, VMware announces modern AI integrations to the Anywhere Workspace platform, part of the VMware Cross-Cloud services portfolio, that automatically optimize employee experience, drive new ... Tue, 22 Aug 2023 00:42:00 -0500 en-US text/html Killexams : Prevalence and Nature of Medication Administration Errors in Health Care Settings Participants Error Rate, % Reference Setting Duration Pts.a Routeb Observation Method Observerc Subject Denominator, n Numerator & Format With WITE With out WITE Hall (1985)103 Canada
H: general medicine, general surgery, geriatrics, private 176 hours NS All D 1 Pharmacist Nurses TOE, 1593 OME, 538 33.8 3.4d Tisdale (1986)104 Canada H: ICN and PICU 216 hours C All D 1 Pharmacist Nurses TOEg, 620d OME, 147 23.7d 8.4d Jozefczyk (1986)37 US
H: 5 nursing units 192 hours NS All U 2 Pharmacy interns PTs TOEh, 2028 OME, 90 4.4 1.6 Shannon (1987)17 US
L: 30 facilities NS NS All NS Department of Health staff Nursing staff TOE, 2031 OME, 194 WTE not 9.6 Nahata (1988)38 US
H: Medical wards NS C All D Pharmacy department Nurses Other, 1098 56d 5.1 0.6d Rippe (1988)77 Australia
H: 2 medical, 2 surgical wards 4 weeks NS All D 1 Pharmacist Nurses TOE, 312 OME, 52 17.0 8.9 O'Brodovich (1991)105 Canada
H: 2 medical wards ~100 hours observation C All D 4 Pharmacists Nurses Other, 282 105d 37.2 10.3 Stewart (1991)78 Australia
H: 1 Medical ward 90 hours NS Other NS 2 Pharmacists, 2 pharmacy students Nurses TOE, 2017 OME, 369 18.3 14.6d Thornton (1994)79 Australia
H: Cardiac medical, geriatric, oncology, and orthopedic surgery wards 1 month NS All D 2 Pharmacists Nurses TOE, 242 OME, 20 8.3 7.4 Cooper (1994)39 US
L: Multisite skilled nursing home complex NS A All NS Consulting agency Nurses TOE, 265 OME, 23 8.7d 7.9d deClifford (1994)80 Australia
H: 2 medical, 2 surgical wards 4 weeks NS All D 1 Graduate pharmacy trainee Nurses TOE, 164 OME, 10 6.1 5.5d Borel (1995)40 US
H: 2 General medical-surgical units, 1 focused care unit 9 months NS All D 1 NS Nurses TOEh, 873 OME, 148 17.0d 6.5d Dean (1995)31 UK and US
H (2): 2 Medical-surgical wards (US), 2 medicine/surgery/geriatric wards (UK) US (1 month),
UK (2 months) NS Other D 2 NS Nurses TOE, 919 (US), 2756 (UK) OME, 75 (US), 147 (UK) WTE not studied 6.9 (US), 3.0 (UK) Ridge (1995)60 UK
H: 2 General surgery/geriatrics/general medical 4 months NS All D 2 Pharmacists Nurses TOEh, 3312 OME, 115 WTE not
Studied 3.5 O'Hare (1995)61 UK
H: NS 4 weeks C IV D 1 NS Senior house officers and nurses TOEh, 179 OME, 168
TNE 291 93.9
162.6d No WTE data
84.4d Nixon (1996)62 UK
H: 1 Pediatric surgical ward, 1 pediatric medical ward 12 days C Other D 1 Pharmacist Nurses TOE, 912d OME, 136d 14.9d 5.0d Camac (1996)81 Australia
H: Surgical ward 40 hours NS All U 6 Nurse educators Nurses TOE, 238 TNE, 39 16.4d NS Gethins (1996)63 UK
H: 4 General medical wards, 1 renal unit 6 weeks NS Other D 1 NS Nurses TOEh, 2000 OME, 69 3.5d 3.1d Ogden (1997)64 UK H: 2 medical wards NS (56 drug rounds) NS Other D 2 NS Nurses TOE, 2973 OME, 164 No WTE studied 5.5 Cavell (1997)65 UK H (2): 1 medical ward/hospital NS (77 drug rounds) NS All D 1 Pharmacist Nurses TOE, 2501 OME, 714 28.5d 5.6d Ho (1997)66 UK
H: Female geriatric ward 16 days A Other D 1 Pharmacist Nurses TOE, 2170 OME, 119 No WTE
Studied 5.5 McNally (1997)82 Australia
H: 1 medical ward, 1 surgical ward 4 weeks NS Other D 1 Pharmacist Nurses TOE, 494 OME, 269d 54.5d 10.9d Schneider (1998)115 Switzerland
H: Pediatric ICU 100 hours observation in 10 weeks C All U 1 Pharmacist Nurses TOE, 275 OME, 74 26.9 18.2 Lacasa (1998)98 Spain
H: 2 surgery, 1 internal medicine, 1 pediatric, 2 traumatology, 1 cardiology/cardiac surgery, 1 oncology, 1 gynecology, 1 obstetrics, 2 surgery wards requiring hospitalization 1 month A, C All D 14 Nursing supervisors Nurses TOE, 839 OME, 43d 5.1d 3.2d Khare (1998)114 Malawi
H: Non-fee-paying male medical ward 6 weeks NS IV D 1 NS Nurses, medical staff TOEh, 360 OME, 280 77.8d 41.9d Hartley (1998)67 UK H: 2 general surgical wards, 1 general medical ward 39 days NS IV D 1 NS Nurses TOEh, 323 TNE, 254 78.6 26.6 Tissot (1999)84,118 France H: Medical ICU 30 days (~180 hours) NS All U 2 Pharmacy residents Nurses TOE, 568 TNE, 132 23.2 21.7 Taxis (1999)34 UK, Germany H (1 UK, 2 Germany): 2 adult wards at each site 1 week/ward A Other D 2 Pharmacists Nurses TOE, 842 (UK), 2291 (Germany) OME, 67 (UK), 82 (Germany) WTE data not collected 8.0 (UK) 3.6d (Germany) Dean (2000)68 UK H: 1 medical, 1 surgical ward 3 months (preinter vention 2 months) NS All D 2 Pharmacists Nurses TOE, 3576 OME 152 WTE data not studied 4.3 Fisher (2001)83 Australia
H: 1 surgical ward 56 hours NS All NS 5 Nurse educators Nurses TOE, 151 TNE, 4 2.6 2.0d Bruce (2001)69 UK H: Medical admissions ward ~170 hours NS IV D 1 Pharmacist Nurses TOE, 107 TNE, 27 25.2 10.3 Calabrese (2001)41 US
H: 5 adult ICUs (surgical, medical, mixed) 3 months A Other D Pharmacists and pharmacy students Nurses TOEh, 5744 OME, 187 3.3 2.8d Pelletier (2001)42 US
L (244) 1 year A All NS Nurse surveyors Nurses, LPNs TOE,117 7000 OME, NS 2 Cannot separate WTE van den Bemt (2002)89 Netherlands
H (2): 1 ICU from each hospital 75 hours A All D 1 Pharmacy graduate Nurses TOE, 233 OME, 104
TNE, 131 44.6
56.2d 33.0
33.9d Barker (2002)43 US
18 H (36 sites; up to 4 units per site) 81 days NS All NS LPNs, RNs, PTs Nurses TOE, 3216 OME, 605 18.8d 10.8d Wirtz (2003)32 UK, Germany
H (2 Germany, 1 UK): 2 wards/hospital Germany: ward stock and satellite pharmacy supply 12 days/hospital NS IV D 1 Pharmacist Nurses junior physicians TOEi,j, Prep: 77 (UK) 260 (Germany) admin: 63 (UK) 215 (Germany) OME; prep: 17d (UK), 71d(Germany), admin: 17d UK) 76d (Germany) WTE not
studied Prep: 22
(UK), 27.3d(Germany)
Admin: 27 (UK), 35.3d (Germany) Tissot (2003)85 France
H: Geriatric unit, cardiovascular-thoracic surgery unit 10 days per ward NS All U 1 Pharmacist Nurses TOE, 523 OME, 78 14.9 11.1 Taxis (2003)26 UK
H (2): General medical, renal, cardiothoracic surgery, coronary ICU, neonatal, oncology, general surgical, ICU, pediatrics 6–10 days/ward A, C IV D 1 Pharmacist Nurses, 1 physician TOEi, 430 OME, 212
TNE, 249 WTE not studied 49.0
57.9d Greengold (2003)44 US
H (2): 2 units (medical or surgical) in 1 and 2 mixed medical-surgical units in 1 12 weeks/hospital NS All U Nurses, PTs Nurses TOE, 3661 (general nurses) OME, 253 No WTE 6.9 Taxis (2004)95 Germany
H: Surgical ward and surgical ICU 6–7 days/ward A IV D 1 Pharmacist Nurses TOEi, 122 OME, 58
TNE, 65 WTE data not collected 48.0
53.3d van GijsselWiersma (2005)90 Netherlands
H: 1 internal medicine unit 3 weeks A All D 1 Pharmacist Nurses TOE, 1122 OME, 118 10.5 8.6d Prot (2005)86 France H: PICU, NICU, nephrology, general units ~542 hours over 271 days C All U 12 Pharmacy students Nurses TOE, 1719 OME, 467 TNE, 538 27.2 31.3 17.6 20.1d Lisby (2005)113 Denmark H: Medical and surgical ward ~40 hours (over 5 days) A Other U 1 NS Nurses TOEj disp: 419 admin: 412 OME disp: 17 Admin: 166
TNE disp: 17
Admin: 190 4 41.0
46.1 No WTE Separation
41.7 Cousins (2005)33 UK, France, Germany H: 4 in UK (general medical and surgical wards), 1 in France (clinical immunology) 25–30 days (UK), 3 months (France) NS IV U (UK), D (France) PT Nurses Other, 273 (UK), 100 (France), Germany excluded (no error rate calculable) 185d,e (UK), 34d,e (France) 67.8d(UK), 34.0d (France) 49.8d (UK), 30.0d (France) Franklin (2006)70 UK H: Mixed medical ward 53 drug rounds over 4 weeks NS All D 2 Pharmacists Nurses TOE, 1188 OME, 82 WTE not studied 6.9 Reifsteck (2006)45 US Multiple H Overall: March 2000-November 2003 NS All NS Consultancy Nurses TOE, >500 OME, 216 23.5 9.9 Schneider (2006)46 US H (3): Medical and medical-surgical units 2 weeks/hospital NS All U 2 NS Nurses TOE, 567 OME, 37d TNE, 54d (core 2 + 3 errors) NS 9.5d 6.5 8.3d van den Bemt (2007)91 Netherlands L: 5 units 2 weeks/unit A, C All D 1 BS Pharm Caretakers TOE, 953 OME, 242 TNE, 263 25.4 27.6d 22.4 24.6d Conroy (2007)71 UK H: medical, surgical, PICU, NICU, ED wards 6 weeks C Other U 1 Pharmacist, 1 PT Nurses TOEi, 752d OME, 9 1.2 0.9d Scott-Cawiezell (2007)47 US
L (5) 3–4 days/facility A All NS 1 Nurse Nurses, LPNs, CMT/As TOE, 3194 OME
NS 34.5d,i 4.7d,i Paoletti (2007)48 US
H: 3 nursing units (2 cardiac telemetry, 1 medical-surgical) NS NS All NS 4 Nurses Nurses TOEi, 934 OME, 188 20.1d 4.8d Maricle (2007)49 US
H: Adult medical ICU, adult cardiac telemetry step-down, adult behavioral health unit NS A All U 4 Nurses Nurses, LPNs TOE, 1514 OME, 74 4.9 3.4d Haw (2007)72 UK
H: 1 dementia unit with challenging behavior, 1 elderly care with enduring mental illness 36 Drug rounds, ~10 weeks A All U 1 Pharmacist Nurses TOE, 1423 TNE, 369 25.9 25.4d Anselmi (2007)112 Brazil
H (3): Pediatric, emergency, internal medicine, surgery, obstetrics units 35 days A, C IV U Nurses, nursing
tudents Nursing attendants, nursing auxiliaries, nursing technician TOEj, prep: 1391, admin: 1315 OME prep: 118
Admin: 66 WTE data not studied Prep: 8.5
Admin: 5.0 Franklin (2007)73 UK
H: General surgery ward 56 Drug rounds, 2 weeks 16 days NS All NS Pharmacists Nurses TOEj, 1644 OME, 141 8.6 8.6 Fahimi (2008)111 Iran H: ICU NS IV D 1 Pharmacist Nurses TOEj, 4040 (prep + admin) OME 380 WTE not studied 9.4 Young (2008)50 US
L (12) NS A All NS Nurse specialists Unlicensed assistive personnel TOE, 4866 OME, 1373 28.2 8.2 Taylor (2008)51 US
H: NICU ~10 months C Other NS Research nurses Nurses TOEh, 253 OME, 50 19.8 9.9 Climent (2008)99 Spain
H: adult medical-surgical wards 2 months A All U 6 NS pairs Nurses TOE, 2242 OME, 94 4.2 Cannot deter-mine WTE Bertsche (2008)96 Germany
H: Medical wards (including intermediate care and ICUs) ~30 hours over 10 days NS Other NS 3 Pharmacy students Nurses Other, 1376 833 60.5 NS Barber (2009)74 UK
L (55) 2 Drug rounds/resident A All NS Clinical pharmacists Care home staff TOE, 1380 OME, 116 NS if WTE studied 8.4 Biron (2009)106 Canada
H: Medical unit 102 Drug rounds (Fall 2007) NS All NS 2 Nurses Nurses TOE, 965 OME, 274
TNE, 284 28.4
29.4d 11.1
11.2d Chua (2009)107 Malaysia
H: Hematology ward 15 days NS All D 1 NS Nurses and physicians TOE, 1118 OME, 127
TNE, 135 11.4
12.1d 8.7
9.0d DeYoung (2009)52 US
H: Medical adult ICU 96 hours A Other D Pharmacists, 1 nurse Nurses TOEi, 775 OME, 153
TNE, 174d 19.7
22.5d NS
3.6d Helmons US NS NS All U 2 Pharmacists, 6 Nurses TOE, 1262 OME, 142d 11.3d 8.9d (2009)53 H: 2 Medical-surgical, 2 ICUs (1 medical, pharmacy students 1 surgical) Raja Lope Malaysia 2 weeks C All D 3rd-year medical Nurses TOE, 188 OME, 59 31 0 (2009)108 H: NICU students van den Bemt Netherlands 8 days/ A All D 1 PT Nurse TOE, 2025 OME, 428 21.2 17.3d (2009)92 3 L (6 wards) facility attendants Pastó- Spain NS A All U Nurses Nurses TOEh, 8784 OME, 171 2 Insuffi- Cardona (2009)101 H (6): 6 Medical, 5 surgical, 1 mixed unit cient data Chapuis France 2 months A All NS 1 Pharmacist Nurses TOE, 668 OME, 133d 19.9d NS (2010)88 H: 2 Medical ICUs TNE, 150 22.5d 18.6d Muñoz (2010)100 Spain
H: All inpatients 5 months A, C All D NS Nurses TOEh, 1876 OME, 199 10.6d 10.6d Bertsche (2010)97 Germany H: Neurologic ward 3 weeks C Other NS 2 Pharmacy students Nurses, parents Other, 675 289 WTE not studied 42.8 Chua (2010)109 Malaysia
H: 2 Pediatric wards (general, oncology) 10 days/ward C All U NS Nurses, medical doctors TOE, 857 OME, 100
TNE, 104 11.7
12.1d 7.8
8.6d Verrue (2010)110 Belgium L (2) (1 ward only from one nursing home) 5 days/resident A All NS 1 Clinical pharmacist, 1 pharmacy student Nurses, nursing aides, logistic aides TOE, 4094d OME, 228d 5.6d 5.5d Ford (2010)54 US
H: Medical ICU and CCU 96 hours A All NS 1 Pharmacist Nurses TOEh, 315d OME, 81d 25.7d 25.7d Ghaleb (2010)75 UK
H (5): 10 units (including medical, surgical, PICU) 2 weeks/unit C All U 1 NS Nurses TOEj, 2249 (prep + admin) TNE, 429 19.1 15.5d Nguyen (2010)55 US
H: Medical-surgical unit NS A All NS Nurses Nurses TOEh, 100 OME, NS 2 NS Patanwala (2010)56 US
H: Emergency department 336 hours NS All U 1 Pharmacist Nurses Other, 629 62d 9.9d NS Poon (2010)57 US
H: 35 adult medical, surgical, and ICU wards 9 months A All NS Research nurses Nurses Other, 6723 OME, 1902
TNE, 1905d 28.3d
28.3d 11.5
11.6d Westbrook (2010)35 Australia
H (2): Geriatrics, respiratory, renal/vascular, orthopedics, neurology, surgical, medical wards 504.75 hours A All U 3 Nurses or physicians Nurses Other, 4271 OME, 1067
TNE, 1196d 25.0
28.0d 11.9
11.9d Ozkan (2011)116 Turkey H: 1 pediatric ward 1 year C All U 1 Nurse student 25 Nurses TOE, 2344 OME, 855 36.5 21.8 Kelly (2011)76 UK
H (4): 1 geriatric, 1 stroke unit/facility 4 months A Other U 1 Nurse 62 Nurses TOE, 2129 OME 817 38.4 10.7d Westbrook (2011)36 Australia H (2): geriatrics, respiratory, renal/vascular, orthopedics, neurology wards 504.75 hours A IV U 3 Nurses or physicians 107 Nurses Other, 568 OME, 396
TNE, 511 WTE not studied 69.7
90.0 Zimmerman (2011)58 US
L (11) 2 days/facility A All NS 2 Pharmacy students Nurses, LPNs, medication aides, others TOEh, 4957 OME, 2084
TNE, 2238d 42.0
45.1d 20.0
21.1d Schimmel (2011)94 Netherlands
H: Orthopedic unit 10 days A All D 4 Medical and pharmaceutical students Qualified or trainee nurses TOEi, 589 OME, 114
TNE, 120 19.4
20.4d NS
16.3d Gokhman (2012)59 US
H 1 year A All NS 1 Pharmacist Medical emergency team TOEh, 186 TNE, 250d,f 134d,f 134d,f Rodriguez-Gonzalez (2012)102 Spain
H: 2 gastroenterology units 1 week A All D 6 Pharmacists, 5 nurses Nurses, nurse assistants TOE, 2314 TNE, 509d 22.0 20.7 Berdot (2012)87 France
H: 1 each of immunology-cardiology, nephrology, cardiovascular, vascular units 24 days A All D 1 Pharmacist 28 Nurses TOE, 1501 OME, 415
TNE, 430d 27.6
28.6d 7.5
7.9d Chedoe (2012)93 Netherlands
H: NICU 10 days C All D 2 Pharmacy
students 49 Nurses TOE, 311 OME, 151
TNE, 159d 49.0
51.1d NS
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