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Palo Alto Networks Certified Security Engineer (PCNSE PAN-OS 9.0)
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Aruba Networks certifications

Aruba Certified Switching Professional (ACSP)

Aruba Certified Mobility Associate (ACMA)

Aruba Certified Mobility Professional (ACMP)

Established program with various learning tracks and a range of certifications.

Certifications identify technical knowledge and skills, design, deployment, and management in complex settings. 

BICSI certifications

BICSI Technician (TECH)

Focused on supporting information technology systems, BICSI is a professional association with more than 26,000 members in approximately 100 countries.

The TECH credential is a midlevel certification targeting those with 1-3 years of documented industry experience.

The credential identifies professionals who understand and can apply installation-specific information, lead installation teams, perform testing and troubleshooting on copper and optical fiber installations, evaluate applications of cabling installation, make recommendations regarding codes and standards, and perform retrofits and upgrades for existing infrastructures.

Cisco certifications

Cisco Certified Network Associate Routing and Switching (CCNA)

Cisco Certified Network Professional Enterprise Certification and Training (CCNP Enterprise)

CCIE Enterprise Infrastructure Certification and Training

CCIE Enterprise Wireless Certification and Training

Cisco has a well-known and highly developed certification portfolio.

Certifications in this category are aimed at candidates interested in building careers in wired and wireless networking techniques and technologies, network design, or routing and switching technologies.

Certification paths range from entry level to expert.

Certifications are targeted to network specialists, administrators, support engineers and design engineers. 

CIW (Certified Internet Web Professional) 

CIW Network Technology Associate

Entry-level certification developed by CIW (formerly called Certification Partners).

The target audience includes technical sales, support engineers, network administrators, product managers and engineers.

Content focuses on mastering the basics of networking and exploring key concepts, skills and core terms to prepare candidates for job readiness in networking, internet protocols, network security, and more.

CompTIA certifications

CompTIA Network+

This is one of the most popular general networking certifications in the world.

It targets candidates seeking careers as network administrators, technicians or installers, help desk technicians, and IT cable installers.

Recognized or required by the Department of Defense, Dell, HP, Ricoh, Sharp and Xerox. Also required for Apple Consultants Network membership.

Certified Wireless Network Professional (CWNP)

Certified Wireless Network Administrator (CWNA)

Certified Wireless Design Professional (CWDP)

Certified Wireless Analysis Professional (CWAP)

Certified Wireless Network Expert (CWNE)

Established certification program offering a full complement of certifications ranging from entry-level to professional career certifications.

Certifications focus on enterprise Wi-Fi skills.

CWNP also offers Certified Wireless Security Professional (CWSP) and Certified Wireless Network Trainer (CWNT) credentials.

Electronics Technicians Association (ETA) International certifications

Computer Service Technician (CST)

Information Technology Security (ITS)

Network Computer Technician (NCT)

Network Systems Technician (NST)

Wireless Network Technician (WNT)

ETA offers more than 90 certifications targeting electronics professionals.

ETA is accredited by the International Certification Accreditation Council and has issued more than 180,000 certifications.

Extreme Networks certifications

Extreme Networks Certified Specialist (ECS)

Extreme Networks Sales Specialist (ESS)

​​Extreme Networks Design Specialist (EDS)

These technical certifications focus on practical, hands-on training to support and optimize an organization’s networks.

Multiple concentrations are available.

Hurricane Electric Internet Services certifications

Hurricane Electric IPv6 Certification

This free online certification project validates skills in basic IPv6 concepts.

Certification test includes IP address format, reverse DNS, localhost address, default routing, documentation prefix, link-local prefix, multicast prefix, traceroute, and IPv6 server configuration.

IPv6 Forum certifications

IPv6 Forum Silver or Gold Certified Engineer

The IPv6 Education Certification Logo Program promotes IPv6 education and helps candidates build skills to foster swifter adoption of IPv6.

Courses focus on practical application and consist of both instructor-led and hands-on lab instruction.

Juniper Networks certifications

Juniper Networks Certified Specialist Enterprise Routing and Switching (JNCIS-ENT)

Juniper Networks Certified Professional Enterprise Routing and Switching (JNCIP-ENT)

Juniper Networks Certified Expert Enterprise Routing and Switching (JNCIE-ENT)

JNCIS-ENT, JNCIP-ENT and JNCIE-ENT are vendor-specific credentials that address installation and support of LAN/WAN routers and switches in Juniper Networks’ technology-based networks.

Credential holders possess skills necessary to support large enterprise environments.

Nokia certifications

Nokia Network Routing Specialist II (NRS II)

This certification is for intermediate network professionals experienced with IP and Ethernet technologies.

NRS II certification recognizes advanced networking and service offerings that build on core aspects of Nokia service routing. The certification covers internet routing protocols, IP/MPLS networks, and implementing Nokia Layer 2 and Layer 3 services.

Note that Alcatel-Lucent operates as part of the Nokia Group. This certification was known as the Alcatel-Lucent Network Routing Specialist II (NRS II), and some study guides still refer to it as such.

Oracle certifications

Oracle Certified Expert, Oracle Solaris 11 Network Administrator 

Oracle has a well-established vendor-specific certification program. This certification validates the technical skills of system administrators who work with LANs and the Oracle Solaris operating system (Oracle Solaris OS).

The credential was formerly Sun Certified Network Administrator (SCNA).

Palo Alto certifications

Palo Alto Networks Certified Network Security Engineer (PCNSE)

PCNSE credential holders possess knowledge and technical skills necessary to install, configure and implement Palo Alto Networks technologies at the advanced engineering level.

The credential is targeted to partners, system engineers, system integrators, support engineers, pre-sales system engineers, support staff or anyone using Palo Alto Network technologies.

Riverbed Professional Services (RPS) certifications

Riverbed Certified Performance Engineering (RCPE)

The Riverbed Certified Performance Engineering (RCPE) program has several tracks, including WAN optimization, network and infrastructure visibility, network configuration, and more. Courses span foundational, associate and professional levels. 

RPS changed its education program from product-focused how-tos to a learning environment that teaches how to consider business needs, obstacles and solutions.

SolarWinds certifications

SolarWinds Certified Professional (SCP)

Credential validates skills in networking management fundamentals, network management planning, network management operations, network fault and performance troubleshooting, and Orion NPM administration.

The SCP is an accredited certification.

Wireshark certifications

WCNA Certification

Vendor-specific credential for professionals who use Wireshark to analyze network traffic and then use that information to troubleshoot, optimize and secure networks.

Wireshark is considered the de facto open-source product for network protocol analysis, with more than 400,000 downloads per month.

The WCNA test was certified by the U.S. Army in 2009 and covers Wireshark functionality, TCP/IP network communications, and network troubleshooting and security.

Tue, 28 Jun 2022 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.businessnewsdaily.com/10776-networking-career.html
Killexams : Staff and Advisors

Peyton is also a former Spanish and linguistics teacher in high school and university programs. She is co-editor of two major volumes on heritage languages in the United States: Handbook of Heritage, Community, and Native American Languages in the United States: Research, Policy, and Educational Practice (2014) and Heritage Languages in America: Preserving a National Resource (2002) and of a special issue of the Heritage Language Journal (2013) on the vitality of heritage languages in the United States. In collaboration with other language educators and researchers, she co-established the Alliance for the Advancement of Heritage Languages and is a member of the editorial advisory board of the Heritage Language Journal.


Ting Shen

Dr. Ting Shen is Project Associate of CELIN at Asia Society. She is currently a Senior Director of Research Development at AIBE and has years of experience teaching Chinese in high schools (2006-2010) and university (2011-2016) in the United States. She works on curriculum and materials development, professional development, and international education exchange. She holds a BA from Peking University and a Ph.D. from the University of Florida.


Cleopatra Wise

Cleopatra Wise is the Director for Asia Society's Center for Global Education, China Learning Initiatives (CLI). She is responsible for managing the CLI team and executing programs that promote Chinese language learning among young people in the United States.

Before joining Asia Society, Cleopatra served as an International Program Manager at Peking University for seven years. During her time there, she spearheaded the school's global outreach and special initiatives.

Cleopatra holds a BA in International Relations from the University of Southern California. She also earned an MBA from the Guanghua School of Management at Peking University.

Cleopatra is a Florida native and speaks fluent Mandarin Chinese and Krio.


Anthony Jackson

Dr. Anthony Jackson leads Asia Society's work in global education, which strives to enable all students to graduate high school prepared for college, for work in the global economy, and for 21st century global citizenship.

Jackson oversees the Center for Global Education at Asia Society, a global platform for collaboratively advancing education for global competence for all. The Center’s multifaceted approach includes the International Studies Schools Network, a network of over 30 schools around the United States that systematically integrate a global focus within the curriculum; Global Learning Beyond School, which supports globalizing youth programs including afterschool and community programs; the Global Cities Education Network, a learning community of high performing Asian and North American urban school districts dedicated to solving common high priority problems of practice and policy; and China Learning Initiatives, which provide national leadership to support learning of Chinese language and culture.

Trained in both developmental psychology and education, Jackson is one of the nation’s leading experts on secondary school education reform and adolescent development. Jackson directed the Carnegie Corporation’s Task Force on the Education of Young Adolescents which produced the ground breaking report Turning Points: Educating Adolescents in the 21st Century, and co-authored the seminal follow-up blueprint Turning Points 2000, considered one of the most influential books on middle school reform. His most accurate work is Educating for Global Competence: Preparing Our Youth to Engage the World.

Jackson holds a BA from the University of California at Berkeley, and MA and PhD in Education and Psychology from the University of Michigan.


Yang Guo

Yang Guo is the Assistant Director of Partner Schools for China Learning Initiatives at Asia Society's Center for Global Education, where she manages a nationwide school network and executes educational programs to make Mandarin language approachable for all. She is passionate about cross-cultural communication and education exchanges. She has organized dozens of nationwide and international conferences and student exchange programs.


Maquita AlexanderMaquita Alexander

Maquita Alexander is the Head of School of Washington Yu Ying Public Charter School. She served as the Principal of the school from 2009–2012. She has led the school's development of its the immersion and International Baccalaureate program. She has successfully set and met both internal program goals and DC educational targets.

Maquita has worked closely with the Chinese program team to develop effective classroom management strategies for new immersion teachers. She has more than 19 years of teaching and administrative experience, including 15 years in the Fairfax County Public School system and eight years as an elementary school teacher. She has a Master of Arts in Educational Technology Leadership from George Washington University, a Master of Teaching, Elementary Education from Virginia Commonwealth University, and an administrative certification in Curriculum and Administration from George Mason University.


Michele Anciaux AokiMichele Anciaux Aoki

Michele Anciaux Aoki is an International Education and World Languages Advocate, who recently retired as International Education Administrator for Seattle Public Schools, where she was responsible for developing and supporting the ten international schools in the district and their K-12 dual immersion programs in Japanese, Mandarin Chinese, and Spanish. She was also Co-Director of the Confucius Institute of the State of Washington.

From 2008 to 2014, Michele served as World Languages Program Supervisor at the Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction (OSPI), where she provided technical support on world language standards and assessment to 295 public school districts and professional development for world language teachers across the state. She also worked with the State Board of Education and Washington State School Directors Association on developing and implementing a model policy and procedure for Competency-Based Credits to award high school credits to students with demonstrated language proficiency and was project director on a grant from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to support the Road Map World Language Credit Program. She was instrumental in introducing the Seal of Biliteracy in Washington State. Since 2011, Michele has partnered with the University of Washington on their Russian STARTALK Teacher and Student Program. Michele has a Ph.D. in Slavic Linguistics and taught Russian language and English as a Second Language at the University of Washington for a number of years and as a Fulbright lecturer in Romania. She has received two leadership awards from the Washington Association for Language Teaching (WAFLT) as well as the Consul General Award from the Consul General of Japan, and continues to volunteer as an advocate for languages.


Michael BaconMichael Bacon

Michael Bacon works as the Portland Public Schools (PPS) Assistant Director for Dual Language Immersion, which provides program, professional, and curriculum development for 15 immersion programs in Spanish, Japanese, Mandarin, Russian, and Vietnamese in 24 K–12 schools.

Bacon also directs the K–12 portion of the NSEP-funded K–16 Oregon Chinese Flagship grant in collaboration with the University of Oregon. In collaboration with the Rand Corporation and American Councils, he is involved in three studies on the Effectiveness of Dual Language Immersion on Student Achievement in PPS, funded by the U.S. Department of Education’s Institute of Education Sciences. Bacon frequently presents and conducts workshops at local and national conferences on various aspects of immersion education and currently serves as President of the Dual Language Immersion Special Interest Group of ACTFL. He has 19 years of teaching and administrative experience in immersion education.


Sue BergSusan Berg

Sue Berg is CEO/Executive Director of Yinghua Academy, a full immersion Mandarin Chinese K–8 school in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The school opened in 2006, as the first public charter Chinese immersion school in the U.S. and the first Chinese immersion school in the Midwest.

Berg is a seasoned PS–12 global educator with background in traditional public school, charter school, and private international school settings. With a strong foundation in successful classroom teaching, she has expertise in curriculum design and delivery, the creation of internal and external assessments, teacher training, performance evaluation, and maximizing student learning. After twenty years in educational administration, specializing in new and developing schools, she strives to be a transformative leader who focuses on establishing systems, building effective and efficient teams, and developing strong relationships among all stakeholders.


Jeffrey BissellJeffrey W. Bissell

Dr. Jeffrey W. Bissell is Head of School at Chinese American International School (CAIS), where he has overseen the establishment of an innovative framework for curriculum development allowing for the effective integration of Chinese and English across multiple disciplines.

CAIS, the nation's oldest Chinese/English dual language immersion school, is located in San Francisco, California. Bissell has also led CAIS’s strategic initiative to develop language-based experiential learning programs for CAIS students in China and Taiwan. He is the former resident director of School Year Abroad (SYA) in Beijing China, chair of the Board of Trustees at Western Academy of Beijing, and adjunct professor of Chinese language at Marquette University in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. He has lived in China and Taiwan for a total of 15 years.


Tara Fortune

Dr. Tara W. Fortune is a teacher educator, researcher, and founder of Tara Fortune Consulting, LLC. She specializes in strategic planning and support for dual language and immersion (DLI) education. For over 20 years she served as Director of the Immersion Research and Professional Development Project at the Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition (CARLA), University of Minnesota. In this role she partnered with veteran practitioners and leading immersion researchers to offer professional learning experiences that bridge research and practice. Her work has involved a wide range of DLI program models and languages in schools, districts, state agencies, universities, and non-profit organizations throughout the U.S. and abroad. Fortune's publications include two co-edited research volumes on immersion education, a research-to-practice handbook on struggling immersion learners, and articles in journals such as Foreign Language Annals, Modern Language Journal, Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, and the Journal of Content-Based and Immersion Education. In 2016, she received the U.S. Paul Pimsleur Award for Research in Foreign Language Education.


Ann Marie G. Gunter

Ann Marie Gunter is World Language Consultant at the North Carolina Department of Public Instruction, where she focuses on initiatives involving the professional development, support, and implementation of the proficiency-based North Carolina World Language Essential Standards.

She also works with LinguaFolio, dual language/immersion programs, and global education initiatives pertaining to language. (There are over 200 dual language/immersion programs in North Carolina, which encompass 8 languages—Cherokee, Chinese, French, German, Greek, Japanese, Spanish, and Urdu—across 47 districts, 8 charter schools, and 6 independent schools.) Her dissertation research explored the reasons why local policymakers decide to launch a dual language/immersion program, and she has served as President of the National Council of State Supervisors for Languages (NCSSFL). Currently, she is an officer with ACTFL’s Immersion Special Interest Group (SIG).


Robin HarveyRobin Harvey

Robin Harvey is a Clinical Assistant Professor of Foreign Language Education, TESOL, and Bilingual Education in New York University’s Steinhardt School of Culture, Education and Human Development, where she focuses on teaching foreign language in elementary school and early immersion education.

She is director of NYU's Project for Developing Chinese Language Teachers (DCLT) and former program director of NYU’s STARTALK Immersion Training Program for Teachers of Chinese (Grades 1-6). Harvey is co-author (with Pauline Huang) of Rhythms and Tones: Inventive Songs & Chants for Learning Chinese (Chinasprout, 2010), and Rhythms and Tones 2 (Chinasprout, 2012).


Sharon HuangSharon Huang

Sharon Huang is the founder and executive director of HudsonWay Immersion School, a Mandarin and Spanish immersion school for children ages 2 to grade 8, with campuses in New Jersey and New York City. She started HudsonWay in 2005 after being unable to find a Mandarin immersion preschool for her then-2-year-old twin sons.  The school has over 200 students across both campuses and has recently been accredited by the Middle States Association. The school is a pioneer in the greater NYC market and has grown to encompass preschool through middle school, with other programs such as summer camps and online after-school programs.

Formerly employed as a marketing executive of companies such as Nabisco International, AirTouch, and Weightwatchers.com, Sharon and her husband are now fully devoted to the entrepreneurial mission of HudsonWay.


Janis JensenJanis Jensen

Janis Jensen is an independent consultant for world languages and global education. She also serves as Program Director for STARTALK Grant Projects at Kean University that includes oversight of Hindi and Urdu Student and Teacher Programs and the newly developed Master’s degree program in Hindi and Urdu Language Pedagogy.

She is program liaison to the Kean University Graduate School of Education and teaches several graduate courses. Janis previously served as Director of the School for Global Education and Innovation at Kean, responsible for professional development initiatives focusing on 21st century learning and teaching and global education. She has also served as Director of the Office of Academic Standards at the NJ Department of Education, where she oversaw the development and implementation of the NJ Core Curriculum Content Standards and educational technology. Prior to that appointment, she coordinated the implementation of world languages and international education policies, programs, and initiatives at the department. She is past president of NCSSFL, NNELL, and NJ ASCD. She co-authored the ASCD publication, The Essentials of World Languages, Grades K-12: Effective Curriculum, Instruction, and Assessment.


Yu-Lan LinYu-Lan Lin

Dr. Yu-Lan Lin has been a teacher/administrator for 34 years. She recently retired as the Executive Director of the Chinese Language Association of Secondary-Elementary Schools (CLASS) and is also the former Senior Program Director of World Languages for Boston Public Schools.

In 2004, Dr. Lin was selected to serve on the Chinese AP Task Force Committee for the College Board, and in 2005, she served as Content Advisor for the AP Chinese Program. From 2008–2012, she served on the AP Chinese Curriculum and Assessment Development Committee. She serves on the World Language Advisory Committee and the Academy Assembly Committee for the College Board. Her publications include co-authorship of the CLASS Professional Standards for K–12 Chinese Teachers. She is the recipient of MaFLA’s Distinguished Service Award, NECTFL’s Nelson H. Brooks Award for Outstanding Leadership in the Profession, and ACTFL’s Florence Steiner Award for Leadership in K–12 Foreign Language Education.


Chris LivaccariChris Livaccari

Christopher M. Livaccari is an educator, author, and former U.S. diplomat who held posts in Tokyo and Shanghai. He is the Head of Presidio Knolls School (PKS) in San Francisco and was the Senior Advisor for China Learning Initiatives in Asia Society’s Center for Global Education in New York.

Chris was formerly Principal and Chinese Program Director at International School of the Peninsula (now Silicon Valley International School) in Palo Alto, CA and the Director of Education and Chinese Language Initiatives at Asia Society, where he created a national network of almost 40,000 students in more than 100 U.S. schools in 28 states that teach Chinese, and their partner schools across 23 provinces in China. He has been a member of the board of trustees of Chinese American International School (CAIS) in San Francisco and was named an honorary lifetime member of the Chinese Language Teachers Association of Greater New York.

Chris is the author of New Ways of Seeing: How Multilingualism Opens Our Eyes and Trains Our Minds for a Complex World (Asia Society, 2017), and co-author of Structures of Mandarin Chinese for Speakers of English I & II (Peking University Press, 2012-2013), Chinese Language Learning in the Early Grades (Asia Society, 2012), and the Chinese for Tomorrow series (Cheng & Tsui, 2007-2009).

Chris has been a featured speaker at the Aspen Ideas Festival, has spoken on Chinese language education at the British Museum in London, and was the recipient of the U.S. State Department’s Meritorious Honor Award, citing outstanding speeches written for two U.S. ambassadors to Japan.

Tenured as a U.S. Foreign Service Officer in 2003, Chris served as a press officer for multiple visits to Asia by two U.S. presidents and two secretaries of state. He was the founding director of the High School for Language and Diplomacy and a founding member of the faculty at CSI High School for International Studies. Both schools were members of the Asia Society International Studies Schools Network (ISSN), a national initiative to create globally focused public schools with the support of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

Chris has been a teacher of Chinese, Japanese, English, and History and studied modern Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and Russian literature at Columbia University; Classical Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and Sanskrit literature at the University of Chicago; and applied linguistics at New York University. His essays and articles have appeared in Foreign Policy, AGNI, The Aspen Institute, Asia Society, and Education Week.


Tommy LuTommy Lu

Dr. Tommy Lu has been actively developing and gathering information about Chinese community-based schools for over 20 years. He is interested in building a platform for all community-based schools using the community of practice approach, so that every community member can collaborate with others and share what they have learned.

Dr. Lu is a retired educator in the Information Technologies field. He is also actively involved with Chinese language teaching in the heritage school system. He has served as a Chinese history teacher; language teacher, where most of his students received a 5 on the AP Chinese exams; curriculum director, where he developed and implemented aligned curriculum using ACTFL’s language proficiency levels for both heritage and non-heritage tracks; and vice principal and principal of the Chinese School of Delaware. Through the years, he has made presentations at international, national, and regional conferences and local schools regarding his research and practice in Chinese heritage schools. He has also served in leadership positions in language organizations, including the ACTFL Heritage Language SIG, ACS (Association of Chinese Schools), and NCACLS (National Council of Association of Chinese Language Schools). He is now a core team member of the National Coalition of Community-Based Heritage Language Schools.


Stacy Lyon

Stacy Lyon is the Utah Chinese Dual Language Immersion (DLI) Director, overseeing 16,000+ students in the growing K-12 program, since 2013. Her aim is to build a world-class Chinese immersion program that is accessible to all public school students. In this role she focuses on curriculum development; training and supporting nearly 250 native Chinese teachers in delivering high-quality, proficiency-based instruction to U.S. students; and supporting administrators in unified program implementation. In 2014, she initiated a collaboration that resulted in a widely used immersion-specific literacy curriculum for K-8 students, and she maintains a strong interest in pursuing research on Chinese literacy development with non-native learners.

Currently she is involved with expanding partnerships in China and Taiwan to benefit students in the DLI program, and regularly collaborates on teacher training projects with the Center for Language Education and Cooperation at Beijing Language and Culture University. She has a B.S. from Brigham Young University in Early Childhood/Elementary Education, an M.A. from the University of Washington, and administrator certification from Utah State University. She studied Chinese at Northeast Normal University, and lived in Taiwan for 12 years.


Rita OleksakRita Oleksak

Rita A. Oleksak is the Director of World Languages/ELL for the Glastonbury Public Schools. She oversees a staff of 60 foreign language teachers and ELL tutors and is responsible for their hiring and direct supervision. Her work focuses on building target language proficiency across the modes of communication in a grade 1-12 articulated and sequential program.

In 2009, Glastonbury was named one of the first 20 Confucius Classroom cohorts. Glastonbury has also been funded for 13 STARTALK summer programs including Arabic, Chinese, and Russian teachers and students. Rita currently serves on the STARTALK task force. She is past president of the Joint National Committee for Languages-National Council for Languages and International Studies (JNCL-NCLIS), the language professional national lobbying organization. Rita also served on the K-16 Academic Alliances Committee for the Modern Language Association (MLA). She is past president of the National Network for Early Language Learning (NNELL) as well as the National Association of District Supervisors of Foreign Languages (NADSFL) and The American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL). As president of ACTFL, Rita had the honor of addressing a Senate Sub Committee to present ten legislative priorities for language learning in the United States. She is also the past president of the Massachusetts Foreign Language Association (MaFLA) and former co-chair of the K-16 Foreign Language Teachers of Western Massachusetts Collaborative.

She served as one of the original organizing partners of the LILL Leadership Team. In 2013, Rita was honored to be awarded the NADSFL – Pearson Supervisor of the Year Award. In 2015, she received the ACTFL Florence Steiner Award for Leadership in Foreign Language Education K-12. Under Rita’s leadership, Glastonbury Public Schools was awarded the 2017 ACTFL Melba D. Woodruff Award.


Nancy RhodesNancy Rhodes

Nancy C. Rhodes is a Senior Fellow at the Center for Applied Linguistics (CAL) and a specialist in foreign language education for children, with a focus on language education research, instructional program design, professional development, and program evaluation. As director of World Language Education at CAL, she conducted numerous language education studies, including a series of three federally funded national surveys of K–12 foreign language instruction that provide a portrait of language teaching across the country (Foreign Language Teaching in U.S. Schools: Results of a National Survey, Rhodes & Pufahl, 2010). She has also authored or co-authored Fostering Foreign Language Proficiency: What the U.S. Can Learn from Other Countries (2005), Elementary School Foreign Language Teaching: Lessons Learned Over Three Decades (Foreign Language Annals, 2014), and Language Immersion: Celebrating 40 Years of Growth (2012). She is a founding member and former Executive Secretary of the National Network for Early Language Learning.


Deborah W. RobinsonDeborah W. Robinson

Dr. Deborah W. Robinson serves as K–12 strategist and consultant to The Language Flagship. She has extensive experience in the K–16 arena, having taught French and Spanish in elementary, immersion, afterschool, summer, and traditional secondary and postsecondary programs.

She also was an assistant professor at The Ohio State University, developing pre-service and international teachers. Prior to joining the Flagship, Robinson served 11 years as World Languages Consultant at the Ohio Department of Education (ODE) and was recognized by the National Council of State Supervisors for Languages as the 2010 State Supervisor of the Year. At ODE, she facilitated the development of standards and curriculum and provided leadership on projects, including a U.S. Department of Education FLAP grant to develop a model K–4 Chinese curriculum. She also led a taskforce on the institutional impact of the National Standards for Foreign Language Learning through a Title VI International Research and Studies grant to ACTFL.


Paul Sandrock

Paul Sandrock, Director of Education at ACTFL, the national organization for language educators, directs ACTFL’s professional development and initiatives around standards, curriculum, instruction, and performance assessment. Previously, Paul was Assistant Director of Content and Learning at the Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction, coordinating the areas of English language arts, mathematics, international education, and world languages. He earlier served as that agency’s state-wide consultant for world languages. Paul taught Spanish for 16 years in middle school and high school and authored The Keys to Assessing Language Performance and Planning Curriculum for Learning World Languages. Previously, he served ACTFL as a board member and president.


Eric SchneiderEric Schneider

Eric Schneider is Superintendent for Instruction in Minnetonka Public Schools. As a suburban district in Minnesota with 10,000 students located west of Minneapolis, Minnetonka is committed to language immersion and offers a K–12 program in Spanish and Mandarin that serves over 2,000 students.

Minnetonka offers the same rigorous curriculum in three languages, and student progress in the target language is measured by ACTFL-aligned assessments. Minnetonka is a leader in the use of technology, with over 5,000 iPads deployed in grades 7 through 12. Minnetonka is a leader in innovation, using crowdsourcing software to identify new solutions that have the potential to Boost current programming or to create new markets for added revenue. Based on this work, Minnetonka launched a new VANTAGE program for profession-based learning, a virtual-learning platform, Tonka Online; and a K–12 Computer Programming curriculum called KidsCode! Schneider has served as Director of Curriculum and is a former high school principal from Napa, California.


Duarte Silva

Dr. Duarte Silva is Executive Director of the California World Language Project (CWLP) in the Graduate School of Education at Stanford University. Designed to strengthen and enhance professional development opportunities for California's language educators, CWLP has seven regional sites across California.

These sites are located at campuses of the California State University, independent colleges and universities, and county offices of education. Silva is responsible for providing leadership to the Project’s programs statewide and for overseeing evaluation of the programs outcomes at each site. As a former member of the California Curriculum Commission, he chaired the Foreign Language Subject Matter Committee and was a member of several other committees that advise the State Board of Education on a variety of language-related issues. He has chaired several state adoptions of instructional materials for Foreign Language and English Language Development students and oversaw the development of criteria for the role of technology in supporting the teaching of languages.


Madeline SpringMadeline K. Spring

Dr. Madeline K. Spring is director of the UHM Chinese Language Flagship at the University of Hawaii at Manoa. Before coming to UHM in the Fall 2014, she was at Arizona State University (ASU), where she served as director of both the Chinese Language Flagship and the Chinese Flagship/ROTC Pilot Program.

Dr. Spring was also director of the ASU Confucius Institute and the Chinese Language Program. Her research interests are divided between medieval Chinese literature (especially Six Dynasties to Tang prose and rhetoric) and current issues in Teaching Chinese as a Foreign Language (TCFL). In that area, her focus is on curricular design and implementation, content-based instruction, intercultural communication, online communities, and other issues related to developing Superior Level language proficiency. Dr. Spring has played a leadership role in defining and disseminating information about Chinese Language Flagship programs both nationally and internationally. She has also developed models for collaboration between the Language Flagship, Confucius Institutes, State Departments of Education, and faculty and students in university-level Chinese programs and in other academic departments and units across campuses.


Jacque Bott Van Houten

Jacque Bott Van Houten is an independent language and international education consultant, specializing in intercultural communication and personalized learning. She retired in 2020 as language specialist for Jefferson County (Louisville, KY) Public Schools, where she oversaw curriculum design and professional development for language teachers in the state’s largest school district. She was also the world language supervisor for the Kentucky Department of Education for 15 years. She is a past president of the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL), the National Network for Early Language Learning (NNELL), the National Association of State Supervisors of Foreign Languages (NCSSFL), and the Kentucky World Language Association (KWLA). She is a board member of the Global Seal of Biliteracy, World Affairs Council of KY, and Southern IN and the University of Kentucky Confucius Institute. She was one of the early developers of LinguaFolio, co-project director for the NCSSFL-ACTFL Can-Do Statements, and led the ACTFL task force for the Can-Do Statements for Intercultural Communication. She was a lead teacher for the College Board Guest Teacher program at Stanford University and UCLA and served on the STARTALK Advisory Board. Her awards include the French government’s Ordre des Palmes Academiques, NCSSFL–Pearson Supervisor of the Year award, and ACTFL Florence Steiner award for Leadership in Foreign Language Education.


Elizabeth WeiseElizabeth Weise

Elizabeth (Beth) Weise is author of A Parent’s Guide to Mandarin Immersion. Her children attend Mandarin immersion schools and both speak Chinese despite having grown up in an English-only household. She was on the committee that helped start the Mandarin immersion program in the San Francisco Unified School District in 2006.

She writes the Mandarin Immersion Parents Council blog. Weise studied Chinese at the University of Washington. Today she is a technology reporter at USA Today, based in the paper’s San Francisco office, though she has had opportunities to report from China, Singapore, and Taiwan.


Tue, 24 May 2022 16:48:00 -0500 en text/html https://asiasociety.org/china-learning-initiatives/staff-and-advisors
Killexams : Red River Named as a VMware Regional Academy for IT Support and Training

CLAREMONT, N.H. & CHANTILLY, Va., June 30, 2022--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Red River, a technology transformation company serving government and enterprise customers, announced today that it has been designated as a VMware Regional Academy for IT support and training. In partnership with the VMware IT Academy, Red River will provide instructors and students at academic institutions with training and learning resources for high-demand IT skills such as digital workspace, application modernization and multi-cloud.

VMware academic programs have created positive change throughout the pandemic, providing next-generation technology to academic institutions, allowing instructors to teach virtually and giving students access to industry certifications.

"Red River understands the evolving needs of the IT Industry and its talent," said Jackie Barker, Director of VMware IT Academy. "VMware IT Academy is thrilled to work with Red River to provide educational resources and experience to students in academia."

As a VMware Regional Academy for IT support, Red River will contribute to industry and economic development, providing skills to students seeking high-demand careers in areas such as cloud, dev ops, data, mobility and security. Red River will also support the remote delivery of VMware courses, helping students excel through online certification opportunities, hands-on labs and other VMware learning resources.

"We are pleased to be a part of the Regional Academy, sharing years of technology expertise to benefit the next generation of IT professionals," said Richard Ackerman, Vice President of Workforce Development for Red River. "This opportunity enables us to invest in our industry, so we can better prepare students for work and career growth in a digital world."

Red River’s workforce development program offers extensive training programs, new career opportunities and dedicated partnerships. The company is set on making a positive impact on employees, customers, partners and communities. To learn more about workforce development at Red River visit www.redriver.com/resources/workforce-development. For more information on the VMware IT Academy, visit https://www.vmware.com/company/it-academy.html.

About VMware
VMware is a leading provider of multi-cloud services for all apps, enabling digital innovation with enterprise control. As a trusted foundation to accelerate innovation, VMware software gives businesses the flexibility and choice they need to build the future. Headquartered in Palo Alto, California, VMware is committed to building a better future through the company’s 2030 Agenda. For more information, please visit www.vmware.com/company.

About Red River
Red River brings together the ideal combination of talent, partners and products to disrupt the status quo in technology and drive success for business and government in ways previously unattainable. Red River serves organizations well beyond traditional technology integration, bringing 25 years of experience and mission-critical expertise in security, networking, analytics, collaboration, mobility and cloud solutions. Learn more at redriver.com.

View source version on businesswire.com: https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20220630005833/en/

Contacts

Media Contact:
Ed Levens
Ed.Levens@redriver.com

Thu, 30 Jun 2022 06:14:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://www.yahoo.com/now/red-river-named-vmware-regional-181200631.html
Killexams : Combined Nivolumab and Ipilimumab in Melanoma Metastatic to the Brain

Patients and Treatment

This trial was conducted at 28 sites in the United States, with enrollment from February 2015 through June 2017 (for the cohort with asymptomatic brain metastases). A total of 101 patients were treated in the asymptomatic cohort. As of November 15, 2017, of the 101 patients who had been enrolled, 94 had a minimum follow-up of 6 months (median follow-up, 14.0 months) and could be evaluated for the primary end point (Fig. S2 in the Supplementary Appendix).

The median number of doses received during the induction phase was 3 (range, 1 to 4); 33 of 94 patients (35%) received all 4 scheduled doses of both nivolumab and ipilimumab. A total of 55 patients (59%) received nivolumab as maintenance therapy (median number of doses, 15; range, 1 to 48). The overall median duration of therapy was 3.4 months. At the cutoff date for the current analysis, 70 patients (74%) were no longer receiving treatment and 24 (26%) were still receiving the study treatment; 21 (22%) had died. Radiographic progression was documented in 33 patients (35%): 17 (18%) had intracranial progression only, 4 (4%) had extracranial progression only, and 12 (13%) had both intracranial and extracranial progression. A total of 11 (12%) of the 33 patients had progression with new lesions in the brain. After discontinuation of study treatment, 25 patients (27%) received subsequent anticancer therapy (Table S1 in the Supplementary Appendix).

Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of the Patients at Baseline.

Of the 94 patients who could be evaluated for the primary end point, 16 (17%) had received previous systemic anticancer therapy, with the most common being a BRAF inhibitor (11%), a MEK inhibitor (9%), or both (Table S2 in the Supplementary Appendix). Eight patients (9%) had received stereotactic radiotherapy before study entry, and 2 patients (2%) received stereotactic radiotherapy during the study. Of the 94 patients, 72 (77%) had one or two intracranial target lesions and 21 (22%) had three or more intracranial target lesions (Table 1); 36 patients (38%) had one or two extracranial target lesions, and 43 (46%) had three or more extracranial target lesions (Table S3 in the Supplementary Appendix).

Efficacy

Response to Treatment.

According to modified RECIST, version 1.1, criteria, 24 patients (26%) had a complete response and 28 (30%) a partial response in the brain, yielding a rate of intracranial objective response of 55% (95% confidence interval [CI], 45 to 66) (Table 2). An additional 2 patients (2%) had stable disease lasting 6 months or longer, which resulted in a rate of intracranial clinical benefit of 57% (95% CI, 47 to 68) (Table 2). Similar rates of objective response (50%) and clinical benefit (56%) were observed for extracranial lesions, although a lower proportion of patients (7%) had a complete extracranial response. Intracranial responses were observed across the range of target lesions, including in patients with three or more intracranial target lesions (Table S4 in the Supplementary Appendix).

Subgroup analyses of the rate of intracranial clinical benefit showed results consistent with those of the primary analysis (Table S5 in the Supplementary Appendix). The rate of clinical benefit was higher among patients with lactate dehydrogenase levels above the upper limit of the normal range than in patients with levels at or below the upper limit of the normal range (67% vs. 51%). Nivolumab plus ipilimumab was associated with a higher rate of clinical benefit among patients with tumor PD-L1 expression that was at least 5% than among patients with tumor PD-L1 expression that was below 5% (76% vs. 48%), a finding consistent with the results of previous studies in extracranial disease.11 The rate of clinical benefit was similar across target-lesion sizes.

Time to and Duration of Intracranial Response.

The plot shows the onset and durability of intracranial objective responses to the combination of nivolumab and ipilimumab, according to modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST), version 1.1, criteria. Open circles indicate the first evidence of objective response (complete or partial response), and arrows indicate an ongoing response; 47 of 52 responses (90%) were ongoing at the time of the analysis. The dashed line indicates 1 year after treatment initiation. The median time to response was 2.3 months (range, 1.1 to 10.8). The median duration of intracranial response has not been reached.

Among patients who had an objective response in the brain, 47 of 52 responses (90%) were ongoing at the time of the current analysis (Figure 1). The median time to response was 2.3 months (range, 1.1 to 10.8). For extracranial responses, 43 of 47 (91%) were ongoing at the time of the current analysis (Fig. S3 in the Supplementary Appendix). The median time to response was 2.1 months (range, 1.1 to 15.0).

Kaplan–Meier Estimates of Survival.

Panel A shows the Kaplan–Meier estimates of progression-free survival as assessed by the investigators. Patients were followed for a minimum of 6 months. The median progression-free survival has not been reached for intracranial, extracranial, or global disease. For intracranial, extracranial, and global disease, respectively, the rates of progression-free survival were 64.2% (95% CI, 53.0 to 73.4), 75.9% (95% CI, 65.0 to 83.9), and 61.1% (95% CI, 50.0 to 70.5) at 6 months and 59.5% (95% CI, 47.9 to 69.3), 70.4% (95% CI, 58.4 to 79.6), and 56.6% (95% CI, 45.2 to 66.5) at 9 months. The corresponding estimated rates of progression-free survival at 12 months were 59.5% (95% CI, 47.9 to 69.3), 70.4% (95% CI, 58.4 to 79.6), and 56.6% (95% CI, 45.2 to 66.5). Panel B shows the Kaplan–Meier estimates of overall survival. The median overall survival has not been reached. The overall survival rates were 92.3% (95% CI, 84.5 to 96.3) at 6 months and 82.8% (95% CI, 73.1 to 89.3) at 9 months. The estimated rate of overall survival at 12 months was 81.5% (95% CI, 71.5 to 88.2). Symbols indicate censored data.

With a minimum follow-up of 6 months and median follow-up of 14.0 months, the 6-month and 9-month rates of progression-free survival were 64.2% and 59.5%, respectively, for intracranial assessments, 75.9% and 70.4% for extracranial assessments, and 61.1% and 56.6% for global assessments (Figure 2A). In an initial assessment of overall survival, the 6-month and 9-month survival rates were 92.3% and 82.8%, respectively, and the estimated 12-month survival rate was 81.5% (Figure 2B).

Safety

Adverse Events.

Adverse events of grade 3 or 4 that were evaluated by the investigator to be related to the study treatment were reported in 55% of patients; the most common of these events were an increase in levels of alanine aminotransferase or aspartate aminotransferase (Table 3). During the trial, 19 patients (20%) discontinued treatment because of an adverse event of grade 3 or 4. Treatment-related adverse events of any grade that affected the CNS occurred in 34 patients (36%), with grade 3 or 4 events occurring in 7 patients (7%) (Table S6 in the Supplementary Appendix). The most common treatment-related adverse event of any grade in the nervous system was headache (21 patients [22%]), with 3 patients (3%) having headache of grade 3 or 4. Other treatment-related neurologic adverse events of grade 3 or 4 were brain edema (2 patients [2%]), intracranial hemorrhage (1 patient [1%]), peripheral motor neuropathy (1 [1%]), and syncope (1 [1%]). Each of these adverse events led to treatment discontinuation, and the one reported case of peripheral motor neuropathy was irreversible. One death was evaluated by the investigator to be related to the study treatment (grade 5 immune-related myocarditis).13

Wed, 12 Dec 2018 01:33:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1805453
Killexams : 2021 Fast Company Brands That Matter

Patagonia Provisions and McDonald’s could not be more different as companies and brands. Yet in 2021 both have had an undeniable impact on business and culture, far beyond the products they sell.

When Provisions, the iconic outdoor apparel company’s food spin-off, launched Long Root Pale Ale beer, in 2016, it wasn’t trying to create the next Budweiser. The brew was merely the best way to devote more agricultural acreage to a perennial wheatgrass called Kernza, a regenerative crop that helps build soil health and sequester more carbon. The beer amplified Patagonia’s mission to fight the climate catastrophe and make it easier for others to join them.

COVID-19 led to greater food insecurity worldwide, and in response, more major corporations accelerated climate initiatives, particularly regenerative farming techniques, to fortify fragile food systems. In May 2020, Budweiser reported better-than-expected success in its initial efforts to reduce water usage as well as emissions in its rice production by using regenerative techniques, expanding its efforts to 2.7 million bushels. And in September 2020, the Nature Conservancy corralled Target, Cargill, and, yes, McDonald’s, to join a five-year program to Boost soil quality in Nebraska beef country. As Provisions director Birgit Cameron told Fast Company shortly after its Kernza initiative began, “If we can illustrate a path for the bigger companies to take, then we’ve won.”

Despite its global ubiquity, McDonald’s has rarely tapped the full cultural potential of its iconic status. Last year, though, the fast-food chain’s Famous Orders meal partnerships with such global music superstars as Travis Scott and BTS began changing that—creating a playbook for social media marketing, merchandise, and new music to push customers to the drive-through (where they can make TikToks of themselves ordering Famous Meals). “This has shown us this rabid fandom that exists if we can find the right ways to unlock it,” says Morgan Flatley, whom McDonald’s promoted to global CMO in August.

Whether it’s leading on the environment or pop culture, engaging B2B customers or responding meaningfully to current events, a brand’s ability to forge an emotional connection with consumers is critical in establishing a long-term relationship, enthusiastic loyalty, and advocacy. In our first-ever compendium of Brands That Matter, we recognize nearly 100 companies and nonprofits that provide people compelling reasons to care about them—and offer inspiration for others to buy in.

Fri, 17 Jun 2022 05:56:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://www.fastcompany.com/brands-that-matter/2021
Killexams : How Fintelle is Bringing Financial Intelligence to New-Age Financial Services Companies No result found, try new keyword!Fintelle is powered by KYC technology certified by NASSCOM under AI Gamechangers 2021 for enabling contactless onboarding. Fintelle is a pioneer in providing alternate data services ... Thu, 23 Jun 2022 21:05:00 -0500 text/html https://www.ciol.com/fintelle-bringing-financial-intelligence-new-age-financial-services-companies/ Killexams : Health Equity — Are We Finally on the Edge of a New Frontier?

Health equity is a simple concept, but it is difficult to achieve. If health inequities are “inequalities that are deemed to be unfair, unjust, avoidable, or unnecessary, that can be reduced or remedied through policy action,” the state of health equity can be defined — as it is by the U.S. Health Resources and Services Administration — as “the absence of avoidable differences among socioeconomic and demographic groups or geographical areas in health status and health outcomes such as disease or mortality.” Health equity exists, in other words, when everyone can be as healthy as they can be without abridgment of the means to achieve this goal. Yet the United States, the world’s richest country, has failed to achieve health equity.

Now, engulfed in the catastrophic pandemic maelstrom, we are reckoning with a deadly triad — health disparities, health inequity, and unequal health care access — quantified in a daily body count. We are obliged to acknowledge the lethal consequences of the cracks in our nation’s foundational tenets of equality, as Covid-19 exposes the cascading conglomeration of public policies reflecting toleration of underfunding of public health, undermining of equitable health care access, and the economic, educational, and judicial marginalization of minorities.

Black, Latinx, and Indigenous Americans are dying from Covid-19 at disproportionately high rates, and this increased lethality is coupled with the disparate prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. The increased Covid risk is most likely conferred not only by the prevalence of these chronic diseases and disparate chronic disease severity, but also by the health care system’s failure to provide minority patients with preventive and therapeutic care of quality equal to that provided to White patients.1 Patients living in rural areas, in particular, have substantial difficulty obtaining high-quality primary and specialty care.

Our health care system is a microcosm of American society, in which power and resources are not allocated fairly among races, sexes, or classes. Social class, race, and geography are, to a large extent, destiny when it comes to health in the United States. accurate work suggests that we consider primary factors driving poor health outcomes to be the results of “political determinants of health.”2 Monumental political actions such as the compromise on slavery at the nation’s founding, the failure to sustain the gains of Reconstruction and its constitutional amendments, the institution of Jim Crow laws legalizing systematic racism and White supremacy, and the inability to respect Indigenous Americans’ rightful claim to their native lands have set the stage for the “social” determinants of health that promote health inequities and differential health outcomes.2

Type of Health Insurance Coverage by Race and Hispanic Origin

Data are for 2018 and are from Berchick et al.3 People may be covered by more than one type of insurance.

Although various social factors influence prevention and management of chronic diseases, access to care through stable health insurance coverage may have the most profound effect. In 2018, approximately 27.5 million Americans, 8.5% of the U.S. population, had no health insurance.3 Black and Latinx Americans have consistently lower rates of insurance coverage than White Americans (see graph). Since employer-based plans provide more than half the population with insurance, the substantially higher unemployment and underemployment rates among minorities contribute to their lower coverage rates. A July 2020 report from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics documents unemployment rates of 16.1% among Black Americans and 16.7% among Latinx Americans — significantly higher than the 12.0% rate among White Americans. The pandemic has amplified preexisting economic inequalities for minorities by driving up unemployment and concomitantly reducing health insurance rates, food security, housing stability, and household income.

Many Black Americans and other minorities are trapped in intergenerational poverty and therefore reside in hypersegregated, low-income neighborhoods with higher risks of exposure to toxins in the air, dumped in the soil, or leached into drinking water — perhaps the most potent influence on health and persistent health inequities. Childhood poverty has lifelong consequences for health, educational attainment, employment opportunities, and income. Children constitute the poorest age group in America: 11.9 million children in the United States live in poverty; 73% of these are children of color.4 In 2018, children under 19 had a lower overall health insurance rate than adults 65 or older.3 Uninsured children were predominantly Latinx and Black, living in low-income households in the South and in states that did not enact the Medicaid expansion provisions of the Affordable Care Act. Health insurance rates for adults were also lower in non–Medicaid-expansion states.

Beyond these more direct effects, structural racism indirectly damages health by undermining strategies that might allow minority patients to be cared for by trusted clinicians who fully understand their culture. Systemic racism limits educational opportunities for Black Americans, resulting in inadequate diversity among health professionals. According to the Association of American Medical Colleges, 63.9% of academic medical faculty are White, 3.6% Black, and 3.2% Latinx. Although Black people make up 13.4% of the U.S. population, only 5.0% of actively practicing U.S. physicians are Black. Latinx people account for 18.3% of the population but only 5.8% of actively practicing physicians. Such unequal representation, in turn, affects health inequities, health care access, and health disparities. For example, the cancer disparities burden is exacerbated by the fact that only 2.3% of U.S. medical oncologists are Black. Underrepresentation further intensifies health disparities by limiting the pool of culturally competent clinicians who can offer appropriate leadership in both academia and patient care.

The essential policy changes may become clearer if we return to medicine’s ethical roots. With the implementation of the 1979 Belmont Report, I learned on the wards of Atlanta’s Grady Memorial Hospital the ethical principles underlying patient care and biomedical research. Although the report outlined an ethical framework for the conduct of biomedical research, its principles of respect for persons, beneficence, and justice are also fundamental to equitable health care, health care access, and health outcomes. The Covid-19 pandemic has painfully highlighted the fatal results of a health care system reflecting national health policy that is unmoored from these ethical tenets. Health policy, too, needs to embrace respect for persons, beneficence, and justice.

The underperformance of our health system is a symptom of disruption in the nation’s ethically based decision making. As Americans, we theoretically value justice, self-determination, equity, and equality as bedrock principles undergirding social policy. U.S. health policy also relies on the notion of the social contract, whose ideals were incorporated into the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution.5 Under America’s social contract, the state exists to serve the people’s will. “We the people” are the source of power, which the government must reciprocally use to “preserve, protect and defend” its citizens. Fracturing of this social contract has reinforced inequality, inequity, and poor access, so that the most vulnerable Americans pay the highest price in morbidity and mortality — injustices that long predate the Covid-19 pandemic.

Global events often facilitate political and social change. World War II, for instance, both empowered women and propelled the fight for racial equality, initiating military desegregation that energized the evolution of the Civil Rights movement. The pandemic’s repercussions may goad America to find the means and the will to work together to preserve our vision of democracy. Racialized public policies victimize all of us. We must invest in our children by providing adequate income and educational supports to lift all children from poverty. Reversing economic injustice will require a frontal attack on racial and gender pay gaps and on occupational segregation that tethers minorities and single-parent female-headed households to poverty, limiting their ability to obtain financial security, social and economic mobility, and the best achievable health status.

In the health policy arena, we can begin by recognizing health care as a human right, so that everyone, regardless of race or socioeconomic status, has a fair and just opportunity to be as healthy as possible. As President John F. Kennedy declared in his 1962 message to Congress on national health needs, “One true measure of a nation is its success in fulfilling the promise of a better life for each of its members. Let this be the measure of our nation.”

Mon, 14 Sep 2020 21:09:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMp2005944
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