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Killexams : IBQH International exam syllabus - BingNews Search results Killexams : IBQH International exam syllabus - BingNews Killexams : ISC Syllabus for Class 12 2023: download Revised & Reduced Syllabus PDF

ISC Class 12 Syllabus 2023: The Council For The Indian School Certificate Examinations (CISCE) board has released the revised and reduced syllabus for the ISC Class 12th students for the 2022-2023 academic year. The ISC Class 12 board exams commenced from 12 February, and the time couldn’t be more appropriate to take one last look at the ISC Class 12 Syllabus.

ISC Syllabus 2023 for Class 12th Board Exam

ISC Class 12 Syllabus: A new year has begun, and with it, the examination season. The Council For The Indian School Certificate Examinations (CISCE) board has released the latest and revised syllabus for the ISC Class 12th exams 2023. The ISC syllabus class 12 pdf can be downloaded from the official website of the CISCE school board. We have also covered the syllabus here in this article, where you can view and download the pdf of all ISC Class 12th subjects.

Related: ICSE Class 10 Syllabus 2023

ISC Syllabus Class 12 Highlights

There aren’t many changes in the ISC Class 12 Syllabus 2023, but students should still take a look at the official syllabus. Sometimes, practicing the syllabus after a while highlights the subjects that students often miss the first time. Senior secondary is an important stage of life in every student’s life and plays a critical role in deciding their future and preparing them for it. And the ISC Class 12 isn’t to be taken lightly. The ISC Class 12 syllabus is one of the most difficult syllabuses in India. Students often get lost and demotivated, just going through the extensive syllabus. But nonetheless, it’s essential to know the correct ISC syllabus for class 12 students, especially if you want to ace the final exams.

Download ISC Syllabus for Class 12 in PDF

The ISC Board syllabus is one of the most challenging and extensive in the country. But here you can download the syllabus of all the subjects at the same place and that too in pdf format.

Related: ICSE Syllabus 2023: download ICSE, ISC Syllabus In PDF Format

Key Benefits of ISC Class 12th Syllabus

The ISC Class 12th Syllabus offers several benefits to the students. It doesn’t just list the subjects and leave the readers hanging. The entire course curriculum, marking scheme, course wise marks distribution, and evaluation standards are comprehensively covered in the ISC syllabus for class 12. Both the theory and practical syllabuses are covered in depth. The ISC class 12 syllabus also includes the important exam details like duration and section-wise weightage. All this information will be eternally beneficial to the ISC class 12 students.

How Does the ISC 12th Syllabus Help Students in Their Board exam Preparation?

The ISC 12th Syllabus is a crucial part of all students’ exam preparation. There is no point studying without knowing the correct syllabus. Doing so is a surefire way to confuse yourself and perform poorly in exams. The ISC Class 12th syllabus gives students an idea of the vastness of the course, the exam weightage and the importance of subjects and evaluation standards for both theory and practical exams.

Also Check: ISC Class 12th Datesheet 2023: Check the full date sheet with the guidelines here


What is the syllabus of ISC Class 12?

The syllabus of ISC Class 12 is the list of subjects that all students have to study in a given academic year. The ISC Class 12 syllabus of all subject in detail and in pdf format is provided on the Jagran Josh website. You can also download it on the official website of the CISCE board.

Can I score good marks using the ISC Class 12th Syllabus of 2022-2023?

Yes, you can score good marks in the ISC board exams 2023 using the official reduced and revised syllabus for class 12. Knowing the correct syllabus is essential to prepare well for the exams. Otherwise, students end up missing subjects and perform poorly in the exams.

Thu, 16 Feb 2023 03:30:00 -0600 text/html
Killexams : Purdue Syllabus Guidelines

Constructing a syllabus is an important component of the course design process. The following materials reflect a research-supported framework to help create a pathway to success in your course. Each semester, Innovative Learning reviews the syllabus framework, identifying needed updates and resources.

The Word files linked below outline Required and Recommended components for your syllabus. Many of these components are already in your Brightspace shell. They just need updates specific to your course. The files below include language that comes directly from University policies or is suggested by the University Senate or specific units. Other sample language reflects an autonomy-supportive classroom that can influence student perception and performance (Young-Jones, Levesque, Fursa & McCain 2019). Italicized text indicates notes to instructors. Plain text provides examples of language.

Tips for creating your syllabus:

  • Don’t revise what you don’t have to. The University Policies and Statements and Student Services widget in the Brightspace shell are updated each semester and automatically populated. You may add additional resources that might help your students to your syllabus.

Once your syllabus is complete, please also upload it to Purdue’s Course Insights syllabus archiving system. For questions related to the syllabus framework, email

Note: The Purdue syllabus guidelines are influenced by Instruction Matters: Purdue Academic Course Transformation (IMPACT) and the resources available through Purdue’s Brightspace learning management system (LMS). It also addresses criteria of the valid and reliable syllabus rubric published by the University of Virginia Center for Teaching Excellence (Palmer, Bach & Streifer 2017). Components fall under five categories: 1) Essential course information, instructor contact information, and course description, 2) Specific, student-centered learning outcomes and objectives that are clear, articulated and measurable (Bristol et al 2019), 3) Assessment strategies for all graded assignments that make explicit connections between learning outcomes, activities, and content, 4) Pedagogical approaches and activities that help students achieve the course outcomes and objectives, and 5) Policies and approaches that foster engaging, student-centered learning environments.


Adena Young-Jones, Chantal Levesque, Sophie Fursa & Jason McCain (2019): Autonomy-supportive language in the syllabus: supporting students from the first day. Teaching in Higher Education. DOI: 10.1080/13562517.2019.1661375.

Levesque-Bristol, C., Flierl, M., Zywicki, C., Parker, L.C., Connor, C., Guberman, D., Nelson, D., Maybee, C., Bonem, E., FitzSimmons, J., & Lott, E. (2019). Creating Student-Centered Learning Environments and Changing Teaching Culture: Purdue University’s IMPACT Program. National Institute for Learning Outcomes Assessment (NILOA).

Palmer, M. S., Bach, D. J., & Streifer, A. C. (2014). Measuring the promise: A learning‐focused syllabus rubric. To Strengthen the Academy: A Journal of Educational Development, 33 (1), 14-36.

Fri, 10 Feb 2023 05:38:00 -0600 en-US text/html
Killexams : UP Board exam 2023: To begin tomorrow; Check IMPORTANT updates

UP Board exam 2023: The Uttar Pradesh Madhyamik Shiksha Parishad (UPMSP) Board exam 2023 is scheduled to begin tomorrow. As per the schedule released by the Uttar Pradesh Education Board, the UP Board Exams will commence on February 16, 2023. Ahead of the exam, the UP CM Yogi Adityanath directed the schools to ensure a cheating-free examination. A set of rules has been rolled out by the government to conduct the examination without obstructions. 

UP Board exam 2023: Date Sheet 

The Uttar Pradesh Madhyamik Shiksha Board (UPMSP) earlier released the date sheet for classes 10 and 12 students for the UP Board exam 2023. The UP Board Exams are scheduled to commence on February 16, 2023. 

UP Board exam 2023 to be held at 8,752 centres 

Over 58 lakh students will appear for this year's up board examination. Of these 31.2 lakh students are for Class 10 and 27.5 lakh students are for Class 12. The examinations will be held at 8,752 centres across 75 districts in Uttar Pradesh. According to the timetable for the 2023 examinations released by the secretary, of UP Secondary Education Board, Divyakant Shukla, the Class 10 examinations will be held in 13 working days and will end on March 3.

Stitched answer sheet for the examinees 

The Class 12 examinations will be held in 14 working days and will end on March 4. For the first time, UP Board examinees will get stitched answer sheets. The move is aimed at preventing the copy mafia from changing answer sheets of meritorious students because in previous year's there were complaints of changing copies by removing staples.

Barcodes and Monograms on the answer sheets 

Also, answer sheets given to the students will have barcodes and monograms on them. The initiatives are being taken with the aim to eliminate the scope of manipulation of answer sheets. The Board will also conduct random checks of some answer sheets using the barcodes which will further put a noose around those involved in copying. Over three crore answer sheets will be required for the UP Board examinations. Model exam questions for Class 10 and Class 12.

(with inputs from PTI) 

ALSO READ | UP Board exam 2023 from Feb 16, Yogi government to impose NSA on cheaters

ALSO READ | UPMSP exam Date Sheet 2023: 58 Lakh students to take UP Board exam this year

Tue, 14 Feb 2023 12:30:00 -0600 en text/html
Killexams : The syllabus charade: Students on edge as schools affiliated to State board teach central curriculum

The Department of School Education and Literacy (DSEL) has, over the last fortnight, been cracking down on managements running “central syllabus” schools with no requisite affiliation while giving the impression to parents that they are accredited to the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) or the Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations. DSEL has served notices to more than 700 such schools, over 600 in Bengaluru alone. However, people in the know say this has been going on for years and reflects the government’s failure to regulate the ecosystem.

Most of these schools, while they have an affiliation to only the State board, say they are teaching either ICSE or CBSE syllabus, violating the norms of the Karnataka Education Act, 1983, and the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009.

Huge demand for Central Board schools

With statistics showing that students who study the central syllabus have an edge in professional course entrance examinations, there has been a huge demand for schools teaching the central syllabus. This has led to many educational institutions making false claims that they are affiliated to either of the central boards and, in turn, charge a fee severalfold more than what State syllabus schools generally charge.

In the past few weeks, parents of children studying in one such school protested, as the school claiming to be affiliated to CBSE and teaching that syllabus till now suddenly distributed State syllabus textbooks. The protests soon spread to several branches of the school chain in the city and led to an FIR against one of them in Nagarbhavi.

The school, in a statement, said that while nine of their branches already had CBSE affiliation, others were “in the process” of getting it. This process generally takes 3-4 years, which they claim was further delayed due to the pandemic. These protests opened a can of worms.

Public exams exposed it all

The phenomenon of schools claiming central board affiliation is not new. It has been happening right under the nose of DSEL for many years. But what set the cat among the pigeons was the department’s recent decision to hold a public examination for Classes V and VIII.

Since there are no public exams till Class X in central syllabus schools, educational institutions have ample time to get affiliated to a central board long after they have set up the school. Till then, many schools remain affiliated to the State board while teaching the Central syllabus.

However, with the introduction of public exams for Classes V and VIII from this academic year in State-affiliated schools, they were forced to teach students State syllabus textbooks, alerting parents to what they were unaware of.

Check for irregularities

Meanwhile, DSEL had formed a three-member committee led by the Block Education Officer (BEO) in each taluk to survey schools to check for irregularities. Post survey, DSEL issued notices to over 700 schools across the State alleging that while they had affiliation to the State board, they were falsely claiming affiliation to a central board and teaching that syllabus.

However, a section of private school managements said the survey was an “offensive” launched by the department against them in response to allegations of corruption they had levelled against them a few months ago.

How the system works

Neither the CBSE nor the CISCE provides affiliation to a newly opened school. They must first obtain a State board affiliation for Classes I to V and run the school for five years, following which they can take a no-objection certificate (NOC) from the State government to get an affiliation for a central board.

After applying, the central board issues a provisional certificate only to indicate that the said school is “under consideration” for affiliation. Then, based on inspection reports, the board provides a permanent affiliation. The process takes around five years. If the board denies the affiliation, it will continue to function as a State board school.

Schools’ defence

However, without following this procedure and waiting for an affiliation, many schools are taking in students claiming to have already been affiliated to either of the central boards. If parents seek any clarification, these schools usually show the provisional certificate issued by the concerned central board or the NOC issued by the State government.

Some have also cited mention of their school as a central board-affiliated one on the Government of India’s Unified District Information System for Education (UDISE) portal, which is only a self-declaration.

Right now, the pressure on students studying in these schools is a matter of significant concern, especially in Classes V and VIII this year. These students, who were being taught NCERT textbooks, are now given State syllabus textbooks to prepare for public exams, putting them under immense stress and confusion. Neither the school managements nor DSEL has yet to devise any plan on how these children will cope with it.

Lax enforcement and corruption

Though DSEL has powers to withdraw the NOC issued to a school and impose a hefty penalty for violation of rules, there has not been any such action.

Shashikumar D., General Secretary for Associated Managements of English Medium Schools in Karnataka (KAMS), said that despite their repeated appeals, there had been no action against schools that falsely claim and run central syllabus. Alleging wide-scale collusion between school managements and officials, he said BEO reports on school inspections should not be trusted blindly, and DSEL has to make them public to allow scrutiny and call for objections, he added.

Minister promises transparency

However, Minister for the Department of School Education and Literacy, B.C. Nagesh assured stringent action against errant schools as per law. “We are holding public exams for Classes V and VIII to prevent such irregularities. We are also planning to launch a separate portal to disclose all the unauthorised and fraudulent schools’ names and their addresses,” he said.

Thu, 09 Feb 2023 11:33:00 -0600 en text/html
Killexams : NET syllabus may be taken for faculty recruitment exam: DCE

The Directorate of Collegiate Education has drafted a list of faculty from aided and government colleges to finalise the syllabus for the test for faculty recruitment for government arts and science colleges.

In a circular, M. Eswaramurthy, the Director of Collegiate Education, said the NET syllabus might be taken as the basis for the exam. If the NET syllabus was unavailable for a subject, the SET syllabus might be taken. For subjects having neither of the syllabus, the university syllabus might be taken.

The PG syllabus of a subject would be used. The work would be conducted on Monday and Tuesday.

Sun, 22 Jan 2023 04:02:00 -0600 en text/html
Killexams : CBSE Board exam 2023 Today: Check Important Highlights and Statistics Here

CBSE Board exam 2023: The board exams for classes 10, 12 under CBSE Board is starting today. Post pandemic, it is the first exam where the candidates are being evaluated on the 100% syllabus in its annual board exam scheme. Check important highlights here.

CBSE Board exam 2023 Highlights here

CBSE Board Exams 2023: The Central Board of Secondary Education is all set to hold the board examination for the 2022-23 academic session starting this morning on February 15, 2023. Ahead of the CBSE Board exam 2023, there are close to 38,83,710 lakh students who would be appearing in the 10th, 12th board examination this year, as per the reports by media.

Examination Centres in CBSE Board exam 2023

There are more than 7250 examination centers across the nation along with 26 other foreign countries. 

Subjects in 2023 CBSE Board exam Classes 10, 12

CBSE will conduct 2023 board exams for a total of 191 subjects. 

The Central Board of Secondary Education will be conducting the examination in 76 subjects for class 10th. 

For class 12th, CBSE will conduct board exams in 115 subjects. 

Also check: CBSE Topper Study Time Table 2023: How Do Topper Study (Planning and Strategy)

CBSE Board exam 2023 exam Dates

Both Class 10th and 12th board exams will start tomorrow, February 15, 2023. 

The CBSE Class 10 board exam will be conducted for 16 days and conclude on March 21, 2023. 

Meanwhile the CBSE Class 12 board exam will go on for 36 days ending on April 5, 2023.

Extensive arrangements have been made to ensure smooth conduct of examinations in all centers across India and abroad. Detailed guidelines have been issued to all CBSE stakeholders to ensure the communication of all important exam related information. 

As informed prior along with the CBSE board exam 2023 date sheet 2023, the exam time table for both classes 10, 12 have been fixed in such a way that all candidates find enough gap in between exams to prepare.


Also Check: CBSE Board 2023: Timing, Last Minute Tips, Important exam Centre Guidelines, Instructions and All You Need to Know

CBSE Board exam 2023 Class 10, 12 Statistics

  • The total number of candidates appearing in CBSE Board exam 2023 class 10 is 21,86,940.
  • The total number of candidates appearing in CBSE Board exam 2023 class 12 is 16,96,770.

CBSE Board exam 2023 Statistics: Class 10

Total Schools

Total Centres

Total no. of Female Candidates

Total no. of Male Candidates


Total no. of candidates







CBSE Board exam 2023 Statistics: Class 12

Total Schools

Total Centres

Total no. of Female Candidates

Total no. of Male Candidates


Total no. of candidates







Important Resources for CBSE Board exam Preparation 2023

Tue, 14 Feb 2023 02:41:00 -0600 text/html
Killexams : NEET UG 2023: Registration to begin soon; Check Eligibility, Syllabus and all DETAILS

NEET UG 2023: The National Testing Agency (NTA) will soon begin the registration process for the NEET UG 2023. The National Eligibility cum Entrance Test UG 2023 will be held on May 7, 2023. Recently, NTA announced the exam date for the NEET along with all important entrance exams for the 2023-24 session. The NEET UG 2023 exam registration will be done online. The application form for the candidates will be made available on or 

NEET UG 2023: exam Date 

As per the notice of the National Testing Agency (NTA) the NEET UG 2023 exam will be conducted on May 7, 2023. Once, the full schedule for the National Eligibility cum Entrance Test gets announced, the full schedule will be updated here for the candidates. 

NEET UG 2023: exam language

The NEET UG 2023 exam will be conducted in different languages- English, Hindi, Assamese, Bengali, Gujarati, Kannada, Malayalam, Marathi, Odia, Punjabi, Tamil, Telugu, and Urdu. 

NEET UG 2023: Documents 

While registering for the NEET UG 2023 exam, candidates will need to upload the following documents. They are listed below. 

  • Class 10th or 12th passing certificate.
  • Signature.
  • Passport-size photograph.
  • PWD certificate.
  • Left and right-hand thumb impression.
  • Citizenship certificate or embassy certificate.

NEET UG 2023: Eligibility

Candidates who are in class 12th or have passed class 12th are eligible to appear for the NEET UG exam held once a year. With this, they must have Biology, Chemistry and Physics as their main subjects in 10+2. 

NEET UG 2023: Syllabus

The NEET UG exam is conducted for overall 720 marks. There will be 3 sections in the question paper; Physics, Chemistry and Biology. The questions will be asked from class 11 and 12 concepts. 

ALSO READ | NEET UG 2023: Registration soon on | Check here

ALSO READ | NEET UG 2023: Registration to begin this week? Notification soon on

Sun, 05 Feb 2023 17:15:00 -0600 en text/html
Killexams : Sharp division over teaching of gender identity and use of pronouns in updated sex education syllabus

Sharp divisions over gender identity and the use of pronouns in schools are revealed in submissions to the State’s advisory body on the curriculum which is updating how sex education is taught.

The National Council for Curriculum and Assessment (NCCA) is finalising a new Social Personal and Health Education (SPHE) curriculum, which will provide 100 hours of learning over the three-year Junior Cycle for 12-15 year olds. It will, from next September, address issues such as gender identity, pornography and sexual consent.

Newly disclosed submissions show several parents groups have complained about the “promotion of transgender ideology” to young students, while a number of Catholic bodies have insisted that schools must be allowed to teach any updated syllabus only in accordance with their ethos.

By contrast, many campaign and civil society groups have welcomed the focus of the draft specification on gender identity, with one arguing that use of pronouns should be specifically included and the term “biological sex” removed, as it is used to “demonise the trans community”.

A submission from the Catholic Secondary School Parents Association accused the NCCA of “seeking to promote an ideology that refuses to acknowledge basic biological facts in favour of a new gender self-identity doctrine”.

Other critics included the Irish Education Alliance, which said the “promotion of gender identity poses significant risks to the welfare of children” as highlighted with controversy over the Tavistock Clinic in the UK.

Genspect, who describe themselves as an “alliance of professionals, parent groups, trans people, detransitioners”, said the draft course promoted a “narrow-minded gender affirmative approach and assumes that everyone – students, parents and school staff – believes in the gender identity belief system”.

A number of Catholic bodies, while welcoming the move to update the curriculum, said the ethos of schools must be respected in delivering the programme.

The Association of Patrons and Trustees of Catholic Schools said Catholic school ethos must be accommodated to take account of the “constitutionally protected right of patrons to run their schools from a faith-based perspective”.

The NCCA draft syllabus drew broadly supportive submissions from a range of non-governmental organisations who said the emphasis on gender identity was “very important”.

The Transgender Equality Network of Ireland said it particularly welcomed “the mention of the spectrum of sexual orientation, gender identity and expression”. BeLonG2 Youth Services said many young people had been calling for improvements to relationships and sexuality education for years.

Foróige, the youth group, welcomed the draft but said the use of pronouns around gender identity should be included and encouraged the removal of the term “biological sex” which, it says, “is currently used to weaponise/demonise the trans community”. It says the more appropriate and inclusive term is “sex assigned at birth”.

The Children’s Rights Alliance said explicit inclusion of the concepts of gender identity, gender expression, and sexual orientation as being “core to our human identity” was “extremely positive and vitally important to ensuring an inclusive curriculum”.

Mon, 06 Feb 2023 16:02:00 -0600 en text/html
Killexams : MHT-CET 2023 launches official website, adds Maharashtra CET syllabus; check course details, rescheduled exam updates

The website of the Maharashtra Common Entrance exam (MHT-CET) cell has been launched. The online registration process, application form, and release of the documents for the examinations will be carried out through this website.

The website of the MHT-CET Cell is http://www.cetcell.mahacetorg. The state’s examination authority is authorized to carry out online tests for various professional courses belonging to the Technical, Higher, Arts and Medical Education Department.

The syllabus for the various examinations conducted by the state’s examination authority has been released. Some of these include the MHT-CET for engineering, agriculture, and law courses.

The syllabus for the MHT-CET for various professional courses, including those related to agriculture, engineering, law, and pharmacy i.r. MAH MBA/MMS CET 2023, MHT CET 2023 (B.Enginnering, B.Pharmacy, Agriculture course examination), MAH LLB (5 Years) CET 2023 (Integrated Course), MAH LLB(3 Years) CET 2023 has also been released.

The MHT-CET for the PCB and the PCM groups were scheduled to be conducted from May 9, 2023, and May 15, 2023, respectively. The information brochure with details regarding the procedure to apply, eligibility criteria, syllabus, exam pattern, and exam dates for the examinations will be released soon.

MHT-CET 2023 exam dates:

MAH-MBA/MMS-CET- March 18 and 19, 2023

MAH-MCA-CET- March 25 and 26, 2034

MAH-LLB (5-year integrated course)- April 1, 2023

MAH-BA/BSc-BEd CET- April 2, 2023

MAH-LLB (3-year integrated course)- April 2 and 3, 2023

MAH-BHMCT- April 20, 2023

MAH-BPlanning CET- April 23, 2023

MAH-MPEd CET CET Online- April 23, 2023

Field test- April 24 to 26, 2023

MAH-BEd and ELCT-CET April 23 to 25, 2023

MAH-BPEd-CET CET Online- May 3, 2023

Field test- May 4 to 6, 2023

MAH-AAC CET (Offline mode) April 16, 2023

MAH-MEd CET May 9, 2023

MAH-MArch CET April 30 2023

MAH-MHMCT CET April 30 2023

MAH-BDesign CET April 30 2023

MHTCET PCM- May 9 to 13, 2023

PCB- May 15 to 20, 2023

The MAH-LLB exam has been rescheduled to April 2, 2023. It was scheduled to take place on April 1.

Thu, 26 Jan 2023 17:35:00 -0600 en text/html
Killexams : Why is the Leaving Cert accounting syllabus so out of date?

Opinion: the current syllabus falls well short of reflecting the knowledge and expertise required for modern accountants

If I were to pitch accounting as a career to a secondary school student in 30 seconds or less, I would say the following: studying accounting provides you with broad business knowledge and skills. Few careers offer greater flexibility regarding potential industries, roles, and locations that accountants can target. The pay is excellent for newly qualified accountants, and a high proportion of CEOs in some of the world's largest companies have backgrounds in accounting.

Unfortunately, none of this enthusiasm is found in the current Leaving Cert accounting syllabus. The first description of accounting on the site’s landing page is "Leaving Certificate accounting provides students with the knowledge, understanding and skills in accounting and financial management necessary for managing personal and basic company accounts." It's hardly the stuff that will stoke the flames of ambition in a modern teenager.

Our Leaving Cert students are being examined on guidance two generations out of date.

In fairness, Wikipedia does no better with its opening definition of "accounting, also known as accountancy, is the measurement, processing and communication of financial and non-financial information about economic entities such as business and corporations".


To be fair, accountants do indeed have strong technical skills related to the above areas. However, what the definitions miss is that modern accounting also requires the development of more general business competencies like strategic management and leadership, data analytics, risk management, and sustainability, and key personal values like ethics and professionalism. Right now, professional accounting bodies and firms are using their wide breadth of competencies to position themselves as leaders in meeting the business challenges of a VUCA future: more volatility, uncertainty, complexity, and ambiguity.

So how exactly does the current Leaving Cert syllabus fall short of reflecting this necessary knowledge and expertise?

Too much focus on financial performance

Accounting is the language of business and, historically, business was all about financial profits. However, modern accounting is evolving with businesses to more sustainable models. The definition of success is now much broader and requires businesses to determine a more well-rounded perspective of their operations and relationships with the community, environment, and economy. Rather than solely focusing on bottom-line financial profits, we now talk about the "triple bottom line": people, planet and profit.

The people category requires businesses to consider their impact on all stakeholders, like employees and the local community, and not just business owners. The planet category requires businesses to consider the impact on their natural environment, the size of their carbon footprint and use of natural resources. Even the definition of profit is different from the old-school model because businesses now need to consider their economic impact beyond profits for owners, such as creating employment and driving innovation.

It's clearly out of date

The syllabus requires students to know about an accounting standard called SSAP 2. Accounting standards are legal guidance on accounting for certain transactions and events and are often revised and updated to incorporate emerging issues. SSAP 2 was issued in 1971, but was superseded by a new standard in 2001, which was superseded again in 2015.

What this means is our Leaving Cert students are being examined on guidance two generations out of date. That might be fine if a client is a history lover, but not so much if they need up-to-date business critical advice.

These two observations highlight the growing gap between how accounting is taught to Leaving Cert students versus the wider societal role of accounting that we are witnessing.

We owe it to students to help them develop knowledge and skills to tackle a different landscape than any prior generation has faced.

However, accounting also faces another endemic problem spread across the leaving cert: the bias towards rote learning. At its simplest, rote learning is a memorisation technique that involves repeating facts and figures until they are stored in memory banks. Rote learning has advantages and is an important tool in developing foundational knowledge (think of primary school children learning the alphabet). It is not without its value in Leaving Cert accounting but unfortunately, it completely dominates the learning landscape for students in their two-year points race.

I meet some of these students when they come to study accounting in UCC. They arrive as "recall experts" in content judged important 30 years ago when the current Leaving Cert syllabus was developed. They lack the level of understanding, insight and authenticity that we associate with more meaningful types of learning.

This is not their fault; they played the game the way it needs to be played to maximise grades. However, it sells these students short and is a poor reflection of who they are and what they are capable of doing if given the right mix of opportunities and guidance. They have strong ambitions and a wide range of interests. They are often highly skilled in other pursuits like sports and the arts. A lot of them admirably balance their university studies with part-time work and often volunteer with charities and other fund-raising activities.

Ultimately, what’s most disappointing for me is that the Leaving Cert has the potential to help secondary school students gain an earlier realisation of who they are and what they can achieve, but is falling well short of this attainable goal. Solutions and the appetite for reform exist, and we are on a path to change, but the pace of that change is too slow and damaging any meaningful progress.

Learning from the past is one thing, but being stuck in the past is another. We owe it to students to help them develop the knowledge and skills required to tackle a more dynamic and complex landscape than any prior generation has faced.

The views expressed here are those of the author and do not represent or reflect the views of RTÉ

Thu, 26 Jan 2023 01:56:00 -0600 en text/html
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