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Exam Code: AZ-140 Practice exam 2022 by team
AZ-140 Configuring and Operating Windows Virtual Desktop on Microsoft Azure

Exam Number: AZ-140
Exam Name : Configuring and Operating Windows Virtual Desktop on Microsoft Azure


Exam AZ-140: Configuring and Operating Microsoft Azure Virtual Desktop
Candidates for this exam are administrators with subject matter expertise in planning, delivering, and managing virtual desktop experiences and remote apps, for any device, on Azure.

Responsibilities for this role include deploying virtual desktop experiences and apps to Azure. Professionals in this role deliver applications on Azure Virtual Desktop and optimize them to run in multi-session virtual environments. To deliver these experiences, they work closely with the Azure administrators and architects, along with Microsoft 365 Administrators.

Candidates for this exam should have experience in Azure technologies, including virtualization, networking, identity, storage, backups, resilience, and disaster recovery. They should understand on-premises virtual desktop infrastructure technologies as they relate to migrating to Azure Virtual Desktop. These professionals use the Azure portal and Azure Resource Manager templates to accomplish many tasks. This role may use PowerShell and Azure Command-Line Interface (CLI) for more efficient automation.

NOTE: The bullets that appear below each of the skills measured are intended to illustrate how we are assessing that skill. This list is NOT definitive or exhaustive.
Plan an Azure Virtual Desktop Architecture (10-15%)
Implement an Azure Virtual Desktop Infrastructure (25-30%)
Manage Access and Security (10-15%)
Manage User Environments and Apps (20-25%)
Monitor and Maintain an Azure Virtual Desktop Infrastructure (20-25%)

Plan an Azure Virtual Desktop Architecture (10-15%)
Design the Azure Virtual Desktop architecture
 assess existing physical and virtual desktop environments
 assess network capacity and speed requirements for Azure Virtual Desktop
 recommend an operating system for an Azure Virtual Desktop implementation
 plan and configure name resolution for Active Directory (AD) and Azure Active Directory
Domain Services (Azure AD DS)
 plan a host pools architecture
 recommend resource groups, subscriptions, and management groups
 configure a location for the Azure Virtual Desktop metadata
 calculate and recommend a configuration for performance requirements
 calculate and recommend a configuration for Azure Virtual Machine capacity requirements
Design for user identities and profiles
 select an appropriate licensing model for Azure Virtual Desktop based on requirements
 recommend an appropriate storage solution (including Azure NetApp Files versus Azure Files)
 plan for Azure Virtual Desktop client deployment
 plan for user profiles
 recommend a solution for network connectivity
 plan for Azure AD Connect for user identities
Implement an Azure Virtual Desktop Infrastructure (25-30%)
Implement and manage networking for Azure Virtual Desktop
 implement Azure virtual network connectivity
 manage connectivity to the internet and on-premises networks
 implement and manage network security
 manage Azure Virtual Desktop session hosts by using Azure Bastion
 monitor and troubleshoot network connectivity
Implement and manage storage for Azure Virtual Desktop
 configure storage for FSLogix components
 configure storage accounts
 configure disks
 create file shares
Create and configure host pools and session hosts
 create a host pool by using the Azure portal
 automate creation of Azure Virtual Desktop host and host pools by using PowerShell, Command-Line Interface (CLI), and Azure Resource Manager templates
 create a host pool based on Windows client or Windows Server session hosts
 configure host pool settings
 manage licensing for session hosts that run Windows client or Windows Server
 assign users to host pools
 apply OS and application updates to a running Azure Virtual Desktop host
 apply security and compliance settings to session hosts
Create and manage session host images
 create a gold image
 modify a session host image
 install language packs in Azure Virtual Desktop
 deploy a session host by using a custom image
 plan for image update and management
 create and use a Shared Image Gallery
 troubleshoot OS issues related to Azure Virtual Desktop
Manage Access and Security (10-15%)
Manage access
 plan and implement Azure roles and role-based access control (RBAC) for Azure Virtual Desktop
 manage local roles, groups and rights assignment on Azure Virtual Desktop session hosts
 configure user restrictions by using Azure AD group policies and AD policies Manage security
 plan and implement Conditional Access policies for connections to Azure Virtual Desktop
 plan and implement multifactor authentication in Azure Virtual Desktop
 manage security by using Azure Security Center
 configure Microsoft Defender Antivirus for session hosts
Manage User Environments and Apps (20-25%)
Implement and manage FSLogix
 plan for FSLogix
 install and configure FSLogix
 configure Profile Containers
 configure Cloud Cache
 migrate user profiles to FSLogix
Configure user experience settings
 configure Universal Print
 configure user settings through group policies and Endpoint Manager policies
 configure persistent and non-persistent desktop environments
 configure Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) properties on a host pool
 configure session timeout properties
 troubleshoot user profile issues
 troubleshoot Azure Virtual Desktop clients
Install and configure apps on a session host
 configure dynamic application delivery by using MSIX App Attach
 implement application masking
 deploy an application as a RemoteApp
 implement and manage OneDrive for Business for a multi-session environment
 implement and manage Microsoft Teams AV Redirect
 implement and manage browsers and internet access for Azure Virtual Desktop sessions
 create and configure an application group
 troubleshoot application issues related to Azure Virtual Desktop
Monitor and Maintain an Azure Virtual Desktop Infrastructure (20-25%)
Plan and implement business continuity and disaster recovery
 plan and implement a disaster recovery plan for Azure Virtual Desktop
 design a backup strategy for Azure Virtual Desktop
 configure backup and restore for FSLogix user profiles, personal virtual desktop
infrastructures (VDIs), and golden images
Automate Azure Virtual Desktop management tasks
 configure automation for Azure Virtual Desktop
 automate management of host pools, session hosts, and user sessions by using
PowerShell and Azure Command-Line Interface (CLI)
 implement autoscaling in host pools
Monitor and manage performance and health
 monitor Azure Virtual Desktop by using Azure Monitor
 monitor Azure Virtual Desktop by using Azure Advisor
 customize Azure Monitor workbooks for Azure Virtual Desktop monitoring
 optimize session host capacity and performance
 manage active sessions and application groups
 monitor and optimize autoscaling results

Configuring and Operating Windows Virtual Desktop on Microsoft Azure
Microsoft Configuring exam Questions
Killexams : Microsoft Configuring exam Questions - BingNews Search results Killexams : Microsoft Configuring exam Questions - BingNews Killexams : Best Database Certifications for 2020

Savvy, talented and knowledgeable database professionals are always in demand. This article covers some of the best, most in-demand certifications for database administrators, database developers and anyone else who works with databases. 

During the past three decades, we’ve seen a lot of database platforms come and go, but there’s never been any question that database technology is a crucial component for all kinds of applications and computing tasks. 

Database certifications may not be as sexy or bleeding-edge as cloud computing, storage, or computer forensics. That said, there has been and always will be a need for knowledgeable database professionals at all levels and in a plethora of database-related job roles. 

To get a better grasp of the available database certifications, it’s useful to group these certs around job responsibilities. In part, this reflects the maturity of database technology and its integration into most aspects of commercial, scientific and academic computing. As you read about the various database certification programs, keep these job roles in mind: 

  • Database administrator (DBA): Responsible for installing, configuring and maintaining a database management system (DBMS). Often tied to a specific platform such as Oracle, MySQL, DB2 or SQL Server. 
  • Database developer: Works with generic and proprietary APIs to build applications that interact with a DBMS (also platform-specific, like DBA roles).
  • Database designer/database architect: Researches data requirements for specific applications or users, and designs database structures and application capabilities to match.
  • Data analyst/data scientist: Responsible for analyzing data from multiple disparate sources to discover previously hidden insight, determine meaning behind the data and make business-specific recommendations.
  • Data mining/business intelligence (BI) specialist: Specializes in dissecting, analyzing and reporting on important data streams, such as customer data, supply chain data, and transaction data and histories.
  • Data warehousing specialist: Specializes in assembling and analyzing data from multiple operational systems (orders, transactions, supply chain information, customer data, etc.) to establish data history, analyze trends, generate reports and forecasts, and support general ad hoc queries. 

Careful attention to these database job roles highlights two important technical issues for would-be database professionals to consider. 

First, a good general background in relational database management systems, including an understanding of Structured Query Language (SQL), is a basic prerequisite for database professionals of all stripes. 

Second, although various efforts to standardize database technology exist, much of the whiz-bang capability that databases and database applications deliver come from proprietary, vendor-specific technologies. Serious, heavy-duty database skills and knowledge are tied to specific platforms, including various Oracle products (such as the open-source MySQL environment and Oracle itself,) Microsoft SQL Server and IBM DB2. That’s why most of these certifications relate directly to those enormously popular platforms. 

It’s important to note that NoSQL databases – referred to as “not only SQL” and sometimes “non-relational” databases – handle many different types of data, such as structured, semi-structured, unstructured and polymorphic. NoSQL databases are increasingly used in big data applications, which tend to be associated with certifications for data scientists, data mining and warehousing, and business intelligence. Although there is some natural overlap, for the most part, we cover those certs in our annually updated “Best Big Data Certifications.” 

Before you look at our featured certifications in detail, consider their popularity with employers. The results of an informal search on several high-traffic job boards show which database certifications employers look for most when hiring. Though these results vary from day to day (and by job board), such numbers provide a useful perspective on database certification demand in current job listings.

Job board search results (in alphabetical order by certification)*




 LinkedIn Jobs 



IBM Certified Database Administrator – DB2






Microsoft SQL Server database certifications**






Oracle Certified Professional, MySQL Database Administrator






Oracle Database 12c Administrator












*See our complete methodology for selecting top five certifications in the “Best Certifications” series.

**Combined totals for MCSA: SQL Database Administration (540), MCSA: SQL Database Development (569), MCSE: Data Management and Analytics (640) and MTA: Database (503).

If the sheer number of available database-related positions isn’t enough motivation to pursue a certification, consider average salaries for database administrators. SimplyHired reports $86,415 as the national average in the U.S., in a range from $60,960 to over $128,000. Glassdoor’s reported average is somewhat higher at $93,164, with a top rung for experienced, senior DBAs right around $135,000.

Top 5 database certifications

Now let’s look at the details of our top five database certification picks for 2020.

1. IBM Certified Database Administrator – DB2

IBM is one of the leaders in the worldwide database market by any objective measure. The company’s database portfolio includes industry standard DB2, as well as IBM Compose, Information Management System (IMS), lnformix, Cloudant and IBM Open Platform with Apache Hadoop. IBM also has a long-standing and well-populated IT certification program, which has been around for more than 30 years and encompasses hundreds of individual credentials. 

After redesigning its certification programs and categories, IBM’s major data-centric certification category is called IBM Data and AI, which includes a range of database credentials: Database Associate, Database Administrator, System Administrator, Application Developer and more. It’s a big and complex certification space, but one where particular platform allegiances are likely to guide readers straight to the handful of items that are relevant to their interests and needs. 

Database professionals who support DB2 (or aspire to) on Linux, Unix or Windows should check out the IBM Certified Database Administrator – DB2 certification. It’s an intermediate credential that addresses routine administration, basic SQL, and creation of databases and database objects, as well as server management, monitoring, availability and security. 

This certification requires candidates to pass two exams. Pre-exam training is recommended but not required.

IBM Certified Database Administrator – DB2 facts and figures

Certification name

IBM Certified Database Administrator – DB2 11.1 (Linux, UNIX and Windows)

Prerequisites and required courses

None required; recommended courses available

Number of exams

Two exams: IBM DB2 11.1 DBA for LUW (exam C2090-600) (60 questions, 90 minutes)


DB2 11.1 Fundamentals for LUW (exam C2090-616) (63 questions, 90 minutes)

Cost per exam

$200 (or local currency equivalent) per exam ($400 total). Sign up for exams at Pearson VUE.


Self-study materials

Each exam webpage provides exam objectives, suggested training courses and links to study guides for sale through MC Press. Click the exam Preparation tab for detailed information. You can also visit the Prepare for Your Certification Exam webpage.

2. Microsoft SQL Server database certifications 

SQL Server offers a broad range of tools and add-ons for business intelligence, data warehousing and data-driven applications of all kinds. That probably explains why Microsoft offers database-related credentials at every level of its certification program. 

Microsoft has taken significant steps over the last year to change its certification program from technology-focused to role-centric, centered on the skills one needs to be successful in specific technology jobs. With these changes in mind, Microsoft now identifies four job tracks in its certification program: Developers, Administrators, Solution Architects and Functional Consultants. You will find a wide variety of skills and technologies within each of those categories, but we’ll concentrate below on the company’s SQL Server certifications.

MTA: Database Fundamentals

The MTA program includes a single database-related exam: Database Fundamentals (98-364). This credential is ideal for students or as an entry-level cert for professionals looking to segue into database support.


Microsoft offers several SQL-related credentials at the Microsoft Certified Solutions Associate (MCSA) level:

  • MCSA: SQL Server 2012/2014 (three exams)
  • MCSA: BI Reporting (two exams)
  • MCSA: SQL 2016 BI Development (two exams)
  • MCSA: SQL 2016 Database Administration (two exams)
  • MCSA: SQL 2016 Database Development (two exams)


There is one SQL database credential at the Microsoft Certified Solutions Expert level: Data Management and Analytics. This certification has the MCSA as a prerequisite (a list of valid items follows in the table) and then requires passing one elective exam.

Microsoft SQL Server database certification facts and figures

Certification name

MTA: Database Fundamentals

MCSA: SQL Server 2012/2014

MCSA: BI Reporting 

MCSA: SQL 2016 BI Development

MCSA: SQL 2016 Database Administration

MCSA: SQL 2016 Database Development

MCSE: Data Management and Analytics

Prerequisites and required courses  

No prerequisites:

MTA: Database Fundamentals

MCSA: SQL Server 2012/2014

MCSA: BI Reporting

MCSA: SQL 2016 BI Development

MCSA: SQL 2016 Database Administration

MCSA: SQL 2016 Database Development

MCSE Data Management and Analytics prerequisites (only one required):

MCSA: SQL Server 2012/2014

MCSA: SQL 2016 BI Development

MCSA: SQL 2016 Database Administration

MCSA: SQL 2016 Database Development

MCSA: Machine Learning

MCSA: BI Reporting

MCSA: Data Engineering with Azure

Training courses are available and recommended for all certifications but not required.

Number of exams

MTA: Database Fundamentals: One exam

  • Database Fundamentals (98-364)

MCSA: BI Reporting: Two exams

  • Analyzing and Visualizing Data with Power BI (70-778)
  • Analyzing and Visualizing Data with Microsoft Excel (70-779)

MCSA: SQL Server: Three exams

  • Querying Microsoft SQL Server 2012/2014 (70-461)
  • Administering Microsoft SQL Server 2012/2014 Databases (70-462)  
  • Implementing a Data Warehouse with Microsoft SQL Server 2012/2014 (70-463

MCSA: SQL 2016 BI Development: Two exams

  • Implementing a SQL Data Warehouse (70-767)
  • Developing SQL Data Models (70-768) 

MCSA: SQL 2016 Database Administration: Two exams

  • Administering a SQL Database Infrastructure (70-764)
  • Provisioning SQL Databases (70-765) 

MCSA: SQL 2016 Database Development: Two exams

  • Querying Data with Transact-SQL (70-761)
  • Developing SQL Databases (70-762) 

MCSE: Data Management and Analytics: One exam (from the following)

  • Developing Microsoft SQL Server Databases (70-464)
  • Designing Database Solutions for Microsoft SQL Server (70-465)
  • Implementing Data Models and Reports with Microsoft SQL Server (70-466)
  • Designing Business Intelligence Solutions with Microsoft SQL Server (70-467)
  • Developing SQL Databases (70-762)
  • Implementing a Data Warehouse Using SQL (70-767)
  • Developing SQL Data Models (70-768)
  • Analyzing Big Data with Microsoft R (70-773)
  • Implementing Microsoft Azure Cosmos DB Solutions (70-777

All exams administered by Pearson VUE.

Cost per exam

MTA: $127 (or equivalent in local currency outside the U.S.)

MCSA/MCSE: $185 (or equivalent) per exam


Self-study materials

Microsoft offers one of the world’s largest and best-known IT certification programs, so the MTA, MCSA and MCSE certs are well supported with books, study guides, study groups, practice questions and other materials.

3. Oracle Certified Professional, MySQL 5.7 Database Administrator 

Oracle runs its certifications under the auspices of Oracle University. The Oracle Database Certifications page lists separate tracks for Database Application Development (SQL and PL/SQL), MySQL (Database Administration and Developer) and Oracle Database (versions 12c, 12c R2, and 11g, and Oracle Spatial 11g). 

MySQL is perhaps the leading open-source relational database management system (RDBMS). Since acquiring Sun Microsystems in 2010 (which had previously acquired MySQL AB), Oracle has rolled out a paid version of MySQL and developed certifications to support the product. 

A candidate interested in pursuing an Oracle MySQL certification can choose between MySQL Database Administration and MySQL Developer. The Oracle Certified Professional, MySQL 5.7 Database Administrator (OCP) credential recognizes professionals who can install, optimize and monitor MySQL Server; configure replication; apply security; and schedule and validate database backups. 

The certification requires candidates to pass a single exam (the same exam can be taken to upgrade a prior certification). Oracle recommends training and on-the-job experience before taking the exam.

Oracle Certified Professional, MySQL 5.7 Database Administrator facts and figures

4. Oracle Database 12c Administrator

Most Oracle DBMS credentials require candidates to attend authorized training classes to qualify for the related exam, but MySQL (and Sun-derived) credentials often do not. Oracle certifications also represent a true ladder, in that it is generally necessary to earn the associate-level credentials first, professional-level credentials second and master-level credentials third, culminating with the expert level. 

Oracle Database 12c R2 is the latest version, which includes enhancements to Oracle Database 12c. Oracle 12c certifications are currently offered at the associate, professional and master levels. 

A Foundations Junior Associate certification (novice level) is also available for Oracle Database 12c, as are three specialist designations: the Implementation Specialist, the Oracle Database Performance and Tuning 2015 Certified Implementation Specialist, and the Oracle Real Application Clusters 12c Certified Implementation Specialist. 

Available expert-level credentials include the Oracle Certified Expert; Oracle Database 12c: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administrator; Oracle Database 12c Maximum Availability Certified Expert; Oracle Certified Expert; Oracle Database 12c: Data Guard Administrator; Oracle Certified Expert; and Oracle Database 12c: Performance Management and Tuning. Oracle still offers 11g certifications as well. 

NoteAlthough premium support for Oracle 11g Database ended on Dec. 31, 2014, extended support lasts until December 2020, so it’s probable that Oracle Database 11g will remain in use for the short term. 

We focused on requirements for Oracle Database 12c certifications. One important consideration is that Oracle 11g is forward-compatible with Oracle 12c, but Oracle 12c is not backward- compatible with the prior version. Because Oracle 12c is a newer version, IT professionals with Oracle 11g certifications should consider upgrading their 11g credentials.

Oracle Database 12c Administrator facts and figures

Certification name

Oracle Database 12c Administrator Certified Associate (OCA 12c)

Oracle Database 12c Administrator Certified Professional (OCP 12c)

Oracle Database 12c Administrator Certified Master (OCM 12c)

Oracle Database 12c Maximum Availability Certified Master

Prerequisites and required courses

OCA 12c: Training recommended but not required

OCP 12c: OCA 12c credential and one training course required; complete course submission form

OCM 12c: OCP 12c or 12c R2 credential and two advanced training courses (must be different from the course used to achieve the OCP); complete course submission form; submit fulfillment kit request

Oracle Database 12c Maximum Availability Certified Master: Three credentials

  • Oracle Database 12c Administrator Certified Master
  • Oracle Certified Expert, Oracle Database 12c: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration
  • Oracle Certified Expert, Oracle Database 12c: Data Guard Administration

Oracle training: Classes typically run 2-5 days; costs range from $1,360 to over $5,580.

Number of exams

 OCA 12c: Choose one exam from the following:

  • Oracle Database 12c SQL (1Z0-071) (73 questions, 100 minutes)
  • Oracle Database 12c: Installation and Administration (1Z0-062) (67 questions, 120 minutes)

OCP 12c: One exam: Oracle Database 12c: Advanced Administration (1Z0-063) (80 questions, 120 minutes)

OCM 12c: One exam: Oracle Database 12c Certified Master (12COCM), a two-day, performance-based exam

Oracle Database 12c Maximum Availability Certified Master: None

Cost per exam

OCA 12c: 1Z0-071and 1Z0-062 cost $245 each.

OCP 12c: 1Z0-063, 1Z0-082 and 1Z0-083 cost $245 each

OCM 12c: 12COCM costs $2,584; contact Oracle for pricing/availability of upgrade exam.

Oracle Database 12c Maximum Availability Certified Master: None

Note: Prices vary by geography.


Self-study materials

Each Oracle certification exam webpage lists exam courses as well as recommended training courses, seminars and practice tests. A variety of self-study guides are available on Amazon. Oracle Database certification candidates benefit from student manuals, labs and software provided as part of class offerings.

5. SAP HANA: SAP Certified Technology Associate – SAP HANA (Edition 2016)

SAP SE has a large portfolio of business application and analytics software, including cloud infrastructure, applications, and storage. The foundation of the SAP HANA platform is an enterprise-grade relational database management system, which can be run as an appliance on premises or in the cloud. The cloud platform enables customers to build and run applications and services based on SAP HANA. 

SAP offers a comprehensive certification program, built to support its various platforms and products. We chose to feature the SAP Certified Technology Associate – SAP HANA cert because it aligns closely with other certifications in this article and is in high demand among employers, according to our job board surveys. This certification ensures that database professionals can install, manage, monitor, migrate and troubleshoot SAP HANA systems. It covers managing users and authorization, applying security, and ensuring high availability and effective disaster recovery techniques. 

SAP recommends that certification candidates get hands-on practice through formal training or on-the-job experience before attempting this exam. The SAP Learning Hub is a subscription service that gives certification candidates access to a library of learning materials, including e-learning courses and course handbooks. The annual subscription rate for individual users on the Professional certification track is $3,048. This online training program is designed for those who run, support or implement SAP software solutions. Though this may seem like a steep price for online training, you will likely be able to pass any SAP certification exams you put your mind to by leveraging all of the learning resources available to SAP Learning Hub Professional subscribers. 

Typically, SAP certifications achieved on one of the two most exact SAP solutions are considered current and valid. SAP contacts professionals whose certifications are nearing end of life and provides information on maintaining their credentials.

SAP Certified Technology Associate facts and figures

Certification name

SAP Certified Technology Associate – SAP HANA (Edition 2016)

Prerequisites  and required courses        

 None required

 Recommended: SAP HANA Installation & Operations SPS12 (HA200) course ($3,750)

Number of exams

One exam: SAP Certified Application Associate – SAP HANA (Edition 2016), exam code C_HANATEC_12 (80 questions, 180 minutes)

Cost per exam



Self-study materials

The certification webpage includes a link to sample questions. SAP HANA trade books and certification guides are available on Amazon. The SAP Help Center offers product documentation and a training and certification FAQs page. The SAP Learning Hub (available on a subscription basis) provides access to online learning content.

Beyond the top 5: More database certifications

Besides the ones mentioned in this article, other database certification programs are available to further the careers and professional development of IT professionals who work with database management systems. 

While most colleges with computer science programs offer database tracks at the undergraduate, master and Ph.D. levels, there are few well-known vendor-neutral database certifications. The Institute for the Certification of Computing Professionals (ICCP) is part of this unique group, offering its Certified Data Professional and Certified Data Scientist credentials. Find out more about ICCP certifications here

EnterpriseDB administers a small but effective certification program, with two primary certs: the EDB Certified Associate and the EDB Certified Professional. PostgreSQL was the fourth-ranked relational database management system in October 2019, according to DB-Engines

Credentials from GoogleMarkLogicTeradata and SAS may also be worth considering. All of these credentials represent opportunities for database professionals to expand their skill sets – and salaries. However, such niches in the database certification arena are generally only worth pursuing if you already work with these platforms or plan to work for an organization that uses them. 

Ed Tittel

Ed is a 30-year-plus veteran of the computing industry, who has worked as a programmer, a technical manager, a classroom instructor, a network consultant, and a technical evangelist for companies that include Burroughs, Schlumberger, Novell, IBM/Tivoli and NetQoS. He has written for numerous publications, including Tom’s IT Pro and GoCertify, and is the author of more than 140 computing books on information security, web markup languages and development tools, and Windows operating systems. 

Earl Follis

Earl is also a 30-year veteran of the computer industry, who has worked in IT training, marketing, technical evangelism, and market analysis in the areas of networking and systems technology and management. Ed and Earl met in the late 1980s when Ed hired Earl as a trainer at an Austin-area networking company that’s now part of HP. The two of them have written numerous books together on NetWare, Windows Server and other topics. Earl is also a regular writer for the computer trade press, with many e-books, whitepapers and articles to his credit.

Mon, 10 Oct 2022 12:01:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Cloud tales: Lessons from a cyber incident response team

Many Australian enterprises are getting their cloud security strategies wrong. While they are lowering infrastructure costs and introducing efficiencies by moving to flexible multi-cloud platforms, building the right level of security throughout their agile software development lifecycles is becoming difficult.

Almost two-thirds (61 per cent) of respondents to research questions posed by Cybersecurity Insiders, on behalf of Check Point, had integrated their DevOps toolchain into cloud deployments, but are still struggling with a lack of expertise that bridges security and DevOps. Only 16 per cent have comprehensive DevSecOps environments in place.

Senior technology executives gathered for a roundtable luncheon in Sydney recently to discuss why enterprises are often getting their cloud adoption strategies wrong, particularly when it comes to securing their infrastructure, as well as challenges around cloud compliance. The conversation, ‘Cloud tales: Lessons from a cyber incident response team’ was sponsored by Check Point Software Technologies.

Checkpoint Roundtable


Ashwin Ram, cyber security evangelist Office of the Chief Technology Officer at Check Point Software Technologies, says there are multiple factors at play when it comes to getting cloud strategies right.

Firstly, many organisations don’t understand or appreciate how dynamic cloud ecosystems are – a simple misconfiguration or security oversight can expose an organisation, he says.

“Cloud providers are innovating extremely rapidly and as such, it is difficult for cloud security teams to keep pace. The current cyber skills shortage is also a contributing factor as organisations struggle to find the right expertise to address the steep learning curve to bridge security and DevOps,” Ram says.

Further, he says, COVID-19 forced many organisations to rush their remote working and cloud projects in order to be more agile. This has resulted in many cloud projects being rushed through without proper assurance processes.

“Check Point’s Cloud Security Report 2022, 76 per cent of organisations have a multi-cloud strategy, which makes it difficult to implement consistent security. Organisations are struggling to implement the same security settings and policies on all clouds and ensure this is maintained to provide continuous consistency,” he says.

John Powell, principal security consultant at Telstra Purple, adds that it’s very easy to think of the cloud as reducing administration and providing more flexibility.

“But the truth is that there is a lot more to get right up front so that ‘business-as-usual’ is smooth as well as secure. The responsibility for security is shared according to what is outsourced to the cloud provider.

“This means that contractual arrangements are extremely important to make sure the boundary in the shared model is crystal clear. The need for legal expertise and even a cyber/legal mix of expertise is not often considered when moving systems and services to the cloud,” Powell says.

Meanwhile, John Boyd, group chief information officer at The Entertainment and Education Group (TEEG), says the organisation has adopted a hybrid cloud approach, which has provided the best of both worlds.

On-premise infrastructure provides stability for its venues, especially those in very remote locations. But when the business demands agility, the organisation turns to the cloud to meet these demand requirements, Boyd says.

“As for security, our team are testing at every stage of the software development lifecycle. Security is always at the forefront of our team’s mind and during application development, we adopt best practices such as educating staff, and outlining requirements clearly so [they] can focus on the most important issues,” he says.

Why cloud misconfigurations happen and what to do

The misconfiguration of cloud resources remains the most prevalent cloud vulnerability that can be exploited by criminals to access cloud data and services.

Check Point’s Ram says these misconfigurations happen because cloud teams are pushing out incredible amounts of code and building infrastructure at a rapid pace so mistakes are bound to happen.

Ram says that organisations with mature cloud security capabilities are using cloud security posture management tools to gain situation awareness of their cloud ecosystems in real time to automatically remediate misconfiguration.

“In addition to misconfiguration, organisations should also be aware of identity and access management role assumption attacks, which look to elevate privileges after initial entry. These attacks continue to be a significant concern,” he says.

Ram recommends that organisations invest in a tool that can visualise and assess cloud security posture by detecting misconfigurations, while automatically and actively enforcing gold standard policies to protect against attacks and insider threats.

Telstra’s Powell adds that exploiting the poor configuration of cloud resources is often much easier than exploiting software or hardware vulnerabilities or running a phishing campaign against privileged users.

“Misconfiguration is the most prevalent cloud vulnerability because it is often the lowest hanging fruit,” he says.

According to Powell, the configuration of cloud environments provides several technical security controls. He says that measuring technical security controls is best achieved by using technology tools.

“To this end, a cloud security assessment, with an associated tool, can be used to achieve this goal either as a once off or better still, as a regular check.”

TEEG’s Boyd says that the organisation’s resources are hosted exclusively within Azure and the team use Microsoft Cloud Service to proactively manage the security posture of the entire platform.

“Conducting regular assessments and reviewing any new recommendations help to strengthen the security configuration of our cloud resources,” he says.

Getting cloud compliance right

The ongoing technology skills shortage has made it difficult for organisations to find the right staff with skills to complete cloud-related audits and risk assessments.

Telstra’s Powell suggests that first up, organisations should “let machines do what they are good at and let people do what people are good at.’

“Technology controls can be tested and assessed with technical solutions and if this process is automated, then the compliance of the technical controls can be checked with high regularity so that any movement away from compliance is noticed and amended quickly.

“Assessing the actions of people or the flow of process is best assessed by a skilled security auditor and when human resources are scarce, they need to be used where they are most effective,” Powell says.

Secondly, if enterprises don’t have resources available internally to audit security controls or to design and build monitoring systems required to constantly test and assess these controls, then they should reach out to a partner, he says.

“It’s very difficult to retain specialised cyber security skills, so rather than continuing to train new cyber security staff, rely on the people who are already certified and can provide that service,” he says.

TEEG’s Boyd says that compliance is an ongoing focus for his team, which is operating a business in seven regions, all with their own set of unique regulatory requirements. This requires the organisation to be aligned on its approach to compliance and execution.

“We rely on the expertise of our internal team in conjunction with key vendors that provide us with subject matter advice on risk assessment and establishment of clear policies and controls,” Boyd says.

Who is responsible with a breach occurs?

Attendees at the roundtable also discussed what enterprises need to be aware of when negotiating cloud contracts, particularly who is responsible for what when a breach does occur.

Telstra’s Powell says organisations need to make sure that the clauses of a contract with a cloud service provider defines the scope of what the provider is responsible for and what they are not.

Powell adds that this doesn’t apply only to a breach situation, but to everything that goes before a breach and the recovery from the breach.

“Be sure to include a clause of what can and can’t be tested within the cloud environment. Ask, ‘can we view the cloud service provider’s threat profile, risk assessments and risk register?’

“Most importantly, you cannot outsource accountability so don’t be too quick to believe that your risk is reduced because you are not responsible for the infrastructure that underpins your systems and services.”

Check Point’s Ram adds that most organisations will do well to understand the shared responsibility model as a first step.

“It’s important to note that the responsibility changes depending on the type of cloud resource you consume from infrastructure-as-a-service to platform-as-a-service to software-as-a-service offerings.

“The shared responsibility model is very specific on who is responsible for what as we saw with the Capital One breach.”

Sun, 25 Sep 2022 14:27:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Killexams : Group Policies to configure Redirection to Microsoft Edge

Starting with Microsoft Edge 87, Microsoft is rolling out new GPO or Group Policies that will allow Enterprise and Individual consumers to open websites directly into Edge. Internet Explorer is finally getting off the support list, and many websites do not work in IE as expected both in terms of user experience and rendering of the website.

Group Policies to configure redirection to Microsoft Edge

Here is the list of policies that IT admin and users can configure to ensure the redirection happens.

  • Redirect Sites From Internet Explorer PreventBHOInstall
  • RedirectSites from Internet Explorer Redirect Mode
  • Hide Internet Explorer Redirect UXF or Incompatible Sites Enabled

If you wish to disable redirection to Microsoft Edge, then we have also talked about it at the end.

1] Policy: RedirectSitesFromInternetExplorerPreventBHOInstall

This policy will set redirection from IE to Edge using the Internet Explorer Browser Helper Object (BHO) named “IEtoEdge BHO.” This policy will supply you a choice to install or not install the BHO.

  • Enabled: BHO will not be installed, and users will continue to see incompatibility messages for certain websites on Internet Explorer. If the BHO is already installed, it will be uninstalled the next time the Microsoft Edge Stable channel is updated.
  • Disabled: It will make sure BHO will not be installed.

This policy also depends on the policy— RedirectSitesFromInternetExplorerRedirectMode, which needs to be set to “Sitelist” or “Not Configured.”

2] Policy: RedirectSitesFromInternetExplorerRedirectMode

This policy allows IE to open websites in Microsoft Edge. You can choose to open only incompatible websites to open in Edge and Allow sites to be reloaded in Internet Explorer when sites require IE for compatibility.

  • Enabled: Internet Explorer will redirect incompatible sites to Microsoft Edge.
  • Disabled: Incompatible sites aren’t redirected to Microsoft Edge.

General consumers can change this by going to edge://settings/defaultbrowser.

Edge Browser Settings for IE Redirection

3] Policy: HideInternetExplorerRedirectUXForIncompatibleSitesEnabled

This policy helps to hide the redirection dialog.

  • Enabled: One-time redirection dialog and the redirection banner. No browser data or user preferences are imported.
  • Disabled: Redirection dialog will be shown on the first redirection. Henceforth the banner will be shown for sessions that start with a redirection.

For personal devices, this policy points to Allow sites to be loaded in Internet Explorer mode. However, it is not available for a domain-joined or Mobile Device Management (MDM) enrolled device; you won’t see this option.

How to disable redirection to Microsoft Edge

If you want to disable this redirection scenario before updating to Microsoft Edge 86, then Microsoft recommends to do the following:

  • Set the RedirectSitesFromInternetExplorerRedirectMode policy to Enabled.

This setting will stop redirecting as soon as the policy takes effect.

If you want to disable redirection AFTER updating to Microsoft Edge Stable version 87, use the following steps:

  • Set the RedirectSitesFromInternetExplorerRedirectMode policy to Disabled.

This setting will stop redirecting as soon as the policy takes effect.

  • Set the RedirectSitesFromInternetExplorerPreventBHOInstall policy to Enabled.

This will uninstall the BHO after the next Microsoft Edge update.

I hope the post helped you configure Group Policies on how redirection will work from IE to Edge.

Related reads:

  1. Microsoft Edge Deployment Guide for Business
  2. Redirect sites from IE to Microsoft Edge using Group Policy
  3. Disable Internet Explorer 11 as a standalone browser using Group Policy.
Redirection from IE to Edge
Sun, 22 May 2022 21:27:00 -0500 en-us text/html
Killexams : Best CFA exam Prep Courses

A newer option for CFA exam prep, Salt Solutions launched its Beta platform for CFA Level I exam prep in late 2020. The company is now officially out of Beta, and the full CFA learning experience is available for Levels I and II (Level III will be available in 2022).

Salt Solutions knows it’s tough to stay focused on a large volume of material with limited study time, so it breaks it into small chunks to complete in 10 to 30 minutes. Salt Solutions also improves the study process by showing you which steps are most important. While the platform offers flexibility, the scheduler also sets weekly goals to keep you on track. 

The platform has a user-friendly interface with a light or dark mode, making it easier on your eyes after long hours of studying. The platform currently includes assignment questions, downloadable videos, and a scheduler with weekly goals to stay on track.

Although Salt Solutions doesn’t have a proven track record yet, the user-friendly and thoughtfully designed software looks promising, particularly for those tired of staring at textbooks. Passing all three CFA exams isn’t easy, and Salt Solutions may be a good option for those struggling to buckle down and focus.

Mon, 10 Aug 2020 16:51:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : An INK-redible way to cheat! Spanish law student etched answers to exam questions onto his pens

An INK-redible way to cheat! Spanish law student etched answers to exam questions onto his pens

  • University of Malaga revealed the pens confiscated during a law exam
  • The student had etched answers to the Criminal Procedural Law exam on biros 
  • The ruse was exposed and the pens were seized but many praised the audacity 

A mischievous Spanish law student went to extreme lengths to cheat on his exams by etching answers on to his pens, his teacher has revealed.

Yolanda de Lucchi, a professor at the University of Malaga, showed the pens she and her colleagues confiscated during the test.

She displayed the 11 pens, each with tiny writing etched across the plastic body of the blue biros, in a post on Twitter.

A mischievous Spanish law student went to extreme lengths to cheat on his exams by etching answers on to his pens, his teacher has revealed

Ms De Lucchi said the pens were confiscated during an exam on Criminal Procedural Law.

The crafty student was exposed a number of years back but the teacher rediscovered the offending items while cleaning out her drawer.

She posted on Twitter: 'The criminal procedural law in BIC pens. What art!

'Cheat sheets aren't like they used to be.' 

A close-up of the pens shows the incredible detail of the ruse, with tiny letters filling every available space.

One Twitter user who replied to the teacher claimed to be a friend of the cheating student.

The crafty student was exposed a number of years back but the teacher rediscovered the offending items while cleaning out her drawer

Gonzo said: 'Hello Yolanda. I know the author of that wonderful work perfectly. In fact, he has authorized me, ignoring his name, logically, to show you some more that he still keeps at home. 

'The technique used by the artist, as he himself tells me, was to replace the graphite lead of a mechanical pencil with a needle, which made it super easy for him to etch the pen.'

Gonzo then showed off a number of photos of the biros modified over the years.

De Lucchi said: 'That could not happen today.

'Now students would not make an effort to have such a detailed cheat sheet for an exam. 

'They live at the click of a button, by what happens instantly; that is impossible to see today.'

Thu, 13 Oct 2022 00:05:00 -0500 text/html
Killexams : Hands On With Microsoft's Surface Pro 9: New Components Amp Up a Familiar Design

Microsoft pulled the wraps off its next generation of Surface products today, unveiling the Surface Pro 9, the Surface Studio 2+, and the Surface Laptop 5.

You can read our news coverage for an overview of the announcements, but we were also able to go hands-on with the Surface Pro 9 at a press event in New York. There's a lot to unpack about the various configurations, including features exclusive to some models, such as 5G connectivity. Read on for details and impressions below, and hop over to our separate hands-on for the Surface Studio 2+.

Surface Pro 9 Overview: Intel, Arm, and More

At the top level, the headline for the Surface Pro 9 announcement is that Microsoft is offering both Intel- and Arm-based versions of this device for the first time. Previously, the Surface Pro X was the Arm solution in the family (which brings its own positives and negatives), but it seems to have been subsumed into the mainline Pro model as a configuration option.

The Microsoft Surface Pro 9 tablet from a straight view

There are core component differences, of course—we’ll get into the specs shortly—but Arm systems also change some of the features. The Arm model will be available with 5G wireless, most crucially, and Arm systems generally offer longer battery life (but diminished Windows performance). Microsoft also demonstrated some sweet camera and video-call tricks made possible by the Arm model's neural processing unit, or NPU, which can be offloaded with intensive tasks without straining the main CPU.

Apart from the camera features, none of this is really evident from a hands-on session. But the context comes from us having tested many Arm-based Windows systems in the past, and it is needed before running through the Surface Pro 9’s design and feature set.

Design Duplicate: The Same Slick Surface Pro

This year's Surface Pro design is unchanged, focusing on the introduction of Arm, the jump to 12th Gen Intel (“Alder Lake”) Core processors, and some new features. Let’s dive into each of these aspects in more detail.

Most of the changes to the Surface Pro 9 are component- and feature-based. On the surface (forgive the incidental pun), things mostly remain the same—the dimensions exactly match those of the Surface Pro 8. It measures 0.37 by 11.3 by 8.2 inches (HWD) and weighs 1.94 pounds, with a small asterisk to say the 5G-enabled model (more on that in a moment) is imperceptibly heavier.

The Microsoft Surface Pro 9 tablet seen from the side to show its thinness

While not the most exciting development (who doesn’t look forward to some design tweaks?), this is still acceptable to me. My review of the Surface Pro 8 praises its slim, slick design, marrying the previous Surface Pro design with that of the now-dead Surface Pro X series. The thin bezels, the relatively roomy 13-inch display, and the useful kickstand are back, in a device that’s just as portable as before. Making the device thinner for the sake of it doesn’t add much (and doing so can diminish the performance ceiling), and the Surface Pro doesn’t need to be any lighter.

In summary, with keeping the same base design, the Surface Pro 9 impresses just like the Surface Pro 8 did before it. The tablet has the same anodized aluminum chassis, quality build, and flexible kickstand that we appreciated in the previous edition.

A close up of the USB-C ports on the Microsoft Surface Pro 9 tablet

However, Microsoft has decided to follow Apple and end its relationship with the traditional audio jack, starting with the Surface Pro 9. This perfectly fine wired audio solution is yet again cut in the name of thinness.

Still, the Surface Pro's real-life usability remains high, and remains the benchmark for detachable 2-in-1s, even if it doesn't perfectly replicate the laptop experience. The “PixelSense” display is again sharp and smooth, with its 2,880-by-1,920-pixel resolution and 120Hz refresh rate.

Microsoft Surface Pro 9 Display

Usability, Keyboards, and Extras

With touch technology and the ability to recline nearly flat, this screen (combined with the Surface Pen, sold separately) makes for a portably sized canvas for digital artists and anyone else who stands to gain from sketching or drawing right onto their device. The Surface Pro 9, having released after the launch of Windows 11 (unlike its predecessor), comes with the operating system pre-loaded.

This is all supported by high-end features, like a 1080p webcam with Windows Hello support, a user-accessible SSD, and (in the Intel version) Thunderbolt 4 support. The Arm version will feature USB-C, too, but lack Intel’s more capable Thunderbolt technology.

Several color options for the Microsoft Surface Pro 9 tablet

One aspect where the Pro 9 does offer new design options? Colors! The Pro 8 came only in platinum and graphite, where the Pro 9 will offer those two, as well as blue and green shades ("Sapphire" and "Forest," officially). 

There's also a Special Edition version of the device and keyboard, designed in concert with the UK-based firm Liberty, which brings a big dash of style. It may not be everyone's cup of tea, but it looks quite nice in person, thanks to a fabric finish on the keyboard and a matching pattern etched into the Pro 9's chassis.

The special edition Surface Pro 9 tablet seen in an open positionThe Special Edition Keyboard Cover for the Microsoft Surface Pro 9 tablet

An important note, and one of the main questions people ask when it comes to the Surface Pro: Yes, the keyboard is still sold separately. (It does come in the matching new colors, though.)

The Signature Keyboard with the Slim Pen 2 is priced at $279, the Signature Keyboard alone for $179, and the more standard Pro Keyboard (with no pen dock/pen charger built in) for $139. The Liberty Keyboard plus Slim Pen 2 bundle is $299.

Microsoft Surface Pro 8 KeyboardMicrosoft Surface Pro 9 Keyboard Stylus Slot

Choose Your Loadout: Intel Core or Arm?

Needless to say, even after spending time with the product in person, Surface Pro 9 performance (and the speed differences between Intel Core and Arm) will have to wait until we have review products on hand for testing. The specs themselves are plenty interesting, though, and will be a big part of anyone’s buying decision.

Generally speaking, Arm systems offer lesser performance than Intel solutions, because they run Windows x86 applications with an emulator. This results in sometimes sluggish performance or outright incompatibility, so it’s even more crucial than ever to look closely at which processor you’re buying and to think about your workload.

To that end, here are the options. The big upgrade for the Intel version is the jump to the 12th Generation silicon, where the Surface Pro 8 was running on 11th Gen chips. 

The Microsoft Surface Pro 9 tablet hinge in an open position

The base model will start at $999 for a Core i5-1235U CPU, 8GB RAM, and a 128GB SSD. The Core i5 model maxes out at 16GB of RAM and a 256GB SSD. From there, you can opt for upgrades to a Core i7-1265U CPU, 16GB or 32GB of memory, and a 512GB SSD or 1TB SSD. There are a couple of color restrictions for the higher-end SKUs when ordering.

The alternative model uses Microsoft’s own Arm-powered SQ3 processor, a more potent version of the Surface Pro X's CPU offering and 5G enabled. The Surface Pro X's spirit lives on, both in the thin-bezel look that debuted there before making its way to the Pro 8, and in this silicon. 

The base model of the Arm Surface Pro 9 is priced at $1,299 for 8GB RAM and 128GB of storage. It tops out at $1,899 for 16GB of RAM and 512GB of storage. 

Arm Advantages

One of the main reasons to go for the Arm version is the 5G capability, making this a truly road-ready productivity device for 2022. It's a bit of a balance compared to the Intel processor and its certainly stronger Windows performance, but it depends on your needs. Battery life should be superior to the Intel version, too: Microsoft rates the Arm model for as much as 19 hours of battery run time.

As mentioned, the general Windows performance could suffer, as Arm still runs many applications through emulation on Windows, a known (not Surface-specific) concession. Obviously, we can’t verify the performance or battery life of either model until we can fully test them.

It doesn't end at 5G connectivity, though. There are some inherent advantages in the SQ3 version's architecture, thanks chiefly to the NPU, which specializes in machine-learning applications. The main benefit relates to video call technology, which was demonstrated both in Microsoft's live stream announcement and during a live demonstration I saw.

A close-up of the Microsoft Surface Pro 9 tablet's rear camera

The camera can autofocus your face, not for sharpness in the traditional sense of focus, but to move the camera to keep you in the center of the screen if you're moving or wandering while on video. Another feature is a "portrait" background blur style, which replicates higher-quality cameras, while also executing the blur in a more intelligent (and better-looking) way than those built into Zoom and other apps. I tested these both in person, and even with two of us on camera, the feature worked as advertised.

Finally, an impressive Voice Focus feature drastically cuts out or removes background noise. I know that this feature has been touted on virtually every microphone by now, but this proactive, AI-trained feature is much more effective.

The live stream demonstrated a nearby leaf blower and hair dryer being completely silent on a video call, and my live demo employed a crunchy bag of chips as the noisemaker. The feature definitely removed the bag noise almost entirely, though it did also soften the voice and supply it an odd tone. To be fair, the bag was held directly up to the device, which is an extreme scenario. Even so, the bag crunch wasn't audible, which is impressive given how loud it was in person.

Crucially, these features can be enabled in Windows universally, taking priority over any application's camera and video settings, or you can override them with the app's settings. It's unfortunate that this is exclusive to the Arm version of the Surface Pro 9, but given that it's hardware-enabled for this chip, there's no getting around it.

The Takeaway: Pick Your Pro 9 Carefully

The Surface Pro 9 is an impressive and robust device, but potential buyers should also shop carefully. It was simpler in the past just to choose your preferred component loadout, but now there are some unique features (plus benefits and concessions) wrapped up in different models with different processors entirely.

The complete lineup of Microsoft Surface Pro 9 tablet colors

The average shopper doesn't likely know the difference between the Intel Core and SQ3 processor listings on the store's configuration page, and some features are generally advertised for the Pro 9 line, when they're not realistically available in all configurations. Take note of your workload and needs, and choose accordingly!

The Surface Pro 9 and other new devices are available for pre-order now, and will officially go on sale on October 25. Check back soon for our full review of at least one, if not both, of these Surface Pro 9 models.

Wed, 12 Oct 2022 09:03:00 -0500 en-au text/html
Killexams : Are you smarter than a Year 12 student? Try these HSC exam questions </head> <body id="readabilityBody" readability="27.954545454545"> <h3>Newscorp Australia are trialling new security software on our mastheads. If you receive "Potential automated action detected!" please try these steps first:</h3> <ol type="1"> <li>Temporarily disable any AdBlockers / pop-up blockers / script blockers you have enabled</li> <li>Add this site in to the allowed list for any AdBlockers / pop-up blockers / script blockers you have enabled</li> <li>Ensure your browser supports JavaScript (this can be done via accessing <a href="" target="_blank"></a> in your browser)</li> <li>Ensure you are using the latest version of your web browser</li> </ol> <p>If you need to be unblocked please e-mail us at and provide the IP address and reference number shown here along with why you require access. News Corp Australia.</p><p>Your IP address is: | Your reference number is: 0.87382f17.1666005895.247109</p> </body> </description> <pubDate>Mon, 10 Oct 2022 15:44:00 -0500</pubDate> <dc:format>text/html</dc:format> <dc:identifier></dc:identifier> </item> <item> <title>Killexams : Could you answer last year's NCEA exam questions?


A new mandatory NCEA literacy and numeracy test could be too tough for some pupils. Secondary school students will have to pass the new requirement to get any level of NCEA from 2023. (Video first published in December 2020)

NCEA examinations are just weeks away, with thousands of secondary school students expected to sit the tests when they kick off on November 7.

Recent changes to our national qualification framework have sparked controversy. New literacy and numeracy standards set to be introduced in 2024 have been criticised for being too difficult, and moves to digitise exams and assessments have received mixed reviews from students and educators.

Mathematics exams have proven particularly curly in the past – tricky questions have been the subject of a string of complaints since 2017.

Would you be able to ace last year’s exams? Test your knowledge on these 2021 NCEA exam questions.

* 14 NCEA subjects to offer digital exams in 2019
* How hard was that NCEA Level 1 Maths exam?
* NZQA to discuss maths exam that left students in tears after teachers' open letter
* Parents 'frustrated as hell' after tough NCEA maths exam jolts kids' confidence

Level 1 Mathematics and Statistics – Apply algebraic procedures in solving problems

Ben has been painting some straight lines on the field for his rugby team to do some training exercises.

The total length of all the painted lines shown in the diagram below is 20 metres.

If the shaded area is 14m², find the possible values of x.

Level 1 Physics – Demonstrate understanding of aspects of wave behaviour

Water is poured into a cup, and a coin appears, as shown below.


An image from a Level 1 physics exam.

Explain why you cannot see the coin in the cup with no water, but when water is poured into the cup, the coin suddenly appears.

Use a ray diagram to help explain your answer.

Level 2 Biology – Demonstrate understanding of life processes at the cellular level

A) Photosynthesis occurs in the leaves of plants. Describe the process of photosynthesis.

B) Water is an important requirement for the process of photosynthesis. Explain how water enters a plant AND how it is used in the light-dependent reaction.

Level 2 Economics – Analyse inflation using economic concepts and models

In 2020, New Zealand’s inflation rate was 1.4%. Despite this relatively low inflation rate, the price of some goods and services increased significantly. For example, the overall price of fresh fruit and vegetables increased by 8.9%.

A) Explain why not all households will be equally affected by an 8.9% increase in the overall price of fresh fruit and vegetables.

B) Explain one reason why the 2020 inflation rate of 1.4% was less than the 8.9% increase in the overall price of fresh fruit and vegetables.

Level 3 Chemistry – Demonstrate understanding of thermochemical principles and the properties of particles and substances

Explain the difference in the atomic radii of calcium and selenium.

Level 3 Calculus – Apply integration methods in solving problems

A water tank developed a leak.

6 hours after the tank started to leak, the volume of water in the tank was 400 litres.

10 hours after the tank started to leak, the volume of water in the tank was 256 litres.

The rate at which the water leaks out of the tank at any instant is proportional to the square root of the volume of the water in the tank at that instant.

How much water was in the tank at the instant it started to leak?

You must use calculus and show the results of any integration needed to solve the problem.

Tue, 11 Oct 2022 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Configuring MFA using the Microsoft Authenticator app on an iOS device

You will be asked to provide a mobile phone number as a backup authentication method. This is an optional step and can be skipped. To skip this step click on ‘Done.’

Please be careful not to click on the drop-down asking you to select a country, and do not click in the text field where the phone number is to be entered. Doing so alters the page and makes the fields become required.

If the page does not let you proceed, simply close the browser window. Your setup is complete and will not be lost.

Thu, 10 Dec 2020 13:30:00 -0600 en text/html
Killexams : NTA UGC NET 2022 exam Important Topics: Questions have come from these Subjects!

NTA UGC NET 2022 exam Important Topics: Get an idea of the questions and topic-wise weightage of the UGC NET phase 2 exam. Know about the subject-wise good attempts and questions asked in UGC NET paper 1.

UGC NET 2022 exam Important Topics

NTA UGC NET 2022 exam Important Topics: The National Testing Agency has concluded the UGC NET 2022 paper 1 examination today. The paper 1 exam was conducted in the first shift from 9 am to 12 pm. The UGC NET paper 1 exam was compulsory for all the candidates who have filled the application form.

Whereas, paper 2 is going to be an optional paper and shall be held in the second shift from 3 pm to 6 pm. Paper 2 is going to be having around 12 subjects and candidates have the right to choose the same at the time of filling out the application form. 

Talking about the UGC NET examination held today, the level of the examination was easy to moderate. The written test had 100 questions from different subjects. The questions asked were objective in nature. Candidates have to simply mark the correct answer among the available option. As per the student’s review, the overall good attempt for today’s exam can lie anywhere between 60 to 65 questions. 

The NTA shall be conducting the third phase of the UGC NET 2022 examination from 29-Sep-2022 to 14-Oct-2022. Candidates going to appear in phase 3 can check out this article till the end for more insights. 

UGC NET Important Dates

The candidates can check out the UGC NET 2022 important dates for the different events in the table below. 

UGC NET Events

Exam Dates



Application process

30-Apr-2022 to 30-May-2022 (

UGC NET Application correction window

21-May-2022 to 01-Jun-2022 

UGC NET Phase 1 Admit card

07-Jul-2022 - 08-Jul-2022

UGC NET Phase 2 Admit card


Phase 3 Admit card

To be Announced soon

UGC NET exam date for Phase 1




UGC NET exam date for Phase 2

12-Aug-2022 to 14-Aug-2022

20-Sep-2022 to 23-Sep-2022

UGC NET exam date for Phase 3

29-Sep-2022 to 14-Oct-2022

UGC NET Provisional answer key

To be announced

UGC NET Submission of challenges against answer key

To be announced

UGC NET Final answer key and cut off

To be announced

UGC NET Result

To be announced

UGC NET 2022 exam Pattern 

  • The examination is being conducted in CBT mode. 
  • The questions asked in the examination are objective in nature.
  • The maximum marks for paper 1 are going to be 100 marks and the second paper will account for 200 marks. 
  • Each question asked in today’s examination is going to account for 2 marks. There is no mention of negative marking for questions that are marked wrongly. 
  • Paper 1 was compulsory for all the students whereas paper 2 is going to be based on the subject chosen by the candidates. 


Maximum questions

Maximum marks


Teaching Aptitude



1 hour

Research Aptitude



Reading Comprehension






Reasoning (including Maths)



Logical Reasoning



Data Interpretation



Information &amp; Communication Technology (ICT)



People &amp; Environment



Higher Education System: Governance, Polity &amp; Administration






Paper II



2 hours

UGC NET 2022 Phase-2 Important Topics

As per the experts, the UGC NET examination held today was of easy to moderate level. The subject-wise courses and questions asked in today’s exam were at par with the ones asked in all the shifts asked earlier. Go through the table below to know about the subject-wise difficulty level and good attempts; 

Subject Name

Difficulty Level

Good Attempts

Teaching Aptitude

Moderate to Difficult





Higher Education

Moderate to Difficult


Research Aptitude

Easy to Moderate


Data Interpretation









Information Technology




Easy to Moderate


Logical Reasoning



UGC NET 2022 Questions Asked

UGC NET paper 1 examination today was conducted in the first shift from 9 am to 12 am. The following section consists of the basic highlights related to the same. The UGC NET exam was conducted in the computer-based test format. The questions asked were from the syllabus prescribed by the UGC earlier. All of the questions asked in the paper were compulsory in nature. Candidates have to attempt the same on their own likings. 

Subject Name

UGC NET Question Asked

Teaching Aptitude






Learner Characteristics



SDGs and MDGs

Niti Aayog




Solar Energy

Higher Education



NEP 2020

Establishment Years



Research Aptitude

Collective Communication

Barriers of Communication

Mass media

Data Interpretation

Easy Ratio

Ratio &amp; Average Related



Profit and Loss




Information Technology

Search Engine

Odd one out on


Memory related questions



Full forms

Types of Extension


Question based on reading Comprehension


Precise Writing

Logical Reasoning







Creative Knowledge


Square of Opposition

The UGC NET (National Eligibility Test) is conducted annually for those who wish to work as a JRF (Junior Research Fellow) and Assistant Professors in different universities. Based on the marks secured in the examination, the candidates get an appointment as an Assistant Professor in any of the public or private universities of India.

Thu, 22 Sep 2022 08:00:00 -0500 text/html
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