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Exam Code: GB0-191-ENU Practice test 2023 by team
GB0-191-ENU Constructing Small and Medium Sized Enterprise Network

Title: Constructing Small and Medium-Sized Enterprise Network (GB0-191-ENU)

Test Detail:
The Constructing Small and Medium-Sized Enterprise Network (GB0-191-ENU) certification is offered by H3C, a leading provider of networking solutions. This certification validates the knowledge and skills required to design, implement, and manage small and medium-sized enterprise networks using H3C networking products and technologies. It focuses on network architecture, protocols, security, and best practices for building efficient and reliable networks.

Course Outline:
The GB0-191-ENU certification program covers a comprehensive range of Topics related to constructing small and medium-sized enterprise networks. The course provides participants with a deep understanding of network design principles, configuration, and troubleshooting. The following is a general outline of the key areas covered in the certification program:

1. Network Architecture and Design:
- Understanding small and medium-sized enterprise network requirements
- Network topologies and design principles
- LAN and WAN design considerations
- Network segmentation and subnetting
- Virtual LAN (VLAN) design and implementation

2. Network Protocols and Services:
- TCP/IP fundamentals and addressing
- Routing protocols (RIP, OSPF, BGP)
- Switching protocols (STP, RSTP, MSTP)
- IP services (DHCP, DNS, NAT)
- Quality of Service (QoS) principles and implementation

3. Network Security and Access Control:
- Network security principles and best practices
- Access control and authentication mechanisms
- Firewall and VPN technologies
- Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems (IDPS)
- Network security policies and monitoring

4. Network Device Configuration and Management:
- Configuration of H3C switches and routers
- VLAN and port configuration
- Routing and inter-VLAN routing configuration
- Network monitoring and troubleshooting tools
- Network device management and software upgrades

Exam Objectives:
The GB0-191-ENU certification test assesses candidates' understanding of small and medium-sized enterprise network design, implementation, and management. The test objectives include, but are not limited to:

1. Demonstrating knowledge of network architecture and design principles.
2. Configuring and troubleshooting network protocols and services.
3. Implementing network security and access control measures.
4. Configuring and managing H3C switches and routers.
5. Monitoring and troubleshooting small and medium-sized enterprise networks.

The GB0-191-ENU certification program typically includes instructor-led training or self-paced online learning modules. The syllabus provides a breakdown of the Topics covered throughout the course, including specific learning objectives and milestones. The syllabus may include the following components:

- Network Architecture and Design
- Network Protocols and Services
- Network Security and Access Control
- Network Device Configuration and Management
- Network Monitoring and Troubleshooting
- test Preparation and Practice Tests
- Final Constructing Small and Medium-Sized Enterprise Network (GB0-191-ENU) Certification Exam
Constructing Small and Medium Sized Enterprise Network
H3C Constructing approach
Killexams : H3C Constructing approach - BingNews Search results Killexams : H3C Constructing approach - BingNews Killexams : mass building No result found, try new keyword!This workout routine for men maps out how to Boost the body parts you are lagging in while building overall muscle strength. What's the easiest way to build muscle? We've got your beginner's ... Mon, 21 Aug 2023 12:00:00 -0500 text/html Killexams : Clipper Construction Highlights the Advantages of Design-Build Construction

Clipper Construction, a reputable construction company based in Baltimore, MD, has recently shed light on the numerous advantages of design-build construction, showcasing the benefits of this innovative approach to project delivery in 2023.

Design-build construction offers several distinct advantages over traditional construction methods. One key benefit lies in Streamlined Communication, as the design and construction teams operate as a unified entity. This integrated approach facilitates seamless communication and collaboration among all project stakeholders, including architects, engineers, contractors, and owners. The result is enhanced efficiency and a more cohesive project delivery, minimizing the chances of miscommunication or misunderstandings.

Moreover, Design-build projects are known for their Cost and Time Savings. Early cost estimating and value engineering are intrinsic to the collaborative nature of design-build, enabling the identification of cost-effective solutions without compromising on project quality. Concurrent design and construction activities lead to quicker decision-making, expediting project completion and reducing overall construction time.

Another compelling advantage of design-build is Increased Accountability. In this project delivery method, a single point of responsibility encompasses both the design and construction phases. The design-build team assumes full accountability for the project's success, including adherence to budget, meeting deadlines, and ensuring top-notch quality control. This integrated responsibility fosters a proactive approach to problem-solving and maintains a higher level of accountability throughout the project's lifecycle.

The close collaboration between the design and construction teams in design-build construction translates into Improved Project Quality. By integrating constructability reviews and value engineering from the early stages, potential issues are identified and resolved before construction commences. The combined expertise of design and construction professionals optimizes the project's functionality, aesthetics, and long-term durability.

Furthermore, design-build projects boast an Enhanced Project Delivery Speed. Eliminating the need for sequential project phases allows for a more efficient use of time. Fast-tracking techniques, such as early construction packages, can be employed to expedite the project timeline, leading to earlier project completion and potential cost savings.

Design-build's emphasis on Collaboration and Innovation is also noteworthy. In this project delivery method, all stakeholders are involved from the project's inception, creating a collaborative environment that nurtures innovation and creative problem-solving. Diverse perspectives and expertise working together allow for unique and innovative solutions that might not be realized in a traditional construction approach.

Moreover, design-build projects are associated with Reduced Claims and Litigation Risks. The single point of responsibility and collaborative project approach enable prompt resolution of conflicts and mitigation of potential issues. Early contractor involvement during the design phase helps identify and address constructability issues, reducing the likelihood of disputes or conflicts during construction.

Clipper Construction takes great pride in its reputation as a trusted commercial construction company, rated by a 5/5-star review on Google. One satisfied customer, Pappy Kido, remarked, "Best commercial construction company in Baltimore."

In addition, a spokesperson from Clipper Construction, offers insightful tips for homeowners to embrace the advantages of design-build construction: "Homeowners looking to undertake construction projects can greatly benefit from the design-build approach. It's essential to carefully choose a reputable design-build team and actively participate in the collaborative process. Open communication is key, as it allows homeowners to clearly convey their vision and preferences. By working closely with the design-build professionals, homeowners can ensure their needs are met effectively, resulting in a successful and satisfactory outcome."

Clipper Construction's team of construction professionals specializes in projects ranging from $50k to $5 million. Their expertise spans various sectors, including restaurants, multifamily, office space, retail, medical, industrial, non-profit, and more. No matter the scope or scale of the project, Clipper Construction is dedicated to providing the highest level of service while delivering a quality product that propels businesses forward.

For companies needing commercial roofing services in Baltimore and neighboring areas, more information can be found on the Clipper Construction website, or by contacting them via phone or email.


For more information about Clipper Construction, contact the company here:

Clipper Construction
Clipper Construction
(443) 323-1880
1354 Cooksie St, Baltimore, MD 21230

© 2023 Benzinga does not provide investment advice. All rights reserved.

Wed, 02 Aug 2023 16:00:00 -0500 text/html
Killexams : A serious approach to planning can prevent project over-runs and over-spends

Contractors are in a tough business, and business leaders are no doubt fatigued by the headlines positioning the sector as operating in a world dominated by Murphy’s Law (if it can go wrong, it will go wrong). This is unfair, as while projects do frequently overrun, construction is so incredibly complex, perhaps the real question is why it does not happen more often.

Jonathan Hunter Chief Executive Officer ELECO

As we all know, a project involves so many moving parts, whatever the build size: potentially millions of components, the weather, the phased approach, the materials’ shortages, skills gap, and having the right people on the site at the right time… I could go on, but you get the picture.

Then there is the communication challenges; telling people what’s changing and what this means, making sure that it is all recorded; and the fact that, for example, the glazing delays will have a knock-on effect with the HVAC installation.

So, if we know all this, why do construction projects still, on average, run over by 70% of their original project duration? It is not that contractors are unrealistically optimistic, thinking that this project will be different, like Del Boy’s idealistic mantra, “this time next year, we’ll be millionaires”. Far from it. It is the combination of the factors outlined above with the UK’s tendering and planning system.

Positively, the industry is taking steps to solve these longstanding issues. Working alongside the UK’s largest contractors, I have seen four emerging trends enabling them to reduce project and cost overrun. Here are just a few of my favourites:


The first is around project planning, scheduling and risk mitigation. Currently, the most innovative contractors are focusing on planning, taking past project data, and identifying common pinch points from adverse weather, staff shortages or materials delays. Then they produce revised schedules which allow them to present the likely impact and outcomes of various possible build challenges, with consideration given to contingency. It is a simple, but effective, operational tweak.

Always planning

Too often, planning and scheduling is focused on the pre-construction phase, and an all-too-common, blinkered approach views scheduling as happening before construction. Even McKinsey is guilty of this in its recent construction report. Instead, it is about ensuring that planning and modelling run across the project, reacting to challenges as the worst happens.

Similar to design, scheduling is an iterative process, and needs to be seen as such. It does not just stop when the shovels go in the ground. Those contractors who are unlocking scheduling are taking planning to another dimension, adding time to the model to Boost scheduling by using Active 4D BIM.

This integration of design and planning is different to common working practices. Yet, despite going against the grain, it is reducing risk and project over-run while increasing profitability

4D BIM is not new within construction. Here the schedule is added to the architectural model, empowering clients and project teams to see whether a build is on the schedule. Its potential to achieve greater precision on construction timelines and minimise financial risk is well known to business leaders and planning teams.

Yet, despite high levels of awareness, 4D’s implementation is often flawed. A persistent over-reliance on outdated “2D” processes and a lack of understanding of 3D models as effective planning tools is to blame, hindering the wholesale adoption of 4D BIM. This situation needs to change if persistent efficiency headaches are to be cured.

However, there are a number of contractors – including Mace and Cimic in Australia – that successfully use 4D models to plan and forecast, updating as they evolve, rather than “passively” using the designs as a visualisation tool. This integration of design and planning is different to common working practices. Yet, despite going against the grain, it is reducing risk and project over-run while increasing profitability.


I have also observed the significant effect of moving client communications beyond passive emails and PDF exports to a more inclusive activity, with more regular catch-ups accompanied with visual demos, outlining what is happening on the project, and what the impact of decisions is in real terms. It is joining up the dots for more clarity, reducing misunderstandings which can lead to error.

For example, the contractor will explain the trade-offs and benefits to the client – that, by choosing this construction approach, you will have 230 fewer deliveries on site, and completion will be 18 weeks sooner. This more active approach can be further enhanced, using visual aids such as a dynamic schedule, or even AR headsets to ensure that  clients are much more involved in decision-making, design choices and with the project teams.

If people are involved in decision-making and feel that they have contributed to it, they will take a more positive view, think it is higher quality and be more invested in the project

This taps into something known as the endowment effect. If people are involved in decision-making and feel that they have contributed to it, they will take a more positive view, think it is higher quality and be more invested in the project.


Finally, there is further innovation, from leveraging data, and AI tools through to MMC approaches. Recently, Willmott Dixon presented a comparison to Warwick University for its Interdisciplinary Biomedical Research Building, demonstrating how choosing offsite construction over a traditional build would result in half the disruption to staff and students.

The project team were also able to model the benefits of this approach to the project’s climate footprint, which ended up reducing site deliveries by 40%.

I have only scratched the surface, but what is clear is that taking a more serious and considered approach to planning and scheduling can pay dividends for contractors, particularly when margins are tighter than ever. As the hackneyed adage goes, “fail to plan, plan to fail”. Banal? Yes, but it has never been truer for construction than it is now.

Jonathan Hunter is chief executive officer at Elecosoft

Tue, 25 Jul 2023 17:03:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Sustainability, Profitability and the Legacy We Leave Killexams : Sustainability, Profitability and the Legacy We Leave | Engineering News-Record Thu, 03 Aug 2023 08:39:00 -0500 en text/html Killexams : Best Replacement Window Companies Of 2023

Double-Hung Windows

Double-hung windows have two sections, upper and lower, called “sashes” in which the glass is fitted. On double-hung windows, both sashes can be moved so you can choose to open either the top of the window or the bottom. Depending on the style, the sashes can either slide up and down or tilt open.

The hardware surrounding each sash is opaque, so it does partially obscure the view from the window. As one of the most popular window types, there are a wide variety of style choices available.

Single-Hung Windows

Single-hung windows are similar to double-hung windows, except there is one moveable sash and one solid pane of stationary glass. The sash on single-hung windows is most often on the bottom portion of the windows, and, just like a double-hung window, the sash can either slide or tilt. Single-hung windows look great and are perfect for a homeowner on a budget, as they are significantly less expensive than double-hung windows.

Sliding Windows

Just like a sliding glass door, sliding windows open horizontally along a track, with one panel that moves and another that remains stationary. Occasionally you will find sliding windows with the option to move either panel. These windows can be convenient and provide excellent ventilation.

Dirt and debris have a tendency to collect in the bottom track of these fixtures, which can make the window difficult to slide open or closed. Just like hung windows, the hardware can impede the view through the window, but they are one of the most affordable options on the market.

Awning Windows

Awning windows open outward on a hinge at the top of the window, allowing for ventilation even in rainy weather. These are an excellent choice for people who live in climates with plenty of precipitation.

Casement Windows

Casement windows are similar to awning windows, except the hinge is on the side so that the window opens outward. Easy to open, casement windows can provide quite a bit of ventilation. Because many swing all the way open, be aware that if you do not have an abundance of space outside of the window, these may not be a functional choice. Not all casement windows swing all the way open.

Picture Windows

Picture windows are usually large, uninterrupted panels of glass that do not open. Often used to increase light or provide the occupants with a beautiful view, picture windows are an excellent choice for those with picturesque surroundings. Picture windows require almost no maintenance (except cleaning) and are usually well-insulated despite a large surface area.

Picture windows only have a few downsides. They do not open or provide ventilation, and if the glass is damaged the whole window will need to be replaced.

Fixed Windows

Fixed windows are usually used to add a bit of decoration to the home. They can be an unorthodox shape, have colorful accents or feature interesting designs. Fixed windows do not provide ventilation and are not generally used for lighting purposes.

Bay, Bow or Projection Windows

Bay windows project outward from the house in a curved shape, often consisting of several window panels placed at different angles to create the curve. Bay windows aren’t really their own type of window—it’s the configuration of the window panels that distinguishes them.

The windows that create the bay shape can be all one type of window or a combination. For example, one homeowner may have three to five picture windows in a bay shape, while another might have two single-hung windows flanking a large picture window in the middle.

Bay windows allow tons of natural light into the space (and potentially ventilation depending on window type), but given the greater difficulty of installation, they often come at a higher cost.


Skylights are placed on the roof of the house rather than the side. They tend to be more expensive to replace due to the difficulty and labor required to access the roof.


These windows can be a temporary or permanent addition to existing windows. They are placed on the outside and provide additional insulation and protection from heavy winds, rain and flying debris. These are a great option for homes in areas that experience frequent storms.

Mon, 14 Aug 2023 08:56:00 -0500 Deane Biermeier en-US text/html
Killexams : Sales Comparison Approach (SCA): Definition and Use in Appraisals

What Is a Sales Comparison Approach (SCA)?

The term sales comparison approach refers to a real estate appraisal method that compares one property to comparables or other recently sold properties in the area with similar characteristics. Real estate agents and appraisers may use the sales comparison approach when evaluating properties to sell. This method accounts for the effect that individual features have on the overall property value. In other words, the total value of a property is the sum of the values of all of its features.

Key Takeaways

  • A sales comparison approach is a valuation method used in the real estate industry that compares one property to similar ones recently sold in the area.
  • The SCA is used as the backbone for the comparative market analysis which considers prices of recently sold properties that are similar and within the same geographic area.
  • Some of the common characteristics that make up the SCA include location, recently sold listings, features, age and condition, and average price per square foot.

Understanding the Sales Comparison Approach (SCA)

The sales comparison approach helps real estate professionals and buyers determine if the price of a home is fair and comparable to the current market. Professionals use similar properties that were recently sold within a short distance of the subject property—usually in the same neighborhood—that share similar characteristics as a comparison.

The SCA is used as the backbone for the comparative market analysis (CMA). This is an analysis of the prices of recently sold properties that are similar and within the same geographic area. In other words, the approach often entails looking at local properties to see what they have in common. From there, appraisers can determine a value for a property based on its features.

Although there are many steps that a real estate appraiser can take in evaluating a property's value, the following are some of the most common characteristics used in an SCA:

  • Location and neighborhood: Geography may directly impact the value of real estate. It's important to compare homes in the same neighborhood rather than those found in another part of town. Factors considered include proximity to schools, nearby bodies of water, parks, and how close they are to highways and overpasses, as well as pollution levels.
  • Recently sold listings: These properties can provide a starting point for the value of homes in the area. Although features and the market factor into the sale price, reviewing property values and recent sales are good baseline numbers.
  • Features: A home should be compared with properties with the same number of bedrooms, garages, and bathrooms. The comparison should include homes of about the same square footage on parcels of land that are about the same size.
  • Age and condition: It's important to compare homes of similar age as well as soundness. A home's condition significantly influences an appraisal. For example, there may be two similar homes in the same neighborhood. But if one is in need of repair, it can seriously affect its value.
  • Average price per square foot: Once similar homes are compiled, take each of their sale prices and divide them by their square footage. The result yields the cost per square foot based on the homes in the sales comparison analysis. Take the average cost per square foot for all comparable homes and multiply that number by the square footage of the home being appraised.

Note that the IRS lists the market or sales approach as an acceptable method of analyzing an asset's valuation for tax purposes.

Performing Appraisals Using the Sales Comparison Approach

For a somewhat simple appraisal method, SCA actually involves a number of different steps. These steps are outlined below, and though the process may feel different for different markets or types of properties, these steps are usually taken across most types of properties.

Step 1: Identify Property

Begin by clearly identifying the subject property that you're appraising. Gather detailed information about its physical attributes, location, and any unique features. This step establishes the starting point for comparing it to other properties so, even though it may feel straightforward, it is among the most important steps.

Step 2: Select Comparables

Carefully select comparable properties that have recently sold and share similarities with the subject property. Consider the factors discussed in the previous section when selecting similar properties. The goal is to find properties that potential buyers would consider comparable to the subject property.

Step 3: Collect Data

Thoroughly collect data for both the subject property and the chosen comparables. This includes obtaining accurate property details, sale prices, transaction dates, square footage, lot size, room counts, and any significant features. The accuracy and completeness of this data are crucial for making informed comparisons and performing data analysis. Take note of variances or major differences worth adjusting for.

Step 4: Perform Adjustments

Examine the differences between the comparables and the subject property. Identify attributes where variations exist such as larger square footage or superior amenities in a comparable. It may be somewhat subjective, but determine how much these differences would influence a buyer's perception of value.

Step 5: Perform Portfolio Reconciliation

After making adjustments, you may have a range of adjusted sale prices for the comparables. Consider the relative relevance and reliability of each comparable. Weight the impact of each comparable based on factors like similarity to the subject property, recency of sale, and market conditions. Using this new lense, you should reconcile the adjusted values to arrive at a more accurate value range for the subject property.

Step 6: Determine Final Estimate

From the reconciled range of adjusted values, calculate a final estimated value for the subject property. This can be done by averaging the adjusted sale prices of the comparables within the range or applying other appropriate statistical methods. The goal is to arrive at a single estimated value that reflects the property's market value based on the comparables' data.

Advantages and Disadvantages of the SCA

Pros of the Sales Comparison Approach

The SCA approach is grounded in real market transactions, making it highly relevant and reflective of current market conditions. It considers the actual prices at which properties similar to the subject property have recently sold. Therefore, it's especially effective when there is a substantial number of comparable properties available for analysis.

The concept of comparing recent sales of similar properties to the subject property is easy to understand, making it accessible to both appraisers and clients. Therefore, the SCA method is somewhat known for being transparent. The SCA method also sheds light on the historical deviations of an asset's price. Since it relies on recent sales data, this approach can capture changes in market conditions and trends over time.

When multiple comparable sales are analyzed and adjustments are made for differences, the approach provides a range of values that can serve as a validation of the estimated value. If the adjusted values are consistent across comparables, it lends credibility to the final estimate.

Last, the sales comparison approach is a widely accepted and practiced method in the real estate industry. This widespread usage enhances its credibility and acceptance among appraisers, lenders, and other stakeholders.

Cons of the Sales Comparison Approach

The quality and quantity of comparable sales data can vary significantly based on the property type, location, and market conditions. In some cases, there might not be enough recent and relevant comparable sales to accurately estimate the value of the subject property. For properties that are one-of-a-kind or have features that are difficult to find in the market, the sales comparison approach might not be suitable.

Making adjustments for differences between the subject property and comparables can be subjective and challenging. For example, determining the value of specific features like swimming pools, architectural styles, or interior upgrades can be difficult, and differing opinions among appraisers can lead to inconsistent results.

SCA relies heavily on recent sales data, which means it might not capture rapid market fluctuations or sudden changes in supply and demand. In rapidly changing markets with volatility, using older comparable sales might not accurately reflect current property values.

Finally, selecting truly comparable properties is crucial for accurate valuation. If the chosen comparables are not truly similar to the subject property in terms of size, location, condition, and other relevant factors, the valuation results can be skewed. During analysis, it may not be evidently clear which assets are comparable and which may be red herrings that are not suitable comparisons.

  • Grounded in real transactions, making it particularly relevant

  • Has a wide applicability

  • Is a somewhat simple concept that can be easily followed and documented

  • May allow for customization (i.e. for individual property features)

  • May lend itself to historical analysis by tracking changes over time

  • May not have abundant data depending on the asset type or market

  • May not be suitable for unique properties

  • May be difficult to adjust based on available data

  • Will not always reflect shortest-term market fluctuations

  • Relies somewhat on subjective interpretation

Since the sales comparison approach isn't an official appraisal, owners may need to hire an appraiser for unique properties and those that are hard to value.

Special Considerations

There are many other features that may increase the value of a home. However, a sales comparison analysis is not an exact science since the value of a home is somewhat subjective, meaning one family may find more value in it than another, thereby increasing their offer. As stated earlier, outside factors such as the overall state of the economy, the job market, and the state of the real estate market all play heavily into how much a home is sold for or how long it sits on the market.

Remember, the sales comparison approach used in real estate valuation is not an official appraisal. In cases where a unique property is to be valued or one whose value is difficult to determine, a formal appraisal may be required. This means hiring an appraiser—an independent and unbiased professional who determines the property's fair value by using certain facts, figures, and other considerations.

What Are Comparable Sales in the Sales Comparison Approach?

Comparable sales, often referred to as "comps," are properties that have recently sold and are similar to the subject property in terms of relevant characteristics such as location, size, style, age, condition, and amenities. These sales are used as a basis for estimating the value of the subject property through a process of comparison and adjustment.

What Types of Properties Is the Sales Comparison Approach Suitable for?

The sales comparison approach is suitable for a wide range of property types, including residential, commercial, and vacant land. It is particularly effective when there is a significant number of comparable properties available and when the market conditions are relatively stable.

How Do Appraisers Select Comparable Properties for Analysis?

Appraisers select comparable properties based on their similarity to the subject property. They consider factors like location, size, style, condition, age, and recent sales dates. The goal is to find properties that are as similar as possible to the subject property to provide a reliable basis for comparison.

How Does the Sales Comparison Approach Account for Property Uniqueness?

While the sales comparison approach considers property uniqueness, it relies on finding comparable properties that share similar attributes with the subject property. However, truly unique features might not have direct comparables, making the adjustment process more challenging and potentially leading to less accurate valuations.

The Bottom Line

The sales comparison approach is a real estate valuation method that estimates a property's value by comparing it to recently sold properties with similar characteristics in the same market area. By analyzing these comparable sales and making adjustments for differences in features, size, condition, and location, appraisers derive an estimated value for the subject property based on actual market transactions.

Sat, 15 Aug 2020 08:07:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Sick-Building Syndrome

Pat B., a web designer in upstate New York, didn't think much of it when she got a sinus infection the first week at her new job. Two months later, she got another one. Then the muscle cramping began. "I would try to walk at lunch time and my hips would cramp so bad I had to go back," she recalls. "As soon as I entered the building, it felt like the breath was sucked out of me."

After batteries of tests, she went on a leave of absence and the symptoms leveled off. When she returned, her throat started burning the minute she stepped into the building.

"The ceiling tiles were moldy, everything was wet," she says. "I could smell formaldehyde and so could one other person." Eventually, Pat was diagnosed with interstitial lung disease, an ailment that had already killed a young, athletic male co-worker. She is convinced the building she worked in caused her illnesses.

Actually, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ( prefers the term "Indoor Air Quality." If 20% of the work force has symptoms -- including watering eyes; hoarseness; headaches; dry, itchy skin; dizziness; nausea; heart palpitations; miscarriages; shortness of breath; nosebleeds; chronic fatigue; mental fogginess; tremors; swelling of legs or ankles; and cancer -- the building may be labeled a "sick building." The telling factor is if the symptoms ease when workers are at home or on vacation.

The causes are many. In the 1970s, there was a movement amongst builders and regulatory authorities to button-up buildings to save on fuels for heating and air conditioning. Many buildings became virtually air-tight. According to the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, some polluting factors include indoor combustion (heaters, ranges, smoking) and buildup of carbon monoxide and inhalable particles; volatile organic compounds such as benzene, styrene, and other solvents; and airborne-allergens and pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, spores, and protozoans. Added to that are new building materials (plywood, carpet glue) and fabrics (rugs, furniture) that "offgas" toxic fumes.

Time was, complainers were dismissed as hypochondriacs and neurotics, but companies and regulators are acknowledging now that the modern office environment can be toxic.

In 1980, NIOSH got 150 internal environmental quality complaints, 8% of total complaints. By 1990, 52% of complaints concerned sick-making work environments.

Kenny Oldfield, CIH, a hazardous materials trainer at the University of Alabama Birmingham Center for Labor Education and Research (CLEAR), says the nature of the problem may be changing slightly. "We may be seeing a decrease in offgassing," he says. "Just look in the paint department at Home Depot -- you will find kids' paint and low vapor emission paint. There is some indication this is being addressed."

However, the problem of biological contaminants is increasing, he says -- molds, bacteria, such ailments as Legionnaires' disease, now called legionella. Pat herself was finally diagnosed as having a fungal problem. "These are the result of poor maintenance," Oldfield says. "We need to see more upkeep on heating and air conditioning systems, but with the economy, we may see less."

Vincent Marinkovich, MD, an immunologist in private practice in Redwood City, Calif., who sees many sick-building patients, also criticizes maintenance. "Sometimes," he says, "the best filters in the building are the lungs of my patients." People come to him because he knows how to treat fungal infections with a nose spray he makes specially. The problem, he says, is that mold may colonize the patient's nose; thus, patients are carrying around the toxin, which keeps infecting them every day.

Pat had a terrible time getting anyone to believe her. Her employer -- ironically, an HMO -- showed her certificates from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) to the effect that the building was OK. She was offered a different office in the same building with the same air flow system. Eventually, she resigned.

The Building Owners and Managers Association International (, urges its members to create a healthy work environment, relatively free of contaminants and adjusted for temperature and humidity. To neglect such matters, building owners are told, means increased absenteeism and productivity -- thus, unhappy tenants. Every complaint, BOMA says, merits a response.

If you suspect your building might be contributing to your symptoms, Pat suggests:

  • Take pictures of discolored or wet ceilings or furniture.
  • Ask to record conversations with company personnel about the problem.
  • Put your complaint in writing. Say you know your bosses care about their employees and their productivity.
  • If you have already incurred lasting problems, you may be entitled to workers comp or disability. You may even try to get early retirement. Call OSHA for a clinic near you to be assessed. You may be asked to submit to a home inspection or psychiatric exam. Don't be offended, this is part of the process.
  • Go to OSHA or the EPA directly to ask for an air-quality investigation. You may have to get more than one person to complain.
  • Look for another job if you can't get satisfaction. Your health is too important to stay and stand your ground, perhaps for years.

"I feel better now," Pat says, three and a half years after quitting. "But my toes are still numb."

Mon, 26 Jun 2023 06:15:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Clipper Construction Showcases Streamlined Design-Build Approach for Faster Construction and Enhanced Project Performance

Clipper Construction, a forward-thinking Commercial General Contracting firm known for its tech-enabled approach, is reshaping the construction landscape with its innovative Streamlined Design-Build Approach. As a leading provider of construction services, specializing in various verticals, including retail/office fit-out, adaptive reuse, historical restoration, and mixed-use development, Clipper Construction emphasizes the exceptional benefits of the design-build process in delivering efficient and high-quality construction projects.

The design-build process is at the heart of Clipper Construction's success, seamlessly merging design and construction into a single, efficient project delivery system. This comprehensive approach reflects the company's commitment to providing clients with accelerated construction timelines, cost savings, and superior project outcomes.

Key Stages of the Streamlined Design-Build Approach

Planning Stage: During this crucial phase, the project team collaborates with the owner to establish project goals, requirements, and expectations. Site selection, feasibility studies, and the development of design criteria are also conducted to lay the groundwork for a well-defined project plan.

Design Stage: The design team takes charge of creating preliminary and final designs, including comprehensive plans, specifications, and construction documents. Continuous collaboration between the owner, design team, and construction team ensures that the design aligns with the owner's vision, budget, and construction needs.

Pre-Construction Stage: Preparing the construction site for the upcoming building phase takes place during this stage. This involves obtaining necessary permits and approvals, procuring materials, and mobilizing equipment and personnel.

Construction Stage: With careful planning and coordination, the actual construction process commences, overseen by the construction team. Managing subcontractors, schedules, quality control, safety inspections, and transparent communication with the owner all contribute to the efficient execution of the project.

Closeout Stage: Upon completion of the construction, the final tasks, including punch lists and finish work, are addressed. A thorough inspection ensures that every detail is in place before the owner accepts the finished project, with the option to provide feedback and make any final adjustments before the project concludes.

To expedite the construction process within the design-build model, effective communication and collaboration among all stakeholders are essential. Strategic planning and timely decision-making help mitigate potential delays, keeping the project on track and within the projected schedule. Furthermore, leveraging cutting-edge technology, such as Building Information Modeling (BIM), enhances coordination between the design and construction teams, leading to even swifter construction timelines.

A spokesperson from Clipper Construction further elaborates on the streamlined design-build approach and the significance of seamless collaboration during the construction process. "The design-build process serves as the cornerstone of our commitment to delivering exceptional projects. With a focus on transparency and client engagement, we work closely with our clients at every stage to ensure their vision is realized. By harnessing the power of design-build, we aim to revolutionize the construction experience and exceed our clients' expectations."

Clipper Construction is a leading commercial general contracting business based in Baltimore, Maryland. Their mission extends beyond creating attractive commercial spaces, as they strive to deliver an enhanced commercial contracting experience for their clients. Their diverse portfolio includes projects across industries, including restaurants, warehouses, laboratories, offices, education, retail, and grocery. As a full-service commercial construction firm, Clipper Construction specializes in design and build services, corporate tenant improvement construction, commercial interior renovation, commercial site development, and more. The company prides itself on quality craftsmanship, attention to detail, and a collaborative design process that prioritizes clients' needs throughout the construction journey.

For companies seeking commercial roofing services in Baltimore and neighboring areas, additional information can be found on the Clipper Construction website or by contacting them via phone or email. Their office hours are from 6:00 am to 7:00 pm, from Monday to Friday.


For more information about Clipper Construction, contact the company here:

Clipper Construction
Clipper Construction
(443) 323-1880
1354 Cooksie St, Baltimore, MD 21230

© 2023 Benzinga does not provide investment advice. All rights reserved.

Mon, 14 Aug 2023 17:00:00 -0500 text/html
Killexams : How Construction Loans Help Finance Your Dream House

Building a house is a chance to get everything you want in a home, and a construction loan lays the foundation for making it happen. Here's how the different types of construction loans work and how to choose a lender before breaking ground.

What is a construction loan?

Construction loans cover the cost of building or rehabilitating a house. The lender disburses the money in installments as the work advances. Once building is complete, home construction loans are either converted to permanent mortgages or paid in full. During the construction phase, the borrower pays only interest on the loan.

When is a construction loan used?

A construction loan can be used to finance a custom home — a house designed and built to your specifications — or to pay for a major renovation.

You don't need a construction loan to buy a production home in a new development. With a production home, the builder or developer finances the construction. You choose from a set number of offered house plans and features, and, when the construction is finished, purchase the house from the builder with cash or a traditional mortgage.


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Construction loan types

Construction-to-permanent loans

A construction-to-permanent loan converts to a permanent mortgage when building is complete. Also known as a single- or one-time close construction loan, it's a convenient option because you apply and pay closing costs only once. The interest rate is locked in at closing. Lenders may also offer a "float-down option," which would let you get a lower rate at closing if mortgage rates improved during construction.

Construction-only loans

Also known as a "two-close" construction loan, a construction-only loan must be paid off when the building is complete. The loans require the borrower to qualify, get approved and go through closing twice — once for the construction loan and once for the permanent mortgage. Construction-only loans offer more flexibility because you can compare lenders to find the best deal on a construction loan and on a mortgage separately. The downside: You pay for two loan closings.

Construction projects are complex, and each one is unique. When shopping for financing, ask loan officers about the pros and cons of one-close and two-close construction loans and which would be the best fit for your project.

Renovation loans

With renovation construction loans, the cost of major renovations is wrapped into the mortgage instead of financed after closing. The loan is based on the home’s value after the renovation is completed. These loans make sense if you are buying a fixer-upper but don't have cash for the remodeling and repair work. Here are some low-down-payment renovation mortgage programs to consider:

  • HomeStyle loans are guaranteed by Fannie Mae, a government-sponsored entity, and have a minimum down payment requirement as low as 3%.

  • CHOICERenovation loans, guaranteed by Freddie Mac, also a government-sponsored entity, allow renovation costs up to 75% of the appraised value after the improvements are completed. The minimum down payment varies, but it can be as low as 3%.

  • FHA 203(k) loans, insured by the Federal Housing Administration, require a down payment as low as 3.5%.

  • USDA renovation loans, backed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, are zero-down payment loans for low- to moderate-income borrowers in eligible rural areas. They are available through approved lenders.

The HomeStyle, CHOICERenovation and FHA 203(k) loans can also be used to refinance a current mortgage and include the costs of a remodeling project.

Owner-builder loan

An owner-builder loan is for someone who plans to build their own home and act as the general contractor. Borrowers need to have building experience to qualify, and not all construction lenders offer owner-builder loans.


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What does a construction loan cover?

Every project is different, but in general, a construction loan pays for:

  • Contingency reserves (in case the project costs more than estimated).

How do construction loans work?

Construction loans to build a house

Disbursement of a construction loan happens in phases. Instead of transferring a lump sum, lenders pay the builder in installments, called "draws." Each draw coincides with an important phase of the project, such as pouring the foundation, framing and finishing work.

An inspection may be required before each draw is released to the builder, and the amount of that payment is based on the work completed, as noted in the inspection report.

Renovation loans to buy and repair fixer-uppers

The amount you can borrow for a renovation depends on an appraiser’s estimate of value once repairs and upgrades are finished. The lender needs to approve your contractor and renovation plans, and it pays the money in installments.

How to get a construction loan

Follow these steps to get a construction loan:

Get your finances in order

The minimum borrower requirements for a construction loan vary, but they tend to be more stringent than for traditional mortgages. Most lenders will require a credit score of at least 680 and a down payment of at least 20% for new construction. Government-backed construction loan programs allow for smaller down payments.

Shop around for lenders

Not every mortgage lender offers construction loans. Ask for referrals from friends and family. Local builders may be able to recommend lenders.

Get prequalified

Apply to get prequalified before spending a lot of time and money on building plans. Prequalification gives an idea of the amount and the terms of a loan that a lender will approve. There's no sense in getting deep into planning the project only to find out you don't qualify for financing.

Hire a builder

A mortgage is usually a transaction between a lender and a borrower, but construction loans add a third party to the mix: the builder. Everything hinges on your contractor’s ability to complete the construction plans on time and within budget, so hire carefully.

Get preapproved

For preapproval, you'll provide more documentation about your finances, such as W-2 forms, bank statements and tax returns, as well as details about the project.

A lender may request your builder’s work history and proof of insurance, blueprints, specifications, a materials list, a detailed budget and a signed construction contract that includes start and finish dates.

Get final approval

Choose the lender that offers the lowest rates and fees and best service, and then move forward for final approval. During underwriting, respond quickly to any lender inquiries to keep the process moving smoothly.


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Tue, 30 May 2023 05:42:00 -0500 en-US text/html
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