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West Lafayette, Ind.

President Joe Biden is expected to decide this month whether there will be mass student debt cancellation. And while Americans are at loggerheads over that, they are in almost full agreement about fixing the root cause: the high cost of a college education.

Asked to choose between the government forgiving student debt or making college more affordable for current and future students, an astounding 82% of respondents in a exact NPR/Ipsos poll opt for the latter. Even among those with outstanding loans, long-term affordability wins out.   

Getting there is not easy. But at Purdue University, an ambitious price freeze with tuition at just under $10,000 a year has held for a decade, offering innovative – if not always flawless or popular – cost-cutting models for holding the line on student bills.

Students taking a break in the cool, wood-paneled spaces of Purdue Memorial Union on a exact scorching summer day will pay no more than Boilermakers did 10 years ago – and many will likely get their bachelor's debt-free, as some 60% did in May.

“If an institution prioritizes affordability, you’d be surprised – we’ve been surprised – by how much progress can be made,” says Mitch Daniels, the former Indiana governor who announced the tuition freeze in the spring of 2013, just months after he became Purdue’s president.   

The freeze meant forfeiting some $40 million from a regular increase in price. When the university managed to absorb it just by tightening its belt, the board greenlighted a second year, then a third. As applications soared, enrollment grew, and proud alumni opened their wallets, the “freeze” itself became a large source of income. 

It started as a “gesture”

Sitting in his office by the campus bell tower, Mr. Daniels – who retires at the end of the calendar year with a résumé that includes big-business CEO and director of the Office of Management and Budget for President George W. Bush – traces the freeze idea back to his state governorship. A persistent question he heard then, he says, was, “Isn’t there someplace to get a quality education that won’t put us deeply in debt?”  

He initially proposed the freeze “as a gesture, a one-time acknowledgment that we understood.” The average cost in real dollars of a bachelor’s degree in the United States had jumped by 41% between 2000 and 2012. Even Purdue, a public, land-grant institution, had consistently raised its price for more than 30 years.

When Andy Pavlopoulos enrolled in the aviation department in 1986, in-state tuition for the year at the flagship West Lafayette campus was $1,870. With fees, room and board, books, and the like, his total bill “was like $8,000,” says the father of three who, in his second career, owns and runs a family restaurant in Saint Joseph, Michigan.

Michael Heinz/The Journal & Courier/AP/File

Purdue University President Mitch Daniels (right) speaks to reporters in March 2013, when the school's tuition freeze – now 10 years old – was started.

By the time Mr. Pavlopoulos’ eldest child was scrolling through college websites as a high school junior in 2013, prices had soared. In-state tuition reached $9,992, and the full cost of attending – commonly referred to as the sticker price – was $22,782. For out-of-state students like his son, this meant $28,794 in tuition for a total annual bill of $41,614. 

Something to remember about sticker prices is that only a minority of students nationwide actually pay them. As each of his three children enrolled at Purdue, Mr. Pavlopoulos expected them to do what he’d done: get grants and scholarships that knock down the total they owe.  

“The sticker price is damaging misinformation,” says Phillip Levine, a Wellesley College economics scholar with a specialty in higher educationIt can cause “people to make decisions that are not appropriate for them.” As a result, many who would thrive in a four-year college decide it isn’t for them. 

“People have no idea what colleges cost,” he says. “They tend to cost a lot less than people think.”

Like an effective meme, Purdue holding “tuition under $10,000” broadcasts affordability. 

“There’s a nice message off of a low tuition,” Mr. Levine says. “Particularly for lower-income families, we know based on research that the ability to simplify the problem increases their likelihood of attending.”

Another way Purdue does this is by applying the freeze to the full cost of attendance. Institutions that have similarly suspended tuition hikes often increase other charges. At Purdue, on the other hand, the sticker price, too, doesn’t budge.

As the freeze entered its second year, the number of applications to the undergraduate program jumped by 28%. That has since climbed steadily by more modest percentages. By 2021, the admissions office was processing almost twice as many applications as it had in 2012.

Aditi Barla’s was among them. A resident of Illinois, she only analyzed her choices once acceptances were in. 

“Purdue is a great school for CS,” she reasoned, referring to her computer science major. “It’s a great STEM school. And, oh, it also has a tuition freeze.” Other contenders included the University of Michigan and the University of Washington in Seattle, but their sticker prices were in the $60,000-to-$70,000 range with no offers of scholarships or grants. With a younger brother in the wings and plans to go to graduate school, the choice was clear.

Today, she is a rising sophomore with no debt.

More students means more revenue 

Even after enrollments nationwide began to decline, Purdue’s freshman and transfer admissions grew on average by about 500 a year. Last fall, matriculations hit a new and unexpected high, with more than 10,000 freshmen arriving on campus. 

The number of postgraduate students has also grown, helping to raise the university’s total enrollment from 39,256 in 2012 to 49,639 in 2021. With more than half paying out-of-state or international prices, tuition revenue increased by a third during the freeze, from $629 million in 2012 to $832 million in 2021. 

But the surge in students has also posed problems. The university has had to add dorms and temporarily house students in cubicle-like lodgings created in dorm basements and study lounges.

Ms. Barla knew guys who started the year in cramped, windowless quarters: “Yeah,” she says, “not ideal, especially when you’re coming into college for the first time.” By fall break, everyone was in permanent housing, and in the spring, the university was purchasing an on-campus housing complex.

“We’re pressing up against limits,” admits Mr. Daniels. To mitigate this, the university has introduced some hybrid classes and has helped students who are so inclined to graduate in three years. 

But an important feature of Purdue’s success is that it has ensured its foundation remained solid. “We don’t run a deficit. We don’t borrow any money. We don’t raid the cookie jar,” Mr. Daniels says, referring to having reduced the spending distribution of the nearly $2.5 billion endowment from 5% to 4%. “We don’t ever let it affect quality.” 

Department of Education statistics indicate that, from 2012 through 2020 (the last year for which this data is available), Purdue kept up its spending on instruction at the same pace as peer institutions. Even as enrollment galloped, its student ratio is a very respectable 14-to-1. And it enhanced its campus. Among other improvements, it opened the $79 million, 164,000-square-foot, state-of-the-art Wilmeth Active Learning Center and, last year, renovated its iconic Memorial Union.   

As a research university, it has increasingly leveraged grants and contracts to bring students in on groundbreaking innovations and technologies at little to no cost to the university’s bottom line. This has helped it attract students without resorting to a widely used tactic. It’s not uncommon that at institutions that charge up to $60,000, says Mr. Levine, “virtually every single student’s getting a $20,000 or more merit scholarship to bring the number back to $30 or $40,000 – which, not coincidentally, happens to be in the range of what public institutions charge.” 

As for the “dos” of keeping prices down, Mr. Daniels is “bashful about ever prescribing anything we’ve done here,” he says. “The decisions, we believe, fit this place.” 

However, not a month goes by, says Chris Ruhl, the chief financial officer, without a counterpart from another school getting in touch wanting to know what worked and how the campus reacted. 

Successful but not without challenges 

Not every cost-cutting measure has proved universally popular. Some faculty, for instance, voiced discontent when the university changed employees’ benefits. In line with a prevailing trend in higher ed, it adopted health savings accounts with high deductibles. It also changed over to defined contribution retirement plans, favored mostly by private colleges. When it contracted out its food service, Purdue Student Government formally condemned its choice of corporate giant Aramark, on the grounds that the company had incurred food and safety violations at another Indiana campus. 

And when Purdue pioneered its own income share agreement – in which students pledge to share a portion of future income – as an alternative to traditional student loans, some accused the university of breaking the law. Purdue has since suspended future contracts in the program, which is similar to a federal income-based repayment loan that also ran into trouble in its implementation. *

Other steps seem not to have caused waves. Mr. Ruhl points to such things as dismantling Purdue’s transportation system and contracting with the city to extend transit routes onto campus; outsourcing printing and photocopying services; and consolidating the university’s data centers, information technology departments, and maintenance and custodial staffs. 

“As the student body has grown,” he says, “we’ve been able to maintain staffing levels” without hiring more people.

Making affordability an institution-wide mission, he says, has been crucial not just in cutting costs but in improving the quality of the institution.

Statistics on retention and graduation rates, rankings, and fundraising support Mr. Ruhl’s claim that “all sorts of key metrics have improved substantially during this period of time.” Likewise, the percentage of undergraduates earning their bachelor’s without incurring debt marched upward. In 2012, the proportion leaving campus with the bachelor's diploma and no loan was 49.5%. Fifty-four percent did by 2016, and 60% did in 2021.

But Purdue’s performance in one metric proves cautionary in terms of students being able to afford, as Mr. Levine puts it, “the place where they belong.” In a conversation over Zoom, he crunches some numbers on the university’s net price calculator, a feature that institutions that receive money from the federal government are required to post on their website. 

He invents a young Indiana resident with a 3.5 GPA, solid SAT scores, and a family income well below $50,000. Asked how much the family can contribute, he types in $0. Within seconds, the calculator estimates that even with a $6,459 Pell Grant, various scholarships, and $5,500 in federal student loans, the family would have to “come up with $5,087 a year that they have no ability to pay for in cash,” Mr. Levine reports. The student can earn $3,000 of that through a work-study program or campus job. 

The exercise, he says, shows that for a family “that has nothing,” borrowing even $2,000 to $5,000 a year “is not affordable.” 

“Despite the fact that college costs a lot less than people think, it’s still too expensive,” he says. But not if the Pell Grant were doubled. “That would eliminate the gap completely,” in which case, Mr. Levine says he’d “be on board with low tuitions.” As it is, though, he believes freezes benefit wealthier students to the detriment of those of lower-income backgrounds. If the former paid the full sticker price, the university would have extra income to channel into financial aid.

The amount Purdue has spent on merit and need-based scholarships, fellowships, and awards has fluctuated over the course of the tuition freeze. In 2017-18, it gave 21% more aid than it had in 2012, but in 2018-19 the amount it disbursed fell below the 2012 levels. 

“We do have limited dollars,” says Heidi Carl, Purdue’s executive director of financial aid, whose office prioritizes helping Indiana families with $70,000 or less in adjusted gross income. For some with $50,000 or less, it succeeds in meeting their full need. 

“We see this pattern of public institutions increasing tuitions and then also increasing aid,” says economics professor Emily Cook of Tulane University, referring to a exact study on college pricing she co-wrote. The theory is that they are channeling the extra revenue into scholarships and grants that benefit both low-income students and middle-income families who often bear the burden of student debt. 

“Our study,” says Mrs. Cook, “is overall encouraging in that we are heading in the direction of making college affordable.” 

As Mr. Daniels packs up his office, it is anybody’s guess whether the tuition freeze will extend beyond 2023 or what that would mean for students.

But whatever happens next, freezing the sticker price has done more than hit the reset button for one institution: Its leaps as well as its stumbles offer a decade’s worth of lessons on affordability.

•Editor’s note: This story has been changed to clarify that only new contracts in Purdue's income share agreement program have been suspended. 

Sun, 07 Aug 2022 16:00:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Advisors Should Encourage Clients to Open 529 Plans. Here’s Why.

An important role for a financial advisor is helping clients save for their children’s college costs, including setting up 529 plans. These plans have clear tax and estate planning advantages

Clients may want to leave an educational legacy to their grandchildren and a 529 plan has many estate planning benefits.

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College costs are likely to continue to rise. The College Board estimates that the tuition and fees for a four-year private college education at $38,080. Assuming 5% inflation, this means the cost will be $87,280 in 18 years. College Board averages don’t include room and board. Some top schools, including Ivy leagues, cost around $70,000 a year all in.

“Investors may be putting goals like saving for retirement and generating investment income at risk” when they do not consider the potential for sky high college costs to get in the way of their plans, says Rachel Ramos, senior product manager of CollegeAmerica at Capital Group. 

“At the same time, a majority of advisors think saving for education is very important,” she says. “There’s an urgent opportunity for advisors to address that gap, especially given that many say their clients underestimate the cost of saving for an education.”

About 40% of financial advisors in a exact Capital Group survey say intergenerational wealth management and serving the next generation of clients is their main focus for growing their practice. This is the second most popular strategy, just behind an emphasis on new client acquisition and referrals, which 71% of the respondents said was the main way they are trying to grow their practice.

Here are  some key facts about college saving plans:

Types. There are two kinds of plans available. A prepaid tuition plan allows a client to lock in today’s costs through the use of credits. This is only available at a limited number of colleges and a client cannot use the credits for room and board. 

Next, there is the 529 college savings plan, which is the most common. This is an account that usually is invested with age-based funds. The asset allocation gradually changes from aggressive to conservative investments as the student nears college age.  

Taxes. A 529 plan provides for tax-free growth. If the money is used for qualified educational expenses, there are no taxes on the distributions. This goes well beyond tuition and fees. You can use a 529 plan for a computer, supplies, books, dorm fees, and off-campus housing. You can also use the money for K-12 tuition (up to $10,000 a year), community colleges, trade and technical schools, graduate programs, and even certain apprenticeships. 

Many states provide additional tax advantages. “Over 30 states and the District of Columbia currently offer a state income tax deduction or tax credit for 529 plan contributions as well,” said Vincent Birardi, a CFP and wealth advisor at Halbert Hargrove. 

Control. A 529 plan is not like a Uniform Gifts to Minors Act (UGMA) or Uniform Transfers to Minors Act (UTMA) account, which allows the beneficiary to access the funds when they reach the age of 18 or 21. Instead, the owner of the account has full control. They can decide when to release any funds or change the beneficiary. This does not have an impact on the taxes.  

Estate planning. High-net worth clients can superfund their 529 contributions. “This is a 5-year gift-tax averaging strategy that allows families to front-load their contributions without having to pay gift taxes, while protecting their lifetime gift and estate tax exemption,” said Jonathan I. Shenkman, president and financial advisor at Shenkman Wealth Management. 

“The annual gift tax exclusion amount is $16,000 per donor per beneficiary in 2022. A family can provide five times that amount as an upfront contribution of $80,000 or $160,000 for couples, per beneficiary. This is a wonderful way to get assets out of one’s estate and make sure the funds are earmarked for something important, like college or graduate school.”

This is not only for parents. It’s common for grandparents and great grandparents to fund 529 plans.

“Grandparents love the idea of leaving an educational legacy as they know it will be of value to their grandchildren and a helping hand to their adult children who may be struggling to save for the very same goal,” said Patricia Roberts, chief operating officer at Gift of College, Inc., and author of Route 529. “As such, an advisor has an opportunity to get acquainted with a grandparent, an adult child, and grandchildren when they grow up all through the development of an education savings strategy with a 529 plan.”

Tom Taulli is a freelance writer, author, and former broker. He is also the author of the book, The Personal Finance Guide for Tech Professionals

Mon, 01 Aug 2022 12:20:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Killexams : 20 Hot Jobs That Pay More Than $150,000

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How does a job earning more than $150,000 a year sound? The first step to pursuing a six-figure career is identifying which careers have that earning potential -- even if they don't start at that pay.

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"If the potential is there to make six figures, then you can put this career on your list and then decide out of all the careers that have this type of earning potential which one(s) you are most interested," according to Cheryl Palmer, a certified career coach and owner of Call to Career.

If you're looking to get into a career that is growing and pays well, consider these high-paying jobs that have lots to offer.

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Specialist Physician

Specialist physicians are those who practice a specific branch of medicine. Medical specialties run the gamut from anesthesiology, cardiology and dermatology to neurology, orthopedics and radiology.

The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) lists physicians and surgeons as the highest-paid occupation in its database, with anesthesiologists earning the most with an average salary of $271,440.

To pursue this career, you'll have to complete four years at the undergraduate level following a pre-med course of study, then four more years of medical school. There are also several more years of residency, possibly followed by a fellowship for one to three years.

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If you're after a career that's lucrative and growing, add psychiatry to your list for a future job search. Although the BLS projects just 3% growth between 2020 and 2030, the average salary exceeds $200,000. These professionals diagnose and treat mental illnesses through the use of medication, counseling and hospitalization.

As with other health specialties, you'll have to complete medical school and a residency program, then pass a licensing exam and gain board certification to practice as a psychiatrist.

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Family and General Practitioner

A family physician has patients they treat on a regular basis for routine visits as well as common illnesses. The BLS projects an overall 5% job growth for family and general physicians between 2020 and 2030, which equals 6,700 added jobs.

According to the ACP, family medicine education encompasses the care of children and training in areas typically provided in other specialties. These physicians also complete medical school and a residency program following their undergraduate program.

alfexe / Getty Images/iStockphoto


Prosthodontists provide advanced care for dental and facial disorders. While some specialize in cosmetic dentistry, others focus on reconstructive services that restore or replace missing and damaged teeth.

General dentists need a doctoral degree from an accredited dental program and must pass written and clinical exams to qualify for a state license to practice. certified like prosthodontists complete additional training via a multi-year residency.

Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeon

The BLS lists oral and maxillofacial surgery as one of the highest-paying occupations. These professionals provide reconstructive mouth, jaw, neck and dental surgery and treatment. The more experienced surgeons make approximately $231,276 a year, according to Payscale.

After completing a bachelor's degree, there are four years of dental school and an oral residency program that can range from four to six years. The six-year route involves a medical degree, according to the American Student Dental Association.

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U.S. News & World Report has ranked orthodontics as one of the best fields for pay, growth, stress and work-life balance. These professionals fix bite and teeth alignment issues by designing retainers, braces and other mouth appliances for patients -- and are paid more than $200,000 a year on average.

Orthodontists spend a little more time training than general dentists do before they can practice. In addition to an undergraduate degree, orthodontists must go to dental school, followed by two to three years of additional education in an orthodontic residency program and a state licensing exam.

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Top Executive

Top executives like CEOs earn well into the six figures. The big paycheck does come with added responsibility. CEOs oversee entire organizations and make sure they are reaching their goals. Opportunities are expected to grow 8% between 2020 and 2030.

Traditionally, many CEOs have a bachelor's degree in business administration or an MBA. However, this isn't the only way to make it to the top. Some top executives advance from lower-level management positions and can substitute experience for education, according to the BLS.

Nurse Anesthetist

For fewer years in school than it takes to be an anesthesiologist but still phenomenal pay, you can opt to be a nurse anesthetist. People in this profession provide anesthesia care and oversee patient recovery from anesthesia. The BLS reports a higher than average growth outlook at 45%.

It takes at least approximately eight calendar years of education and experience to prepare for a career as a nurse anesthetist, according to the American Association of Nurse Anesthetists. Requirements typically include at least a master's degree in nursing, registered nurse licensure, at least one year of acute-care experience in an emergency room or intensive care unit, plus completion of an accredited nurse anesthesia program and passing the national certification exam.

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Physicist, Ambulatory Care Health Services

Physicists look at the ways matter interacts with energy. In an ambulatory care health setting, medical physicists work with radiation technologies and treatments, often specializing in a particular area such as diagnostic medical physics or nuclear medical physics.

Before you can enjoy the luxuries this high-paying career can provide, you'll first undergo rigorous training. Medical physicists need a bachelor's degree in physics or another physical science and a master's degree in physics, medical physics or a related field, plus a residency prior to sitting for an exam to earn board certification, according to the Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science. Some medical physicists go on to earn doctoral degrees.

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Natural Sciences Manager, Research and Development in the Physical, Engineering and Life Sciences

Natural sciences managers oversee scientists tasked with activities related to research and development. Projects they manage might deal with manufacturing processes, expanding scientific knowledge or product development, according to the BLS, which notes that demand for these roles is expected to grow 6% between 2020 and 2030.

Natural sciences managers are usually promoted from roles as scientists. In addition to several years of experience as a scientist, managers generally have at least a bachelor's degree in a science field, although many have a master's or Ph.D.

Petroleum Engineer, Management of Companies and Enterprises

The top 10% of petroleum engineers make more than $208,000, according to the BLS. These workers find ways to extract oil and gas to meet the nation's needs. The demand and pricing for oil will create new job opportunities for petroleum engineers, with the BLS anticipating an 8% growth from 2020 to 2030.

A bachelor's degree in petroleum engineering is preferred, although other engineering specialties are acceptable in some instances. Cooperative-education programs also are encouraged to get class credit and on-the-job experience in the field.

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Sales Manager, Finance and Insurance

A sales manager oversees an organization's sales team, establishing territories, training sales representatives and setting sales goals. The highest-paid sales managers work in the finance and insurance industry.

To work as a sales manager, you'll likely need a bachelor's degree in addition to a proven track record as a sales rep. Job growth is expected to be about as fast as average for all occupations over the coming years, with 7% growth anticipated from 2020 to 2030.

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Airline Pilot, Copilots and Flight Engineers

Airline pilots, copilots and flight engineers are responsible for transporting people and things via airplane, helicopter or other aircraft. The highest-paid are airline pilots, who work in the scheduled air transportation industry, as opposed to commercial pilots, who fly unscheduled flights. Across both specialties, the highest 10% of pilots earned over $208,000 in 2020.

Job prospects for pilots are good, with the BLS projecting 13% growth from 2020 to 2030. To become an airline pilot you'll generally need a bachelor's degree as well as a commercial pilot's license and an Airline Transport Pilot certificate. Most airline pilots start their careers as commercial pilots.

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General Dentist

A promising job future and exceptional pay, including being one of the highest-paid jobs around, make dentistry a hot field to pursue. Dentists keep teeth looking their best by treating tooth decay, cavities, gum problems and more. The demand for dentists is growing, particularly with more studies showing the link between proper dental care and overall health. In fact, job openings are expected to be plentiful, with 7% growth from 2020 to 2030, according to the BLS.

It takes time and commitment to pursue this hot career, however. After college, you have to attend dental school and pass state licensing exams. Dentists in specialized fields must take part in a residency program.

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Computer and Information Systems Manager, Information

Computer information systems managers, also referred to as information technology managers, are accountable for organizations' computer-related activities, from determining technology goals to implementing and securing systems. Although many industries employ computer and information systems managers, the highest-paid work in the information industry.

The top 10% of earners are making more than $208,000 on average. What's great about this career is that it doesn't require years in school. A bachelor's degree in computer or information science and related work experience is typically sufficient, but many do go on to earn a graduate degree, notes the BLS.

baranozdemir /

Computer Systems and Information Manager, Computer Systems Design and Related Services

As more and more organizations require professionals to coordinate computer activities, the demand for computer systems and information managers is expected to grow 11% from 2020 through 2030. While those who work in systems design and related services earn over $9,000 less, on average than their information-industry counterparts, their salaries exceed $150,000 by a comfortable margin, and they have better-than-average opportunities for new positions.

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Financial Manager, Professional, Scientific and Technical Services

Financial managers are responsible for the planning and directing of accounting, investing and other financial activities for companies. The average pay might be lower than other hot jobs on the list, but the top 10% of financial managers earn more than $208,000. Jobs in this occupation are growing much faster than average -- with 17% growth expected from 2020 to 2030, in fact. Top earners work in the professional, scientific and technical services industries.

These professionals generally hold a bachelor's degree in finance, accounting, business administration or economics, as well as five or more years of related experience. Today, employers prefer those with a master's degree in a related subject, according to the BLS.


Astronomer, Federal Government

Astronomers study celestial bodies like planets and stars, design equipment, devise theories and design and conduct scientific experiments. Some astronomers study distant galaxies and phenomena like black holes, whereas others track space debris that could interfere with satellites, according to the BLS. A number of industries, including research and development as well as colleges, universities and technical schools, hire astronomers; however, those who work for the federal government earn significantly more.

The job outlook for astronomers is about average for all occupations, with 8% growth expected from 2020 to 2030. To prepare for a job in federal government, you'll need a bachelor's or master's degree. Positions in business and academia generally require a Ph.D.

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Lawyer, Federal Government

Lawyer pay varies by specialty and area, but the top 10% of earners overall make more than $208,000, according to the BLS, and your best opportunity to join their ranks is a job with the federal government. The job outlook is also good, with employment expected to grow 9% overall, keeping it in line with the national average for all occupations.

Another positive to this high-paying career is that becoming a lawyer doesn't require the amount of schooling it does to become a doctor. After earning a college degree, prospective lawyers must complete three years of law school and pass their state's bar exam.

jacoblund / Getty Images/iStockphoto

Marketing Manager, Advertising/PR

The top 10% of marketing managers earn more than $208,000 on average, according to the BLS. The job involves planning and coordinating marketing programs for organizations, identifying customers and overseeing product development. On average, marketing manager jobs in the advertising and public relations industry pay significantly more than those in corporate management, information or wholesale trade.

Those choosing to pursue this career path have an optimistic job outlook, with the BLS projecting 10% growth between 2020 and 2030. Most marketing managers have a bachelor's degree in marketing, communications, business or a similar field, as well as work experience.

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This article originally appeared on 20 Hot Jobs That Pay More Than $150,000

Mon, 01 Aug 2022 14:00:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Killexams : Meet the Central Florida candidates in the Aug. 23 primary

Here is a look at the candidates in key races in the state and Central Florida primary election on Aug. 23.

Complete primary election coverage, including Orlando Sentinel opinion staff endorsements, can be found at


Governor, Democrats

Charlie Crist, 66, of St. Petersburg, is a Democratic U.S. representative and former Republican governor and attorney general. He’s making his second run for governor as a Democrat. He has pledged to protect abortion rights in Florida, appoint a housing czar and reduce homeowners insurance rates.

Nikki Fried, 44, of Fort Lauderdale, is the state agriculture commissioner. She said she would declare a housing state of emergency, halt rent hikes and designate any increase above 10% as price gouging. She would also use her executive powers to increase access to abortion services.

Attorney General, Democrats

Aramis Ayala, 47, of Windermere, is a former Orange-Osceola state attorney and the first Black state attorney to be elected in Florida. She said her commitment to justice and experience sets her apart from the other two candidates. She has made fighting domestic violence a part of her platform.

Jim Lewis, 64, of Fort Lauderdale, is a criminal defense attorney with 12 years as a prosecutor for the state. He would work to reform campaign law, end “outrageous” contributions and make public corruption his main issue.

Dan Uhlfelder, 49, is a Santa Rosa general practice attorney with no prosecutorial experience. He calls himself a fighter for people who are marginalized and would revitalize the Attorney General’s civil rights office.

Agriculture Commissioner, Republicans

Wilton Simpson, 56, a multimillionaire egg farmer from Trilby, has been a member of the Florida Senate for eight years, the past two as president. A fifth-generation Floridian who calls himself a “common sense conservative,” he said he wants every state resident “to have access to the same opportunities” he’s had to live the American dream.

James Shaw, 62, of Vero Beach, has worked in the transportation industry and owns a 30-acre worm farm in Pennsylvania. He said he is most passionate about “protecting Florida from Far Left Agendas that are capable of destroying our state if implemented … For day-to-day survival, our food, water, and guns must be protected.”

Agriculture Commissioner, Democrats

Naomi Esther Blemur, 43, a North Miami entrepreneur and member of the Miami-Dade Democratic Executive Committee, said she’s an advocate for small farmers, clean water, renewable energy and making sure everyone has access to the state’s resources.

Jacques Rene Gaillot, 53, of Green Cove Springs, has run for office twice before – for Congress and state House. He said he would focus on consumer protection issues such as price gouging and other predatory practices.

Ryan Morales, 45, is a Clermont business consultant and hemp farmer who lost the Democratic primary for Florida House District 32 seat in 2020 to Stephanie Dukes, who lost to Republican incumbent Anthony Sabatini. He said he’s running on a platform to clean up the environment.


House District 7, Republicans

Erika Benefield, 42, is the former vice mayor of DeBary and the owner of an interior design company. She describes herself as a pro-gun and anti-abortion candidate in favor of more border security.

Brady Duke, 36, is a former Navy Seal and a minister who lives in Oviedo. He is promising to oppose abortion, increase border security and support congressional term limits.

Ted Edwards, 67, is a lawyer and former Orange County commissioner, who splits his time between Winter Park and New Smyrna Beach. Unlike other candidates in the race, Edwards says he supports gun safety legislation, including universal background checks.

Cory Mills, 42, is a U.S. Army combat veteran who lives in New Smyrna Beach and operates a company that supplies tear gas and anti-riot gear. He’s run a pair of provocative campaign ads, joking he’ll tear gas the “liberal media” and comparing Democrats to Al Qaeda and the Taliban.

Rusty Roberts, 69, is a former top aide to John Mica, a Republican who represented the 7th Congressional District in Congress from 1993 to 2017. As a former vice president of the high-speed Brightline train line, Roberts said he’ll make transportation a priority, building on Mica’s legacy. He lives in Longwood.

Anthony Sabatini, 33, a state representative from Lake County, is one of the most conservative members of the Legislature. Sabatini is calling for a crackdown on Big Tech censorship and term limits for politicians.

Al Santos, 57, is a veteran who served nearly 30 years in the U.S. Army and lives in Orlando. He supports the construction of new nuclear power plants to lessen the nation’s dependence on foreign energy.

Scott Sturgill, 42, operates a business that provides safety and personal protective gear to first responders, construction workers and school crossing guards. Sturgill is campaigning on cutting “bureaucratic red tape” and protecting Florida’s schools “from the federal government’s radical, liberal agenda.”

House District 7, Democrats

Hilsia “Tatiana” Fernandez, 51, owns a medical equipment business. Her top two legislative priorities are expanding vocational and career education and making housing more affordable.

Karen Green, 56, is a political strategist and vice chair of the Florida Democratic Party. She describes her agenda as “securing the civil liberties of immigrants and other minority communities, women’s rights, youth development, universal health care, religious freedoms, social justice, and climate advocacy.”

Al Krulick, 70, is a former Walt Disney World performer, teacher, nonprofit administrator and political operative who has run several times unsuccessfully for Congress. He is calling for campaign finance reform, protecting abortion rights, gun control measures and universal health care.

Allek Pastrana, 36, is a computer engineer. He wants to raise the federal minimum wage to $15 an hour, legalize marijuana, reduce military spending, establish Washington D.C. and Puerto Rican statehood and apply term limits to the U.S. Supreme Court and Congress.

House District 10, Democrats

Jack Achenbach, 29, is a dietitian. He says he wants to bring down gas prices, end the war on drugs and reform the immigration system.

Jeffrey Boone, 58, of Orlando, is a finance executive and former Wall Street banker. Boone said he wants to protect abortion rights, fund law enforcement to make communities safer and provide tax incentives for renters.

Randolph Bracy, 55, of Orlando, is a state senator and former state representative. Bracy said tackling the economy would be his main priority. He also cited his success in having fought against Republicans in the statehouse.

Corrine Brown, 75, of Jacksonville, represented Central Florida in Congress before serving two years in prison on 18 federal convictions. Her original conviction was thrown out, but she pleaded guilty this year to a tax fraud charge. Brown said she’s running after “the Lord wanted me to see the criminal justice system. He wanted me to experience this because he knew that I would do something about it.”

Maxwell Frost, 25, of Orlando, is a former ACLU staffer and gun control activist. He said he wants to protect abortion rights, ensure everyone in the country has health care, continue fighting for gun reforms and tackle rising costs.

Terence Gray, 57, of Ocoee, is the pastor of Saint Mark AME Church in Orlando. He said housing and wages were important issues. He added he wants to keep the lines of communication open between Democrats and Republicans.

Alan Grayson, 64, of Orlando, represented parts of Central Florida twice in the U.S. House between 2009 and 2017. He cited his working with a Republican Congress to help fund the Orlando VA Medical Center, phase 2 of SunRail and more than $1 billion in highway projects.

Natalie Jackson, 53, of Orlando, is a civil rights attorney who represented Trayvon Martin’s family after his shooting death in 2012. Jackson said she wants to toughen antitrust laws to help lower costs and rents.

Khalid Muneer, 70, is a real estate broker. His platform calls for reducing gun violence, tackling inflation and safeguarding the environment.

Teresa Tachon, 58, is a teacher at Boone High School in Orlando. She said her main focus is education and calls for reallocating funds to public schools and requiring charter schools to meet the same standards as public ones.

House District 10, Republicans

Lateresa Jones, 58, of Ocala, states on Instagram that she’s a “small Business-Owner, Christian, Pro-Trump Republican.” She lists protecting the border and the Second Amendment as some of her priorities.

Tuan Le, an aerospace engineer and cyber security analyst, stated his top priority was to stop security breaches by China and government corruption, as well as backing term limits in Congress.

Thuy Lowe, 56, of Orlando, is an entrepreneur and real estate investor, who worked on the 2020 Trump campaign. She lists energy independence, parental rights and border security as key issues.

Willie Montague, 34, of Orlando, is the founder of the Orlando nonprofit “House of Timothy.” On his website, he criticizes “racist critical theories and radical gender ideology.”

Peter Weed, 65, of Orlando, is a businessman. He states he backs school choice, is against abortion and wants to control the border.

Calvin Wimbish, 72, is a retired Army Green Beret and calls himself a “fierce America First conservative.” His issues include “election integrity,” the Second Amendment and eliminating the U.S. Department of Education.

House District 11, Republicans

Laura Loomer, 29, is a far-right activist who was banned from social media because of her anti-Muslim comments. She is calling for a 10-year halt in immigration and the mass deportation of millions of people living in the country illegally.

Daniel Webster, 73, is a business owner from Clermont who has served in Congress since 2011. He said his experience makes him the best candidate, and he’ll focus on increasing energy production and combating inflation.

Gavriel Soriano, 27, is a family farmer who lives in Sumter County. His platform includes dismantling Big Tech and factory farm monopolies, banning the importation of foreign workers and downsizing the federal government.

House District 9, Republicans

Scotty Moore, 43, worked as a missionary and now is a consultant. He said he doesn’t believe in any exceptions allowing for abortions, is opposed to vaccine mandates and that Congress shouldn’t send money to Ukraine amid inflation and high fuel prices.

Sergio Ortiz, 58, is a real estate broker who lives in Kissimmee. He’s also an ordained minister and the only candidate in the primary who lives in the district boundaries. He believes the U.S. should increase its domestic oil production and should teach students more about the Constitution. He doesn’t support any exceptions for allowing abortions.

Adianis Morales, 54, lives in Ocoee and is an associate pastor at Nación De Fe in Kissimmee. She previously worked on campaigns for Sen. Rick Scott and Latinos for Trump. She believes the U.S. should open more oil pipelines to increase supply and create a parental bill of rights. She said there should be exceptions to abortion restrictions to save the life of a mother.

Jose Castillo, 38, of Davenport, works at Walt Disney World as a manager at the resort. He spoke out against Disney’s opposition to the so-called “Don’t Say Gay” bill. Castillo opposes vaccine mandates and COVID-19 lockdowns, which put theme park workers and thousands of others out of work.

State Senate

District 10, Republicans

Jason Brodeur, 47, is a state senator from Sanford and the president and CEO of the Seminole County Chamber. He declined an interview but sent a statement through a spokeswoman that touted his sponsorship in 2021 of a bill that helped usher in $400 million in funding to protect natural areas across the state.

Denali Charres, 43, is a registered nurse from Longwood who is new to politics. Charres said she wants to protect Seminole County’s rural boundary, which restricts development on the east side of the county, bolster school safety and protect gun owners’ rights.

District 15, Democrats

Geraldine Thompson, 73, of Ocoee, is a state representative and historian, who runs the Wells’Built Museum of African American History & Culture. Thompson, also a former state senator, favors restrictions or a tax on out-of-state firms that buy homes in Florida to address housing costs and plans to file a bill calling for stronger theme park ride regulations.

Kamia Brown, 41, of Ocoee, is a state representative in a district covering Pine Hills, Ocoee and Apopka. Brown, first elected in 2016, served as the Minority Leader Pro Tempore in the House and was also elected as chair of the Florida Legislative Black Caucus. She said she’s interested in tackling the homeowners insurance crisis and creating incentives to build more housing.

State House

District 35, Republicans

Fred Hawkins Jr., 55 of St. Cloud, is a state representative for a district spanning part of Osceola and Polk counties. He also was a former Osceola county commissioner. Hawkins’ website says he’s focused on education funding and policy.

Ken Davenport, 53 of Orlando, is a flight attendant. He said road and traffic issues should be priorities, as well as adding more police officers at schools. He said insurance companies covering Florida residents shouldn’t be able to leave the state.

Dianna Liebnitzky, 62 of St. Cloud, works in risk management for a hospital. She said health insurance companies should reduce barriers for patients to receive specialized care and said overdevelopment has contributed to congested roads.

District 35, Democrats

Rishi Bagga, 39, of east Orange County is a civil attorney. He also owns a UCF-area hotel with his family. Bagga said he supports more funding for public schools, expanding Medicaid and passing stronger gun-safety laws.

Tom Keen, 66, of Lake Nona, is a U.S. Navy veteran who works for an aerospace company. keen said the Legislature needs to take more action on homeowners insurance prices, and he supports policies to protect air and water quality.

Tahitiana Munoz-Chaffin, 40, of St. Cloud, is a former North Carolina police officer who now is a real estate agent. She said the district needs better functioning roads, clean water and affordable housing.

District 36, Republicans

Angelique “Angel” Perry, 46, works in tech support for mobile devices and software and avidly advocates for veterans rights. She wants to propose a merit system to financially compensate first responders for going beyond the minimum requirements of the role, and supports school choice and “constitutional carry” of guns.

Rachel Plakon, 43, wife to Scott Plakon, a current member of the Florida House and a real estate investment company owner. She wants to create jobs and curb inflation through tax cuts. She has received endorsements and campaign funds from Republican politicians and leaders across the state.

Richard Santos, 51, former Orange County Sheriff’s Office deputy and veteran, is the father of seven children. He supports legislation that temporarily prevents lobbyists from becoming lawmakers and vice versa, as well as abortion restrictions, gun rights and expanding parental rights concerning their children’s public school education.

District 36, Democrats

Deborah Poulalion, 53, is a data analyst for an auditors’ association in Lake Mary and mother of two sons. She supports protecting the county’s rural boundary and repealing bills that legislate what can and cannot be taught in public schools.

Rodenay Joseph, 44, is a U.S. Army veteran who migrated to the country from Haiti as a child. His priorities include creating more affordable housing, expanding health care rights, increasing veteran care and immigration reform.

District 37, Republicans

Susan Plasencia, 51, sister of former legislator Rene “Coach P” Plasencia, works in the family business, Rene’s Productions. She supports an abortion ban with exceptions for rape, incest and to save the life of the woman. Her campaign received donations from influential Republican political committees.

Kristopher Stark, 45, a salesman, has self-funded his campaign. He supports former President Donald Trump, describes himself as “pro-life,” wants to raise pay for teachers but eradicate their unions and says recreational marijuana should be legal.

District 39, Republicans

Doug Bankson, 59, founded Victory Church Apopka and Apopka Christian Academy and is an Apopka city commissioner and vice mayor. He said his focus would be fiscal responsibility, including dealing with the state’s affordable housing and property insurance crises.

Charles Hart, 47, of Apopka, is the chair of the Orange County Republican Party. He said he would support Gov. Ron DeSantis and wants to see less government and more free market principles put in place.

Randy Ross, 57, of Orlando, was the Orange County chair of the Donald Trump campaign in 2016. His focus is “Betty’s Bill,” named after his mother, that would overhaul the Florida Guardianship program to help seniors and caregivers.

District 41, Democrats

State Rep. Travaris McCurdy, 38, of Orlando, whose current District 46 includes most of the new District 41, is panic about voter suppression under new state laws restricting the use of “drop boxes” and the activities of voter rights organizations. McCurdy participated in a sit-in on the House floor to protest the GOP’s redistricting.

Bruce Antone, of Orlando, a longtime state lawmaker, served in the Florida House for eight years and was succeeded by McCurdy in 2020. That year, he dropped his bid for an Orange County School Board seat amid a lawsuit that challenged his candidacy. He did not participate in an interview despite multiple requests.

Pam Powell, of Orlando, is a motivational speaker and the pastor and founder of Pam Powell International Ministries, an online church. She is concerned about voter suppression and the disenfranchisement of minorities. She has been a local activist for several decades.

Shaniqua “Shan” Rose, 34, of Orlando, founded nonprofit Change for the Community and used to work in permitting for the city of Orlando. She said affordable housing is an urgent issue. She said the city owns dozens of lots in Parramore, which could be used to develop low-cost options.

District 42, Republicans

David Dwyer, 45, is a public insurance adjuster for Experienced Public Adjusters, which he founded. He wants to curb inflation through hiring and spending freezes while still protecting teachers, first responders and other essential workers. He supports total abortion bans, parental rights in education and gun rights.

Bonnie Jackson is an international law attorney and shareholder in Jackson Law International. She is the mother of three children and involved in her community through various organizations and institutions, including St. Margaret Mary Catholic Church, and the Parks and Recreation and Tree Preservation boards for Winter Park. She supports mandatory E-Verify, further rolling back Florida’s 15-week abortion ban and parental rights in education.

Circuit Judges

9th Circuit, Group 9

Fay Olga Pappas, 35, practices in several areas at the Bailey Fisher law firm in Winter Park, including wrongful death, medical malpractice and nursing home abuse. She said she has a passion for helping others through public service — from advocating for domestic violence victims to fighting for the rights of former farmworkers around contaminated Lake Apopka.

Alison Kerestes, 44, is a former prosecutor with experience in domestic violence, felony and juvenile delinquency cases before entering private practice. She specializes in foreclosures, evictions, debt collection, family law and criminal defense and touts her courtroom experience in criminal and civil cases.

9th Circuit, Group 44

Circuit Judge Vincent Chiu, 43, was appointed to the role in 2019 by Gov. Ron DeSantis after 12 years as a federal prosecutor in the Middle District of Florida. Chiu said his experience on the bench sets him apart, pointing to his handling of cases like the decision upholding Orange County’s sales ban on puppies.

Aldo Bartolone, 48, was an assistant public defender in South Florida and since has experience in personal injury claims like auto accidents, medical malpractice and product liability, as well as commercial, real estate and bankruptcy litigation. Bartolone said the diversity of his experience makes him a better choice.

9th Circuit, Group 14

Circuit Judge John Beamer, 39, was appointed by Gov. Ron DeSantis in 2020 after working for Farmers Insurance, where he tried civil litigation cases. He has also handled multi-jurisdiction complex litigation involving medical device manufacturers. The judge said his temperament and experience make him a better fit for the position.

Michael Stewart, 37, started his career representing corporations in medical malpractice and wrongful death suits, before becoming an assistant public defender. He later worked for GEICO, defending people and entities in personal injury suits. He is critical of Beamer’s membership in the Federalist Society, a conservative legal organization.

18th Circuit, Group 3

Chief Judge Jessica Recksiedler, 49, a former prosecutor and civil litigator, was on the bench for more than a decade when her peers elected her to lead the circuit in 2021. Recksiedler touts endorsements from Brevard Sheriff Wayne Ivey, Seminole Sheriff Dennis Lemma, Public Defender Blaise Trettis and State Attorney Phil Archer.

John Mannion, 60, was a longtime prosecutor in the circuit, handling career criminal, sex crimes and child abuse cases, before opening a practice representing those who can’t afford counsel. Mannion cites Recksiedler’s past reprimand by the Florida Supreme Court for false or misleading answers about her driving record as a reason he’s a better fit for the bench.

County Judges

Orange, Group 2

County Judge Andrew Bain, 37, was appointed by Gov. Ron DeSantis in 2020 after working for about seven years as a prosecutor in the Orange-Osceola circuit. The incumbent said his judicial experience makes him a better fit for the position.

Jared Adelman, 36, has spent 12 years working at the Orange-Osceola public defender’s office and has volunteered with Teen Court, a juvenile diversion program, for the past 20 years. Adelman said he has “substantially more trial experience” than his opponent and is board certified in criminal trial law.

Orange, Group 8

County Judge Elizabeth Starr was appointed by former Gov. Rick Scott in 2015 and once worked as the Central Florida bureau chief for the Attorney General’s Consumer Protection Division. Starr said her judicial experience in both criminal and civil cases makes her a better fit for the job, as does her judicial philosophy of interpreting the law as written.

Michael Morris, 59, has been an attorney for close to three decades, mainly in family law. He has also served as a guardian ad litem for children and participated in clinics for legal aid groups. He is critical of Starr’s judicial philosophy as a “textualist.”

Orange, Group 9

Steven Casey Miller, 36, is an assistant state attorney in Lake County who was previously a prosecutor in the Orange-Osceola circuit. Miller said he decided to run after observing judges during the past nine years in court and feeling frustrated.

Amanda Sampaio Bova, 42, was an assistant public defender and ran her own practice before her current role as a senior attorney for the state Department of Business and Professional Regulation. Sampaio Bova cited her experience, credentials as a board-certified attorney and community involvement as a reason she’s a better fit for the bench.

Orange, Group 17

County Judge Elizabeth Gibson, 43, was a prosecutor in the Fifth Judicial Circuit and general counsel for Christian Care Ministry before being appointed to the bench in 2020 by Gov. Ron DeSantis. Gibson said she is qualified to continue serving on the bench because of her experience and record.

Josh Adams, 42, is a U.S. Marine Corps veteran who worked as a prosecutor in the Orange-Osceola before opening a practice with his wife in 2013 where he focuses on representing indigent clients in criminal defense cases. Adams said he is the better choice because he has more experience in dealing with a variety of cases.

Seminole, Group 5

Retired Circuit Judge Kenneth Lester, 68, served as a circuit judge for 24 years, primarily in the felony division presiding over serious criminal cases. Lester cited his 40 years of experience as a judge and attorney as the reason he would be a better fit for the role. He is critical of opponent Erik Swenk’s history of addiction.

Erik Swenk, 42, works as a hearing office supervisor for the Florida Department of Children and Families inspector general’s office. Swenk said he is the better candidate because, unlike Lester, he can finish his term under the state Constitution, which sets the retirement age of judges at 75. Swenk, who has been open about his battle with addiction, said he has maintained his sobriety for years.

Carsandra “Sandy” Buie, 54, was an assistant public defender before opening her own practice focusing on probate and estate matters. She has also been recognized for her service by the statewide Guardian Ad Litem program. Buie said she is the best fit for the position because she has dedicated her career to representing children in need and has a passion for justice.

Orange County

Orange Mayor

Incumbent Mayor Jerry Demings, 63, has had a four-decade career of public service in Central Florida, including serving as Orlando Police Chief and Orange County Sheriff. He has proposed a penny-per-dollar increase in the sales tax to pay for “transformational” changes to the county’s transportation systems.

Christopher Messina, 64, is an entrepreneur. He also created and leads The 3-21 Foundation, a nonprofit that supports families with special-needs children. His campaign website describes him as “pro-God, pro-life, pro-family.” He opposes the mayor’s proposed sales tax and criticized the mayor’s COVID-19 leadership.

Retired Army Col. Anthony “Tony” Sabb, 61, was awarded two Bronze Stars during a 25-year military career. Sabb also worked for defense contractor Northrop Grumman Corp. after retiring from the Army in 2008. He opposes the proposed sales tax increase for transportation and criticized COVID-19 vaccination mandates.

Kelly Semrad, 45, a professor at the University of Central Florida’s Rosen College of Hospitality Management, serves as vice chair of Save Orange County, an advocacy group opposed to urban development east of the Econlockhatchee River. She disagreed with the mayor’s employee-vaccination mandate and his vote to allow the Central Florida Expressway Authority extend a toll-road through a southern portion of Split Oak Forest.

Orange Commission

District 2

Incumbent Christine Moore, 61, was elected to the Orange commission in 2018. She previously served 10 years on the Orange County school board. She helped secure $45 million in state funding for an ongoing, septic-to-sewer project in the Wekiva Springs neighborhoods.

Sandra Fatmi-Hall, 55, born in Jamaica, moved to Central Florida from Atlanta in 2009. She previously served as president of the Pine Hills Community Council and is executive director of the United Foundation of Central Florida, a nonprofit group whose work includes operating after-school and youth mentoring programs. She wants to use partnerships with law enforcement to make communities safer.

Christopher Delgado, 30, of Apopka, is described by a campaign news release as an entrepreneur and philanthropist. His LinkedIn profile identifies him as an “international business consultant.” He did not participate in an Orlando Sentinel editorial forum and did not respond to repeated interview requests.

District 4

Incumbent Maribel Gomez Cordero, 55, born in Puerto Rico, works as a family mental-health therapist. Cordero attended most Orange County government updates on COVID-19 during the pandemic to answer questions for Spanish-language news outlets. She cast the deciding vote in the commission’s decision to enact a ban on the retail sale of puppies.

Mercedes Fonseca, 44, born and raised in Orlando, served eight years as chief aide to former Commissioner Pete Clarke. She holds a master’s degree in business administration from the University of Central Florida. She is co-owner of a consulting company specializing in land use, zoning and permitting issues. She did not agree with the ban on retail pet sales, opposes rent control, and suggested offering developers incentives to build affordable housing projects.

Karl Anthony Pearson, 49, son of immigrant parents, has worked in banking for 15 years. He earned a master’s degree in business from Rollins College. He serves as president of the homeowners association in his neighborhood. He said he would prioritize public safety and believes he has the best financial-management background.

District 6

Rosemarie Diehl, 63, describes herself on her campaign website as a community organizer and advocate who has served for many years as volunteer president of her neighborhood’s homeowners’ group, the Robinswood Community Improvement Association. She said she is concerned with pedestrian safety and ensuring the district is not overlooked if the transportation sales tax passes.

Lawanna Gelzer, 59, a community activist and frequent candidate, said she wants to increase affordable housing options. Gelzer, who most recently ran unsuccessfully for Orlando city commissioner, is self-funding her campaign.

Cynthia Harris, 54, describes herself as a community advocate and operator of Carson-Chaney House Inc., a not-for-profit organization. A resident of the Malibu Groves neighborhood, Harris said she would like to restore twice-a-week trash collection.

Nikki Mims McGee, 41, an Orlando native, served on the 2020 Charter Review Commission. A builder and a lawyer, she helped draft two conservation-based measures. She said she supports the transportation sales tax because of the district’s large bus ridership.

Hedder Pierre-Joseph, 49, was born in the Bahamas, arrived in the U.S. as “undocumented,” and became a U.S. citizen in 1994, according to her campaign website. A real estate agent, she has resided in Orange County since 2003.

Michael “Mike” Scott, 40, lives in Tangelo Park. The Air Force veteran serves as coordinator for Orlando’s My Brother’s Keeper, a mentoring initiative started by President Barack Obama. Scott has two teenage sons.

Roberta Walton Johnson, 48, serves as general counsel for Orange County Clerk of Courts Tiffany Moore Russell, a former District 6 commissioner. When Moore Russell was District 6 commissioner, Johnson worked as her aide. She earned her law degree from Florida A&M University in 2005.

Orange school chairman

Teresa Jacobs, 65, is seeking her second term. Her priorities include more funding for school employees’ salaries and a continued focus on student mental health. As the district deals with new state education laws, a switch in superintendents and fallout from the pandemic, she says she will provide continuity for the district.

Dementio Barton is a pastor and businessman. He backs Gov. Ron DeSantis’ “pledge to families” and says he will work to keep critical race theory and “woke gender ideology” out of schools and support parents’ rights. He also thinks OCPS should consider the state’s guardian program, which allows some teachers to be armed.

Carl Brewer is a financial educator who says he is a “bureaucracy-busting” conservative. He opposes school mask mandates and critical race theory and says he wants to increase parent involvement in schools and boost teacher pay.

Orange school board

District 1

Angie Gallo, 54, won the seat in 2018 and is seeking re-election. She is a longtime Florida PTA member and school volunteer. Her priorities include finding ways to boost teacher pay and morale, increasing career education programs, addressing “learning loss” and enhancing student mental health offerings.

Rachel Kirby, 45, works in telecommunications and decided to run because she found OCPS’ response to the COVID-19 pandemic “appalling,” notably its student mask mandate that prompted her to pull her children from the schools. She wants to increase teacher pay, remove sexually explicit materials and prohibit the teaching of critical race theory.

District 2

Heather Ashby, 47, is a school counselor for OCPS, who decided to run because she felt public education was “under attack.” She wants to Improve teacher retention, provide more support for other school employees, enhance school safety and student mental health support and make sure school technology is reliable.

George Collins, 74, is a former adjunct instructor in communications at Valencia and the University of Central Florida. He wants to Improve communication between parents and schools and the school board and the teachers union. He also wants to hike teacher pay, expand technical, financial and nutrition classes and work with the Legislature and local business groups to address teacher and other staff shortages.

Maria Salamanca, 29, is a partner in a venture capital firm and a graduate of Timber Creek High School who decided to run because the school system that helped her is “drowning” under a heavy workload and dealing with “with culture war distractions” from the state. She wants to help represent the district’s large bilingual population and Improve teacher recruitment and retention.

Chad Aaron Spence, 51, is a high school science teacher at a private Christian school, who opposes “tyrannical lockdowns, the masking of our precious children and vaccine mandates.” He would push for “world class education, without indoctrination” and to keep “gender ideology and other sensitive issues” out of the schools.

Jose Vicente, 55, is a retired Orlando police officer, who said his experience in law enforcement, including work as a trainer and recruiter and serving on labor and pension boards, will help him with many of the issues OCPS faces. His priorities include school safety and boosting teacher salaries to help with recruitment and retention.

District 3

Michael Daniels, 49, is an administrator at Eastern Florida State College and a longtime OCPS volunteer. His priorities include higher teachers’ salaries and better efforts to explain to parents the educational options their children have. He also wants to work with Valencia College so more dual enrollment classes are offered at high schools.

Alicia Farrant, 41, runs a Christian ministry along with her husband. She spoke out against the mask mandate and pushed the district to remove books she viewed as “pornographic” from school libraries. She wants to make sure students are not indoctrinated or taught history that is “tainted.” She also wants higher teacher salaries.

Kila Murphey, 43, is a nurse practitioner and advocate for children with disabilities. She wants to boost teacher pay and autonomy and provide them more creativity in their classrooms. She also wants to make sure all students graduate with a plan for their future, Improve studying instruction and beef up support for children with disabilities.

Susanne Marie Pena, 42, is a former teacher and instructional coach who now works as an educational consultant. She focuses on helping students to learn English and helping those with disabilities. She wants to work on eliminating “excessive” testing, recruiting and keeping teachers and addressing bullying.

Dennis Smith, 70, is a retired OCPS teacher who also taught math as an adjunct instructor at Valencia College. He wants to focus on school safety, offering skilled trades or shop classes to students and hiring and keeping top teachers. He also thinks the district should recruit military veterans to help fill teacher vacancies.

Seminole County

Seminole Commission

District 2

Brittany Walker, 29, of Lake Mary, is the owner of Eques Consulting, a network marketing business. She was spurred to run for the county commission after Seminole’s emergency order in early 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic that limited capacity in public buildings and required business patrons to stay at least six feet apart. She called the order “unnecessary” and “heavy handed.” Walker is concerned about the new apartments and multifamily dwellings being approved by commissioners.

Jay Zembower, 61, of Winter Springs, is a consultant in automotive investigative forensics for law enforcement, government agencies and law firms. A firm supporter of Seminole’s rural boundary and seeking his second term, Zembower wants to continue efforts to complete the county’s popular trail network. He also wants to continue the efforts to expand Seminole’s Five Points Complex in Sanford into a hub for nearly all of the county’s main offices.

Seminole school board

District 1

Deborah Bauer, 41, is a Valencia College history professor and school volunteer. Bauer said parents’ rights, better early literacy lessons and a more-streamlined administration are her top priorities. She is opposed to face mask mandates and disapproved of how the school board hired a new superintendent in 2021.

Kristine Kraus, 64, won in 2018 and is seeking another term. She supported the hiring of the new superintendent and voted for COVID-19 safety measures, including a mask mandate. She wants to boost teacher pay, Improve mental health services for students and keep school safety a priority.

District 2

Sean Cooper, 49, is a former pastor at Northland Church in Longwood and now works for an international youth organization. He would like to Improve discipline problems on campuses, reduce student absenteeism and address children’s mental health problems. He would like character education taught and to boost teacher pay.

Kelley Davis is a former Seminole High School math teacher who later went to law school and is now an attorney who handles criminal and family law. Her priorities include better salaries for teachers, more assistance for mental health problems, improvements to the exceptional student education programs and a reduction in bullying.

James Evans, 33, is a Realtor and the father of a young son who said the school shooting in Uvalde, Texas, motivated him to run. He wants the well-regarded district to focus on areas that need improvement, including schools where lots of students struggle academically, school safety, student discipline and a teacher shortage.

Eric Monte, 51, a former engineer who worked for years in a family-owned business, is now a stay-at-home father to his two children and a school volunteer. He wants to strengthen “traditional American ideals and values,” Improve school discipline and make sure “fringe Ivory Tower theories” aren’t taught. He also said last year’s superintendent search was an embarrassment to Seminole County.

District 5

Dana Fernandez, 47, is a former New York City teacher who recently moved to Florida. She decided to run after hearing her 11-year-old son’s teacher mention “white privilege” in class. She is opposed to critical race theory and dislikes COVID-19 policies that require school mask mandates. Other priorities include more services for children with disabilities and improved mental health and school safety efforts.

Autumn Garick, 56, owns an educational theater company and is a longtime school volunteer. She wants to offer better pay and support to veteran teachers, explore ways to find affordable housing for school employees, lobby Tallahassee for better and more flexible school funding. She also wants to enhance efforts to address student mental health, discipline and bullying.

Joshua Memminger, 36, is a sergeant with the Sanford Police Department who has worked as a school resource officer for the Seminole school district. School safety is a priority and he would like to see more training and technology put to those efforts. He wants to help students who struggled and fell behind in the pandemic and to help veteran teachers who feel shortchanged by the state’s focus on boosting starting pay.

Agar Quiñones-Aristone is a teacher at a private Christian school in Longwood and a former public school teacher. Her priority is to unite residents around the school district and reduce the distrust some parents feel toward public schools. She also wants to Improve school safety, exceptional student education programs and mental health support and make the district a top choice for teachers.

Sanford Commission


Charles Davis, 54, is the owner of an insurance business and chairman of Sanford’s Community Redevelopment Agency. He says the city needs a better plan for its future growth. As Sanford’s downtown becomes increasingly popular, the city needs to solve its lack of parking, especially during large street events.

Christopher d’Hedouville, 21, is an Eagle Boy Scout. According to his website, d’Hedouville wants more accountability in city government. He promises to fight to reduce crime and city expenses. He declined to comment about his campaign to the Orlando Sentinel, calling it “fake news.”

Chan Robinson, 29, is an Army veteran and works in the construction and landscaping industries. He also attends Full Sail University. Robinson said he is frustrated that Sanford doesn’t do more to market and sell itself to attract visitors from around the world. Sanford should promote its downtown district and waterfront.

Art Woodruff, 59, taught science and computer science at Seminole County Public Schools. He was named mayor by the city commission in 2020 to replace Jeff Triplett, who had resigned. Woodruff said the city must foster job creation through economic development, community partnerships and incentives. Sanford also must follow through on plans to repair the aging sewer systems and replace water meters.

District 1

Sheena Rena Britton, 40, is a member of the Sanford Museum and the Seminole County community block grant advisory boards. She was appointed to the District 1 seat in 2020 by the commission. As the city continues to grow, she said it’s important “to preserve the historic charm” of Sanford. The city must continue to create economic development strategies that support existing businesses.

Christina Hollerbach, 35, is the chief executive officer of Hollerbach’s German Restaurant in downtown Sanford and president of the Sanford Main Street program. She said it’s important that Sanford has good planning and zoning rules that preserve the city’s unique old-Florida charm, especially in the downtown district. The Sanford Marina is a city asset that could be used for more public events.

District 2

Mario Hicks, 36, is the owner of Off the Chain Towing and Roni’s restaurant. He said the city should do more to help entrepreneurs open businesses in Goldsboro, a historic Black community. He also proposes Sanford establish a community redevelopment agency within the historic area to spur economic growth.

Kerry Wiggins, 50, is a teacher and coach for Seminole County Public Schools. He is seeking his second term on the commission. Wiggins proposes expanding the Dr. Velma Williams Westside Community Center to include a sports field and track to encourage youth activities and tournaments. The city should partner with Habitat for Humanity to create affordable housing.

Tue, 09 Aug 2022 01:54:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Killexams : Local Education Leaders Push Bill to Boost Black Students’ Academic Scores

Two local School Board members recently made a trip to Sacramento in support of a proposed Assembly Bill to provide more financial resources for students who are struggling the most academically.

In much of the state, including Fresno and Clovis, those students are Black. According to the Office of the Fresno County Superintendent of Schools, over the past two decades the lowest performing subgroup of students statewide who are not receiving additional education funding support are African American students. In 2019, California testing data showed that 67% of them didn’t meet English standards and 79% didn’t meet math standards.

Assembly Bill 2774 has strong support from advocates for improving educational equity, including Fresno Trustee Keshia Thomas and Clovis Trustee Yolanda Moore, Clovis Unified’s first African American trustee.

Moore said she represented herself, not the Clovis School Board, on the lobbying trip to Sacramento. And she notes that AB 2774 is written to help the lowest-performing group of students who are not already receiving extra funding support, whoever they may be.

“It’s not about helping because they are Black, it’s about helping because they are struggling,” she told School Zone last week.

Giving Support to Students

Here’s what AB 2774 would do: The state of California provides extra money through the Local Control Funding Formula for struggling students who are homeless, in foster care, and learning English. The bill would add an additional category of so-called “unduplicated” students, targeting those who are in the lowest-performing sector compared with their peers, and provide additional funds on an ongoing basis.

Also in School Zone: 

  • Fresno State student politicians lose eligibility to serve.
  • “Shakespeare Intensive” Drama Camp is scheduled at Fresno Pacific.
  • FUSD offers free vaccination clinic for traditional childhood diseases.
  • Medical residents come to Fresno from the Caribbean.

If the subgroup can close its achievement gap, another subgroup with low performance would take its place.

Proponents of improving education funding equity tried a few years ago to get AB 2774 passed but instead settled for $300 million in “one-time” funding, said Angie Barfield, a program specialist for Student Equity and Empowerment in the Office of the Fresno County Superintendent of Schools.

But one-time funding means that once the money runs out, there’s no ensure of more, which hampered district efforts to hire teachers or establish programs over the long run, Barfield said.

The state of California needs to commit the additional funding if state leaders are truly committed to equity in education, she said.

More Money to Support Students

Fresno Unified, which already has a number of programs aimed at improving academic performance of Black students, could get an extra $8.9 million annually under AB 2774, while Central Unified could get an extra $8.4 million and Clovis Unified just under $1 million, Barfield said.

The Office of the Fresno County Superintendent of Schools office has scheduled a news conference for Thursday with local superintendents and trustees urging Gov. Gavin Newsom to support AB 2772, which is now pending before the Senate Appropriations Committee. If it’s funded, AB 2774 would put an extra $400 million statewide and more than $19 million for Fresno County public schools for 2,967 students who are not already getting extra funding support.

Fresno Unified’s efforts to boost equity in education include the African American Academic Acceleration program and a new agreement with Benedict College in Columbia, South Carolina, one of the nation’s “Historically Black Colleges and Universities,” or HBCUs, to provide dual enrollment courses to high school students.

Through the district’s “HBCU Step Up Program,” students at Edison, Sunnyside, and Bullard high schools can enroll in virtual classes with Benedict instructors, said Jeremy Ward, assistant superintendent for college and career readiness. The district plans to expand the program to other high schools in future years, he said.

Introduction to College Success

The first class this fall for 11th graders will be an introduction to college success course, followed by an African American history course in the spring. In their senior year students may enroll in one English and one computer science course, both of which will have transferable college credit, Ward said.

The students will be taught in the classroom but virtually by a Benedict instructor, with a Fresno Unified teacher in the classroom to provide any needed in-person support, he said.

Although enrollment is open to all students regardless of race or ethnicity, the program was designed to support Black students in their transition from high school to college, Ward said.

“This program was developed because Fresno Unified’s students of color, specifically African American students, lag behind every subgroup in post-secondary college attendance and participation,” he said in an email. “As our nation’s HBCU institutions have a legacy of uniquely supporting African American students, we were inspired to create a partnership with a HBCU because of the support they offer our African American students.”

In Fresno, only 17% of Black students go on to college and earn a bachelor’s degree, Barfield said.

Benedict College won’t be the only HBCU with ties to Fresno. St. Augustine’s University of Raleigh, North Carolina, announced in June that it had created the HCBU Urban Access Hub, connecting community college students to a four-year HCBU education.

Why are HCBU’s important for Black students? After the Civil War they typically were the only colleges that were open to Black students, who have more options today, Barfield said. But HCBUs, which are typically staffed by Black professors and administrators, can provide students more confidence that they will be successful in their college careers, she said.

Loss of Eligibility

Fresno State’s student government got a bit of a shakeup this month when the newly-elected ASI president, Cinthia Arriaga-Sanchez, and two student senators resigned their posts.

The reason? They were no longer eligible to serve.

Arriaga-Sanchez had just been elected to serve as ASI president for the 2022-23 school year and was installed on June 1, as were the two student senators, Jasmine Sevilla and Samantha Snow, said James Martinez, ASI’s director of operations.

Martinez said he would not reveal why the students were no longer eligible but said it resulted from the routine audit that’s conducted at the end of each semester, after grades have been turned in. Student eligibility can depend on whether they are carrying a full course load and maintaining a grade-point average of at least 2.0.

Executive Vice President Karen Carrillo was named Arriaga-Sanchez’s interim replacement, and it will be up to the remaining student senators to review their options on how to permanently fill the post, Martinez said. The senators held a virtual meeting last week to hear about the options, and a special Senate meeting is scheduled for this week where the students will decide how to fill the vacancy.

The student Senate positions will be filled by appointment, but that will wait until after the new president is named, he said.

Fresno Pacific Offers Drama Camp

Hey there, you drama kings and queens — Fresno Pacific University has a one-week camp coming up next month that promises to be intense. “Shakespeare Intensive,” that is.

The works of famed English playwright William Shakespeare will be the focus of Fresno Pacific’s drama camp, which is open to teens ages 13-18 and will be held on the southeast Fresno campus Aug. 8-12.

(School Zone remembers, and not entirely fondly, the vast number of Shakespearian works inflicted on her by SZ’s high school English teachers. On the other hand, the exposure greatly increased School Zone’s appreciation of the English language. So, many thanks, teachers!)

Participants will practice drama games, learn warm-up exercises and vocal techniques, create characters and learn theater history, “all through the lens of Shakespeare through scenes and monologues,” the university said in a news release.

Students also will watch a Shakespeare film each day and get a box lunch. Camp hours are 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. Monday through Thursday and 10 a.m. to 3 p.m. Friday, which will include a student showcase starting at 2 p.m. and held in the university’s brand-new Warkentine Culture & Arts Center. The camp will be taught by Brandi Martin, director of the university’s theater program, and guest artist Blake Ellis.

The cost is $75. To register, go to

Fresno Pacific University’s Drama Camp starts Aug. 8. (Fresno Pacific University)

FUSD Offers Free Vaccination Clinic

There’s still about a month before the start of the new school year, but for parents it’s not too early to be thinking about getting their kids vaccinated against the traditional diseases of polio, diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus (Dtap), mumps, measles and rubella (MMR), hepatitis B, and varicella. (COVID is not on the list and is not a required vaccination.)

Kindergartners must be up to date on all vaccines before entering school, and incoming seventh graders must show proof they are currently vaccinated against pertussis (whooping cough) and have had their second varicella vaccination.

The district will provide a free vaccination clinic at Tioga Middle School, 3232 E. Fairmount Ave., Room 26, starting Aug. 11. The clinic will be open on weekdays from 8 a.m. to 2 p.m. and is available for students who have MediCal or no insurance.

The parents of students with health insurance should either contact their health provider or a pharmacy that carries the required vaccines.

The free clinic will be available by appointment only. To make an appointment, call (559) 248-7157.

From the Caribbean to Fresno

Speaking of health care — Fresno’s got 12 new medical residents who traveled here from St. George’s University on the island of Grenada in the Caribbean.

They are among 84 graduates of St. George’s who have come to California this year for residencies, which for many medical students is the last stage before they start or join a practice.

Of the 12, two are at Saint Agnes Medical Center, and the other 10 are with the UCSF Fresno Medical Education program. They’ll be working in high-need specialties, including pediatrics and internal medicine.

Six are from California, including one from Fowler.

Having more medical residents is a good thing, because many doctors tend to stick around where they serve their residencies to practice medicine. For the Valley, which has long been underserved with doctors and other health care professionals, more doctors are critically needed.

Wed, 27 Jul 2022 04:39:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Killexams : People in Action

Kimberly Smith

Kimberly Smith, pharmacy practice coordinator for Fry’s Food Stores, has earned the 2022 Top Women in Grocery national award. Smith, a Tucson transplant, is one of two Fry’s leaders to receive the national award recognizing women in grocery who display exceptional achievements both in and out of the office. Smith is responsible for overseeing 22 southern Arizona pharmacy locations, advocating for patient care, facilitating pharmacy practice programs and ensuring regulatory compliance. “I am truly proud and humbled to receive this award. I want to recognize the amazing female mentors I have had throughout my career, including the first and most pivotal, my mother, who taught me how to praise, uplift and work tirelessly until I achieved my goals,” said Smith. Smith is a veteran pharmacist with over 18 years of industry experience. She currently serves as a preceptor and adjunct faculty for the University of Arizona’s College of Pharmacy. “Kimberly is a valued and dedicated Fry’s associate and deserving of this national recognition,” said Monica Garnes, president of Fry’s Food Stores. “She is a true testament to the Fry’s culture, a dedicated leader who shows up for her team daily and inspires them to be innovative thinkers and leaders. We are incredibly proud of her accomplishments.”

Lance Jungmeyer

President of Fresh Produce Association of the Americas, Lance Jungmeyer takes helm of Border Trade Alliance as its next board chairman. Jungmeyer, who is the president of the Nogales, Arizona based Fresh Produce Association of the Americas, will begin his term on July 1. BTA President Britton Mullen said, “The BTA welcomes Lance Jungmeyer as chairman, and we look forward to advancing the interests of the cross-border trade community in Washington, Ottawa and Mexico City to ensure our communities and industries are positioned to thrive.”

Kenia Zamarripa

The Border Trade Alliance also announces a new secretary, Kenia Zamarripa. She is executive director of international business affairs for San Diego Regional Chamber of Commerce. Her position started the first of July. She joins Kathy Neal and Hector Cerna as new officers on the BTA board. “The BTA appreciates the willingness of Kenia Zamarripa and Hector Cerna to lend their insight and expertise on border affairs to the board of directors,” BTA President Britton Mullen said.

Hector Cerna

Hector Cerna, president and CEO of IBC Bank Eagle Pass has been appointed as the new treasurer for the Border Trade Alliance. His new post started the first of July. He joins Kathy Neal and Kenia Zamarripa. BTA President Britton Mullen said of the new officers, “I am confident their tenure as officers will be successful and help solidify the BTA’s reputation as the go-to source for policymakers on the issues facing the border.”

Marie Buck

Western National Parks Association (WNPA) announced Marie Buck as its new chief executive officer. Buck was most recently chief operating officer (COO) for the Grand Canyon Conservancy (GCC) where she successfully managed operations. She previously served on the board of directors for GCC. As the senior director of business operations at Phoenix Raceway, Marie’s leadership was instrumental in the $180 million facility modernization project resulting in substantial increases in revenue and customer satisfaction. “Marie has an impressive record of success leading and operating complex organizations in operations, human resources, retail, programs, and capital and business development projects,” said Les Corey, chairman of the WNPA board of directors.

Tucson names new orthopedic surgery chair

John Elfar, MD, a fellow of the American College of Surgeons and American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons, joins University of Arizona College of Medicine in Tucson from Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine. He has been named chair of the Department of Orthopedic Surgery in UA College of Medicine effective August 15. Dr. Elfar graduated from Johns Hopkins University with degrees in biomedical engineering and electrical and computer engineering. He earned his medical degree at Harvard Medical School. Dr. Elfar completed his orthopedic surgical residency at the University of Rochester Medical Center.

“Dr. Elfar is a true surgeon-scientist with exceptional clinical and research credentials,” said Michael Abecassis, MD, MBA, dean of the UA College of Medicine. “This is a somewhat rare combination in the field of orthopedic surgery.”

Throughout his career as a surgeon-scientist, Dr. Elfar has been actively engaged in delivering orthopedic surgical care. Dr. Elfar’s current research is focused on severe trauma-related injuries, which often involve unrecoverable muscle and nerve damage.

“Orthopedics is about hope,” Dr. Elfar said. “We provide patients with hope for a better life after pain and injury. Our goal is to be the best place to receive and deliver care. If we can do that, everybody gains enough hope to live meaningful lives.”

Thu, 28 Jul 2022 19:00:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : The United States' Practice of Forced Labor at Home and Abroad: Truth and Facts (Part One)

BEIJING, Aug. 9 (Xinhua) -- The United States' Practice of Forced Labor at Home and Abroad: Truth and Facts

August 2022


Over the years, the United States has concocted the biggest lies of the century such as the so-called "genocide" and "forced labor" in Xinjiang, in an attempt to smear and contain China. It has enacted and implemented the "Uyghur Forced Labor Prevention Act", denigrated the human rights situation in Xinjiang and undermined people's livelihood and development of Xinjiang. In fact, the claim of forced labor does not apply at all to Xinjiang. It is instead a chronic disease of the United States that goes all the way back to the founding of the country. It remains rampant today, and is getting worse than ever.

This report records the United States' practice of forced labor at home and abroad from historical and current perspectives. The aim is to clarify facts, debunk lies, and help the world better understand what is forced labor and who is doing that. Let the truth shine through the darkness of lies.

I. There is clear definition of forced labor in international law

Since the 1930s, a series of conventions, protocols and other documents have established clear definition and determination standards of forced labor in international law.

◆ The core standards of the International Labour Organization (ILO) on forced labor include: Forced Labour Convention, 1930 (No. 29, ratified by 179 member states by the end of 2021), the Abolition of Forced Labour Convention, 1957 (No. 105, ratified by 176 member states by the end of 2021) and the Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, 1930 (ratified by 59 member states by the end of 2021).

◆ According to the Forced Labour Convention, 1930, the term forced labor "shall mean all work or service which is exacted from any person under the menace of any penalty and for which the said person has not offered himself voluntarily." In other words, "involuntariness", "menace of penalty" and "work or service" are three core elements of forced labor.

◆ According to ILO statistics, the United States has ratified only 14 international labor conventions, one of the lowest numbers among member states. It has ratified only two out of the ten core conventions, and has not yet ratified the Forced Labour Convention, 1930 till this day.

◆ China has ratified 28 international labor conventions. The Forced Labor Convention, 1930 and the Abolition of Forced Labour Convention, 1957 were ratified in April 2022. China faithfully fulfills its obligations under international conventions, and truly protects the rights of workers and prohibits forced labor through legislation and policy formulation and implementation. Forced labor is explicitly prohibited by Chinese law. The crime of forced labor is specified in Article 244 of the Criminal Law. In Xinjiang, workers of all ethnic groups choose jobs according to their own will, and enter into labor contracts with employers and get remuneration and rights and interests in accordance with laws and regulations such as the Labor Law and the Labor Contract Law, and on the basis of equality, voluntariness and consensus. The governments at various levels in Xinjiang also provide necessary job skills training to workers who apply voluntarily. Workers of all ethnic groups are free to choose where they work and what they do. They are never menaced by penalty or restricted in their personal freedom. There is no such thing as forced labor in Xinjiang.

II. Forced labor in the United States was born and grew with the founding of the nation

Slave trade was an original sin of the United States. When the United States was founded, it was the blood and tears of millions of black slaves sold to the country that helped create immense wealth and complete the primitive accumulation of capital.

◆ For a country with a history of only 246 years, slavery had been legal in the United States for almost one-third of its history. According to the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database, in the history of slave trade, there were at least 36,000 "slaving expeditions" between 1514 and 1866. And according to German data firm Statista, there were about 700,000 black slaves in the United States in 1790, while by 1860 the number had exceeded 3.95 million, and fewer than 490,000 African Americans were free in the whole nation.

◆ Black slaves, without adequate food or clothing, were forced to work under harsh conditions at the bottom of society. They were cruelly exploited and many were even tortured to death. Lots of black slaves were forced into the cotton industry. As American writer Edward Baptist wrote in his book The Half Has Never Been Told: Slavery and the Making of American Capitalism, the whip drove the slaves to devote all of their physical strength and most of their energy to cotton picking, making the speed faster and faster. Under the brute force of slave owners, cotton production in the United States by 1860 reached 130 times that of 1800. Behind the rapid increase in cotton production are the blood and tears of black slaves.

◆ Data shows that the value of labor extracted from black slaves by U.S. slave owners is as high as US$14 trillion at current prices. According to the website of James Madison's Montpelier, the home to the fourth President of the United States James Madison, the slavery economy was once the main engine driving the American economy. Slavery was essential to the U.S. economy from tobacco farming in Virginia to shipbuilding in Rhode Island. In 1850, slaves produced 80 percent of America's exports. Sven Beckert, a historian from Harvard University, said that the United States and the West prospered through slavery, not democracy.

◆ The Conversation, a nonprofit news organization, noted when tracing the history of slavery in the United States that "criminal slaves" and "real estate slaves" have coexisted since the late 18th century. In Virginia, the state with the most African Americans in jail, prisoners were declared "dead spirits" and "state slaves". It was not until the early 20th century that states stopped leasing criminals to farmers and industrial and commercial operators as cheap labor for railroads, highways and coal mines. In Georgia, a 1907 cessation of renting out criminals led to an economic shock in industries ranging from brick making to mining, and many companies went out of business as a result.

◆ Archives show that by the end of the 1860s, hundreds of thousands of Chinese workers had taken part in the construction of railways in the U.S. Poor Chinese peasants boarded ships known as "floating hells", where they were packed like sardines, and drifted on the sea for about two months before arriving in California and working as coolies. On these journeys, up to 64.21 percent of the Chinese died due to inhuman treatment, typhoons or infectious diseases. Those who survived became the target of racial discrimination and whipping from white supervisors. It took them only seven years to build a railway originally planned as a 14-year project. As some historians put it, the bones of Chinese laborers could be found under every sleeper of the railway.

III. The United States has a horrible track record of forced labor

Over the years, the U.S. government has deliberately evaded its responsibility for labor protection, resulting in "slave labor" among prisoners in private prisons, rampant use of child labor, and appalling forced labor in the agriculture sector, effectively making America a country of "modern slavery".

1.Forced labor is rampant in U.S. prisons

◆ The United States is a country of prisons in every sense. According to a report by the Prison Policy Initiative, 2 million inmates are held in 102 federal prisons, 1,566 state prisons, 2,850 local jails, 1,510 juvenile correctional facilities, 186 immigration detention facilities, and 82 Indian country jails, as well as in military prisons and other facilities in the United States. With less than five percent of global population, the United States holds a quarter of the world's detainees, making it the country with the largest imprisoned population and highest imprisonment rate.

◆ The 13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, while nominally protecting citizens from forced labor, excludes criminals. The U.S. prison system abuses the 13th Amendment to legalize forced labor among prisoners. In prisons at the federal and sub-national levels, there are a large number of incarcerated workers engaged in the daily maintenance of the prison system, including repairs, cooking, facility cleaning and laundry. Most of them are black or other people of color. Some prisoners are leased to public projects or employed by businesses in construction, road maintenance, forestry and funeral services, jobs that are considered dirty, heavy-duty or high-risk. According to Reuters, Suniva, one of the largest U.S. solar panel makers, uses prison labor to keep costs down. The head of the company has admitted to working with the Federal Prison Industries (UNICOR) in the relocation of production lines from Asia back to the United States for a lucrative federal contract.

◆ According to a report by the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), at least 30 U.S. states include prisoners as a labor source for disasters and other emergency operations, and at least 14 hire prisoners for forest firefighting. Most incarcerated workers say they have never received any formal job training and often have to conduct dangerous operations against safety protocols and without protective equipment. Casualties, which are not uncommon, often go unrecorded by the prisons. The Atlantic commented in 2015 that "convict leasing was cheaper than slavery, since farm owners and companies did not have to worry about the health of their workers."

◆ The United States has effectively formed a sprawling "prison-industrial complex". Private prisons operating under contracts with the government have become a major source of forced labor in the United States. Incarcerated workers in private prisons are entirely at the mercy of their employers and have no right to refuse to work. As high as 76 percent of the inmates interviewed reported various punishments when they were unable or unwilling to work, including solitary confinement, reduction of family visits, or denial of bail or commutation. Besides, prisoners have no choice in their work assignments which are entirely based on the arbitrary, discriminatory or even punitive decisions by prison management personnel. Laura Appleman, a professor at the College of Law of Willamette University, points out in her report Bloody Lucre: Carceral Labor and Prison Profit that private prison is a "pernicious form of servitude", and that prisoners are "trapped in the service of endlessly increasing profit, the literal revenues of physical toil, suffering, and exploitation."

◆ For years, private prisons in the United States have colluded with greedy politicians to force prisoners to work, thus turning private prisons into "concentration camps" of slavery where they could make fortunes by exploiting the poor. Due to lack of oversight, prisoners of forced labor work long hours in harsh conditions while getting paid little, or in some cases, nothing at all. In early 2022, the ACLU filed a lawsuit, exposing the pervasive power-for-money dealings in the operation of detention facilities in American private prisons, which exacerbate excessive imprisonment and forced labor, and demanding that the U.S. Marshals Service provide information about operators' contracts and make it public.

◆ American prisons spend less than one percent of their budget on paying incarcerated workers, who produce goods and services worth more than US$11 billion every year. Big American corporations use prison labor rampantly, as prisoners have no labor rights and are cheap. Private prisons under contracts with the government make millions of dollars a year from forced labor in prison. As of May 2022, average hourly wage in the United States was about US$10.96, while incarcerated workers were paid less than one dollar per hour. Moreover, many prison facilities have not given prisoners any pay raise for years or even decades. In seven states including Florida, prisoners are not paid at all for most of their work assignments. In addition, the wages of many prisoners are withheld by prisons for "taxes, room and board expenses, and court costs". Over 70 percent of respondents said they were unable to afford basic necessities during imprisonment.

◆ During the COVID-19 pandemic, at least 40 U.S. states asked prison inmates to manufacture masks, hand sanitizers and other protective equipment, dispose of large amounts of medical waste from hospitals, move corpses, build coffins and dig graves. The inmates who performed these high-risk tasks hardly got the necessary protection. Since the start of the pandemic, nearly one third of the incarcerated people in the United States have contracted COVID-19, and 3,000 of them have died from inadequate health care or poor detention conditions. The Los Angeles Times revealed that during the pandemic, thousands of prisoners in California were forced to make masks and furniture under high-risk conditions. Prison factories kept running despite the numerous confirmed COVID cases. The inmates had to sew thousands of masks a day, without getting one for themselves. Prison staff threatened postponed release date if inmates refuse to do the work.

2.Forced labor of women and children is appalling

◆ Child labor has long been an issue in the United States. American mines, tobacco farms and textile factories started hiring and exploiting children since over a century ago. To date, the United States remains the only one of the 193 member states of the United Nations (UN) that has not ratified the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, and child labor remains an unresolved problem in the country. Statistics from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and other institutions show that half of the 100,000 people trafficked into the United States each year for forced labor are minors.

◆ According to estimates by the nonprofit organization Association of Farmworker Opportunity Programs, there remain about 500,000 child farm workers in the United States, many of which started working at the age of eight and work up to 72 hours a week. These child farm workers are regularly exposed to dangerous chemicals such as pesticides. In addition, they are at a greater risk of work-related injuries due to the need of operating sharp tools and heavy machines without necessary training and protection measures. According to the U.S. National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, an estimated 907 youth fatalities happened on U.S. farms between 1995 and 2002. The Washington Post reported that about 452 children died of workplace injuries in the United States between 2003 and 2016, including 237 child fatalities in agriculture. A U.S. Government Accountability Office report in November 2018 shows that around 5.5 percent of child labor is in agriculture and accounted for over 50 percent of all work-related child fatalities. In several U.S. states, tobacco farms employ a large number of children to harvest and dry tobacco leaves, posing a significant risk to their physical and mental health. Many children suffered from nicotine poisoning and some were even diagnosed with lung infection.

◆ According to official statistics, in 2019 alone, U.S. law enforcement officers found 858 cases of child labor in violation of the Fair Labor Standards Act, and 544 minors were found working in hazardous places. The American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations, the largest federation of unions in the United States, said that the Department of Labor (DOL) only reported 34 child labor violations on annual average, far lower than the real number, revealing deficiency in DOL's law enforcement.

◆ The Richmond Times-Dispatch reported that 240,000 to 325,000 women and children are at risk for sexual exploitation each year in the United States. American NGO End Slavery Now said a child trafficked to the sex industry "works" 12 hours a day and seven days a week, and perpetrators can exploit US$150,000 to 200,000 each year.

3. Forced labor is prevalent in numerous sectors in the United States

◆ An article published on the website of the University of Denver reveals that at least 500,000 people in the United States are living under modern slavery and victims of forced labor. With pervasive forced labor, labor trafficking in the United States is particularly serious in 23 sectors including domestic services, agricultural planting, tourism, catering, medical care and beauty services. In 2004, after studying relevant cases from 1998 to 2003, the Human Rights Center at the University of California, Berkeley, pointed out that ten thousand or more people work as forced laborers in scores of cities and towns across the country, forming an illicit trade that is hidden, inhumane, widespread and criminal.

◆ The existing U.S. immigration law is breeding modern slavery. The temporary visa system of the United States binds foreign workers with their employers by law, leaving them in a vulnerable position, as workers, for fear of deportation, dare not quit their jobs even if employers arbitrarily lower their wages or extend working hours. The asymmetry between employers and employees is systemic, and there is evidence that connects forced labor in the United States to certain visa types. A 2014 study by the Urban Institute and Northeastern University shows that more than 70 percent of the interviewed victims of forced labor entered the United States legally with a visa. Ending this form of modern slavery requires reform of U.S. immigration law. However, both the Congress and the administration lack the will to do such reform.

◆ Most of the sweatshops in the United States are headquartered in major cities like New York and Los Angeles. These shops usually make garment, coffee and electronic products. The DOL estimated that as many as 22,000 sweatshops in the country were in the garment industry alone. In order to minimize cost and maximize profit, sweatshop owners exploit legal loopholes by various means to evade government regulation. Workers get wages and benefits far below legal thresholds and are not paid accordingly for working long and extra hours. In extreme cases, they are even abused by employers. According to a DOL investigation report obtained by The New York Times, Vietnamese workers at a garment factory in American Samoa were routinely beaten by factory guards, and a female worker lost her left eye after a guard beat her with a pipe. Indian workers at a food factory in Oklahoma were constantly provided with inadequate food. Many workers at the factory suffered serious malnutrition and looked like "walking skeletons".

◆ In the domestic services sector, the vast majority of service personnel are immigrants and are not recognized as employees by American law. According to the U.S. immigration policy, they are not allowed to freely change their clients, or they will be deported. Most of the victims work in very poor conditions. They often cannot get their wages on time and are paid below the minimum rate. They are subject to violence, sexual assault and intimidation from employers and their families, and are prohibited from complaining to anyone, otherwise they will face deportation. According to the 2014 report of the Urban Institute and Northeastern University, more than one third of the victims of forced labor in the United States are domestic servants.

◆ In the agricultural sector, about 30 percent of farm workers and their families live below the federal poverty line. They are subject to threatening, violence and forced labor, and unable to express their wishes. The town of Immokalee in southwest Florida is known as the "tomato town" of the United States. It has a population of around 26,000 people, most of whom are farmers from countries including Mexico, Guatemala and Haiti. The local minimum wage is US$8.65 per hour. Yet those farm workers are only paid US$5.5 per hour, far lower than the minimum rate.

According to a survey by The Guardian, foreign workers of American corn farms are not protected by law. They live in extremely poor conditions and are paid only US$225 after working 12 hours a day for 15 days. They often fall victim to sexual assault, harassment, wage theft and work injuries or even fatal accidents in work places, and are often exposed to hazardous chemicals.

Independent journalist Gina-Marie Cheeseman pointed out in her 2017 report Forced Labor is More Common in the U.S. Than You Might Think that in some U.S. farms, foreign workers are forced to sleep in shacks and box trucks, and are asked to pick farm products without being paid. Those who attempt to escape get beaten up.

According to a report by the American Economic Policy Institute, seasonal agricultural workers in the United States are vulnerable to wage theft and other abuses due to their immigration status and fear of retaliation and deportation. Millions of dollars of wage arrears are reported every year. The Wage and Hour Division of the DOL is too underfunded and understaffed to provide adequate protection and relief for agricultural workers. As a result, those workers believe it is neither necessary nor helpful to report employer violations to the DOL.

◆ According to a 2015 survey by The New York Times on the nail industry in New York, the vast majority of workers in the nail industry are paid below the minimum wage and sometimes even not paid at all. Those workers are seriously exploited and subject to various kinds of humiliation including constant video monitoring and physical punishment. Most of these workers are immigrants from China, the ROK, Nepal and South America. They often work overtime with very low wages. Without legal residential status, many nail industry workers in New York, though being exploited by their employees, are often too scared to report.

◆ Denise Brennan, a U.S. writer, noted in her book that the U.S. immigration policy, instead of redressing the problem of human trafficking and improving the situation of vulnerable groups in society, has exacerbated social problems and allowed more disguised forms of forced labor to appear in American society. American society does not provide enough support and relief to victims who were freed from forced labor, leaving them voluntarily falling into new traps of forced labor just to make a living, and forever haunted by a vicious cycle of enslavement and oppression.

◆ According to the 2021 Federal Human Trafficking Report published by the Human Trafficking Institute of the United States in June 2022, the number of criminal forced labor cases filed in 2021 increased by 22 percent since 2020. Of the 449 victims in human trafficking cases filed to federal courts in the United States in 2021, 162 or 36 percent were victims of forced labor. And 93 percent of identified victims in forced labor cases were foreign nationals.(more)

Mon, 08 Aug 2022 23:04:00 -0500 text/html
Killexams : Office Ergonomics And How It Affects Your Health

Work-related MSDs are among the most frequently reported causes of lost or restricted work time, according to OSHA.

“When we work in awkward postures, have repetitive motions, have poor lighting etc., our bodies are forced to adapt, which causes strain on our muscles, joints, eyes and body as a whole,” says Dorsey.

Here are a few negative health effects that can result from poor desk ergonomics.

Vision Problems

Many people suffer from computer vision syndrome (CVS), a combination of eye irritation, dryness, double vision and blurred vision, from working on a computer for hours on end, according to a study in the Survey of Ophthalmology . CVS can lead to headaches, as well as neck, shoulder and back pain, according to the American Optometric Association.

“Poor lighting (too much or too little ambient light and a lack of task lighting) can contribute to headaches and eye strain,” says Dorsey. “Our brain doesn’t want us to see things blurry, so we make unconscious adjustments in order to accommodate for poor lighting. People might squint or bend their neck and/or trunk forward to get closer to the monitor.”

Anti-glare filters and the correct positioning of a computer monitor may alleviate these problems.

Back and Neck Pain

“Upper back and neck discomfort is very common, and it’s sometimes accompanied by low back pain as well,” says Dorsey. “The culprit is often lack [of] a supportive chair and a desk surface that’s too high in relation to the chair (a high desk surface places the keyboard and monitor too high), though it varies by person and by workstation.”

Back pain can be caused by damaged spinal structures, which can stem from poor sitting posture and prolonged periods of sitting.

Wrist, Hand and Shoulder Pain

“Hand, wrist and shoulder pain is very common and often related to use of the mouse and keyboard,” says Dorsey. In fact, a 2004 study in the American Journal of Industrial Medicine of nearly 7,000 people confirmed that prolonged periods of mouse and keyboard use corresponded with the presence of wrist and hand pain conditions .

Mon, 11 Jul 2022 17:06:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Killexams : Master of Science in Nursing: Adult-Gerontology Acute Care Nurse Practitioner Concentration



Drexel University is authorized by the Washington Student Achievement Council and meets the requirements and minimum educational standards established for degree-granting institutions under the Degree-Granting Institutions Act. This authorization is subject to periodic review and authorizes Drexel University to offer field placement components for specific degree programs. The Council may be contacted for a list of currently authorized programs. Authorization by the council does not carry with it an endorsement by the council of the institution or its programs. Any person desiring information about the requirements of the act or the applicability of those requirements to the institution may contact the Council at P.O. Box 43430, Olympia, WA 98504-3430.

**Drexel University is approved by the Washington State Nursing Care Quality Assurance Commission to provide practice experiences in Washington State for MSN/Clinical Nurse Leader, MSN/Clinical Trials Research, MSN/Leadership in Health Systems Management, MSN/Nurse Educator and Faculty Role, MSN/Adult Gerontology Acute Care NP, MSN/Adult Gerontology Primary Care NP, MSN/Family Individual Across the Lifespan NP, MSN/Pediatric Acute Care NP, MSN/Pediatric Primary Care & Pediatric Acute Care NP, MSN/Pediatric Primary Care NP, MSN/Psychiatric Mental Health NP, and MSN/Women’s Health Gender Related NP programs. For more information, go to the following website.



Drexel University accepts New York residents into this program. Clinical Rotations, however, cannot be in New York State. This will not affect New York certification and licensure.

State restrictions may apply to some programs.

Adult-Gerontology Acute Care Nurse Practitioner Recorded Virtual Open House


The Drexel Online Adult-Gerontology Acute Care Nurse Practitioner (AG-ACNP) program is designed to prepare practitioners for professional practice in the management of medical, surgical, and critical-care adult patient populations who are acutely ill or injured.

Please note: Applicants must have a BSN degree to apply.

Upon completing the program, graduates pursue practice roles across the continuum of acute care services ranging from high-acuity hospital based emergency or intensive care settings to specialty-based practices. Graduates are eligible to sit for the ANCC’s Adult Gerontology Acute Care Nurse Practitioner Certification Examination (ACNP-BC) and/or AACN’s Acute Care Nurse Practitioner-Adult Gerontology (ACNPC-AG) examination.

Upon completion of the certification exam, we ask that graduates of our Nurse Practitioner programs complete the below survey link to inform the department of their certification exam results: Nurse Practitioner Licensure Submission

Because students are being educated to diagnose and treat patients, this master's program was designed to combine the convenience of online learning with the necessary rigor to become a competent and confident advanced practice nurse upon graduation.

The majority of the track is online.  There is no on campus visit during NUR 580.

What you'll learn

The AG-ACNP program provides the knowledge and skills needed to provide healthcare services to meet the specialized needs of adult and geriatric patients with acute medical or surgical issues, including the critically ill or injured.

This is a 57-credit graduate track with an 800 clinical hour requirement. Clinical practicum courses consist of two parts; didactic lectures and clinical practicum rotations that run concurrently. The didactic lectures are held once a week online for three hours of synchronized mandatory online lectures. Each clinical practicum course has a required 160 total clinical hours. Students typically complete two eight hour clinical days each week.

In tandem with the curriculum, clinical practicum rotations allow students to put the principles they have learned into practice. While on campus, students participate in simulated clinical learning experiences conducted in our new state of the art multidisciplinary patient simulation lab. In addition, students undergo standardized patient experiences, problem based learning, and hands on experience with technical skills.

The nurse practitioner faculty is committed to quality and excellence in the nurse practitioner (NP) programs. Mandatory on-campus visits are essential to students transitioning into the NP role. These mandatory on-campus visits take place at our Center City campus.

  • NURS 570 AG-ACNP I Summer On-Campus Intensive (4 days)

What makes the AG-ACNP program unique?

  • Synchronous online lectures are offered in a highly interactive, e-learning method that challenges and engages students.
  • Clinically active faculty with national board certification.
  • You are part of the Drexel College of Nursing and Health Professions with access to clinical practice environments and inter-professional simulated health care scenarios.

Types of Jobs and Job Settings for Program Graduates

Care for acutely ill or injured patients, and those suffering an exacerbation of chronic illnesses in inpatient practices such as intensivist (critical care), hospitalist, and specialty practices that do not treat children. Adult-Gerontology Acute Care Nurse Practitioners are generally not found in emergency rooms and on trauma services without additional board certification in caring for acutely ill or injured children.

*The nurse practitioner programs in the Division of Graduate Nursing at Drexel University provide students the flexibility of finding and coordinating their own clinical site and preceptor. The Division of Graduate Nursing offers students resources to assist in this process. Accessibility to clinical sites and preceptors varies from state to state. Students may be required to travel to access clinical sites/preceptors and achieve the necessary clinical hours.


The College of Nursing and Health Professions has a compliance process that may be required for every student. Some of these steps may take significant time to complete. Please plan accordingly.

Visit the Compliance pages for more information.

Application Deadline

Winter 2022 Application Deadline: December 1, 2022

Admission Requirements

Technical Standards - Nursing 

A Bachelor of Science in Nursing from program fully accredited by NLN and/or CCNE is required for all applicants. Must have a Cumulative GPA of 3.0 or above from your BSN.

Standardized Tests:


  • Official transcripts must be sent directly to Drexel from all the colleges/universities that you have attended. Transcripts must be submitted in a sealed envelope with the college/university seal over the flap. Please note that transcripts are required regardless of number of credits taken or if the credits were transferred to another school. An admission decision may be delayed if you do not send transcripts from all colleges/universities attended.
  • Transcripts must show course-by-course grades and degree conferrals. If your school does not notate degree conferrals on the official transcripts, you must provide copies of any graduate or degree certificates.
  • If your school issues only one transcript for life, you are required to have a course-by-course evaluation completed by an approved transcript evaluation agency
  • Use our Transcript Lookup Tool to assist you in contacting your previous institutions

Two years of current bedside acute care nursing experience is required.  Critical care experience is preferred.  Examples of the recommended nursing experience include, but are not limited to: ICU, CCU, ER, trauma and high acuity step down units.

Two professional references required from previous or current supervisors, managers, nursing faculty members or program directors who can attest to applicant's clinical knowledge, skill, and potential aptitude for graduate study. References will not be accepted from colleagues or family members.

  • You may use our electronic letter of recommendation service 
  • If a recommender prefers to submit an original, hard copy letter, please remind them that it must include an ink signature and be submitted in a sealed envelope.
Personal Statement/ Essay:
Personal statement (under 1,000 words) that will provide the admissions committee a better understanding of…
  • Why you are choosing this particular program of study
  • Your plans upon completion of the graduate degree
  • How your current work experience will meet the criteria of 2 years of exact critical care experience.

Admissions interview may be required

Required. Note: Resume should be detailed regarding work experience including specific job experiences/responsibilities/departments

A copy of your current, unrestricted United States RN license or eligibility for licensure as a registered nurse. License verification from your nursing license registry website are acceptable.

Clinical/Work/Volunteer Experience:
Two years of current critical care experience within the last five years is required.

International Students:
Requirements can be found here

Tuition and Fee Rates:
Please visit the Drexel Online MSN in Adult-Gerontology Acute Care Nurse Practitioner tuition page.

Application Link (if outside organization):


The baccalaureate degree program in nursing, master's degree program in nursing, Doctor of Nursing Practice program and post-graduate APRN certificate program at Drexel University are accredited by the Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education, 655 K Street, NW, Suite 750, Washington DC 20001, 202.887-6791.

These programs and the Post Graduate APRN certificates are also approved by the Pennsylvania State Board of Nursing.

Fri, 15 Jul 2022 06:14:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Gertsburg Licata Co., LPA Expands with Three New Practice Areas, New Attorney Hires

In response to growing demand, Gertsburg Licata expands with new Global Business, Cyber Security & Data Privacy, and Labor & Employment practice areas—advancing its capabilities as Cleveland’s fastest-growing, full-service business law and strategic advisory firm.

CLEVELAND, July 28, 2022--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Gertsburg Licata, a leading full-service business law and strategic advisory firm, has strengthened its service offerings with three new practice areas: Global Business Law, Cyber Security and Data Privacy, and Labor and Employment Law. The expansion comes only a year after the company was formed through a merger between the Gertsburg Law Firm and Licata Law Group and will build upon the firm’s capabilities in litigation, data security, white-collar crime, corporate compliance and intellectual property practice areas.

Established in April 2021, Gertsburg Licata doubled in size in its first year. The new practice areas further solidify Gertsburg Licata as a leading full-service business law and strategic advisory firm in Greater Cleveland and the surrounding areas.

"Gertsburg Licata has been on a hyper growth path since merging and opening our new headquarters in Independence in April of last year," said Alex Gertsburg, managing partner of Gertsburg Licata. "Adding new practice areas and senior attorneys to our bench has been a priority since day one and we’re proud we’ve made these goals a reality in such short order."

Global Business Practice

The new Global Business practice addresses the vital need to represent clients in international business law. Gertsburg Licata helps clients achieve cross-border results—whether dealing with unfamiliar international laws or business practices, cultural differences, bureaucratic or political red tape, or issues relating to foreign languages. Our experienced team partners with business law firms in major jurisdictions and leverage close relationships to ensure our clients are always covered, no matter where their business dealings take place.

Louis J. Licata, Esq., managing partner of Gertsburg Licata, is the head of the new Global Business practice area. Mr. Licata is joined by Stewart D. Roll, Esq., partner; Eugene Friedman, Esq., partner; and Maximilian Julian, Esq., partner; and Michael Azre, Esq., senior counsel.

Mr. Licata focuses his practice on serving as the Chief Legal Advisor to CEOs and business owners throughout the world. He provides analysis and experience with complex issues, including Global Strategy, New Market Entry, Strategic Vision, Governance, Risk Management, Crises Management, and day-to-day problem-solving. Prior to establishing Gertsburg Licata, Mr. Licata was the founder, owner and CEO of Licata Law Group.

Cyber Security & Data Privacy Practice

Gertsburg Licata’s Cyber Security and Data Privacy practice is designed to help clients protect all their sensitive business data and valuable digital assets. The firm’s experienced team of legal professionals navigates a range of both domestic and international cyber security and privacy laws, including data protection, information security, records retention, consumer protection, internet laws, insurance laws, and matters of intellectual property.

Steward D. Roll, Esq., senior partner at Gertsburg Licata, is the head of the new Cyber Security and Data Privacy practice area. Mr. Roll is joined by Victor Mezacapa, III, Esq., partner; Maximilian Julian, Esq., partner; Eleina Thomas, Esq., senior associate; and Oliver Thomas, Esq., associate attorney.

Mr. Roll has practical expertise in international business law, having served as assistant general counsel for a Fortune 500 corporation, supervising litigation and providing counsel in the purchase and sale of companies and the licensing of technology in the United States, South America, Europe, and Asia. He has an interest in and has spoken on computer security issues addressed by the United States Department of Homeland Security’s Computer Emergency Response Team.

Labor and Employment

The firm’s Labor and Employment practice helps businesses navigate through a complex system of employment and labor laws. Attorneys represent clients in difficult employment situations such as wrongful termination lawsuits and sexual misconduct allegations, mitigate risk with reductions in force, and counsel on affirmative action programs.

They also provide a wide range of legal training including performance management and supervisory training and presentations to employers on legislative updates.

Louis J. Licata, Esq., board certified in Labor & Employment Law by the Ohio Supreme Court, is leading the new Employment & Labor practice. Mr. Licata is joined by Dan Roll, Esq., senior partner; Maximilian Julian, Esq., partner; Shawn Wilson, Esq., senior counsel; and Eleina Thomson, Esq., senior associate.

New Attorney Hires

Gertsburg Licata welcomes Shawn Wilson, Esq., senior counsel; Jason Lorenzon, Esq., senior attorney; and Mark Salem, senior legal recruiter to the team.

"Our new attorney and senior staff hires add excellent talent to our bench in the areas of business litigation, aviation law and senior legal recruitment," says Mr. Licata. "They not only expand our areas of practice and ability to serve our clients, but also bring experience and leadership that will help mentor and develop our junior associates."

Ms. Shawn Wilson, Esq., has been a practicing attorney for over twenty years. She achieved her JD from Cleveland Marshall College of Law. Her early career was with a boutique professional liability law firm. That was followed by a large regional insurance defense litigation law firm where she represented private individuals, companies, and owners in both personal and corporate matters. In bench and jury trials, Ms. Wilson litigated contract disputes, insurance fraud, personal injury, property disputes, construction defect, product liability, and many others.

Learn more about Shawn Wilson

Mr. Jason Lorenzon is the only Board-Certified Specialist in Aviation Law in Ohio, awarded by the Florida Bar in June 2021. He is a graduate of the Cleveland State University Marshall College of Law. He is admitted to practice in the State of Ohio, and State of Florida. As an immigrant, he has practiced immigration law and has successfully represented clients before the Immigration Court, USCIS, CBP, and ICE. He is an FAA Airline Transport Certificated Pilot and Certified Flight Instructor with instrument and multi-engine ratings. He has helped companies and individuals acquire aircraft, protect medicals, pilot certificates and Drone Law and Operations. He has represented pilots and companies before the FAA, NTSB and Federal Courts.

Learn more about Jason Lorenzon

Mr. Mark Salem joins the firm as the Director of Strategic Growth. Mark began his career as a legal recruiter in 2011 with Marvel Consultants in Cleveland, OH. His practice was focused on representing the world’s leading law firms where he directly recruited attorneys that represent Emerging and High Growth Companies in the Technology, Clean Technology, Digital Media and Gaming, and Life Science industries. Mark’s executive talent experience includes recruiting senior talent from AM Law top 25 firms in New York City, Chicago, Los Angeles, Washington D.C., and other major markets.

Learn more about Mark Salem

About Gertsburg Licata

Gertsburg Licata Co., LPA (G&L) is a full-service business law and strategic advisory firm representing and serving entrepreneurs and executives of middle-market enterprises in business transactions, litigation and arbitration, and regulatory matters. Gertsburg Licata is home of CoverMySix®, a unique, anti-litigation audit developed specifically for middle-market companies. G&L is the sister company of Gertsburg Licata Acquisitions and Gertsburg Licata Talent. To learn more about Gertsburg Licata, please visit

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Cassie Pinkerton

Thu, 28 Jul 2022 02:37:00 -0500 en-NZ text/html
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