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Exam Code: CWNA-108 Practice test 2022 by Killexams.com team
CWNA-108 Certified Wireless Network Administrator

EXAM NAME : Certified Wireless Network Administrator
QUESTIONS TYPE : Multiple-Choice

The CWNA certification is a foundational level wireless LAN certification for the CWNP Program. To earn a CWNA certification, you must take the CWNA test at a Pearson Vue Testing Center and pass with a 70% or higher. Instructors must pass with a 80% or higher. However you choose to prepare for the CWNA exam, you should start with the test objectives, which cover the full list of skills tested on the exam. The CWNA certification is valid for three (3) years. To recertify, pass one of the professional level certifications exams (CWSP,CWDP, CWAP) BEFORE your CWNA expires. By doing so, the CWNA will be renewed for another three (3) years. Or retake the current version of the CWNA exam.

While the Certified Wireless Specialist (CWS) and Certified Wireless Technician (CWT) certifications are not a required prerequisite to the CWNA certification, it is highly recommended. It will provide a solid learning foundation before continuing to pursue the CWNA.

Main Areas Covered by CWNA:
- Radio Frequency (RF) Technologies
- Antenna Concepts
- Wireless LAN Hardware and Software
- Network Design, Installation, and Management
- Wireless Standards and Organizations
- 802.11 Network Architecture
- Wireless LAN Security
- Troubleshooting

The Certified Wireless Network Administrator (CWNA) understands standards and operations of 802.11 wireless networks. Responsibilities include deploying, managing, monitoring, and basic troubleshooting of these networks. The CWNA has the ability to describe devices and operations of current WLAN technologies.
The CWNA test has no prerequisites; however, the following are recommended before attempting the CWNA exam:
● Basic knowledge of networking (routers, switches, cabling, etc.)
● Basic knowledge of TCP/IP
● At least 1 year of work experience with wireless LAN technologies

The skills and knowledge measured by this examination are derived from a Job Task Analysis (JTA) involving wireless networking experts (CWNEs) and professionals. The results of this JTA were used in weighing the subject areas and ensuring that the weighting is representative of the relative importance of the content. When you pass the CWNA exam, you earn credit towards the CWSP, CWDP, CWAP, and CWNE certifications and you earn the CWNA certification. The following chart provides the breakdown of the test as to the distribution of questions within each knowledge domain

- Radio Frequency (RF) Technologies 15%
- WLAN Regulations and Standards 20%
- WLAN Protocols and Devices 20%
- WLAN Network Architecture and Design Concepts 15%
- WLAN Network Security 10%
- RF Validation 10%
- WLAN Troubleshooting 10%

1.0 Radio Frequency (RF) Technologies – 15%
1.1 Define and explain the basic characteristics of RF and RF behavior
• Wavelength, frequency, amplitude, phase, sine waves
• RF propagation and coverage
• Reflection, refraction, diffraction and scattering
• Multipath and RF interference
• Gain and loss
• Amplification
• Attenuation
• Absorption
• Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR)
• Return Loss
• Free Space Path Loss (FSPL)
1.2 Apply the basic concepts of RF mathematics and measurement
• Watt and milliwatt
• Decibel (dB)
• dBm and dBi
• Noise floor
• dBm to mW conversion rules of 10 and 3
• Equivalent Isotropically Radiated Power (EIRP)
1.3 Identify RF signal characteristics as they relate to antennas.
• RF and physical line of sight and Fresnel zone clearance
• Beamwidths
• Passive gain
• Polarization
• Antenna diversity types
• Radio chains
• Spatial multiplexing (SM)
• Transmit Beamforming (TxBF)
• Maximal Ratio Combining (MRC)
1.4 Explain and apply the functionality of RF antennas, antenna systems, and accessories available
• Omni-directional antennas
• Semi-directional antennas
• Highly directional antennas
• memorizing Azimuth and Elevation charts for different antenna types
• Antenna orientation
• RF cables and connectors
• Lightning arrestors and grounding rods/wires
2.0 WLAN Regulations and Standards – 20%
2.1 Explain the roles of WLAN and networking industry organizations
• Wi-Fi Alliance
• Regulatory domains and agencies
2.2 Explain and apply the various Physical Layer (PHY) solutions of the IEEE 802.11-2016 standard as amended including supported channel widths, spatial streams, data rates.
• DSSS – 802.11
• HR-DSSS – 802.11b
• OFDM – 802.11a
• ERP – 802.11g
• Wi-Fi 4 - HT – 802.11n
• Wi-Fi 5 - VHT – 802.11ac
• Wi-Fi 6 - HE - 802.11ax
2.3 Understand spread spectrum technologies, Modulation and Coding Schemes (MCS)
• OFDMA and Resource Units
• QAM (16, 64, 256,1024)
2.4 Identify and apply 802.11 WLAN functional concepts
• Primary channels
• Adjacent overlapping and non-overlapping channels
• Throughput vs. data rate
• Bandwidth
• Guard Interval
2.5 Describe the OSI model layers affected by the 802.11-2016 standard and amendments
2.6 Identify and comply with regulatory domain requirements and constraints (specifically in 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz)
• Frequency bands used by the 802.11 PHYs
• Available channels
• Regulatory power constraints
• Dynamic Frequency Selection (DFS)
• Transmit Power Control (TPC)
2.7 Explain basic use case scenarios for 802.11 wireless networks
• Wireless LAN (WLAN) – BSS and ESS
• Wireless bridging
• Wireless Ad-Hoc (IBSS)
• Wireless Mesh
3.0 WLAN Protocols and Devices – 20%
3.1 Describe the components and functions that make up an 802.11 wireless service set
• Stations (STAs)
• Basic Service Set (BSS) (Infrastructure mode)
• Extended Service Set (ESS)
• IBSS (Ad-Hoc)
• Distribution System (DS)
• Distribution System Media (DSM)
3.2 Define terminology related to the 802.11 MAC and PHY
• PHY preamble and header
3.3 Identify and explain the MAC frame format
• MAC frame format
• MAC addressing
3.4 Identify and explain the purpose of the three main 802.11 frame types
• Management
• Control
• Data
3.5 Explain the process used to locate and connect to a WLAN
• Scanning (active and passive)
• Authentication
• Association
• Open System Authentication and Shared Key authentication
• Connecting to 802.1X/EAP and Pre-Shared Key authentication networks
• BSS selection
• Connecting to hidden SSIDs
3.6 Explain 802.11 channel access methods
• CTS-to-Self
• Interframe spaces (SIFS, DIFS, EIFS, AIFS)
• Physical carrier sense and virtual carrier sense
• Hidden node
3.7 Explain 802.11 MAC operations
• Roaming
• Power save modes and frame buffering
• Protection mechanisms
3.8 Describe features of, select, and install WLAN devices, control, and management systems
• Access Points (APs)
• WLAN controllers
• Wireless network management systems
• Wireless bridge and mesh APs
• Client devices
4.0 WLAN Network Architecture and Design Concepts– 15%
4.1 Describe and implement Power over Ethernet (PoE) 802.3af, 802.3at, 802.3bt
• Power Source Equipment
• Powered Device
• Midspan and endpoint PSEs
• Power classes to include power differences between PSE and PD
• Power budgets and powered port density
4.2 Define and describe differences, advantages and constraints of the different wireless LAN architectures
• Centralized data forwarding
• Distributed data forwarding
• Control, Management and Data planes
• Scalability and availability solutions
• Tunneling, QoS and VLANs
4.3 Describe design considerations for common deployment scenarios in wireless such as coverage requirements, roaming considerations, throughput, capacity and security
• Design considerations for data
• Design considerations for voice
• Design considerations for video
• Design considerations for location services including Real-Time Location Services (RTLS)
• Design considerations for highly mobile devices (e.g. tablets and smartphones)
• Capacity planning for high and very high-density environments
• Design considerations for guest access/BYOD
• Design considerations for supporting legacy 802.11 devices
4.4 Demonstrate awareness of common proprietary features in wireless networks.
• AirTime Fairness
• Band steering
• Dynamic power and channel management features
4.5 Determine and configure required network services supporting the wireless network
• DHCP for client addressing, AP addressing and/or controller discovery
• DNS for address resolution for clients and APs
• Time synchronization protocols (e.g. NTP, SNTP)
• VLANs for segmentation
• Authentication services (e.g. RADIUS, LDAP)
• Access Control Lists for segmentation
• Wired network capacity requirements
5.0 WLAN Network Security – 10%
5.1 Identify weak security options that should not be used in enterprise WLANs
• Shared Key authentication
• SSID hiding as a security mechanism
• MAC filtering
• Use of deprecated security methods (e.g. WPA and/or WPA2 with TKIP)
• Wi-Fi Protected Setup (WPS)
5.2 Identify and configure effective security mechanisms for enterprise WLANs
• Application of AES with CCMP for encryption and integrity
• WPA2-Personal including limitations and best practices for pre-shared (PSK) use
• WPA2-Enterprise -configuring wireless networks to use 802.1X including connecting to RADIUS servers and appropriate EAP methods
5.3 Understand basic concepts of WPA3 and Opportunistic Wireless Encryption (OWE) and enhancements compared to WPA2
• Understand basic security enhancements in WPA3 vs. WPA2
• Understand basic security enhancements of encryption and integrity in WPA3 (e.g. CCMP, GCMP, AES)
• Simultaneous Authentication of Equals (SAE) in WPA3 as an enhancement for legacy pre-shared key technology
• Understand the purpose of Opportunistic Wireless Encryption (OWE) for public and guest networks
5.4 Describe common security options and tools used in wireless networks
• Access control solutions (e.g. captive portals, NAC, BYOD)
• Protected management frames
• Fast Secure Roaming methods
• Wireless Intrusion Prevention System (WIPS) and/or rogue AP detection
• Protocol and spectrum analyzers
• Best practices in secure management protocols (e.g. encrypted management HTTPS, SNMPv3, SSH2, VPN and password management)
6.0 RF Validation – 10%
6.1 Verify and document that design requirements are met including coverage, throughput, roaming, and connectivity with a post-implementation validation survey
6.2 Locate and identify sources of RF interference
• Identify RF disruption from 802.11 wireless devices including contention vs. interference and causes/sources of both including co-channel contention (CCC), overlapping channels, and 802.11 wireless device proximity
• Identify sources of RF interference from non-802.11 wireless devices based on the investigation of airtime and frequency utilization
• Understand interference mitigation options including removal of interference source or change of wireless channel usage
6.3 Perform application testing to validate WLAN performance
• Network and service availability
• VoIP testing
• Real-time application testing
• Throughput testing
6.4 Understand and use the basic features of validation tools
• Use of throughput testers for validation tasks
• Use of wireless validation software (specifically survey software and wireless scanners)
• Use of protocol analyzers for validation tasks
• Use of spectrum analyzers for validation tasks
7.0 WLAN Troubleshooting – 10%
7.1 Describe and apply common troubleshooting tools used in WLANs
• Use of protocol analyzers for troubleshooting tasks
• Use of spectrum analyzers for identifying sources of interference
• Use of management, monitoring and logging systems for troubleshooting tasks
• Use of wireless LAN scanners for troubleshooting tasks
7.2 Identify and troubleshoot common wireless issues
• Identify causes of insufficient throughput in the wireless distribution systems including LAN port speed/duplex misconfigurations, insufficient PoE budget, and insufficient Internet or WAN bandwidth
• Identify and solve RF interference using spectrum analyzers
• Identify wireless performance issues using SNR, retransmissions, and airtime utilization statistics
• Identify causes of wireless issues related to network services including DHCP, DNS, and time protocols including using native interface and IP configuration tools (e.g. pings, DNS lookups, interface configuration)
• Identify wireless issues related to security configuration mismatches

Certified Wireless Network Administrator
CWNP Administrator education
Killexams : CWNP Administrator education - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/CWNA-108 Search results Killexams : CWNP Administrator education - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/CWNA-108 https://killexams.com/exam_list/CWNP Killexams : Pennsylvania moms react to education dept suggesting kids may use 'ne, ve, ze/zie and xe' pronouns

NEWYou can now listen to Fox News articles!

Pennsylvanians blasted their state's department of education's new gender identity page which suggested teachers should not make assumptions about students' pronouns, and listed "ne, ve, ze/zie and xe" as some examples. 

Fox News Digital spoke with people from Pennsylvania, including mothers, about the education department's webpage. 

"In addition to the traditional pronouns (he/him, she/her, they), some people prefer to use gender-neutral pronouns, such as ne, ve, ze/zie and xe. If you don't know a student's preferred personal pronoun, it's always best to ask," the Pennsylvania DOE said.

"This is grooming of our children," said parent, a chair at the PA Economic Growth PAC, Veronica Gemma. "[W]hen it comes to sexuality, whatever they identify as, that's their personal business. And it's not academics. It doesn't belong in the classroom."

A girl holds the Transgender Pride flag during the pride march held in one of the most important streets of Madrid.  (Photo by Luis Soto/SOPA Images/LightRocket via Getty Images)


"They need to focus on the terrible memorizing scores in this state, the terrible math scores in this state… [Instead,] they're focused on indoctrinating this next generation to change the fabric of our country," she added.

The Pennsylvania website also claimed the concept of two genders, male and female, was a "faulty concept."

"As a Pennsylvania parent, I’d like to know what qualifies them to all the concept of biological gender as faulty?" said a mother named Megan Eileen. 

"As a mom, my children know who they are and they were created in God's image. So God created a man and a woman and that's it. There's only two genders," said Gemma. 

The Pennsylvania Education Department listed pronouns on its website, including ne, ve, ze/zie and xe as some examples. (Fox News Digital )

"Why do they feel that it’s appropriate to teach this to a third-grader? It’s not appropriate. So many children in Pennsylvania are struggling with grade competencies, particularly after the long COVID-19 mitigation disruptions," Eileen said.

"The [Pennsylvania Department of Education] needs to stop spending money and classroom hours on leftist indoctrination and focus on academics. I think that’s something most parents and teachers, regardless of political affiliation, agree on."

Proponents of teaching gender ideology in schools say that it helps maintain tolerance and an accepting environment for LGBTQ+ youth. According to the Trevor Project, an organization that advocates for the inclusion of LGBTQ+ individuals, "[O]ne in three transgender youth reported attempting suicide, almost one-third reported being a victim of sexual violence, and more than half reported a two-week period of depression."

Pennsylvania's education department had previously told Fox News in a statement that it was crucial to "support all learners" and to help them feel "welcome in their schools and communities."


One of the web pages included an article written by an activist, who said, "A gender-diverse child’s best predictor of success is whether that child receives support at home and from teachers."

A Pennsylvania mom told Fox News Digital asked why gender identity would considered an appropriate syllabu for third-grader. (iStock)

Republican. state Rep. Barbara Gleim said, "I think that a lot of this is coming down from the Biden administration through his executive orders."

"I'm not anti-trans, but these discussions have a time and a place. And I don't think that elementary school [and] middle school are the time or the place for these discussions," she added.

Kara Kowalski from York, Pennsylvania, said, "I'm not a parent, but I have three nieces who are young. They're eight, six and three. And I pretty much spend every day and every second that I can with them. I'm gay myself. But I don't align with all of this."


Fox News Digital also spoke with the feminist writer of "The Abolition of Sex," Kara Dansky, who has been a vocal voice against the gender identity movement. 

"I think that what we're seeing is a vicious combination of woman hatred and greed," she said. "I absolutely think that our society should be accepting of people who do not wish to conform to sex stereotypes. That's a good thing. We have been saying for decades that women especially, ought to be able to transcend sex stereotypes. And we should champion and accept that," she said. 


"But that's very different for a school or an education department trying to persuade children that they actually are the opposite sex," she added. "That's extremely dangerous."

"It may seem unrelated, but these efforts to use different kinds of pronouns are deliberately designed to make us dissociate our minds from the material reality of biological sex," Dansky said. "It may seem like just a nice thing to do to refer to someone using their ‘preferred pronouns,' but the problem with it is it desensitizes us. And… it dissociates our minds from the material reality of sex."

Fri, 05 Aug 2022 11:11:00 -0500 Fox News en text/html https://www.foxnews.com/media/pennsylvania-moms-education-department-suggesting-ne-ve-ze-zie-xe-pronouns
Killexams : Members of the Class of 2022 appreciate Ligonier Valley education

In his senior class president speech at graduation, MJ Knupp reflected upon the kind and caring administrators, teachers and support staff in the Ligonier Valley School District, and mentioned special memories of many of these individuals. Knupp’s fellow classmates in the Class of 2022 agreed with his sentiments, and agreed that they will most miss the support of so many in the Ligonier Valley community as they head off to the real world.

“I most appreciated the teachers at Ligonier Valley,” said Matthew Marinchak, who was a dedicated athlete who saw his 1,000th point scoring milestone during his senior year in basketball. “They were flexible and helped us get things done. They understood how hard we worked and were amazing at helping us understand things and get things accomplished.”

Marinchak said the Ligonier Valley School District is one big family. “Everyone has each other’s back,” he added. “I appreciated how so many people came to cheer us on in sports, but that didn’t end in the sports area. Everyone talks to everyone and is friendly to each other in all areas of life.”

Planning to major in elementary education and participate on the mens’ basketball team, Marinchak said his experiences at Ligonier Valley have prepared him for life at Pitt-Greensburg.“Building connections with teachers and fellow students at LV shows me the importance of building that connection at UPG,” Marinchak said. “I will definitely work to get out there and talk to everyone. I understand the importance of talking to people no matter what they look like, how they sound, etc.”

Fellow graduate and athlete at LVHS, Khorter Drury will be heading to Saint Francis University in Loretto, and he echoed Marinchak’s remarks.

“Ligonier Valley being a small community and small school allowed for everyone to be so well connected,” Drury emphasized. “Everyone knows each other and provides so much support to each other. That’s probably what I’m going to miss the most about school and participating in sports here.”

Drury said he had autonomy in his classes and class projects and he appreciated the project-based learning that took place. “I had an amazing internship with Navisec, an online cybersecurity company, and I learned so much. This takes me a step ahead right off the bat in entering college.”

An honors program student who will complete a thesis during his senior year, Drury said LVSD teachers’ emphasis on problem solving will help him to complete his tasks.

“SFU encourages the same project-based approach with a lot of individual choice,” Drury said. “Ligonier Valley prepared me to think outside of the box instead of doing something only one way. This will help me in my next steps.”

While working with Navisec, Drury was able to work alongside employees in the company to complete penetration testing and vulnerability assessments while also learning programs and codes that he will see in his studies at Saint Francis. “It will be so beneficial that I’m coming in with prior knowledge already,” he said.

A supporter of athletes and an athlete himself, Drury encourages current Ligonier Valley learners to take part in sports, or at least join a club. “I say go out and try whatever you can,” he encouraged. “Do something at Ligonier Valley because you will find people who will support you no matter what. There are always going to be negative people, but you will get constant support at Ligonier Valley.”

Drury said his family and his school have given him wings and he’s anxious to fly.

“I am excited to start my career at SFU with all of their courses and meet new people and teachers,” he said. “I’m excited for the overall experience and to see how I do. I know my school and my family have prepared me to be on my own and I know I will continue to build as a person while I’m there. I’ll see and experience new things, try new ways of learning, and I am excited to see my development.”

Abby Painter, who will head to Westminster College and participate on the track team, said the opportunities to take advanced courses and earn an associate degree in high school will (hopefully) help her finish college early.

“Everyone was so supportive and we had so many opportunities at Ligonier Valley,” Painter added. “I’m proud to have received a quality education and participated on teams that were extremely supportive. We had coaches and teachers who were amazing and opportunities that will help us go far.”

Wed, 27 Jul 2022 02:00:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.latrobebulletinnews.com/news/local/members-of-the-class-of-2022-appreciate-ligonier-valley-education/article_7163d4a3-84cc-582c-9a77-310873fde933.html
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