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Exam Code: ISTQB-Level-1 Practice test 2022 by team
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Killexams : ASTQB Qualifications history - BingNews Search results Killexams : ASTQB Qualifications history - BingNews Killexams : Private Banker: Career Path and Qualifications

Private bankers work in the private banking divisions of large retail banks, in investment banks and in wealth management firms. They provide personalized financial services primarily to high-net-worth individuals (HNWIs). In essence, private bankers are personal financial advisors for the very rich.

Below is a look at the field, what the work entails, and what the qualifications are to become a private banker.

Key Takeaways

  • Private bankers work at large retail or investment banks, or wealth management firms, providing specialized services to the ultra-wealthy.
  • Private bankers define financial goals with clients, develop a plan to execute the goals with the firm's other experts, then build and manage the client's portfolio so as to try and reach those goals.
  • Many private bankers start as entry-level financial analysts or financial advisors before moving on to becoming private bankers.

What Private Bankers Do

Private bankers meet with clients to define investment goals and then work with financial analysts and other professionals in the firm to create individualized investment strategies to meet those goals.

After defining a strategy, private bankers execute the strategies by selecting appropriate mixes of securities and investment products for the client portfolios, which they then manage and adjust on a continual basis.

In addition to investment advising and portfolio management services, many private bankers oversee deposit and cash management services, credit and lending services, tax planning services, trust services, retirement products, and annuities and insurance products.

Many private banking divisions in large banks handle virtually all aspects of clients' finances. A private banker often works with relatively few clients to provide the focus and personalized service that private banking clients often demand. In some firms, private bankers focus on managing client portfolios while relationship managers handle other client needs.

The largest private banks in the U.S. are Morgan Stanley, Bank of America Merrill Lynch, JPMorgan Private Bank, Citigroup, and Goldman Sachs.

Career Path

Many private bankers begin working in entry-level financial analyst positions in wealth management firms, banks, brokerages or other organizations in the securities industry. Many financial analysts study stocks, bonds, and other securities to produce financial plans, analytical reports, and recommendations for private bankers, portfolio managers, and other senior investment professionals in the firm. With experience and a record of high performance, a financial analyst specializing in investments can rise into a private banker position.

Other professionals in the field begin working as personal financial advisors serving retail clients at banks and other financial services firms. Personal financial advisors do much of the same work that private bankers do, but they typically deal with clients who do not have the wealth to justify the cost of the highly personalized services private bankers typically offer. A record of success as a retail-level advisor can lead to a position as a private banker.

$83,800 to $111,800

According to, $83,800 to $111,800 is the average range of annual base pay plus fees, bonuses, and commissions for an intermediate private banker.

Educational Qualifications

A bachelor's degree in a business discipline or another relevant subject is a basic qualification to work as a private banker. However, in most cases, a bachelor's degree must be combined with substantial work experience to qualify for a position in this field.

Most employers prefer to hire experienced candidates with master's degrees in business disciplines such as finance, accounting or business administration. Many employers also look for experienced job candidates who have graduate degrees in mathematics, statistics or law. Coursework in subjects such as taxation, risk management, investing, and financial planning are especially valuable to prospective private bankers.

Other Qualifications

Many employers seek private bankers with one or more professional certifications relevant to the field. The chartered financial analyst (CFA) designation, awarded by the CFA Institute, is one of the most widely respected professional certifications for investment professionals. It is available to candidates who have at least 4,000 hours of qualifying experience, completed in 36 months.

The certified financial planner (CFP) designation, awarded by the CFP Board, is another highly regarded certification common among private bankers. The CFP designation requires 6,000 hours of qualifying professional experience or 4,000 hours of apprenticeship experience.

The certified trust and fiduciary advisor (CTFA) designation, awarded by the American Bankers Association, is designed for trust and wealth advisors. There are several paths to the CTFA designation; the shortest path requires three years of wealth management experience and completion of an approved training program. Each of these certifications requires candidates to pass one or more examinations.

Private bankers typically must obtain appropriate licenses from the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA), which is responsible for oversight of securities firms in the United States. Many private bankers require Series 7 and Series 63 licenses. Other licenses may be required, depending on the position. Private bankers who intend to deal with life insurance, variable annuities, and related products may also require appropriate licenses from their local state insurance boards.

Thu, 01 Dec 2022 10:00:00 -0600 en text/html
Killexams : Editorial: Qualifications that most stand out among the four police chief finalists

It’s unfortunate that the only public appearance by the four finalists for St. Louis police chief was at a Tuesday town hall meeting where no direct question-and-answer session with audience members was scheduled. The meeting seemed more like a stage-managed event to make St. Louisans feel like they somehow had a role in a decision that might already have been made for them.

The four finalists each have strong qualifications for a job that is so thankless and challenging it’s amazing they applied for it. Some common themes are apparent in their previous jobs: They struggled to attract and retain recruits. And rising gun violence emerged as perhaps the main frustration driving non-local applicants to retire or seek jobs in other cities.

The finalist who appears to check the most boxes for experience and political smarts is Larry Boone, who retired in April as police chief of Norfolk, Virginia. He’s so qualified, in fact, that Cincinnati also is looking at him for that city’s top police job. When St. Louis police were donning riot gear and preparing for street battles against protesters after George Floyd’s 2020 murder by Minneapolis officers, Boone tried something completely different: He went out and joined the protesters. He also ordered his officers to stand down. The gesture might have contributed to Norfolk’s status as one of the few metropolitan areas of the country that remained largely peaceful.

He called for an immediate ban on chokeholds and, referring to the need for reforms, told a local television reporter, “If we don’t fix it now, we’ll never get it right.” He said he wanted to hire officers with a desire to be “guardians,” not “warriors.” He’s a supporter of civilian oversight and agrees with the idea of devoting more police funding to address mental health issues, drug abuse and homelessness. His background, growing up in a poor, Black neighborhood in New Jersey, where he faced police harassment and run-ins, is something a lot of St. Louisans can relate to. Boone carries a level of street cred that others can’t offer. Plus, the Norfolk population of 235,000 is the closest in size to St. Louis, giving him a closer feel for the magnitude of the challenge he would face here.

Interim Police Chief Michael Sack demonstrated impressive management of the Oct. 24 mass shooting at Central Visual and Performing Arts High School. Though he claimed no credit for the lightning quick response and resolution of that crisis, he deserves credit for handling himself with authority and aplomb under extreme duress. The big question is whether an insider like Sack can bring enough of a fresh perspective, or whether it takes an outsider like Boone to force the changes required to transform this understaffed police force dogged by low morale and perhaps even lower public confidence.

Tue, 06 Dec 2022 08:12:00 -0600 en text/html
Killexams : International qualifications

A Level






European Baccalaureate (EB)






International Baccalaureate (IB)






Reifeprufung/Matura (Austria)






Certificat d'Enseignement Secondaire (Belgium)






Diploma za sredno obrazovanie (Bulgaria)






Matura (Croatia)






Apolytirion (Cyprus); Apolytirion + A Level

19/91% with required subjects at Advanced level


18.5/88% + A


18/86% + A*A

19/91% with required subjects at Advanced level


18.5/88% + A


18/86% + AA

18.5/88% with required subjects at Advanced level


18/86% + A


17.5/83% + AA

18/86% with required subjects at Advanced level


17.5/83% + A


17/81% + AB

18/86% with required subjects at Advanced level


17.5/83% + A


17/81% + AB

Maturitni Zkousce (Czech Republic)

1, 1, 1, 1

1, 1, 1, 2

1, 1, 2, 2

1, 2, 2, 2

2, 2, 2, 2

Bevis for Studentereksamen (Denmark)

10 with required subjects at high (A) level

10 with required subjects at high (A) level

9 with required subjects at high (A) level

9 with required subjects at high (A) level

8 with required subjects at high (A) level

Gümnaasiumi lõputunnistus and Riigieksamid (State Exams) (Estonia)

4.5 average from GI + 85% average from state exams

4.4 average from GI + 80% average from state exams

4.3 average from GI + 79% average from state exams

4.2 average from GI + 78% average from state exams

4.0 average from GI + 75% average from state exams

Ylioppilastutkintotodistus/ Studentexamensbetyg (Finland)






French Baccalaureate (FB, France)






FB à l'Option Internationale (France)






Abitur (Germany)






Apolytirion (Greece); Apolytirion + A Level



18.5 + A


18 + A*A



18.5 + A


18 + AA



18 + A


17.5 + AA



17.5 + A


17 + AB



17 + B


16.5 + BB

Érettségi (Hungary)

82% overall average, from five subjects. Any pre-requisite subjects must be at Advanced Level.

80% overall average, from five subjects. Any pre-requisite subjects must be at Advanced Level.

80% overall average, from five subjects. Any pre-requisite subjects must be at Advanced Level.

75% overall average, from five subjects. Any pre-requisite subjects must be at Advanced Level.

72% overall average, from five subjects. Any pre-requisite subjects must be at Advanced Level.

Irish Leaving Certificate (ILC, Ireland)

H1 H2 H2 H2 H2 H2

H2 H2 H2 H2 H2 H2

H2 H2 H2 H2 H2 H3

H2 H2 H2 H2 H3 H3

H2 H2 H2 H3 H3 H3

Diploma di Esame di Stato (Italy)

95% overall

90% overall

85% overall

80% overall

75% overall

Atestāts par vispārējo vidējo izglītību (Latvia)

9.6 overall + 87%, 85%, 85% in three state exams

9.5 overall + 85%, 85%, 85% in three state exams

9.2 overall + 85%, 85%, 80% in three state exams

8.7 overall + 85%, 80%, 80% in three state exams

8.5 overall + 80%, 75%, 75% in three state exams

Brandos Atestatas + 3 state exams (Lithuania)

9.5 overall + 87%, 85%, 85% in three state exams

9 overall + 85%, 85%, 85% in three state exams

9 overall + 85%, 85%, 80% in three state exams

8.5 overall + 85%, 80%, 80% in three state exams

8 overall + 80%, 75%, 75% in three state exams

Diplôme de Fin d'Etudes Secondaires (Luxembourg)

48 (final year average)

48 (final year average)

45 (final year average)

44 (final year average)

43 (final year average)

State Matura (Macedonia)

5 overall

5 overall

5 overall

4.5 overall

4 overall

Matriculation Certificate (Malta)






VWO (Netherlands)






Vitnemål (Norway)

An average score of 4.9

An average score of 4.7

An average score of 4.5

An average score of 4.3

An average score of 4.1

Matura (Poland)

New Matura with 3 Extended Level subjects in the 85th percentile

New Matura with 3 Extended Level subjects in the 80th percentile

New Matura with 3 Extended Level subjects in the 75th percentile

New Matura with 3 Extended Level subjects in the 70th percentile

New Matura with 3 Extended Level subjects in the 70th percentile

Certificado de fim de Estudios Secundarios (Portugal)






Diploma de Bacalaureat (Romania)






Vysvedčenie o maturitnej skúške (Slovakia)

1 overall

1 overall

1 overall

2 overall

2 overall

Maturitetno Spricevalo (Slovenia)






Titulo de Bachillerato (Spain)






Slutbeytg (Sweden)

Successful completion of 2500 credits, with 85% of subjects at grade A

Successful completion of 2500 credits, with 80% of subjects at grade A

Successful completion of 2500 credits, with 75% of subjects at grade A

Successful completion of 2500 credits, with 50% of subjects at grade A, all other subjects at grade C or above

Successful completion of 2500 credits, with all subjects at grade B or above

Certificat de Maturité/ Maturitätszeugnis/ Maturitätsausweis/ Attestato di Maturità (Switzerland)






Mon, 07 Nov 2022 03:31:00 -0600 en text/html
Killexams : University of Johannesburg making AI courses compulsory for all qualifications No result found, try new keyword!The University of Johannesburg is making artificial intelligence (AI) courses compulsory in all qualifications offered at the learning institution. The news came from the Department of ... Thu, 01 Dec 2022 10:00:00 -0600 en-US text/html Killexams : FG mulls employing 350 ex-militants with relevant qualifications

This website is using a security service to protect itself from online attacks. The action you just performed triggered the security solution. There are several actions that could trigger this block including submitting a certain word or phrase, a SQL command or malformed data.

Sat, 12 Nov 2022 09:42:00 -0600 en-US text/html
Killexams : JRA CEO Mahanuke placed on special leave as qualifications questioned

Tshepo Mahanuke’s special leave comes after Johannesburg Mayor Mpho Phalatse called for an investigation into the allegations.

FILE: JRA CEO Tshepo Mahanuke (in high visibility jacket) addresses staff outside JRA head office. Picture: @MyJRA/Twitter

JOHANNESBURG - The Johannesburg Roads Agency (JRA) has placed the utility’s CEO, Tshepo Mahanuke, on special leave with immediate effect after allegations surfaced that he submitted dubious qualifications when he applied for the post.

Mahanuke’s qualifications were called into question this week after it emerged that his honorary doctorate from the Trinity International University of Ambassadors could be bought for a small "support honorarium", while his degree in competitive intelligence, supposedly from the Harvard University, does not exist.

The CEO allegedly also insisted that his staff call him "doctor" or "professor" despite him not having the qualification.

Mahanuke’s special leave comes after Johannesburg Mayor Mpho Phalatse called for an investigation into the allegations.

The JRA says he will remain on leave until the outcome of the re-authentication of his qualifications.

Thu, 17 Nov 2022 03:54:00 -0600 en text/html
Killexams : Jail for man who used forged qualifications to land jobs for more than 10 years

SINGAPORE - A man who forged university degrees was able to get hired in many finance positions, getting away with his scheme for more than a decade.

Since 2009, Yeoh Keng Swee, 55, forged degrees, certificates and transcripts, which he then used to get hired by 11 companies.

He held finance and audit positions in nine of these companies, including one where he was the company’s chief financial officer.

But his long paper trail of forged qualifications was uncovered when Nanyang Technological University (NTU) filed a police report against him in January 2021.

The report said the school had received a request for degree verification, and that the degree submitted by Yeoh was forged.

On Thursday, Yeoh was jailed for 15 months after pleading guilty to three counts of forgery for the purposes of cheating.

Another 10 similar charges were taken into consideration for sentencing.

In July 2019, Yeoh forged the following documents:

  • A Bachelor of Accountancy degree certificate from NTU;
  • A Bachelor of Accountancy with Honours degree certificate from NTU;
  • An official transcript from NTU;
  • A Singapore-Cambridge General Certificate of Education (Ordinary Level) from the Ministry of Education;
  • A Master of Science in Business Administration degree certificate from Andrews University;
  • An academic transcript from Andrews University;
  • A certificate stating that he was a Certified Practising Accountant from the Australian Society of Certified Practising Accountants; and
  • A Certificate of Membership as a Chartered Accountant of Singapore from the Institute of Singapore Chartered Accountants.

He used these documents to apply to be the chief financial officer of Boon Chang Structure and started work in September 2019.

But his work performance was poor and drew many complaints.

He resigned in December 2019, claiming his eyesight was failing, but was paid wages of about $14,000 in total.

In January 2020, he forged the same documents he used for his Boon Chang job application, and applied for the finance director post at Gain City Best-Electric.

He started work in February 2020, but was terminated in July 2020 after failing the performance criteria.

He was paid about $51,000 in total.

According to court documents, the other companies that hired him from 2009 to 2015 based on forged qualifications are:

  • Paul Wan & Co;
  • Verita Advanced Wellness;
  • Tri-Star Industries;
  • Adventist Nursing & Rehabilitation Centre;
  • Bentz Jaz Singapore;
  • Huaxin Agrimarine Holdings;
  • Risis;
  • Contineo Media; and
  • Karay Holdings.

Yeoh forged the qualifications by searching for copies online and printing them out to use as templates.

He printed his name and details on another piece of paper, cut them out and pasted them over the templates before photocopying the edited templates to create the forged copies.

In December 2020, he applied for a job as a construction project manager at Success Forever Construction using forged documents.

But during the interviews, he could not properly answer questions testing his technical knowledge.

When he overheard the interviewer and her employer discussing the verification of his qualifications, he withdrew his job application and asked the interviewer to destroy the documents he had submitted before leaving.

At the start of his hearing on Thursday afternoon, Yeoh had tried asking the court to stop the media from reporting on his case.

He said that his relatives, family and friends would be affected.

Senior District Judge Ong Hian Sun then informed him that there was no gag order on the case, which was being heard in open court.

The court heard that after his arrest, Yeoh worked as a kitchen assistant cum cashier, earning about $1,000 a month.

His lawyer, Ms Audrey Koo, asked the court for leniency, saying her client could not afford restitution, and suffered from high blood pressure and kidney disease.

Deputy Public Prosecutor Lee Zu Zhao said the prosecution was aware Yeoh may not have the means to make compensation, and did not seek an order for one.

For each count of forgery for the purpose of cheating, Yeoh could have been jailed for up to 10 years and fined.

Thu, 24 Nov 2022 03:20:00 -0600 en text/html
Killexams : Here Are The Educational Qualifications Of The 7 Highest-Paid Executives In The Country

What does it take to become the best of the best and earn more than the rest? Well, academically speaking, it could range from Engineering to Chartered Accountancy. To dig a little deeper, we decided to have a look at the educational qualifications of the highest-paid CEOs in the country. Have a look!

1. C Vijayakumar – CEO HCL Tech | BTech

C Vijayakumar is one of the highest-paid executives and received ₹123 crores in 2021. He holds an Engineering degree in Electrical and Electronics Engineering from PSG College of Technology, Tamil Nadu. After graduating in 1990 he joined HCL Tech as an R&D Engineer and has stayed with the company ever since, and became the CEO in October 2016.

educational qualifications of highest-paid CEOs of India
HCL Technologies

2. Salil Parekh – CEO & MD Infosys | MTech

Salil Parekh is the CEO and Managing Director of Infosys. He received a remuneration of ₹71 lakhs in FY20-21, which increased to around ₹80 crores upon the extension of his term for five more years. When it comes to degrees, he holds quite a few. He has Master of Engineering degrees in Computer Science and Mechanical Engineering from Cornell University, and a Bachelor of Technology degree in Aeronautical Engineering from the Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay.

educational qualifications of highest-paid CEOs of India

3. C P Gurnani – CEO & MD Tech Mahindra | BTech

C P Gurnani is the CEO and Managing Director of Tech Mahindra. In 2021-22, he received a remuneration of ₹63.4 crores. He has done his Bachelor of Engineering from NIT Rourkela, Orissa. He has worked for Tech Mahindra for over 18 years.

educational qualifications of highest-paid CEOs of India

4. S N Subrahmanyan – CEO & MD L&T | MBA

S N Subrahmanyan is the CEO and Managing Director of Larsen & Toubro India and received a salary of ₹61.27 crores in the Financial Year 2022. He completed his graduation in Civil Engineering from NIT Kurukshetra. He then did his MBA from Symbiosis Institute of Business Management, Pune followed by an Executive Management Programme from the London Business School.

5. Rajesh Gopinathan – CEO & MD TCS | PGDM

Rajesh Gopinathan is the CEO & Managing Director of Tata Consultancy Services and received ₹25.75 crores as remuneration for the year 2021-22. He holds a Bachelor of Engineering degree from NIT, Tiruchirappalli. He also holds a PGDM from IIM, Ahmedabad.

educational qualifications of highest-paid CEOs
Forbes India

6. Sanjiv Mehta – CEO & MD HUL | CA

Sanjiv Mehta is the CEO and Managing Director of Hindustan Unilever Limited and earned a remuneration of ₹22 crores in the previous year. He is a Chartered Accountant and has also done an Advanced Management Program at Harvard Business School.

educational qualifications of highest-paid CEOs in India
Business Today

7. Suresh Narayanan – CEO & MD Nestle India | Masters in Economics

Suresh Narayanan is the Chairman and Managing Director of Nestle India. He was the highest-paid FMCG CEO, receiving remuneration of ₹18.8 crores. He has done his Economics Honours from Shri Ram College of Commerce followed by a Masters in Economics from Delhi School of Economics. He has a Diploma from the IMD Program for Executive Development and has participated in the Nestlé Leadership Program of the London Business School.

educational qualifications of highest-paid CEOs
Fri, 18 Nov 2022 20:57:00 -0600 en text/html
Killexams : Area districts hiring more teachers with emergency, alternative qualifications (Metro Newspaper Service)

Some local school districts say they have had to resort to hiring teachers through emergency qualifications to fill theor instructional ranks.

Dallas Morning News and reported in October that as schools across the South grapple with teacher shortages, many are turning to candidates without teaching certificates or formal training.

Area districts like Texarkana ISD, Texarkana Arkansas School District and Redwater ISD have implemented either emergency or alternative hiring qualifications to fill certain positions.

Answer a related Daily Poll question at

"TISD is hiring more teachers with emergency certifications than we have in the past, which is a statewide trend. Our priority is to always find top talent, with a focus on student-centered philosophies," according to a TISD statement sent to the Texarkana Gazette last month.


Print Headline: Area districts hiring more teachers with emergency, alternative qualifications

Sat, 12 Nov 2022 14:02:00 -0600 en text/html
Killexams : Scottish ministers attacked for 'rebadging not reforming' embattled and scrapped Scottish Qualifications Authority

The education secretary has been attacked for failing to truly embrace the reform of Scotland’s education system after confirming a key agency’s responsibilities will barely change.

This goes against the recommendation by Professor Ken Muir in his wide-ranging report into the reform of Scottish education to separate the two functions and create a new body responsible for the awarding of test results.

The education secretary said there were “significant benefits” to including the two functions in the new qualifications body due to be set up alongside a new national agency.

However, this decision has been criticised by opposition politicians, who accused the Government of failing to follow expert advice around the future of Scottish education and of rebranding existing parts of the system rather than reforming them.

Scottish Labour’s education spokesperson Michael Marra said: “This is just the latest example of the SNP-Green Government going back on its promises and sweeping the big issues under the carpet.

“This is the first major test of whether the Scottish Government is serious about the findings of the Muir review and it has completely failed it. This is a blatant refusal to follow the expert advice.

“This flies in the face of both the research and the response that the Scottish Government made to the research in this area. This decision confirms the continuation of a status quo, which has caused many of the present problems in the SQA. With reform boards stuffed with insiders, many people have suspected that the reforms are a rebrand under the same management – this is the proof.”

Willie Rennie, the Scottish Liberal Democrat MSP, said it was a demonstration the Government “prefers education rebadging to education reform”, adding the reform appears to only change the name on the front door.

He said: “Parents and pupils will feel let down by this timidity and sleight of hand and this will also be a disappointment to the many teachers who engaged in the consultation exercise in good faith, only to discover that the review means nothing. If the outcome is just the same old, same old, what was the point of the exercise?”

Ms Somerville said: “The Scottish Government is taking forward sweeping reform, which will result in the creation of a new qualifications and a new national education agency. To suggest otherwise is wholly incorrect.

“The initial proposal to hand responsibility for accreditation to the new national education agency would have raised issues over its independence from government. That is not something that we could support and our plan ensures independence of accreditation will be guaranteed in law.

“The Scottish Government has decided that accreditation and regulation functions will sit best with the new qualifications body following feedback and engagement with experts.”

Want to hear more from The Scotsman's politics team? Check out the latest episode of our political podcast, The Steamie.

Wed, 30 Nov 2022 18:37:00 -0600 en text/html
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