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OG0-093 OG0-093 TOGAF 9 Combined Part 1 and Part 2

Exam Summary

This is a combined TOGAF 9 Part 1 and Part 2 examination for candidates who want to achieve Level 2 certification directly.



Exam Name: TOGAF® 9 Combined Part 1 and Part 2

Exam Number:

OG0-093 - English

OG0-098 - Simplified Chinese

Qualification upon passing: TOGAF 9 Certified

Delivered at: Authorized Examination Provider Test Centers

Prerequisites: None

Supervised: Yes

Open Book: Dependent on section. This examination comprises two separate sections. The TOGAF 9 Part 1 section is CLOSED Book. The TOGAF 9 Part 2 section is OPEN book. An electronic copy of the specification is built into the test and becomes available in Part 2 only.

Exam type: The test comprises two sections. Section 1: 40 Simple Multiple Choice questions + Section 2: 8 Scenario Based, Complex Multiple Choice

Number of questions: 48

Pass score: The pass mark for Part 1 is 55%, which means 22 or more points out of maximum of 40 points. For Part 2, the pass mark is 60%, which means 24 or more points out of a maximum of 40 points. Note that you must pass both parts of the test to achieve an overall pass result. If you fail either part you fail the examination, however you only need retake the examination(s) corresponding to the failed section(s).

Time limit: 150 Minutes total. Each section has a maximum time limit as follows: 60 Minutes on TOGAF 9 Part 1. 90 Minutes on TOGAF 9 Part 2. Once you complete the TOGAF 9 Part 1 section you cannot return to it. There is no break between sections; Part 1 directly follows Part 2.



- The basic concepts of Enterprise Architecture and the TOGAF standard

- The core concepts of the TOGAF 9 standard

- The key terminology of the TOGAF 9 standard

- The ADM cycle and the objectives of each phase, and how to adapt and scope the ADM

- The concept of the Enterprise Continuum; its purpose and constituent parts

- How each of the ADM phases contributes to the success of Enterprise Architecture

- The ADM guidelines and techniques

- How Architecture Governance contributes to the Architecture Development Cycle

- The concepts of views and viewpoints and their role in communicating with stakeholders

- The concept of building blocks

- The key deliverables of the ADM cycle

- The TOGAF reference models

- The TOGAF certification program

- How to apply the ADM phases in development of an Enterprise Architecture

- How to apply Architecture Governance in development of an Enterprise Architecture

- How to apply the TOGAF Architecture Content Framework

- How to apply the concept of Building Blocks

- How to apply the Stakeholder Management Technique

- How to apply the TOGAF Content Metamodel

- How to apply the TOGAF standard recommended techniques when developing an Enterprise Architecture

- The TOGAF Technical Reference Model and how to customize it to meet an organizations needs

- The Integrated Information Infrastructure Reference Model

- The content of the key deliverables of the ADM cycle

- How an Enterprise Architecture can be partitioned to meet the specific needs of an organization

- The purpose of the Architecture Repository

- How to apply iteration and different levels of architecture with the ADM

- How to adapt the ADM for security

- The role of architecture maturity models in developing an Enterprise Architecture

- The purpose of the Architecture Skills Framework and how to apply it within an organization
OG0-093 TOGAF 9 Combined Part 1 and Part 2
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Question: 367
When using a cycle of the ADM to establish an Architecture Capability as described in TOGAF Part VII, which
architecture would describe the infrastructure requirements?
A . Application Architecture
B . Business Architecture
C . Data Architecture
D . Technology Architecture
E . Transition Architecture
Answer: D
Question: 368
Which one of the following is an objective of Phase A of the TOGAF ADM?
A . To allocate the resources needed to implement the architecture project
B . To define the framework that is going to be used to develop the enterprise architecture
C . To define an IT Strategy that maps out the technology infrastructure
D . To prepare a Solution Architecture for the enterprise
E . To secure formal approval to proceed
Answer: E
Question: 369
Which of the following architectures in the Architecture Continuum contains the most re-usable architecture elements?
A . Common Systems Architectures
B . Foundation Architectures
C . Industry Architectures
D . Organization-Specific Architectures
Answer: B
Question: 370
Which of the following TOGAF components was created to enable architects to design architectures addressing
Boundaryless Information Flow?
A . The Architecture Repository
B . The Enterprise Continuum
C . The Integrated Information Infrastructure Model
D . The TOGAF Technical Reference Model
Answer: C
Question: 371
Which of the following does the TOGAF document describe as the risk categorization prior to determining and
implementing mitigating actions?
A . The critical level of risk
B . The initial level of risk
C . The intermediate level of risk
D . The mitigated level of risk
E . The residual level of risk
Answer: B
Question: 372
Which of the following best describes the TOGAF Architecture Governance Framework?
A . An approach to ensure the effectiveness of an organizations architectures
B . An architecture of building blocks and corresponding standards, together with associated graphics
C . An example set of Architecture Principles
D . A reference model that includes information provider applications and brokering applications
E . A model intended to assist with the release management of the TOGAF specification itself
Answer: A
Question: 373
In which phase of the ADM cycle do building blocks become implementation-specific?
A . Phase A
B . Phase B
C . Phase C
D . Phase D
E . Phase E
Answer: E
Question: 374
Complete the sentence. The practice by which the enterprise architecture is managed and controlled at an enterprise
level is known as____________.
A . Architecture governance
B . Corporate governance
C . IT governance
D . Portfolio management
E . Technology governance
Answer: A
Question: 375
Which section of the TOGAF template for Architecture Principles highlights the requirements for carrying out the
principle?
A . Implications
B . Name
C . Rationale
D . Statement
Answer: A
Question: 376
Which of the following describes the TOGAF classification in Phase H for a simplification change?
A . A change driven by a requirement to derive additional value from the existing investment
B . A change driven by a requirement to increase investment in order to create new value for exploitation
C . A change driven by a requirement to reduce investment
D . A change driven by a requirement to re-align with the business strategy
E . A change driven by a requirement to simplify communication between stakeholders
Answer: C
Question: 377
Which of the following best describes the class of information known as the Reference Library within the Architecture
Repository?
A . A description of the organization specific architecture framework and method
B . A record of the governance activity across the enterprise
C . Guidelines and templates used to create new architectures
D . Processes to support governance of the Architecture Repository
E . Specifications to which architectures must conform
Answer: C
Question: 378
TOGAF uses a version numbering convention to illustrate the evolution of the Baseline and Target Architecture
Definitions.
Which version number in this convention indicates a high-level outline of the architecture?
A . Version 1.0
B . Version 0.9
C . Version 0.5
D . Version 1.5
E . Version 0.1
Answer: E
Question: 379
Which section of the TOGAF template for Architecture Principles should highlight the business benefits for adhering
to the principle?
A . Implications
B . Name
C . Rationale
D . Statement
Answer: C
Question: 380
Scenario
Please read this scenario prior to answering the Question
You are working as a consultant to the Chief Architect at a government agency responsible for securing all
government communications and information systems. The agency has recently received funding for a program
that will upgrade the reliability and performance of its secure communication systems which provide real-time,
highly secure communication of voice, video, and message data to remote locations around the world.
The agency has an established enterprise architecture (EA) capability based on TOGAF 9. The Executive Director
of the agency is the sponsor of the EA capability.
Since reliable, high-performance, and secure communications are essential to preserving national security, the
Executive Director has placed more stringent requirements for the architecture for the upgraded system. It must be
able to provide assurance and verification of specific performance measures on the key services that are most
crucial for system operation. Focusing on these service-level details and specific measurements will allow more
stringent requirements to be enforced in service contracts. It will also provide a high degree of assurance that
necessary performance is being delivered and that notifications will occur if any critical service fails to perform as
required.
A portion of the program budget has been allocated to context a review of the EA. The scope of the review is to
evaluate the processes, content and governance of the EA capability to ensure that the higher target performance
and service levels required by the upgraded system can be achieved.
The Chief Architecture has noted that the core EA artifacts that have been used since TOGAF 9 was introduced are
not adequate to describe these new capabilities. The artifacts do not have explicit provisions for defining the in-
depth measurement requirements regarding specific services required for the system. She has learned that certain
services within the current system have service measurement implementations that match some of the new
requirements, but they are only used in a few areas.
Recent EA efforts at another national agency have produced generalized high-performance communication system
models to realize similar requirements in a critical defense system involving secure communications. It is possible
that these models may be useful for the upgrade program.
Refer to the Scenario
You have been asked to make recommendations for tailoring the Architecture Content Metamodel to accommodate the requirements of the
upgraded system.
Based on TOGAF, which of the following is the best answer?
A. Since some artifacts will now require specific measurements and additional data will be needed to support the performance
objectives linked to these measurements, you recommend that the motivation and governance extensions of the TOGAF 9 Content
Metamodel are used. Using these extensions will allow modeling the goals, objectives and drivers for the architecture, linking them to
service levels and more detailed governance models. This will also enable the ability to re-use existing profiles, customizing them for
the various service contracts involved.
B. You recommend all of the TOGAF 9 Content Metamodel extensions be incorporated into the Architecture Content Metamodel.
The full Content Metamodel will enable the EA team to capture and categorize all the important additional data needs to support the
performance and measurement objectives linked to these artifacts. Once the new repository content has been implemented, on-
demand queries can be used to generate a customized governance stakeholder view that isolates the artifacts and data needed to
assess measurement for any particular service. If this view is found to be inadequate for the governance concerns, the service models
within those artifacts can be expanded.
C. Since this case requires extensions of the modeling and data details of the service, this is best done by using the services extension
of the TOGAF 9 Content Metamodel. By using this extension, the service model is no longer constrained by what is expected in
typical business service definitions, allowing more flexibility for adding customized models to support the more stringent
measurement requirements. The services extension can also be used to map terminology between the business services and the
application components.
D. To support the type of stringent performance measurements needed for the more detailed governance views required for the
upgraded system, the interfaces to the communication and network layer of the architecture must be highly visible at the application
level. To accommodate the proper development of this, a Communications Engineering view should be created from the
infrastructure extension models of the TOGAF Content Metamodel. This view will allow architects to align the required performance
measurement communications across the system.
Answer: A
Question: 127
Scenario
Please read this scenario prior to answering the Question
You have been assigned the role of Chief Enterprise Architect within a leading outsourcing services company. The company has over 20,000
outsourcing professionals and works on some of the worlds largest outsourcing projects. Outsourcing services include business processes,
infrastructure, and service management. The company also provides business consulting services.
With numerous service areas and a large number of diverse engagements in progress at any given time, overall engagement management
within the company has become challenging. The company does not want to risk Its outstanding reputation or its international certifications
and CMM ratings.
The company has an established an Enterprise Architecture program based on TOGAF 9, sponsored jointly by the Chief Executive Officer
and Chief Information Officer. An Architecture Board has been formed comprised of IT staff executives and executives from the major
service areas and consulting practice.
The Enterprise Architecture (EA) team has been working with the Strategic Planning team to create a strategic enterprise architecture to
address these issues. The EA team has defined a framework and held workshops with key stakeholders to define a set of architecture
principles to govern the architecture work. They have completed an Architecture Vision at a strategic level and laid out Architecture
Definitions for the four domains. They have set out an ambitious vision of the future of the company over a five-year period. This includes a
solution architecture including three distinct transformations.
The CIO has made it clear that prior to the approval of the detailed Implementation and Migration plan, the EA team will need to assess the
risks associated with the proposed architecture. He has received concerns from some of the vice presidents across the company that the
proposed architecture may be too ambitious and they are not sure it can produce sufficient value to warrant the attendant risks.
Refer to the Scenario
You have been asked to recommend an approach to satisfy these concerns.
Based on TOGAF, which of the following is the best answer?
A. The EA team should gather information about potential solutions from the appropriate sources. Once the Solution Architecture
has been assembled, it should be analyzed using a state evolution table to determine the Transition Architectures. A value realization
process should then be established to ensure that the concerns raised are addressed.
B. Before preparing the detailed Implementation and Migration plan, the EA team should review and consolidate the gap analysis
results from Phases B to D to understand the transformations that are required to achieve the proposed Target Architecture. The
EA team should then assess the readiness of the organization to undergo change. Once the Solution Architecture has been assembled,
it should be analyzed using a state evolution table to determine the Transition Architectures.
C. The EA team should apply an interoperability analysis to evaluate any potential issues across the Solution Architecture. This
should include the development of a matrix showing the interoperability requirements. Once all of the concerns have been resolved,
the EA team should finalize the Architecture Roadmap and the Implementation and Migration Plan.
D. The EA team should apply the Business Transformation Readiness Assessment technique. This will allow the risks associated with
the transformations to be identified and mitigated for. It will also identify improvement actions to be worked into the Implementation
and Migration Plan.
The Business Value Assessment technique should then be used to determine the business value and associated risks for the transformation.
Answer: D
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The-Open-Group Combined availability - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/OG0-093 Search results The-Open-Group Combined availability - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/OG0-093 https://killexams.com/exam_list/The-Open-Group How to open Group Policy Editor in Windows 11/10

The Group Policy Editor in Windows 11 or Windows 10 is a vital configuration editor that allows you to change settings organization-wide. Primarily it’s designed for IT admin can change the advanced settings of a remote computer. However, if you have an administrator account, you can open Group Policy Editor in multiple ways, and manage your computer and network.

These are the methods you can use to open the Group Policy Editor on Windows systems:

  1. Using Windows Search box
  2. Create a shortcut
  3. Using Command Prompt or Power Shell
  4. Using Run Prompt
  5. Via Control Panel
  6. Via Settings.

Before you begin, you should know that the Group Policy Editor is available in Windows 11/10 Pro, Windows 11/10 Enterprise, and Windows 11/10 Education editions only, and not in Windows 11/10 Home.

1] Windows Search

Open Group Policy Editor in Windows 10

  1. Press the Windows button to open Start Menu
  2. Type “group policy.”
  3. It should list the policy editor on the tap
  4. Click open to open the Group Policy Editor.

Read: How to search Group Policy for specific GPO in Windows 11/10.

2] Create a Desktop Shortcut

open Group Policy Editor from Shortcut

If you use it often, it is best to create a shortcut on the desktop and even assign a hotkey.

  1. Navigate to C:\Windows\System32
  2. Search for “gpedit.msc”
  3. Once it appears, right-click on it, and select Create a shortcut.
  4. Click Yes when it prompts that the shortcut can only be created on the desktop
  5. Next time you want to open it, double-click to launch it.

You can also assign a hotkey to it, and you can start it using a keyboard combination.

Read: Most important Group Policy settings for preventing Security Breaches

3] Using Command Prompt or Power Shell

If you are a power user who uses Command Prompt or the Power Shell, here is a nifty solution for you.

Open GPE from Command Prompt or Power Shell

Make the WinX Menu show PowerShell instead of Command Prompt.

Then open Win+X and select Windows Power Shell (Admin).

Or you could search for CMD and choose to launch it with admin privileges.

Type “gpedit” and it will open the GPE in a few seconds.

Open GPE CMD PS

4] Using Run Prompt

Probably the easiest method, and also the most common one.

  • Open the Run prompt (WIN+R)
  • Type gpedit.msc, and hit Enter
  • You may get prompted with the UAC prompt
  • Choose yes, and it will launch the Group Policy Editor

5] Via Control Panel

Open Group Policy from Control Panel

  • Open the search bar, and then type control
  • It will reveal the Control Panel. Click or tap to start it
  • In the search box on the top right, type “group.”
  • Look for Administrative Tools > Edit group policy
  • Click to launch it

It is useful for those who use the Control Panel for almost everything to manage the computer.

6] Via Settings

  • Open Windows Settings
  • Type Group Policy and GPE should be available
  • Click on the result, and it will start the editor.

Which method to open Group Policy Editor is your favorite? Let us know in the comments.

Related read: How to repair a corrupt Group Policy in Windows.

Why can’t I find Group Policy Editor?

The Group Policy Editor is available in Windows Pro, Windows Enterprise, and Windows Education editions only, and not in Windows Home – so maybe you are running Windows Home Edition. If you are using Windows Home Edition, you need to add the Local Group Policy Editor to your computer. See this post if Windows cannot find GPEDIT.MSC on Windows Pro/Enterprise or Education editions.

How to open Group Policy Editor with CMD?

To open Group Policy Editor using the Command Prompt, PowerShell, or Windows Terminal enter gpedit.msc in the command line and hit Enter, as explained above.

How to open Local Group Policy Editor as administrator?

To open Local Group Policy Editor in Windows as an administrator, open Command Prompt as administrator, type gpedit and hit Enter. This will open the Local Group Policy Editor in elevated mode.

Open GPE CMD PS
Thu, 06 Oct 2022 23:48:00 -0500 en-us text/html https://www.thewindowsclub.com/how-to-open-group-policy-editor-in-windows-10
Group Tickets

What is considered a Group?

A group is considered to be 20 or more people. Examples of groups: Employee Outings, College Alumni Chapters, Church Groups, Sports Teams, Nonprofits, etc.

How much are tickets?

Ticket prices vary based on the game and your seating location. Keep in mind that prices are subject to change and tickets are based on availability.

How and when will I receive my tickets?

All group tickets are mobile entry only.Once your account has been paid in full, your tickets will be available for management through Celtics Account Manager or the Celtics mobile app.If you need assistance, please utilize our Mobile Ticketing Guide or reach out to your Group Sales Account Executive.

How and when must I pay for my tickets?

Your account must be paid in full one month prior to your game date. The easiest way to pay your balance is by credit card, which can be done over the phone. If mailing in a check, it must be received prior to your payment deadline.

Can I exchange/return/cancel/refund my group tickets?

All sales are final. Group Tickets are non-refundable and non-returnable.

Can I buy more discounted tickets at the Box Office?

Group discounts are not valid in the Box Office. In order for your group members to receive discounts and have the best chance to sit with the rest of your group, they must purchase tickets through the Group Sales Department prior to the day of the game. If you would like to purchase additional tickets for your group, please contact your Group Sales Account Executive in advance.

Can I leave tickets at the Celtics Will Call?

All group tickets are mobile entry only that can be transferred to group members via Celtics Account Manager. There are no physical tickets available to leave at Will Call.

Who owns and operates the TD Garden?

TD Garden is owned by Delaware North Companies, One Delaware North Place, 438 Main St, Buffalo, NY 14202, (716)-858-5000. They can be reached at their Boston Office Located at 100 Legends Way, Boston, MA 02114, (617)-624-1050.

What time do gates open?

General admission gates open one hour prior to game time. Premium doors, for those with suite rentals or Rafter tickets, open two hours prior to tip off.

Can I bring bags into the TD Garden?

No laptops, laptop bags or backpacks are allowed in the TD Garden. Please plan accordingly, as there are no lockers or storage areas on the premises. A reasonably sized purse is allowed but is subject to search.

Are cameras, video cameras, or tape recorders allowed?

No video cameras, tape recorders or cameras with detachable lenses are allowed into the facility. A regular sized digital camera is allowed.

What is the policy on child seating?

At the discretion of the TD Garden, children age 2 and under are admitted without a ticket.

What if I lose/find a child in the Arena?

Children should be directed to the nearest TD Garden staff member should they become lost. Lost children will be taken to the Guest Services Office (Level 4, Section 4). Parents looking for a lost child should go to this office as well. Please report lost persons to TD Garden Security.

Where can I buy Celtics merchandise?

The Boston ProShop is located on street level at the Hub on Causeway entrance to TD Garden inside North Station. For hours of operation, please call the ProShop at 877-527-8467.

Where are the rest rooms located?

Restrooms are located on all levels of the arena. Changing tables are located in the men�™s and woman�™s restrooms throughout the arena. The facility is designated with the appropriate signage.

Where is lost & found located?

Any objects lost or found should be turned into the Customer Service Desk located on the 4th floor concourse behind Section 4. Fans who have lost items can call 617-624-1331 the following day in a final attempt to locate them.

What is the smoking policy in the TD Garden?

The TD Garden is a smoke free facility and smoking is not allowed anywhere in the arena.

Can I bring food or drink into the arena?

You will not be allowed to bring any food or beverages into the arena. Concessions stands are located throughout the arena with a variety of food and beverage choices.

What should I do if there is a problem once I am in the arena?

You should contact an usher captain located in your section. If they are unable to correct the situation you should go to the Customer Service Desk located behind Section 4 on the 4th floor concourse. A Boston Celtics representative will be available to assist until the end of half-time to help you with any problems that may arise. A TD Garden staff member may also assist you through the end of the game.

Where is the First Aid station located?

The first aid station is located on the 4th floor concourse behind Sections 15 and 16.

Mon, 15 May 2023 13:41:00 -0500 text/html https://www.nba.com/celtics/tickets/groups
From aircraft availability to consolidation: 10 airline stories that will shape industry in 2024

After the recent years of recovery from the Covid pandemic, 2024 is set to be the closest to a business-as-usual year for airlines. 

Capacity and traffic in most regions – with the main exception of Asia-Pacific – are already close to, at, or beyond pre-pandemic levels. 

The airline industry was profitable as a whole in 2023 and IATA foresees a small improvement next year.

But what are the wider trends and individual stories that are likely to shape the sector in 2024?

What will be impact of clipped capacity?

While some of the near-time crunch points around recruiting and retraining staff dissipated this year, the challenge of keeping existing fleets flying and incoming deliveries on track intensified for most airlines. 

That is unlikely to get better in 2024. Indeed, capacity challenges, particularly for those facing the loss of more flying hours from additional engine inspections on a number of Pratt & Whitney geared turbofan (GTF)-powered aircraft, could get worse. 

Though much of the attention is on how long it will take to work through the GTF issue, the crunch on aircraft capacity is being felt across the board. A shortage of spare parts means longer maintenance turnaround times, while airframers still have their work cut out to ramp production fast enough to meet delivery schedules.

Volaris GTF engine (c) Pratt & Whitney

Thus far most airlines have had somewhere to go if they needed more capacity given many still had portions of their fleet grounded from the pandemic, even if it meant reluctantly bringing some types back.

However, for many that option is now exhausted, meaning securing additional capacity will become even harder next year.

While a lack of capacity will stymie an airline’s ability to capitalise on market opportunities and strengthen their share, it does offer a shorter-term positive of helping to keep load factors and yields high. IATA cites constrained capacity as a factor in projecting a fourth consecutive year of passenger yield gains for 2024, albeit a more modest 1.8% increase, and for a further rise in passenger load factor to match 2019 highs of 82.6%.

This should help prop-up airline profitability, even in the face of higher costs as inflationary pressures continue to kick-in.

Arguably though this environment is likely to increase the divide between the strong and weak airlines, as there has probably never been a better time to be a big and well-financed operator.

Those with large existing fleets have more scope to backfill where capacity is unavailable. Likewise operators with heavy order books are likely to be able to stake their claim as to why they should be at the top of list for deliveries from airframers. Meantime, access to internal MRO and training facilities should make it easier to ride out supply chain and recruitment issues – and indeed potentially offer a diversified profit stream. (Graham Dunn)

Where will airlines deploy their capacity?

Since airlines began restoring their operations after the pandemic, network decisions for many have been relatively straight-forward. The combination of a shortage of available aircraft and a lack of markets open for them to serve meant it was pretty clear where capacity would be deployed.

That has seen a focus on domestic markets, at least for those lucky enough to have a large home market, as well on regional routes and intercontinental services to markets like Europe and the USA, which were among the first to lift Covid restrictions.

Continued curtailed aircraft capacity means that will remain the case to some extent in 2024, as airlines focus relatively scarce capacity on their most profitable routes. That is likely to see, for example, European and North American airlines keep a core of capacity on the strong transatlantic market.

However, the relatively slow reopening of Asia-Pacific countries from Covid-related travel restrictions means this market is still under-served. IATA figures show Asia-Pacific as the only region failing to reach pre-pandemic traffic levels this year. 

IATA traffic projection

Crucially, the lifting of Covid restrictions in China –  while happening far more quickly than many dared hope – is so far more of a recovery on domestic rather than international routes.

Cirium schedules data shows Chinese domestic capacity in December is 16% higher than the same month in 2019. By contrast international capacity from China remains down more than a third, and four-fifths below December 2019 capacity on routes to North America.

IATA director general Willie Walsh says: “Recovery in that [US-China] market has been particularly slow, not least because a lot of the airlines that serve that market have delays to the delivery of new widebody aircraft.”

That leaves likely room for growth, and IATA sees traffic growth of 13% – the highest of any region – for Asia-Pacific next year as it finally surpasses pre-pandemic levels.

“We see this recovery in the Asia-Pacific market accelerating as we go into 2024,” says Walsh. “All the signs are pointing to continue strong recovery in Asia Pacific.” (Graham Dunn)

Re-enter the dragon? China’s ‘Big Three’ set for recovery 

After three prolonged years of pandemic-driven losses, China’s three largest carriers – Air China, China Eastern Airlines and China Southern Airlines – are set for a swing to profitability in 2024.

China Southern has been the first to eke out a small profit for the first nine months of 2023, while its two compatriots have significantly narrowed their losses on the back of a rise in passenger travel revenues.

A350-900 China Southern MSN318-c-Airbus

An HSBC Global Research report also forecasts the ‘Big Three’ will post record profits in 2024, with the easing of challenges such as travel restrictions and overcapacity.

Indeed, there is no mistaking that in 2024, which in the Chinese zodiac calendar is the year of the dragon, the three carriers will see a change in fortunes.

However, given how late Beijing dropped its onerous ‘zero-Covid’ restrictions – nearly a year later than other Asian economies – the ‘Big Three’ have plenty of catching up to do in recovering international capacity. It is likely the airlines will make rebuilding the network a key focus in the new year, along with recalibrating capacity system-wide.

What stands in their favour has been the slower-than-expected ramp-up for international flights into China, with several Asia-Pacific carriers yet to fully resume flights into the country.

And while geopolitical tensions with the West will dampen recovery, especially on the trans-Pacific network, the airlines have found opportunity in operations to countries under Beijing’s ‘One Belt, One Road’ infrastructure initiative.

The year of the dragon is regarded by the Chinese to be auspicious, and China’s ‘Big Three’ will indeed be banking on favourable conditions to make their big return. (Alfred Chua)

Will 2024 be time new Air India takes to the stage?

Another of Asia-Pacific’s big markets is India, and much of the focus will be on Tata Sons’ progress in restoring the fortunes of Air India.

After a 2023 underlined by epic orders for 470 new aircraft at the Paris air show, Air India is likely to spend 2024 consummating its marriage with fellow Tata Sons carrier Vistara, as well as the integration of low-cost units Air India Express with AIX Connect.

Air India A350 livery-c-Air India

When Tata Sons announced the consolidation of its airline holdings in late 2022, it gave March 2024 as the date for things to be completed. Although merger work continues, recent history with other big mergers suggests that airline chief executives cannot take government blessings. Still, signs are that things are going to plan.

Backed by the finances and prestige of the Tata group, and led by industry veteran Campbell Wilson, the combined Air India will be a formidable force in India and abroad. Wilson’s Vihaan.AI transformation programme is steadily dragging Air India into modernity and laying the foundation for the integration of Vistara.

Statistics from the India’s Directorate General of Civil Aviation suggest that in the third quarter of 2023, Air India, Air India Express, AIX Connect (formerly AirAsia India) and Vistara enjoyed a combined domestic market share of 26.8%, up from 24% a year earlier.

While this looks relatively unimpressive against low-cost carrier IndiGo’s 63.4% share of the domestic market, as a group Air India towers over the country’s remainingl low-cost carriers, Akasa Air and SpiceJet.

More broadly, Air India’s consolidation in 2024 will not only define its future but constitute a key step on the evolution of India’s once-fragmented airline market into an effective duopoly. In a price sensitive market where scale means survival, the consolidated Air India group and IndiGo will define India’s future air travel market. (Greg Waldron)

How much is JetBlue counting on Spirit deal?

After a tumultuous year that saw the low-cost carrier fighting on multiple fronts and struggling operationally during what chief executive Robin Hayes called the “most exceptionally difficult summer I can remember”, JetBlue Airways would like to set a new course in 2024.

That depends largely on whether the carrier’s long-sought acquisition of Spirit Airlines for $3.8 billion is allowed to proceed. Following a month-long court trial in Boston in which US Department of Justice attorneys framed the deal as harmful to budget-conscious air travellers, a US circuit judge is expected to issue a decision on whether the deal violates antitrust laws in January.

JetBlue Embraer E190

The New York-based carrier has a lot riding on the deal.

After having its Northeast Alliance (NEA) with major US carrier American Airlines ordered dissolved in a separate federal antitrust trial earlier in 2023, JetBlue has shifted focus to its Spirit bid, pledging to hand take-off and landing slots at key Florida and Northeast USA airport hubs to competitors to appease regulators.

JetBlue has defended the deal as pro-competition, arguing that, in the absence of the NEA, it has no other path to meaningful growth and competing with major US carriers.

Whether it is allowed to close the deal has major implications for the future of the low-cost carrier – and future acquisitions across the US airline industry. (Howard Hardee) 

Will next wave of European airline consolidation happen?

It is not just in the USA that all eyes are on how regulators will approach consolidation. In Asia-Pacific, Qantas abandoned its purchase of Alliance Aviation after competition regulators stepped in, while Korean Air’s move for Asiana and ANA’s for Nippon Cargo Airlines have both faced regulatory delays. Meanwhile, in Latin America draconian remedies ended Avianca’s interest in Viva Air.

But it is probably in Europe where the keenest eye will be on regulators. The big three network carrier groups all have deals in play, and will be particularly watchful given indications from the new European Commission competition chief that the regulatory bar might be about to be set higher.

ITA Airways A321neo detail

IAG, which hopes to get approval for a restructured deal for Air Europa by the end of next year, needs no reminding of the hurdles having pulled an earlier move for the Spanish carrier – in part because it considered the price of slots it would need to deliver up to be too high.

Air France-KLM is testing the water too by taking a minority stake in struggling Scandinavian carrier SAS. Its chief executive Ben Smith argues the deal represents a ”low-cost, low-risk way of participating in M&A” and brings an immediate gain of seeing the airline shift alliance camps from Star Alliance to SkyTeam – interestingly not something seemingly in the works with Air Europa despite IAG this year taking a 20% stake in the airline.

However, perhaps the clearest test of both the regulator’s view on consolidation and an acquirer’s willingness to deliver up slots to rivals will come in the form of Lufthansa’s move for Italian carrier ITA Airways.

Lufthansa Group chief Carsten Spohr had initially argued ITA’s relatively limited presence in the Italian market – where on short-haul routes pan-European low-cost carriers are the biggest players – means regulatory approved should have been achievable by the end of the year. The reality appears more complicated given that formal notification following talks with the Commission on likely remedies was only filed at the end of November.

The European major airline groups argue they need scale to compete with global competitors – particularly a consolidated North American sector, which now contains by far the biggest operators in the world.

Ultimately, arguably there is probably little alternative to cross-border consolidation in Europe. The big network carriers for the most part already have established positions in home markets, so must look to new countries and regions for a step change in growth. Equally, pandemic restructuring means that even more European governments find themselves as reluctant owners of national carriers than before Covid.

Consequently there are clearly European airline buyers and sellers in the market. The question will be over the price of making such deals. So far, there is little indication that either buyer or regulator is ready to blink. (Graham Dunn)

Can Abra go to next level in Latin America? 

Consolidation too is also in play in Latin America, where the fledgling Abra Group is set for the next stage of its development.

Avianca’s chief executive Adrain Neuhauser next year will take the reins at Abra Group as chief executive, as the holding company’s inaugural members Avianca and Gol are looking to reap the benefits of an arrangement that promises to be an answer to larger airlines’ domination of the Latin American aviation market.

Avianca chief executive

Abra was formed in May 2022, with the goal of better being able to compete with heavyweights like the continent’s behemoth LATAM Airlines Group, and US carriers like Delta Air Lines and American Airlines making inroads into the market. The venture aims to help the airlines better negotiate with vendors and suppliers, and to benefit customers through codeshare deals and reciprocal frequent flyer benefits across the continent. 

Abra presents an interesting opportunity also for investors, Neuhauser told FlightGlobal in November. “You no longer have all your eggs in one basket in Brazil or in Colombia or in Central America. You’ve got a balance. Some countries do well when others do poorly. Some currencies do well when others do poorly. So having that balance from a portfolio perspective at the investor level has also been helpful.”. 

He says that Abra will begin to bear fruit in 2024 with “needle-moving events” that will have the airlines “aggressively supporting each other”.

Gol’s executives say they have already seen the dividends of the arrangement. Chief strategy officer Mateus Pongeluppi has said it’s a “sales machine”, noting Gol is benefiting from Avianca’s strong international presence.

In a note published in mid-December, analysts at Citi say that the carriers are confident in “revenue synergies, such as route optimization and potential loyalty program combinations, as well as cost synergies such as potential joint procurement of engines, airplane tires and the like, [and] possible joint negotiations on insurance purchases”.

In October 2023, Argentine state-owned carrier Aerolineas Argentinas signed a memorandum of understanding with Abra, and negotiations to add Chile’s Sky Airline to the group are ongoing. (Pilar Wolfsteller)

How will geopolitical tensions impact industry fortunes?

There are seldom any years when geopolitical issues – be they diplomatic spats, isolated pockets of unrest or full-scale conflict – are not a factor for the airline industry.

Airlines though do enter 2024 with plenty of areas of concerns, most notably the continued fallout from Russia’s invasion of Ukraine in 2022 and the conflict between Israel and Hamas which reignited to a war footing in October.

El Al 737-800-c-Aero Icarus Creative Commons

While there is clearly ongoing impact for those operators caught directly in these areas, for the industry – as long as unrest and disruption does not spread to a wider area, the major network impact of such issues tends to be the short-term readjustment in capacity. 

So though airlines reported some impact on their fundamentals for the fourth quarter from the Gaza conflict, once capacity has been moved elsewhere, the ongoing impact for most airlines is limited.

Even for operators within the Middle East, IATA’s Walsh points to traffic data so far showing little impact at an aggregate level as Middle East airline traffic is still growing. ”So while it is impacting some individual airlines, when we look at the region we are not seeing any noticeable impact on traffic growth,” he says.

Notably international carriers, which largely suspended Israeli services in October, are already considering a return. Lufthansa Group carriers for example are planning to restore a first portion of flying to Tel Aviv from 8 January.

The industry has also grown used now to some of the impact of Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, be that higher fuel prices or the closure of Russian airspace to many carriers.

”I don’t see Russian airspace opening in the foreseeable future and carriers in the region have made plans for the long-term closure of Russian airspace,” says Walsh.

But he adds operation of modern aircraft has to some extended mitigated the disruption of services. ”Had this happened 10 years ago, it would have had a very significant impact because most of the aircraft flying back then would not have had the range and payload capabilities to serve the market without a technical stop. That’s not the case today, the market is being served.” (Graham Dunn)

Can industry move fast enough on sustainability?

The past year has seen some progress in the development of sustainable aviation fuel, including Virgin Atlantic’s milestone London-New York JFK flight operated using a Boeing 787-9 with both its Rolls-Royce Trent 1000 engines powered purely by SAF.

However the question remains whether progress is fast enough to meet not only industry environment ambitions – be it for some seeing SAF representing around 10% of fuel by 2030 or the wider goal net-zero operations by 2050 – but also to keep pace with the expectations of the public and politicians alike.

KLM-Embraer-c-KLM

While the pressure to act and airline frustrations at a lack of progress are evident in all regions – LATAM Airlines Group chief executive Roberto Alvo in October for example bemoaned that “not a single drop” of SAF is being produced in South America – Europe is probably where the biggest between gap lies between expectations and infrastructure.

In the UK for example, where the government is planning to mandate airlines to be at 10% SAF use by 2030, airlines have said they will have no option but to look to import the new fuel from the USA to meet such a goal. Carriers in Europe are not alone in casting envious eyes on the “carrot” approach of the Biden Administration’s Inflationary Reduction Act rather than the more punitive “stick” policies they are facing.

That is evident in the proposals to cut capacity at Amsterdam Schiphol airport to help counter noise emissions – itself a timely reminder that sustainability issues go far beyond CO2 emissions. While the Dutch government was eventually forced to backtrack on unilaterally reducing slots at Schiphol this summer, it remains to be seen what the outcome will be of the “Balanced Approach” process that will now ensue.

Similarly KLM is among the airlines that has found itself under fire from protest groups – a court course in the Netherlands is ongoing – amid ‘greenwashing’ claims. This illustrates the tricky line airlines must walk in promoting their environmental actions in a climate where aviation emissions will continue to rise for some time yet, even if at a slower pace. (Graham Dunn)

Is there space for new business models?

For all the talk of building back better at the start of the pandemic, there is little sign that the industry that has re-emerged any differently. 

Certainly core business models remain essentially the same as before the crisis, with perhaps the most obvious change being a desire to advance into new geographic markets. 

BermudAir Sunrise

Some recent start-ups are finding news gaps in the market, though largely through applying an established model into new markets. Indeed in Europe, Iceland’s Play Airlines is very deliberately up to a point following the initial path trod by Wow Airlines – that point avoiding the over-expansion into widebody flights that proved the latter’s downfall. 

While some more left-field plans have emerged, progress is so far limited. Start-up BermudAir, which launched in September with plans to outfit Embraer 175 regional jets in all-premium configuration, within a month opted to switch to a dual-class offering. UK carrier Global Airlines generated its fair share of headlines with plans to launch transatlantic flights from London Gatwick using a pair of Airbus A380, though it will not begin operations until 2024

And therein lies a further challenge for those seeking to start flying next year, as the continued shortage in aircraft availability means arguably there has seldom been a harder time to get new airlines off the ground. (Graham Dunn)

Fri, 22 Dec 2023 00:21:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.flightglobal.com/airlines/from-aircraft-availability-to-consolidation-10-airline-stories-that-will-shape-industry-in-2024/156248.article
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Alisa Stevens has been writing articles and business/marketing materials since 1994. She has experience writing for and about a variety of industries, including the legal, transportation, government and education sectors. Stevens holds a B.A. in journalism and an M.B.A. from Arizona State University, as well as a J.D. from Loyola Law School.

Wed, 18 Jul 2018 20:58:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://smallbusiness.chron.com/open-group-home-arizona-15250.html
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