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Question: 1
You notice that the scope of your project exceeds the original estimates, and the Minimum Lovable Product (MLP)
might not be delivered on time.
Which team member do you contact to verify the project plan and manage expectations for the release schedule?
A. Project delivery leader
B. Scrum master
C. Lead business architect
D. Deployment architect
Answer: A
The project delivery leader is responsible for managing the project scope, timeline, budget, and quality. They also
communicate with the stakeholders and sponsors to align expectations and resolve issues. If the scope of the project
exceeds the original estimates, the project delivery leader should be contacted to verify the project plan and manage
expectations for the release schedule.
Question: 2
How do you provide users with guidance for completing a form and avoid the need for application training?
A. Add an optional action to the case to explain the task.
B. Send a notification to the assigned user.
C. Add an instruction to the assignment.
D. Add the corresponding step to an appropriate stage.
Answer: C
it provides users with guidance for completing a form and avoids the need for application training. An instruction is a
short text that appears above a form and explains what the user needs to do to complete the task. An instruction can
help users understand the purpose and context of a form and reduce errors or confusion.
References: (Module 9: User
Question: 3
Using the Pega Express"" delivery approach, governance is established during which phase of the project'
A. Discover
B. Adopt
C. Prepare
D. Build
Answer: C
Using the Pega Express delivery approach, governance is established during the prepare phase of the project. The
prepare phase involves setting up the project team, roles, responsibilities, tools, processes, and standards that will guide
the project delivery. Governance ensures that the project is aligned with the business objectives, follows best practices,
meets quality criteria, and delivers value to the stakeholders.
Question: 4
In a boat repair case type, clients can set their boat type as Powered, Sail, or Row. During the Inspection stage, the
Inspect Boat process prompts technicians to inspect the common parts of all boats. However, if .boatType = 'Sail,' the
technicians are additionally prompted to complete the Inspect Sailboat process.
How do you configure the case life cycle to achieve this behavior?
A. Configure the Inspect Boat process to start if the .boatTypc is not Powered'- Otherwise, the process is skipped.
B. Configure the Inspect Sailboat process to start if the .boatType = 'Sail'. Otherwise, the process is skipped.
C. Configure the Inspect Boat process to start if the .boatType = 'Sail'. Otherwise, the process is skipped.
D. Configure the Inspect Sailboat process to start if the .boatType is not 'Powered'.
Otherwise, the process is skipped.
Answer: B
To display the Inspect Sailboat process only if .boatType = Sail, you need to configure the process to start if the
.boatType property equals Sail. Otherwise, the process is skipped and the case life cycle continues to the next step.
This way, only sailboats are inspected for sail-specific parts, while other boat types are inspected for common parts
only. The other options are either incorrect or irrelevant for this requirement.
Question: 5
Direct Capture of Objectives (DCO) provides many benefits.
Which of the following are benefits of DCO? (Choose Two)
A. Provide real-time awareness of project development to all project participants.
B. Automatically define and store application requirements.
C. Easily convert legacy operations to automated business processes.
D. Use working models to better facilitate business and IT collaboration.
Answer: A,D
These two are benefits of DCO because they involve capturing, organizing, and storing information by using Pegas
integrated solution, the Pega Platform. DCO enables business and IT to collaborate using a shared visual model that
can automatically generate documentation and working models. DCO also provides real-time awareness of project
development by using Pega tools and best practices to track progress and outcomes.
Question: 6
In a claims application, customers can file home insurance claims. Each claim contains a list of items of loss.
Depending on the situation, some claims are investigated for potential fraud in parallel to the real claim process.
Which two case types do you create to support this scenario? (Choose Two)
A. Items of loss
B. Claim
C. Customer
D. Fraud investigation
Answer: A,D
These two case types can support the scenario of filing home insurance claims with items of loss and potential fraud
investigation. Items of loss can be implemented as a child case type that represents each item that is claimed by the
customer. Fraud investigation can be implemented as a parallel process that runs in the background while the main
claim process is ongoing. The other options are either incorrect
or irrelevant for this scenario.
Question: 7
Which two requirements ensure that valid data is used in a case? (Choose Two)
A. The data is locally sourced.
B. The data fits the business logic.
C. The data is organized in a data type.
D. The data is the correct field type.
Answer: A,B,D
To ensure that valid data is used in a case, you need to make sure that the data fits the business logic and the data is the
correct field type. The data fits the business logic means that the data conforms to the rules and constraints that define
the business problem and solution. For example, you can use validations, calculations, and dependencies to ensure that
the data fits the business logic. The data is the correct field type means that the data matches the expected format and
structure of the field that stores or displays it. For example, you can use different types of fields and controls to ensure
that the data is the correct field type.
Question: 8
In the Answer Area, identify the type of data measured in each report.
Answer: A,B,D
Question: 9
Sales managers must be able to approve sales quote proposals by email and from a mobile device.
How do you implement this requirement?
A. Add an Approve/Reject step and enable email and mobile approval.
B. Add an Approve/Reject step and a Send Email step.
C. Add an Approve/Reject step and enable email notifications on the case type.
D. Add an Approve/Reject step with mobile approval enabled and a Send Email step.
Answer: A
To enable sales managers to approve sales quote proposals by email and from a mobile device, you need to add an
Approve/Reject step to the case life cycle and enable email and mobile approval. This option allows sales managers to
approve or reject the proposal by replying to an email message or by using a mobile app. The other options are either
incorrect or irrelevant for this requirement.
Question: 10
Which two statements about data records are true? (Choose Two)
A. Data records need unique, user-generated IDs.
B. Data records require external storage.
C. Data records are displayed in a drop-down list by default.
D. Data records define permissible values for data fields.
Answer: A,D
Data records are instances of data types that store information in your application. Data records need unique, user-
generated IDs to identify and reference them. Data records also define permissible values for data fields that use them
as data sources, such as drop-down lists, radio buttons, etc.
Question: 11
Which two requirements demonstrate the need to configure correspondence? (Choose Two)
A. Assign a new insurance claim to a case worker to process.
B. Phone a customer for additional information about the case.
C. Fax a new insurance claim to the auto repair shop.
D. Text the customer with status changes in an insurance claim.
Answer: A,C,D
These answers are correct because they demonstrate the need to configure correspondence, which is a way of
communicating with external parties through email, fax, letter, or text message. Correspondence can be configured to
send information or documents related to a case to customers, stakeholders, or other parties involved in the case.
References: (Module 7:
Question: 12
During testing, you notice that the Send case status email step does not send an email.
Which work item do you create in Agile Workbench to address this issue?
A. Status
B. Bug
C. User Story
D. Feedback
Answer: B
To address this issue, you need to create a bug in Agile Workbench. A bug is a type of work item that represents a
defect or an error in an application that prevents it from functioning as expected or meeting the acceptance criteria.
You can create bugs during testing or development to track and resolve issues in your application.
Question: 13
What two visualizations can you use to present insight data on the Explore Data landing page? (Choose Two)
A. List
B. CSV file
C. Interactive chart
D. Exportable data page
Answer: A,C
You can use a list or an interactive chart to present insight data on the Explore Data landing page. A list displays the
data in a tabular format, while an interactive chart displays the data in a graphical format, such as a pie chart or a bar
chart. You can also filter, sort, group, and drill down the data in both types of visualizations.
Question: 14
Hospital staff members enter appointment details including relevant patient information, diagnoses, lab orders, and
prescribed medication. This information is aggregated in the Patient visit summary view. The patient receives a copy
of this view through email.
Which two configurations, when applied in combination, achieve this behavior? (Choose Two)
A. Add a Create PDF automation that references the Patient visit summary view.
B. Add a Send Email step and enable the option to include attachments.
C. Enable email notifications on the case type.
D. Add a Send Email step and compose the message to reference the relevant properties.
Answer: A,B
To send a copy of the Patient visit summary view through email, you need to first create a PDF file of the view by
using a Create PDF automation that references the view. Then, you need to add a Send Email step to the case life cycle
and enable the option to include attachments. You can then select the PDF file as an attachment and send it to the
patients email address. The other options are either incorrect or irrelevant for this requirement.
References: https://docs-
Question: 15
Which two of the following use cases do you implement by using one or more calculated fields? (Choose Two)
A. An accountant wants to list the largest order for the last month, for each customer account.
B. A project manager wants to estimate the cost of painting a banquet hall based on labor and materials required.
C. A sales representative wants to quote the cost of an insurance policy based on selected coverage options.
D. A certification manager wants to determine the number of exams conducted at each testing facility in the current
Answer: A,B,C
Calculated fields are fields that derive their values from other fields or expressions. You can use calculated fields to
implement use cases that require calculations based on user inputs or data sources, such as estimating costs, quoting
prices, computing discounts, etc. For example, you can create a calculated field that multiplies the labor hours by the
hourly rate to estimate the labor cost for painting a banquet hall, or a calculated field that adds up the premiums for
different coverage options to quote the cost of an insurance policy.
Question: 16
In the Answer Area, select the Pega development team member whose role corresponds to each development task.
Answer: A,B,C
Question: 17
How do you indicate the progress of a case towards resolution?
A. Configure a case notes field to capture progress information.
B. Update the case status on the appropriate steps.
C. Design intent-driven user interfaces.
D. Apply service levels to the assignment steps.
Answer: B
To indicate the progress of a case towards resolution, you need to update the case status on the appropriate steps. The
case status reflects the current state of a case and helps users track its progress. You can use standard statuses such as
New, Pending-Approval, or Resolved-Completed, or define custom statuses for your application. The other options are
either incorrect or irrelevant for this requirement.
Question: 18
You are defining a view for a loan application. If the loan applicant indicates that there is an existing open account, the
Date account opened must be before the current date.
How do you configure the case type to verify that the value of Date account opened is in the past?
A. Use a calendar control.
B. Use a pick list control.
C. Use a validation condition.
D. Use a when condition.
Answer: C
To configure the case type to verify that the value of Date account opened is in the past, you need to use a validation
condition. A validation condition is a rule that checks whether the value of a field meets a specified criterion. You can
use a validation condition for the Date account opened field that compares it with the current date and displays an
error message if it is not in the past.
Question: 19
For a car insurance quote case type, you must create a view for the customers to enter their information, to process the
What are two primary decisions to make before you add fields to the view' (Choose Two)
A. How do users enter values into the field?
B. Is field entry required?
C. Are processing actions applied to the field
D. Do the fields require a data source?
Answer: A,D
Before you add fields to a view, you need to decide how users enter values into the field and whether the fields require
a data source. These decisions determine the type and configuration of the fields that you add to the view. For
example, you can use different types of controls to allow users to enter values in different ways, such as text inputs,
drop-down lists, radio buttons, etc. You can also use different types of data sources to populate the fields with values
from your application data or external systems, such as data pages, report definitions, connectors, etc.
Question: 20
A requirement for a hotel reservation case type states that as customers change their room selection, the total cost of
the reservation updates accordingly.
How do you satisfy this requirement?
A. Configure a calculation for the total cost held.
B. Configure a validate condition for the total cost field.
C. Configure a field group list for all the room types.
D. Configure a when condition for the total cost field.
Answer: A
To satisfy this requirement, you need to configure a calculation for the total cost field. A calculation is a type of
validation that derives the value of a field from an expression or a formula. You can configure a calculation for the
total cost field that multiplies the room rate by the number of nights and updates the value whenever the room selection
Question: 21
You are designing a medical claim case type and have the following requirement: Medical claims must be resolved
within five days.
To meet this requirement, you must set the____________. in the service level to five days.
A. deadline
B. priority
C. urgency
D. goal
Answer: A
This answer is correct because it sets the maximum time allowed for resolving a medical claim case, as per the
requirement. The deadline in the service level defines the time limit for completing a case or an assignment. If the
deadline is reached, an escalation action can be triggered to notify or reassign the case or assignment.
References: (Module 6: Service
Question: 22
You are configuring an accident claim case for an automobile insurance company with two child cases as illustrated.
The requirement changes to allow the parent case to continue before the child cases
How do you configure the Wait steps for this requirement?
A. Configure the Wait step to continue the parent case when the child cases reaches audit or approval.
B. Configure the Wait step to continue the parent case when the child cases reach the payment pending review status.
C. Configure the Wait step so that only one child case must resolve before the parent case can continue.
D. Configure the Wait step so users can choose to continue the parent case process regardless of child case status.
Answer: B
it allows the parent case to continue before the child cases resolve, as per the requirement. The Wait step can be
configured to resume the parent case when a specific status is reached in the child cases, such as payment pending
review. This way, the parent case does not have to wait for the child cases to be fully resolved.
References: (Module 5: Case
Question: 23
You need to fetch exchange rates that are updated on a daily basis from a web service and make them available in your
application using a data page.
Which scope would you select for the data page?
A. Application
B. Request
C. Node
D. Thread
Answer: B
it fetches exchange rates that are updated on a daily basis from a web service and makes them available in your
application using a data page. A request scope for a data page means that the data page is loaded once per user session
and is refreshed when the user logs out and logs back in. This way, the data page can provide the most up-to-date
exchange rates for each user session.
References: (Module 10: Data
Question: 24
In an insurance claim application, you have the following requirement: All claims must be resolved within 30 days.
To meet this requirement you configure a service level. Where should the service level be configured?
A. The case type
B. The process
C. The stage
D. The step
Answer: A
To meet the requirement that all claims must be resolved within 30 days, you need to configure a service level on the
case type. A service level on the case type defines a goal and deadline for resolving a case. You can also define
actions to take when a case reaches or exceeds its goal or deadline, such as sending an email notification or escalating
the urgency. The other options are either incorrect or irrelevant for this requirement.
Question: 25
ABC BankCorp wants to create a mobile app experience for users and CSRs for its Transaction Dispute application.
Of the following requirements, which option requires you to configure distinct mobile app channels?
A. Mobile app color palettes are different for users and CSRs.
B. The mobile app customizes currency units and date/time format according to the location of the users.
C. CSRs can create other case type instances on the mobile app.
D. The mobile app supports all mobile phone operating systems.
Answer: C
This option requires you to configure distinct mobile app channels for users and CSRs because it involves different
capabilities for different user roles. A mobile app channel defines how a case type is displayed and processed on a
mobile device. You can configure different mobile app channels for different user roles and case types. The other
options do not require distinct mobile app channels because they involve common features or settings that can be
applied to all users or devices.
References: https://docs-

Pegasystems Certified information source - BingNews Search results Pegasystems Certified information source - BingNews Certification For Open Source Hardware Announced

Today at the Open Hardware Summit in Portland, Alicia Gibb and Michael Weinberg of the Open Source Hardware Association (OSHWA) launched the Open Source Hardware Certification program. It’s live, and you can certify your own hardware as Open Hardware right now.

What Is Open Source Hardware?

Open Source Hardware can’t be defined without first discussing open source software. At its very core, open source software is just a copyright hack, enabled by a worldwide universal computer network. The rise of open source software is tied to the increasing ease of distributing said software, either through BBSes, Usenet, and the web. Likewise, Open Source Hardware is tied to the ease of distributing, modifying, and building hardware.

In the 1980s, there were no services that could deliver a custom circuit board to anywhere on the planet for a dollar per square inch. When open software began, CNC machines were expensive tools, now you can build a very good machine for just a week’s wages. We are currently living at the dawn of Open Source Hardware, enabled by the creation of Open Source design tools that have themselves been used to create physical tools. Inexpensive 3D printers, open source oscilloscopes, circuit board plotters, and the entire hackerspace movement are as revolutionary as the Internet. These devices and the Internet are the foundations for Open Hardware and software, respectively.  The objections to why hardware is incompatible with Open Source no longer apply and small-scale manufacturing techniques are only going to get better.

Open source is a moral imperative in the truest Kantian sense of the word. It is a good unto itself. Of course, this means open source is also mind-numbingly prescriptivist. Holy scrolls have defined dozens of different open source licenses. The relevant license for Open Source Hardware has already been laid out to define the freedoms and responsibilities of all Open Source Hardware creators. Open Source Hardware is a tangible thing, from a laptop to a lampshade, whose design is available so anyone can make, modify, distribute, and sell that thing. Native documentation is required, and software required to run this thing must be based on an OSI-approved license.

The definition of Open Source Hardware has been around for a few years now, and since then the community has flourished, there’s a great gear logo, and you can buy real, functional hardware that bills itself as Open Source Hardware. It’s become a selling point, and this has become a problem.

Many hardware creators don’t adhere to the definition of Open Source Hardware. In some cases, the design files simply aren’t available. If they are, they could be unmodifiable. The software used to create these design files could cost thousands of dollars per seat. This is the problem the movement faces — Open Source Hardware must have a certification program. Unlike open source software, where the source is almost proof enough that a piece of software complies with an open source license, hardware does not have such obvious assurances.

Software Is Closed By Default, Hardware Is Open And The Licenses Are Harder

All software is closed by default. Anything written is covered by copyright, and the developers of open source software choose to license their works under an open source license. Open source software, then, is a copyright hack, enabled because all software is closed by default.

Hardware, on the other hand, is open by default. If you build a device to automatically inject epinephrine intramuscularly, you must go out of your way to patent your device. Only a patent will deliver you the ability to license your work, and before that patent is published anyone can make their own epinephrine pen. If you build something with an FPGA, the code that programs the FPGA is covered by copyright, but an arbitrary circuit that uses that FPGA isn’t. Any generic piece of Open Source Hardware could be covered under patents, trademarks, and a dozen licenses. Therefore, an Open Source Hardware license is impractical. This is why OSHWA is not releasing an Open Source Hardware license, and instead creating an Open Source Hardware certification program. No Open Source Hardware license could cover every edge case, and a certification is ultimately the only solution.

The Open Source Hardware Certification Program

At last year’s Open Hardware Summit, OSHWA formally announced the creation of the Open Hardware Certification program. Now, this program is live, and the certification database will growing very, very quickly. At its heart, the Open Source Hardware Certification program is pretty simple — create hardware that complies with the community definition of Open Source Hardware.

The theoretical basis for the need of an Open Source Hardware license is the fact that anyone is able to manufacture hardware. Of course, there are limits to technology and no one has a 14nm silicon fab line in their garage. This is a problem for any piece of Open Source Hardware, and the technical capability for anyone to recreate integrated circuits and other high technologies is the sole source of the traditional objections to any open hardware license. Garage-based fabrication is always improving, though, but closed hardware in the form of NDA’d chips will remain a problem for years to come.

The clearest example of the problem with closed-source chips is bunnie’s Novena laptop. This laptop is designed as both a hacker’s laptop and an artifact of Open Hardware. Although most of the chips used in the Novena are available without signing NDAs, open source, and blob-free 3D graphics acceleration was unavailable when the laptop launched. This non-open graphics problem will be fixed with open source drivers, but it does illustrate the problem of Open Source Hardware. Even though chips might be available, there might be binary blobs required for full functionality. You can build an Open Hardware chip in VHDL, but it’s not really open if you have to use closed-source FPGA dev tools.

OSHWA’s solution to this problem is simply asking for hardware creators to act in good faith. The certification program won’t knock points off for using closed source binary blobs if that’s the only way of doing something. Open Source Hardware is just slightly more aware of the pace of technical progress, and what is closed today may be open tomorrow. Building a piece of Open Source Hardware isn’t an all or nothing proposal; just deliver your best effort to make it open, and technology or reverse engineers will probably make it more open in the future.

oshwOf course, with any certification program, there must be some effort given to enforcement. If an Open Hardware project is certified under the program but does not meet the guidelines of the certification program, fines may be levied against the project creators. Again, good faith of the project creator is assumed, and a project found not in compliance with the certification program will be given 90 days to either fix the problem or remove the project from the certification program. After 90 days, there’s a 120-day period of public shaming, and after that small fines of $500 per month. The worst offender will get a fine of up to $10,000 per month, but that would require years of non-compliance, and it’s very doubtful any conflict with OSHWA will ever reach that stage. It should be noted these fines have a legal basis in the trademark of the OSHW certification logo, and if you don’t use the OSHW logo or certify your project, there’s nothing OSHWA can do.

The old Open Source Hardware ‘gear’ logo — unquestionably a better logo — will still remain in use, and no one is going will look down on you for using it. Using the trademarked OSHW logo, though, is the only way any certification program can be enforced.

The Objections To Open Source Hardware

Of course, the Open Source Hardware Certification program has been more than two years in the making, and that’s time enough for a few people to start having very strong opinions about it. A few years ago, Saar Drimer of Boldport said he won’t be using the Open Source Hardware logo on his boards. This is despite the fact that he loves Open Source Hardware, has written open source PCB design software, and offers a 20% discount on open source contract work. His reason is simple: adding a logo brings baggage, and building Open Source Hardware is not mutually exclusive with putting a logo on a board. Dave Jones is a big supporter of Open Hardware, but he realizes the famous gear logo is becoming meaningless through abuse.

You need only look back on the last twenty or thirty years of the world of Open Source Software to get a sense of where Saar and Dave are coming from; Stallman does not believe in a moral imperative to Open Hardware, whereas most everyone in attendance of today’s Open Hardware Summit does. Gnome versus KDE is nothing compared to the religious war we potentially face between various Open Hardware philosophies. The Open Source Hardware community is relearning what the open source software community learned twenty years ago. We can only hope to learn from their missteps.

But Open Source Hardware has a much bigger obstacle to adoption than politicking and empire building. Open source software is a simple concept — you have a (copy) right to whatever software, music, words, or boat hull designs you create. You can, therefore, deliver others the right to use, study, share, and modify that work. Physical objects and artifacts do not have copyright, they have patents. Patent law in the United States is atrocious, and just because you were the first to create a useful invention doesn’t mean a patent would be invalidated. This is the greatest challenge to anything developed as Open Source Hardware. The only solution to this is prior art and patent inspectors that know where to look.

This Will Take a While to Work Out

The Open Source Hardware Certification program is going to take a while to unravel. OSHWA doesn’t believe this certification program will be a repository used by patent inspectors looking for prior art. The legal basis for the certification is literally built upon every piece of intellectual property law. It is, perhaps, an answer to the most complex legal questions ever: what is property, what is intellectual property and can the concept of physical things be given away.

No one has an answer to these questions, or at least an answer that can be summed up in one-page FAQ. The Open Source Hardware Certification program is an attempt to answer these questions, and so far it’s the best attempt yet.

None of this matters unless the community gets behind it, and if another competing Open Source Hardware certification or license pops up, the community may very well migrate to that. Judging from the last thirty years of open source software license drama, we can only hope that the community figures this out the first time, and we hope this certification program is a rousing success.

Fri, 07 Oct 2016 08:59:00 -0500 Brian Benchoff en-US text/html
CISSP Certification Requirements And Cost

Editorial Note: We earn a commission from partner links on Forbes Advisor. Commissions do not affect our editors' opinions or evaluations.

The Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP®) credential demonstrates mastery of developing and overseeing large-scale cybersecurity programs. When it comes to the best cybersecurity certifications, many consider CISSP the industry’s gold standard. Individuals who meet CISSP requirements can earn the certification and qualify to take on more professional responsibility in their cybersecurity jobs.

This guide offers information on CISSP certification requirements, including experience, suggested preparation times and CISSP certification exam costs.

What Is CISSP Certification?

CISSP certification, offered by (ISC)², is an advanced credential for information systems and cybersecurity professionals. This certification highlights an individual’s ability to create, deploy and manage cybersecurity efforts for large organizations.

CISSP certification requirements include a significant amount of professional experience and passing a lengthy exam. This credential suits experienced workers over entry-level and mid-level professionals.

Though this certification is not required by employers, it can boost candidates’ earning power and help them qualify for advanced roles in information security. CISSPs often work in positions like chief information security officer (CISO), network architect, security auditor and security manager, among others.

CISSP Certification Requirements

Aspiring CISSPs should familiarize themselves with the certification’s requirements before pursuing this credential.

Gain Experience

CISSP certification requirements stipulate that each candidate must have a minimum of five years of relevant professional experience. (ISC)² specifies eight security domains:

  • Domain 1: Security and risk management
  • Domain 2: Asset security
  • Domain 3: Security architecture and engineering
  • Domain 4: Communication and network security
  • Domain 5: Identity and access management
  • Domain 6: Security assessment and testing
  • Domain 7: Security operations
  • Domain 8: Software development security

Prospective CISSPs must accumulate experience in two of the eight domains to meet CISSP certification requirements. They can also apply (ISC)²-approved four-year college degrees and other credentials, which may qualify as a year of experience. Paid and unpaid internships also count toward the CISSP requirement.

Pass the Certification Exam

The CISSP exam covers the eight domains of security in a four-hour test comprising 125 to 175 required responses. These appear as multiple-choice questions and advanced innovative items. Test-takers must earn a 700 out of 1,000 to pass. Candidates register to take the exam with Pearson VUE.

Get Endorsed

After passing the exam, individuals can apply for endorsement online. The endorsement must come from an (ISC)²-certified professional who can advocate for your professional experience as a credential-holder in good standing. Individuals must receive endorsements within nine months of passing the exam.

Cost of Becoming a CISSP

Earning CISSP certification can deliver many professional benefits, but individuals should also understand the costs associated with pursuing the credential. Along with the required time investment, consider the following CISSP certification exam costs and any required payments relating to preparation and recertification.

CISSP Certification exam Prep

Many organizations offer prep courses for the CISSP certification exam, and their costs vary drastically. Make sure to include exam prep costs, which may range from a few hundred dollars to a few thousand, in your CISSP budget. (ISC)² offers several exam prep methods, including self-paced, instructor-led and team-based options.

CISSP Certification exam Cost

The CISSP certification exam costs $749. Individuals can receive vouchers from partner organizations after completing CISSP exam training courses.

Recertification Cost

Individuals must meet CISSP recertification requirements every three years to maintain their credentials. Each certification holder must earn 120 continuing professional education (CPE) credits over this three-year period. Costs relating to CPEs can vary significantly, but each certified individual must pay an annual $125 fee to (ISC)².

Common Careers for CISSPs

Individuals who have met CISSP requirements and earned their credentials can pursue work in many information security and cybersecurity roles. As of 2023, the number of open cybersecurity roles far outpaces the number of qualified professionals, indicating strong continued demand in the sector.

We sourced salary information for this section from Payscale.

Data from indicates that among current cybersecurity openings requiring certification, CISSP ranks as the most in-demand credential. The following section explores roles for CISSP certification-holders.

Chief Information Security Officer

Average Annual Salary: Around $173,500
Required Education: Bachelor’s degree in cybersecurity, information security or a related field; master’s preferred
Job Description: CISOs rank among the top positions in information security for responsibility and salary. This C-suite role reports directly to the CEO and requires significant experience, practical skills and expertise in information security.

CISOs oversee their organizations’ information security efforts. Often referred to as “chief security officers,” they supervise teams of infosec workers, set organizational directives, establish company-wide best practices and manage resource allotment. CISOs working in large, international businesses may interact with government agencies and congresspeople to ensure compliance with legal standards for information security.

Information Technology Director

Average Annual Salary: Around $125,000
Required Education: Bachelor’s degree in computer science or related field, MBA degree often preferred
Job Description: IT directors oversee departments of IT workers and manage organizations’ computer systems operations. They provide solutions to companies’ computer-related issues, including software upgrades, security concerns and general technical issues. IT directors communicate with executives to ensure company-wide directives are carried out successfully.

These directors research new IT software and hardware to keep their organizations up to date and safe. They track metrics for managing IT professionals, along with storage, hardware and software. IT directors also handle employee schedules and budget planning. As department heads, they must possess strong communication skills to interact with mid-level professionals and C-suite executives.

Security Analyst

Average Annual Salary: Around $73,500
Required Education: Bachelor’s degree in cybersecurity, computer and information technology or a related field
Job Description: Security analysts work in computer systems, networks and information security departments to prevent, monitor and respond to security breaches. This broad professional title refers to workers who handle a variety of tasks in computer and network security.

These professionals work in many industries as “first responders” for cyberattacks. They must demonstrate deep knowledge of hardware, software and data storage to understand potential vulnerabilities and security solutions. Security analysts may help design security systems and handle encryption efforts for businesses to protect sensitive information.

Network Architect

Average Annual Salary: Around $126,000
Required Education: Bachelor’s degree in network engineering or a related field; master’s in cybersecurity or a related field often preferred
Job Description: Network architects design and implement organizations’ security infrastructures. These professionals test and analyze existing safety structures to identify vulnerabilities and improvements. They install and maintain computer systems, including interconnected devices like firewalls and routers.

Before deploying any updates or upgrades, these information security professionals create models to test their networks in a controlled environment. Modeling allows network architects to forecast security and traffic issues before implementing their infrastructures in the real world. They also train and educate IT workers on organizational best practices.

Frequently Asked Questions About CISSP Requirements

What are the requirements to become CISSP-certified?

The two primary CISSP requirements are passing the exam and gaining five years of relevant professional experience.

No. CISSP certification suits experienced cybersecurity and information security professionals, requiring a minimum of five years of experience in the field.

Mon, 01 Jan 2024 01:12:00 -0600 Matt Whittle en-US text/html
Anonymous Sources

Transparency is critical to our credibility with the public and our subscribers. Whenever possible, we pursue information on the record. When a newsmaker insists on background or off-the-record ground rules, we must adhere to a strict set of guidelines, enforced by AP news managers.

 Under AP's rules, material from anonymous sources may be used only if:

 1. The material is information and not opinion or speculation, and is vital to the report.

 2. The information is not available except under the conditions of anonymity imposed by the source.

 3. The source is reliable, and in a position to have direct knowledge of the information.

 Reporters who intend to use material from anonymous sources must get approval from their news manager before sending the story to the desk. The manager is responsible for vetting the material and making sure it meets AP guidelines. The manager must know the identity of the source, and is obligated, like the reporter, to keep the source's identity confidential. Only after they are assured that the source material has been vetted by a manager should editors and producers allow it to be used.

 Reporters should proceed with interviews on the assumption they are on the record. If the source wants to set conditions, these should be negotiated at the start of the interview. At the end of the interview, the reporter should try once again to move onto the record some or all of the information that was given on a background basis.

 The AP routinely seeks and requires more than one source when sourcing is anonymous. Stories should be held while attempts are made to reach additional sources for confirmation or elaboration. In rare cases, one source will be sufficient – when material comes from an authoritative figure who provides information so detailed that there is no question of its accuracy.

 We must explain in the story why the source requested anonymity. And, when it’s relevant, we must describe the source's motive for disclosing the information. If the story hinges on documents, as opposed to interviews, the reporter must describe how the documents were obtained, at least to the extent possible.

The story also must provide attribution that establishes the source's credibility; simply quoting "a source" is not allowed. We should be as descriptive as possible: "according to top White House aides" or "a senior official in the British Foreign Office." The description of a source must never be altered without consulting the reporter.

 We must not say that a person declined comment when that person the person is already quoted anonymously. And we should not attribute information to anonymous sources when it is obvious or well known. We should just state the information as fact.

Stories that use anonymous sources must carry a reporter's byline. If a reporter other than the bylined staffer contributes anonymous material to a story, that reporter should be given credit as a contributor to the story.

 All complaints and questions about the authenticity or veracity of anonymous material – from inside or outside the AP – must be promptly brought to the news manager's attention.

 Not everyone understands “off the record” or “on background” to mean the same things. Before any interview in which any degree of anonymity is expected, there should be a discussion in which the ground rules are set explicitly.

These are the AP’s definitions:

On the record. The information can be used with no caveats, quoting the source by name.

Off the record. The information cannot be used for publication. Background. The information can be published but only under conditions negotiated with the source. Generally, the sources do not want their names published but will agree to a description of their position. AP reporters should object vigorously when a source wants to brief a group of reporters on background and try to persuade the source to put the briefing on the record.

Deep background. The information can be used but without attribution. The source does not want to be identified in any way, even on condition of anonymity.

In general, information obtained under any of these circumstances can be pursued with other sources to be placed on the record.


Reports from other news organizations based on anonymous sources require the most careful scrutiny when we consider them for our report.

AP's basic rules for anonymous source material apply to material from other news outlets just as they do in our own reporting: The material must be factual and obtainable no other way. The story must be truly significant and newsworthy. Use of anonymous material must be authorized by a manager. The story we produce must be balanced, and comment must be sought.

Further, before picking up such a story we must make a bona fide effort to get it on the record, or, at a minimum, confirm it through our own reporting. We shouldn't hesitate to hold the story if we have any doubts. If another outlet’s anonymous material is ultimately used, it must be attributed to the originating news organization and note its description of the source.


 Anything in the AP news report that could reasonably be disputed should be attributed. We should deliver the full name of a source and as much information as needed to identify the source and explain why the person s credible. Where appropriate, include a source's age; title; name of company, organization or government department; and hometown. If we quote someone from a written document – a report, email or news release -- we should say so. Information taken from the internet must be vetted according to our standards of accuracy and attributed to the original source. File, library or archive photos, audio or videos must be identified as such. For lengthy stories, attribution can be contained in an extended editor's note detailing interviews, research and methodology.

Tue, 20 Jun 2023 05:32:00 -0500 en text/html
Pega Autonomous Enterprise Vision Driven By Low-Code With Infinity ’23

Low code grew. Although software application development has been able to draw upon libraries, reference architectures and various forms of predefined ‘methods’ [a programming term used to describe a software function of one kind or another]

and algorithmic logic for several decades now, the rise of low-code platforms within the last decade has been nothing short of game-changing.

Not the same as no-code - platforms designed to enable completely non-technical business users to ‘create’ typically smaller and restricted application functionalities, often via simplified drag-and-drop visualization tools - low-code is still for software developers who have generally spent serious years gaining degree-level qualifications and competency in hard coding. Although low-code platforms do also encompass the options for so-called citizen developer businesspeople to perform some application tuning and creation, this technology space remains a place we developers.

As low-code now becomes codified (pun appreciated, but not intended) into the fabric of enterprise software workshops around the world, a new responsibility arises. We must now look for the niche elements of software that can be more accurately optimized. We must look for dovetail joints that sit between business productivity measures and the ability for low-code to deliver functions that will Boost the commercial bottom line. We must filter through our low-code systems to make the Developer eXperience (DX) and User eXperience (UX) more intuitive… and, in general, we must continue to build better software.

Styling itself around a branded tagline that reads Build for Change, Pegasystems Inc. is a low-code platform provider that aims to fulfil upon as many (if not all) of those low-platform developments as possible. In full, Pega describes itself as a low-code platform for AI-powered ‘decisioning’ and workflow automation.

The company has this month enhanced its Pega Infinity software suite with new low-code muscle that it hopes will accelerate low-code development in line with the need to continuously optimize existing processes - with those processes being a) initially software-based processes but b) ones that lead directly and adroitly towards improved business processes.

Birth of the autonomous enterprise

What Pega (and to be honest, the rest of the enterprise software space) is working towards is the dream of the so-called autonomous enterprise i.e. a vision of a company of any reasonable size that can rely upon software systems and processes that work autonomously, update themselves autonomously and enable business operations to run autonomously, either with businesspeople being able to self-service adapt technology to their working environment needs or not have to engage with smart systems at all that just ‘figure out’ our needs in any given workplace scenario.

Pega suggests that the concept of the autonomous enterprise is a state of being and mind which unifies Artificial Intelligence (AI) and automation to help organizations become more self-optimizing to drive maximum efficiency and effectiveness. The company bids to make this possible with extensions to its generative AI technology - the previously announced Pega GenAI - which now comes with a set of 20 new generative AI-powered ‘boosters’ across Pega Infinity ‘23 to make application development easier, faster and more powerful.

Referred to in this way, we can take AI boosters to refer to connection points between Large Language Model (LLM) datasets and the use of Natural Language Processing (NLP) technologies that enable users - and in this case developers too - to humanly speak (which often also means type) intentions and requests of software development environments in order to get them to work in specified ways.

For clarification here, the company has created boosters including the AI-assisted development functionality now available in its Pega App Studio and Prediction Studio software tools - as well as elsewhere throughout its platform. This offers Chat-GPT style text queries to provide developers with help as they create and build. The company says it gives developers and data scientists the tools to build and maintain sophisticated predictive models and algorithms. According to this technology’s product specification sheets, the AI-assisted development panel recommends what the developer needs as they build workflows. “It aggregates information from a number of different sources, provides relevant information where and when it is needed the most, and nudges the developer to adopt best practices,” notes the company.

The idea that low-code caught on in the first place is somewhat interesting suggests Kerim Akgonul, chief product officer at Pega. After all, there is no low-smoking or most other low-form activities as such - although there is perhaps some low-driving with all the smart automobile technology around now. But when it comes to the Pega platform and its usage across the hard-core (low-code) developers using its tools vs. the citizen developers also now touching its platform, how should we really think about this juxtaposition point?

“If you think about the way people build software these days, it’s mostly meetings - the coding time is usually far less than the planning time, so a generative AI-driven application that is 95% right before a human gets into the loop to tweak it makes a lot of sense,” said Akgonul. “The Pega platform’s set of accelerators that get functionality into an application quickly are many and varied. Whether citizen developers are involved at the keyboard level or not, it’s crucial that they are at least involved in order to be able to address the lifecyle of work and articulate the vision of the company’s business unit and their workflows.”

Akgonul further states that his team’s mission is to optimize the underwriting process behind the creation of software development such that it is insured for success. This is primarily because an organization’s business experts have been able to capture their vision in a structured way as part of the total coding process. If companies do this right, they get to a place where business outcomes are quantified and encoded from the start… and at that point the right code can be built.


The question that inevitably arises at this point, with all this automation and AI enrichment flying around, is just how safe are these technologies when we come to apply them in the workplace, sometimes in environments that may be bordering on the mission or life-critical? Pega is adamant on this point and explains that the company’s approach will help organizations leverage the power of generative AI while building controls, governance and auditing to keep humans-in-the-loop.

Pega GenAI will offer a secure, plug-and-play architecture that will allow for low-code development of AI prompts, the ability to infuse generative AI functions into their workflows and the freedom to swap in different Large Language Models (LLMs). This approach will help users drive value from generative AI now and into the future. So has the company locked down the security and robustness factor here enough?

“Pega has been working hard to put the right architecture in place with regard to every aspect of generative AI safety, control, management and oversight that is possible in both human and machine terms,” clarified Don Schuerman, Pega CTO.

Schuerman made his comments this month while speaking directly on the subject of whether ‘safer’ generative AI needs to feature not just Large Language Models and open public AI engine power, but also incorporate (and in some cases insist upon) a proprietary data approach where Small Language Models (SLMs) are also used to work on company-specific sensitive data sources - a process some are referring to as private AI as opposed to the public alternative.

“We are well-planned and on the right trajectory for this particular spiral arm of the AI galaxy,” enthused Schuerman. “While some industry vendors are entering the AI space for the first time, ‘private AI’ isn’t a new idea for Pega. We’ve had clients running our Customer Decision Hub technology and our Process AI tools to build and run their own private, self-learning AI models for over a decade. During that time, we’ve built up an enviable bank of experience, best practices and product offerings for aspects of software architecture such as MLOps (our software code revision manager tool manages deployments, testing and retiring of models), AI explainability (our transparent AI ‘T-switch’) and bias test controls to govern AI models. Our clients have deployed tens of thousands of these private models over the years.”

Going further, Schuerman said that when it comes to generative AI for Pega, the company’s architecture is built around a technology known as a Connect-Generative AI layer. This allows software developers and data engineers to build their own prompts using low-code tools and will abstract the prompt itself from the different AI models. Essentially, this is the sort of air-gapping guardrail that those of us in the data science space have been calling out for as a sort of software safety belt all year.

“We have also included mechanisms to automatically replace sensitive Personally Identifiable Information (PII) data with anonymous data in calls to public models. Requests flow through a proxy service that provides an additional layer of protection. In the future, we plan to offer our own private Gen-AI services [in the realm of the Small Language Model approaches already noted here] as well as the ability to for users to run their own local models,” added Schuerman, in what is an arguably more comprehensive response to this entire point of sensitivity than many other commentators.

Inside workings in low-code

In addition to its aforementioned new generative AI-powered boosters, Pega Infinity ‘23 will also include updates to Pega Platform, Pega Customer Decision Hub and Pega Customer Service - all of which form central building blocks to the company’s core IT stack offering.

The types of functionalities on offer here provide us with some insight into how low-code platforms actually work. A reuse library in the Pega App Studio tool enables developers to find reusable software reusable components and pre-engineered business logic while also sharing those resources with others. Pega says that this same function can also be used by citizen developers, although perhaps not quite extending to the no-code end of low-code. Allied to this technology is the Pega Constellation offering and these are software tools focused on improving the User eXperience (UX) factor in enterprise applications through the use of built-in templates and patterns.

There’s an inclusivity factor here in low-code with Pega Infinity ’23, as there of course should be. As such, Pega now offers its approach to enhanced accessibility compliance and does so by following in line with Web Content Accessibility Guides (WCAG) 2.1, a set of guidelines laid down by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). There are also connector technologies here designed to integrate Pega Customer Service (technology that provides functions such as self-service workflows to automate customer query resolutions) with Pega Process Fabric (technology designed to unify the discoverability and prioritization of human - and increasingly now also, machine - workplace tasks) all of which are built to work under the Pega low-code platform umbrella.

“Pega Infinity unifies customer engagement, customer service and intelligent automation capabilities within a single platform to help accelerate digital transformation,” notes Pega, in a technical product statement. “By engaging customers with the right message, at the right time, across any channel, clients can Boost customer satisfaction, increase customer lifetime value, and boost productivity.”

Application iteration liberation

At the risk of coining a marketing phrase that one or other low-code vendor (Pega or its competitors) might be hurry to adopt, what all these developments push towards is something we could call an application iteration liberation.

In simple terms (and we learned this so well during the pandemic, obviously) organizations in every vertical need to be able to ‘iterate’ their applications to progress them to support new functionalities, connect to new data sources, draw power from new cloud services, work on new form factor devices when they come around and reduce the complexity for accelerated deployments everywhere.

Pegasystems (Pega) clearly draws its name from the winged divine stallion depicted in Greek folklore and Pegasus itself was ultimately brought to Mount Olympus by Zeus where it was stabled next to the thunder god's thunderbolts. Can we see the parallels here? At least low-code is no myth.

Mon, 12 Jun 2023 10:35:00 -0500 Adrian Bridgwater en text/html
Teacher Certification Certification

Have you:

  • Met all of the University of North Georgia's institutional requirements?
  • Met all of the graduation requirements for your teacher certification program?
  • Completed our teacher preparation program, in a specific teaching field?

If so, then you are eligible to apply for a Georgia teaching certificate!

Establishing Connection...

Fri, 08 Nov 2019 20:38:00 -0600 en text/html
Licensure & Professional Certification Disclosures

Each state has different professional licensure and certification requirements in disciplines such as, but not limited to, accounting, counseling, engineering, and health professions. The University of New Haven works to confirm that our programs meet the educational requirements for those programs that lead to professional licensure or certification. Below is a listing of our current programs that lead to licensure or certification. Please follow the link for the program that you are interested in. On each program page, we have provided state licensing guidance information and we make every effort to ensure licensure information is current. Licensure and certification information is reviewed and updated in March of each year.

Please note that the completion of a University of New Haven program does not certain employment or eligibility to receive a license or credential in every state or location in that profession. In many cases, there are state laws and there may be additional requirements (e.g., background checks and/or fingerprinting, professional exams, years of supervised professional work experience, fee requirements, etc.). These requirements can vary from state to state. Note also that some required practicums and internships can require background checks or fingerprinting.

Students who are considering an academic program that may allow them to pursue professional licensure or certification are strongly encouraged to check with the state licensing board where they intend to seek employment to confirm all requirements. Licensing board and contact information is provided for each state. It is a student's responsibility to understand the specific requirements of the state in which they intend to apply for licensure and to be aware of any changes to those requirements.

Important note for relocation during the course of a program:
Prospective and current students should keep in mind that licensing and certification requirements vary by state and that relocating during the course of a program to another state could impact whether that student can meet the eligibility requirements in the state they intend to move to. If students are considering relocating, they should contact their program adviser or department chair to check for licensure or certification eligibility requirements. Current students can check the Student Location Policy in the Student Handbook. Upon relocation or change of address, students must update their student record with the new location information within 10 days.

Programs for Licensure Disclosure

Mon, 26 Oct 2020 14:33:00 -0500 en text/html Former IBM Exec Carola Cazenave Is New Pegasystems Channel Chief

Cazenave tells CRN that Pegasystems has an opportunity to double the size of its business by leveraging partners developing on its low-code business automation platform to drive enterprise digital transformation initiatives and penetrate new markets


Longtime IBM ecosystem leader Carola Cazenave has taken the channel chief position at Pegasystems, where she’s ready to double the software vendor’s business by ramping engagement with partners.

After 26 years at Big Blue, Cazenave saw an opportunity for an “entrepreneurial” challenge of the kind she had long dreamed of with the Cambridge, Mass.-based business process automation vendor, which offers a popular low-code platform for building applications and automating sales, customer service and other workflows.

Two weeks into the role of vice president of global business partners, and despite restrictions due to the coronavirus crisis, Cazenave is leading a team that’s reformulating Pegasystems’ channel strategy to better engage partners using its technology as a platform for digital transformation and to help them penetrate new markets.

[Related: 15 Coolest Mobile App Development Platforms: 2019 Mobility 100]

“They have decided to invest in building a vibrant ecosystem that was going to get them to exponential growth,” Cazenave said.

“I thought I could add a lot of value,” she added.

When Cazenave was first offered an interview at Pegasystems, she had to do a Google search to find out what the company did. But after research and meetings, what she appreciated most was despite its longstanding business and roster of Fortune 500 clients, Pegasystems maintained an entrepreneurial culture and still had the potential to grow like a startup.

The opportunity reminded Cazenave of her days managing IBM’s security business, which she scaled from a Cambridge office neighboring the Pegasystems headquarters.

Pegasystems has a well-established ecosystem of systems integrators, including IBM’s consulting arm, she told CRN. In the nearly four decades since founded by Alan Trefler, who still runs the company as CEO, Pegasystems has built a reputation of excellence in delivery through those partners.

“We can grow that,” Cazenave said, adding the channel strategy her team is currently crafting will be ready in a couple months.

With Pegasystems platforms, partners can create and sell applications that implement end-to-end processes, and business users not adept at coding can make changes quickly as needed, she said.

It’s a “center-out strategy,” Cazenave said. Developers start with the business process, then deploy their solution across the many channels Pegasystems supports, from mobile devices to call centers to cloud.

Thu, 21 May 2020 07:44:00 -0500 text/html
Directory of Certified Ecologists Information Submission

We thank you for your choice of ESA’s certification as a professional credential. As this program evolves, we hope to make better use of the Directory of Certified Ecologists as a way of highlighting certified ecologists to public individuals who may be seeking the services of professional ecologists. So it’s important that we have fully up-to-date information about you to share! Please take a moment to fill in the form below with as much information as you are comfortable sharing.

As your employment or professional information changes, make sure to keep ESA informed! You can return to this form and re-submit information at any time (notifications are sent to staff), update your electronic records with ESA, or even just shoot an email to

Tue, 15 Jun 2021 11:08:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Undergraduate Teacher Certification Requirements

Undergraduate Teacher Certification Requirements

Drexel offers a number of education certification and degree programs that prepare students for formal teacher certification. Once a student has successfully completed their undegraduate course of study and all qualifying teacher certification exams required by the Pennsylvania Department of Education (PDE), Drexel recommends the student to the PDE for the appropriate teaching certificate.

Teaching Certification GPA Requirements

The School of Education requires that students maintain at least a "B" average (3.0 GPA) in content courses needed for teacher certification in addition to earning a grade of "B" or better in each core pedagogy course required for certification.

Pennsylvania Teacher Certification Requirements

All undergraduate students are required to obtain and submit updated and current copies of the required clearances to the School of Education annually in order to participate in classroom observations and student teaching in Pennsylvania. All full-time undergraduates will receive assistance in gaining these clearances during their first term. Non-PA students should contact their state's department of education or school district office for a list of clearances required in their state.

Teacher Certification Process

Instructional I Certification

This initial certification qualifies a teacher to teach for a maximum of six years. The six years need not be continuous. To continue teaching after the six years are completed, the teacher must receive an Instructional II Certification.

Instructional II Certification

The Instructional II Certification is considered a permanent certification. A teacher applying for Instructional II Certification must have:

  • Instructional I Certification
  • A minimum of three years and a maximum of six years of teaching experience on an Instructional I Teaching Certificate
  • 24 semester-hour (or 36 quarter-hour) credits beyond a bachelor’ degree
  • Completion of an induction program (generally provided by the teacher’ school of employment)

Elementary Certification (Grades PreK–4) and Special Education Certification (Grades PreK–8 and Grades 7–12)

The Pennsylvania Educator Certification Tests (PECT) are required for Grades PreK–4 and Special Education. All undergraduate and dual degree BS/MS students are required to pass the Pre-service Academic Performance Assessment (PAPA) basic skills exam. In addition, students will be required to take the appropriate assessment exam for each area of certification they wish to obtain.

For more information about examinations and registration:

Middle Level Certification (Grades 4–8) and Secondary Certification (Grades 7–12)

All undergraduate and dual degree BS/MS students seeking certification in middle (grades 4–8) or secondary (grades 7–12) levels are required to pass exams from the PA Education Certification Tests (PECT) and the Praxis II Series. Students must pass both the Pre-service Academic Performance Assessment (PAPA) basic skills assessment exam and the appropriate Praxis II Content Knowledge test for each area of certification they wish to obtain.

For more information about examinations and registration:

Pennsylvania Act 48 Requirements

To maintain Instructional I and Instructional II Certifications, the PDE requires a teacher to complete one of the following every five years:

  • Six semester-hour (or nine quarter-hour) credits. Credits must be acquired from an accredited, four-year, degree-granting college or university.
  • 180 hours of professional development
  • A combination of credits and professional development hours every five years.

Note: For those working to acquire Instructional II Certification, the 24 semester credits or 36 quarter credits needed to apply for Instructional II may also count toward Act 48 requirements.

Download the Pennsylvania Department of Education’s Frequently Asked Questions about Act 48 [PDF].

Mon, 27 Mar 2023 02:53:00 -0500 en text/html

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