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CLSSGB Certified Lean Six Sigma Green Belt (CLSSGB) outline |

CLSSGB outline - Certified Lean Six Sigma Green Belt (CLSSGB) Updated: 2023

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Exam Code: CLSSGB Certified Lean Six Sigma Green Belt (CLSSGB) outline November 2023 by team

CLSSGB Certified Lean Six Sigma Green Belt (CLSSGB)

Lean Six Sigma Green Belt Certification

A Council for Six Sigma Certification (CSSC) Certified Lean Six Sigma Green Belt is an individual that possesses a thorough understanding of enhanced problem-solving skills, with an emphasis on the DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve and Control) model. The Green Belt Certification designation also reflects the knowledge by the individual to serve as a trained team member within his or her function-specific area of the organization. This focus allows the Green Belt to work on small, carefully defined Six Sigma projects, requiring less than a Black Belts full-time commitment to Six Sigma throughout the organization.

The Council for Sigma Certification (CSSC) offers 2 different paths to earning a Lean Six Sigma Green Belt Certification. Individuals who have already received training, and feel that they have significant understanding of the Topics covered in the Green Belt Certification “Body of Knowledge,” can simply sit for our standard comprehensive examination.

Individuals who are instead using one of our free Self-Study Guides, either independently or in conjunction with a training provider, can sit for several short exams as they progress through the different sections (as opposed to a single large comprehensive exam).

As an added benefit, those seeking the second option towards Certification would be able to obtain the various levels of our standard certifications (White Belt, Yellow Belt, Green Belt, and Black Belt) as they progress through their certification journey, without incurring any additional examination fees.

Either path will award our official certification(s). Either path is an open-book and non-timed examination format.

We feel the Multiple exam path to be the most beneficial option for those who are newer to the methodology, professionals looking for a solid refresher, or those candidates who would like to reduce their overall examination/certification costs.

To successfully obtain the professional designation of a CSSC Certified Lean Six Sigma Green Belt (CSSC-CSSGB) issued by The Council for Six Sigma Certification, candidates must successfully complete our CSSC Lean Six Sigma Green Belt Certification exam and achieve a score of 280 points (or higher) out of a total 400 possible points.

There are no prerequisites for taking the CSSC Lean Six Sigma Green Belt Certification Exam. Once the examination assessment fee is paid, applicants will have 1 year to successfully pass the exam.

There is no project requirement for this Certification. However, this certification is a prerequisite for any individual wishing to pursue our Level II Green Belt Certification, which does have a project participation requirement.

After successfully fulfilling the certification requirements, candidates will receive an Official CSSC Lean Six Sigma Green Belt Certification issued by The Council for Six Sigma Certification, the most respected accrediting organization in the Six Sigma industry.

Our certifications have no expiration date. We strongly feel that certifications that require “renewals” only serve to increase the profits of the certification providers instead of benefiting the individual. Or put another way, a Masters Degree in Business does not expire… why would your professional certification?

Candidates who would like to obtain a more accurate certification date can always resit for the certification exam at any time (often for less money than a provider would charge for a “renewal”).

Upon completion of the requirements, individuals are issued a Lean Six Sigma Green Belt Certification in an electronic form. All certifications contain a verifiable certification number and the certification holder is added to the Council for Six Sigma Certification Official Register.

1. Introduction to Six Sigma (4.7 Hours)

• Higher Standards for Higher Performance

• Input Determines Output

• Six Sigma Defined

• Success Stories

• The Sigma Level

• The 99.9% Problem

• Calculating the Sigma Level – Toolset

• DNA of a Champion

• Six Sigma Framework

• DMAIC – The Six Sigma Improvement Process

• Lean and DMAIC

• Thought Process Mapping – Toolset

• Organizing for Success

• Working Relationships

• Critical Success Factors

• Whats in a Name?

• Exercises and Quiz

2. Define I – The Value Stream (7.7 Hours)

• Introduction to Define

• Process Thinking

• The Source of Value

• Value Stream Leverage

• Process Mapping – Overview

• Process Mapping (SIPOC) Toolset

• Flow Charts

• Value-Added Flow Charts

• Spaghetti Charts

• Value Stream Mapping Toolset

• Pareto Chart Toolset

• Project Selection Toolset

• Project Charter Toolset

• Project Tracking Toolset

• Exercises and Quiz

3. Define II – Voice of the Customer (7.4 Hours)

• Introduction to Voice of the Customer

• Focus on the Customer

• Understanding Customer Requirements

• Where to Go for Customer Requirements

• Conducting Surveys

• More on Surveys

• Surveys – Sampling Frame

• Structuring Survey Questions

• The Degree of Uncertainty in Sampling

• Guideline for Margin of Error

• Affinity Diagram Toolset

• CTQC Tree Diagram Toolset

• Operational Definition Toolset

• Voice of the Customer as Specifications

• Progress Review

• Exercises and Quiz

4. Measure I (9.9 Hours)

• Introduction to Measure

• Measurements

• Discrete vs. Continuous Measurements

• Measurement Subjects

• Measurement as a Process

• The Analysis of Measurement Systems

• The Requirements of Measurement Systems

• Gage R & R

• MSA – Graphing

• Attribute Measurement System Analysis

• Calibration of Measurement Systems

• Collecting Data

• Developing a Sampling Plan

• Baseline Performance

• Derivative Performance Metrics – Throughput Yield

• Derivative Performance Metrics – Rolled Throughput Yield

• The Sigma Level Revisited

• Exercises and Quiz

5. Measure II – Charting Process Behavior (12.4 Hours)

• Introduction to Measure II

• Trend Chart Toolset

• Histogram Toolset

• Quantifying Process Variability

• SPC – Introduction and Background

• SPC – Introduction to Control Charts

• SPC – Control Chart Limits

• SPC – More On Control Limits

• Implementing SPC

• SPC Chart Selection

• Rational Subgrouping Toolset

• X and Moving Range Charts – Toolset

• Attribute Control Chart Toolset

• X-bar and R Chart Toolset

• Related Theory

• Process Capability Toolset

• Progress Review

• Exercises and Quiz

6. Analyze I – Possible Root Cause (10.2 Hours)

• Introduction to Analyze

• Finding the Root Cause

• Cause & Effect Diagram Toolset

• Alternative to the Cause & Effect Diagram

• 5-Why, 1-How

• A Combination of 5-Why, Pareto, and Trend Charts

• Scatter Plot Toolset

• Correlation and Regression Analysis

• Multiple Regression Toolset

• Logistic Regression Toolset

• Factors in Determining demo Size

• Estimating Population Mean

• Exercises and Quiz

7. Analyze II – Hypothesis Testing (13.3 Hours)

• Introduction to Analyze II

• Introduction to Hypothesis Testing

• The Process on Trial

• The Hypothesis – Accept or Reject?

• Types of Error

• Hypothesis Testing

• Confidence Intervals

• Treatment Comparisons – Control Charts

• Comparing Two Proportions – Z-test Toolset

• Comparing Two Means – t-test Toolset

• Comparing Multiple Means – ANOVA/F-test Toolset

• Comparing Two Variances – F-test Toolset

• Confidence Intervals – Least Significant Difference

• Hypothesis Testing Learning Lab

• Exercises and Quiz

8. Analyze III – DOE (5.8 Hours)

• Design of Experiments – Introduction

• Design of Experiments

• Design of Experiments – Components

• Design of Experiments – Purpose

• Design of Experiments – Process

• Blocking

• Blocking and Tackling

• Progress Review

• Exercises and Quiz

9. Improve (10.7 Hours)

• Introduction to Improve

• Design for Six Sigma (DFSS)

• Benchmarking

• Brainstorming

• Narrowing Down the List of Ideas

• FMEA Toolset

• Error-proofing

• Continuous Flow Toolset

• Quick Changeover Toolset

• Pull Scheduling

• Prioritizing and Selecting a Solution

• Corrective Action Matrix

• Piloting a Solution

• System Dynamics

• Characteristics of Dynamic Systems

• System Dynamics Examples

• Another System Dynamics Example

• System Dynamics Application

• System Dynamics Summary

• Progress Review

• Exercises and Quiz

10. Control (6.5 Hours)

• Introduction to Control

• More on SPC

• The Process Control Plan

• More on FMEA

• Visual Control

• 5-S Approach

• Total Productive Maintenance

• TPM Objectives & Benefits

• TPM Metrics

• TPM Core Elements

• TPM Maintenance Activities

• Best Practices and Lessons Learned

• Documenting Process Changes

• Ending the Project

• Progress Review

• Exercises and Quiz

11. Leading Teams and Leading Change (4.8 Hours)

• Leadership Introduction

• Fueling the Improvement Engine

• Leadership Characteristics

• Practice, Study and Reflection – Learning by Modeling

• Leading Teams

• Developing an Effective Team

• Improving Team Development

• Leading Change

• Leading Change – Continued

• Success Factors for Effective Change Management

• Exercises and Quiz

• Course Completion

• The Lean Six Sigma Journey

Certified Lean Six Sigma Green Belt (CLSSGB)
GAQM Certified outline

Other GAQM exams

CSTE Certified Software Test Engineer (CSTE-001)
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CEH-001 Certified Ethical Hacker (CEH v.11)
CLSSBB Certified Lean Six Sigma Black Belt (CLSSBB)
CLSSGB Certified Lean Six Sigma Green Belt (CLSSGB)
CSM-001 Certified Scrum Master (CSM)
CLSSYB Certified Lean Six Sigma Yellow Belt (CLSSYB)
LCP-001 Linux Certified Professional (LCP) Powered by LPI
CPD-001 Certified Project Director (CPD)
CDCS-001 Certified Data Centre Specialist (CDCS) R18
CCCP-001 Certified Cloud Computing Professional (CCP)
CLSSMBB Lean Six Sigma Master Black Belt
CBAF-001 Certified Business Analyst Foundation
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CTFL Certified Software Tester - Foundation Level (CSTFL)

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Certified Lean Six Sigma Green Belt (CLSSGB)
Question: 187
Long-term Data represents all the variation that one can expect within the subject
A. True
B. False
Answer: A
Question: 188
The Z score is a measure of the distance in Standard Deviations of a demo data point
from the Median of the demo population.
A. True
B. False
Answer: B
Question: 189
A Belt gathered the following defect data for a shoe production line and wanted to
assemble it into a Pareto Chart. The correct order from left to right in the chart would be:
Data: Cutting38 Forming17 Stitching56 Sealing42
A. Forming, Sealing, Cutting, Stitching
B. Sealing, Stitching, Forming, Cutting
C. Stitching, Sealing, Cutting, Forming
D. Forming, Cutting, Sealing, Stitching
Answer: C
Question: 190
Measurement error is defined as the effect of all sources of measurement variability that
caused an observed or measured value to deviate from the .
A. Standard Deviation
B. Mean
C. Median
D. True value
Answer: D
Question: 191
Measurement System Analysis is a procedure used to quantify all in the method or
system used for taking measurements.
A. Totals
B. People involved
C. Variation
D. Summations
Answer: C
Question: 192
The Accuracy of a Measurement System addresses .
A. Stability, Bias & Linearity
B. Repeatability & Reproducibility
C. Stability & Sensitivity
D. Precision & Sensitivity
Answer: A
Question: 193
As a type of measurement error, Linearity describes a change in accuracy through the
expected operating range of the measurement instrument.
A. True
B. False
Answer: A
Question: 194
The deviation of the measured value from the real value regardless of the operator is
known as .
A. Linearity
B. Bias
C. Repeatability
D. Movement
Answer: B
Question: 195
The ability to repeat the same measurement obtained with one measurement instrument
used several times by one appraiser while measuring the identical characteristic on the
same part is known as .
A. Repeatability
B. Bias
C. Linearity
D. Reproducibility
Answer: A
Question: 196
Process Capability is a function of which of these?
A. Customer requirements
B. Process performance
C. Output over time
D. All of these answers are correct
Answer: D
Question: 197
The reported Cpk for a process with an average of 94 units, a spread of 22 units and
upper and lower specification limits of 125 and 80 units would be?
A. 0.64
B. 1.27
C. 1.84
D. 2.12
Answer: B
Question: 198
A Stable process is a process whose output is consistent over time. A primary tool used
to analyze Stability would be a .
A. Data Forward Plot
B. Bag Plot
C. Min/Max Plot
D. Time Series Plot
Answer: D
Question: 199
Conducting a viable Capability Analysis using Attribute Data one must obtain a fairly
large demo set to be statistically sound.
A. True
B. False
Answer: A
Question: 200
This output is what type of advanced Capability Analysis?
A. Continuous
B. Binomial
C. Poisson
D. Discreet
Answer: B
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GAQM Certified outline - BingNews Search results GAQM Certified outline - BingNews Certified Equity Professional Institute
  • Accounting
  • Equity Plan Design
  • Analysis and Administration
  • Corporate and Securities Law
  • Taxation

Candidates can elect to complete just the first level of the program - resulting in the ECA designation, or to continue on for the remaining two levels, at which point they will have earned the CEP designation. The CEP designation is granted to individuals who have passed all three exams, and have demonstrated mastery of equity compensation related issues in all of the core disciplines. The CEP Institute also offers an exam solely focused on accounting; the Advanced Equity Compensation Accounting Certificate (AECA) exam is for financial reporting professionals in any organization that offers equity compensation, as well as the accounting professionals who are required to verify proper expensing under ASC 718 and other standards.

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Wed, 15 Nov 2023 11:46:00 -0600 en text/html
Certified Automation Professional (CAP)

The ISA Certified Automation Professional® (CAP®) certification is a mark of career excellence that affirms your commitment to quality and demonstrates your expertise and knowledge of automation and controls. ISA CAP certification provides you with a non-biased, third-party, objective assessment and confirmation of your skills and expertise as an automation professional.

Who Are CAPs?

ISA CAP logo
CAPs are individuals who have proven they possess an extensive knowledge of automation and controls and that they have the expertise and qualifications to excel in their fields. As automation professionals who work in process automation and manufacturing automation industries around the globe, CAPs are responsible for direction, definition, design, development/application, deployment, documentation and support of software and equipment systems used in control systems, manufacturing information systems, systems integration, and operational consulting.

CAP Certification Requirements

To become an ISA CAP, you must meet certain education and work experience requirements, pass an exam, and commit to the ISA Code of Conduct. Learn more about CAP requirements.

CAP Body of Knowledge

The CAP Body of Knowledge (BOK) encompasses the full scope of knowledge, skills, and abilities needed for competent job performance. It defines automation project domains, the tasks within the domains, and the knowledge and skills required to complete the tasks. View the CAP Body of Knowledge.

How to Apply

There is no application form to fill out for CAP certification. Simply complete the following steps:

  1. Commit to the ISA Code of Conduct.
  2. Meet CAP certification criteria, qualifications, and conditions.
  3. Acknowledge that you are subject to a random application verification audit.
  4. Agree to provide the supporting documents proving your qualifications if you are audited.
  5. Pay the exam fee.

Upon paying the exam fee, the application process is complete, and you have acknowledged that you meet the requirements listed above in numbers 1–3.

Next Steps

  1. Watch for an email from our testing provider, Meazure Learning ( Expect to receive it fifteen days before your exam window. The email will include information about how to schedule your exam online or at a test center. NOTE: If you have attended a CAP review course and wish to apply for CAP certification, you must also meet the requirements listed above in numbers 1–3. Since the application fee is included in the cost of the CAP review course, you will receive an exam invitation within three business days after completing the review course.
  2. Schedule and take your exam. You will be notified whether you pass or not immediately upon completing the exam.
  3. Watch for an email summarizing your exam results. If you pass your exam, you will also receive your digital badge and you will be listed in the ISA Credential Directory.
  4. Watch for an email from regarding an audit. You will only receive this email if you have been randomly selected to be audited. If you do not receive this email, you do not need to do anything. Audits are conducted three times per year, so it may take several months after completing your exam to receive an email if you have been selected for an audit.

Click the button below to add the exam fee to your cart.

Add CAP exam Fee to Cart

About the Exam

You can take the CAP exam online from your office or home if the testing environment meets the requirements and your computer meets specifications. You can also take the exam at a Scantron test center. The CAP exam has 150 multiple-choice questions and is four hours long. Learn more about Certification Exams and Testing.

How to Prepare

We highly recommend taking the Certified Automation Professional (CAP) exam Review Course (EC00). ISA has also developed an extensive library of training courses, study guides and publications that are built around the technologies and Topics covered on the CAP exam. These resources have been developed and reviewed by subject matter experts. Learn more about the review course and the additional resources here.

Reference to Standards and Codes

The aspects of automation covered on the CAP exam reflect the tasks performed in the range of practice settings throughout the United States. Familiarity with the following standards and codes is recommended. obtain the Reference to Standards and Codes (PDF).

  • ISA Standards
  • IEEE Standards
  • National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Codes and Standards
  • National Electrical Code (NEC)
  • National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) Standards
  • International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Standards
  • National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) Standards
  • Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Codes and Federal Regulations
  • Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Standards
  • US Food and Drug Administration Regulations
  • American Petroleum Institute (API) Standards

For International applicants, note that the validation study for the exams was done in the United States, so there may be questions on the exam that reference US standards and codes.

Have Questions?

For assistance with certification or certificate programs, contact us at

For frequently asked questions, visit the following pages:

Important Announcement for CAPs and CCSTs

We are pleased to announce that our Certified Automation Professional® (CAP)® and Certified Control System Technician® (CCST®) certification programs have a brand-new look! Please check your Badgecert account to access your new logo.

Thu, 16 Nov 2023 04:46:00 -0600 en text/html
What is certified payroll? Everything you need to know

If you’ve been hired as a contractor to work on a government project, you’ll need to adhere to some additional payroll requirements. This includes submitting weekly certified payroll reports. If you don’t comply, you may face some hefty consequences.

What is certified payroll?

Certified payroll is a weekly payroll report that contractors and subcontractors chosen to work on federally funded projects must fill out and submit. To stay compliant and meet requirements, you must file a WH-347 form to the Department of Labor each week.

Short for ‘wage and hour form 347’, it includes information such as the name of the workers hired for the project and their work classifications, hours worked and deductions. The report ensures your workers are paid the average rate for workers in their particular occupation. This is also known as a prevailing wage. 

Besides filling out the WH-347 form, as a contractor or subcontractor, you must fill out and submit a statement of compliance that confirms the payroll report you’re filing is complete and free from errors. 

Davis-Bacon Act

The Davis-Bacon Act was passed by Congress in 1931 to ensure that contractors and subcontractors hired for federally funded projects pay workers the prevailing wage. Any government project with a value of at least $2,000 that deals with the construction, repair or alteration of a public building or public works project falls under this category. Workers might include laborers and mechanics and, under certain conditions, watchmen, guards or foremen. 

Prevailing wage laws

Under the Davis-Bacon Act and related acts, contractors are required to pay, at minimum, the prevailing wage. You can think of prevailing wage as the combination of the basic hourly rate of a worker on a federally funded project, plus any fringe benefits. The contractor—or subcontractor—is responsible for paying all on-site hours, including said fringe benefits.

The Department of Labor (DOL) determines the prevailing wage, and the DOL’s Wage and Hour division breaks down the classifications and prevailing wage rates on, which is the U.S. Government’s system for award management. 

This also includes fringe benefits the worker receives, such as benefit plans, funds or programs. The contractor’s obligation to pay fringe benefits can be fulfilled through these benefits or cash paid instead of doling out these agreed-upon benefits. 

Businesses working on a federally funded project need to sign up for a account. They are then assigned a unique 12-digit ID. From there, they can search for the prevailing wage rates based on the wage determination (WD) number, public building or works or service contract act. 

Certified payroll requirements

You must administer certified payroll requirements if your business is a contractor on a federally funded project valued at $2,000 or more. To fulfill these requirements, you’ll need to check off the following: 

  • Meet prevailing wage requirements: You are required to pay your workers for all hours worked plus fringe benefits. You can find information on current prevailing wage rates on the U.S. government’s website. 
  • Fill out the WH-347 form: This is a detailed form that must be filled out and submitted weekly, even if no wages or fringe benefits are owed to the workers on the project. 

It’s essential to stay on top of these requirements. The Department of Labor will carefully review certified payroll reports to ensure you’re paying workers on these projects fairly and in a timely manner. 

If you don’t fulfill these requirements and, so, break Davis-Bacon laws, your small business might be forced to shut down. Also, knowingly submitting false information on these reports can result in criminal or civil prosecution charges. 

How to do certified payroll

Now that we’ve given an overview of the main certified payroll requirements, we’ll go over the basics of administering certified payroll. According to Mitch Chailland, president of Canal HR, a professional employer company that serves Louisiana and the Southeastern United States, in a broad sense, certified payroll involves the following:

  • Detailed records: This includes worker classification, hours worked, wages, benefits and deductions.
  • Statement of compliance: This is a signed document that states the payroll is accurate and free of errors.
  • Weekly submissions: As a contractor or subcontractor, you’ll be required to submit certified payroll reports weekly. Even if there’s a lull in the project and you don’t owe your workers any pay in a given week, you’re still on the hook for submitting a certified payroll report.

If you need assistance administering certified payroll for your business, you can get professional help from a payroll software provider. If they offer certified payroll, they can help you fulfill certified payroll requirements. 

Consequences of not complying with certified payroll

You’re looking at significant repercussions if your small business doesn’t comply with certified payroll requirements. According to Chailland, they may include: 

  • Financial penalties: As a contractor, your small business can face hefty fines.
  • Being blocked from working on future projects: Non-compliant contractors can be prohibited from working on future public projects. 
  • Criminal charges: In extreme cases, willful violations can result in criminal charges or civil prosecution. 
  • Restitution: If your workers are underpaid, you may have to pay back wages. 

“Certified payroll ensures workers on public projects receive [fair] wages and demands meticulous attention and understanding,” said Chailland. “Non-compliance isn’t just costly; it can have long-term repercussions for the business’s reputation and ability to secure future contracts.” 

Tips for filling out form WH-347 

The WH-347 form can be found on the U.S. Department of Labor’s website. Information that needs to be filled out includes: 

  • The name of the contractor or subcontractor. 
  • The contractor’s address. 
  • The payroll number.
  • The project name and location. 
  • The project and location number. 

For each worker: 

  • The worker’s name and individual identifying number. 
  • The number of withholding exemptions.
  • The worker’s work classifications.
  • Whether the pay is covering overtime (OT) or standard pay (ST). 
  • The day and date.
  • The number of hours worked each day. 
  • The worker’s pay rate. 
  • The worker’s deductions.
  • The worker’s net pay for the week. 

The contractor or subcontractor also needs to provide their signature, fill out and sign a statement and note any fringe benefits paid. Here are some tips on filling out the WH-347 form, according to Jackie Slater, head of human resources at Pressat: 

  • Ensure accuracy: Double-check the form to make sure everything is accurate. All fields should contain precise information. Plus, common mistakes, like mathematical errors, should be checked and corrected. 
  • Submit frequently: Even if the project is on pause and you don’t need to pay your workers in a given week, a WH-347 must still be submitted weekly. In this case, you label the form “no work performed.” 
  • Pay attention to employees’ classifications: Each employee should be classified based on their work type. Misclassifying a worker can lead to stringent penalties.

Navigating the form, especially if you haven’t filed and submitted one before, can be tedious. Even if you have an accounts payable department, they might not be familiar with the ins and outs of certified payroll. According to the Department of Labor, it can take an average of one hour to properly fill out the form. If you’re busy running a small business, you might not have the time or know-how to properly complete the form.

The good news is there are a number of payroll providers that can help small businesses fill out this form, including: 

“When managing certified payroll, diligence, thoroughness and a comprehensive grasp of prevailing wage regulations are crucial,” said Slater. “Business owners might benefit from expert advice or specialized software to guarantee adherence.”

Frequently asked questions (FAQs)

Several payroll providers do certified payroll, including:

However, each company’s features, functionalities, capabilities and pricing vary.

Certified payroll requirements originate from the Davis-Bacon Act, which Congress passed in 1931. Its ultimate mission is to provide “fair wages, also known as a ‘prevailing wage,’” to those hired to work on federally funded projects. These pertain to projects under contract with the federal government that pay over $2,000.

Standard payroll includes recording earnings, making deductions, withholding taxes and paying employees. On the other hand, certified payroll is a particular payroll process and report (form WH-347) that contractors and subcontractors hired for publicly funded projects are required to submit. It requires additional steps than normal payroll, such as documentation and validation.

Certified payroll refers to the specific payroll report that contractors and subcontractors must submit when working on publicly funded projects. It requires additional documentation and validation to provide compliance with federal, state or local wage requirements. Standard payroll involves the routine process of paying employees, recording earnings and making deductions.

Jackie Lam has covered personal finance for nearly a decade. Her work has appeared in TIME, CNET, BuzzFeed,, Forbes Advisor, and others. As an AFC® financial coach and educator, she is committed to helping self-employed creatives and artists with their money.

Alana is the deputy editor for USA Today Blueprint's small business team. She has served as a technology and marketing SME for countless businesses, from startups to leading tech firms — including Adobe and Workfusion. She has zealously shared her expertise with small businesses — including via Forbes Advisor and Fit Small Business — to help them compete for market share. She covers technologies pertaining to payroll and payment processing, online security, customer relationship management, accounting, human resources, marketing, project management, resource planning, customer data management and how small businesses can use process automation, AI and ML to more easily meet their goals. Alana has an MBA from Excelsior University.

Wed, 01 Nov 2023 21:17:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Certified Medical Administrative Assistant (CMAA)

Career Advancement: Stacking credentials with PaCE opens doors to higher-paying positions and more significant responsibilities within the healthcare administration field.

Increased Employability: Employers recognize the value of a multifaceted skill set. By stacking credentials, you position yourself as a well-rounded professional ready to tackle complex challenges.

Flexible Pathways: PaCE offers flexible scheduling and learning options, ensuring that you can balance your professional development with your existing commitments.

Wed, 15 Nov 2023 22:47:00 -0600 en text/html
The world’s first certified passenger-carrying air taxi takes flight

Imagine flying over the city in a pilotless, electric-powered aircraft that can take you from point A to point B in minutes without a pilot onboard. Sounds like science fiction, right? Well, not anymore. 

China-based Ehang has become the world’s first company to receive airworthiness certification for its fully autonomous, passenger-carrying air taxis.

What are electric air taxis? 

Ehang’s EH216-S air taxis are electric vertical take-off and landing (eVTOL) aircraft that can carry up to two passengers or 600 pounds of cargo. They are powered by 16 electric rotors and can fly at speeds of up to 80 mph and distances of up to 18 miles.


How do electric air taxis operate without pilots? 

The air taxis are controlled by a centralized command and control center that monitors the flight status, routes and weather conditions.

Passengers can simply select their destination on a touchscreen inside the cabin and enjoy the ride without worrying about piloting the aircraft

The air taxis do not require traditional infrastructure such as airports or runways. They can take off and land vertically from any flat surface, such as a rooftop, parking lot, or park. 

China-based Ehang has become the world’s first company to receive airworthiness certification for its fully autonomous, passenger-carrying air taxis.  (Ehang)


The air taxis use electric power to reduce environmental harm caused by emissions. They can be fully charged in two hours and have low noise levels. 

The EH216-S vehicles have multiple redundancies in their systems, such as backup batteries, rotors, and communication links. 

They also have emergency landing systems and parachutes in case of any malfunction. 

How did these China-based electric air taxis get the approval to fly? 

Since 2014, over 40,000 test flights have been conducted in various locations around the world. In January 2021, Ehang applied for a type certificate from the Civil Aviation Administration of China (CAAC), which is the official recognition of the airworthiness of an aircraft. 

China-based Ehang has become the world’s first company to receive airworthiness certification for its fully autonomous, passenger-carrying air taxis.  (Ehang)


The CAAC evaluated Ehang’s air taxis for over 500 parameters, such as structural strength, software simulation, flight performance and electromagnetic compatibility. The process took more than 1,000 days and involved extensive laboratory, ground and flight tests. 

On October 15, 2023, Ehang announced that it had received certification from the CAAC, making it the first company in the world to obtain such a certification for passenger-carrying eVTOL aircraft. This means that Ehang can now start commercial operations of its air taxis in China. As Ehang’s founder-chair and CEO Huazhi Hu said, "Embracing the certification as our springboard, we will launch commercial operations of the EH216-S air taxis, prioritizing safety above all." 

China-based Ehang has become the world’s first company to receive airworthiness certification for its fully autonomous, passenger-carrying air taxis.  (Ehang)


 What are the potential applications of electric air taxis? 

Ehang's air taxis have a wide range of potential applications for urban air mobility (UAM), which uses aerial vehicles to provide transportation services in urban areas. 

They can help you avoid traffic jams and save time on your commute. They can also take you to places that are hard to reach by car or public transportation. Whether you need to go to a business meeting, a tourist attraction or a hospital, Ehang's air taxis can get you there quickly and conveniently. Ehang's air taxis can also offer you a new perspective of the city with views of the skyline, landmarks and nature, all from above. 

Beyond just transporting people, these aircraft can be used for delivering goods, such as packages, medical supplies or food. They can also be used for emergency situations, such as natural disasters or accidents. In those situations where time is of the essence, these vehicles could transport much-needed medical personnel or equipment to the scene quickly and safely. 

China-based Ehang has become the world’s first company to receive airworthiness certification for its fully autonomous, passenger-carrying air taxis.  (Ehang)


What are the challenges for pilotless air taxis? 

Ehang’s air taxis are a groundbreaking innovation that could revolutionize the future of transportation. However, they also face some challenges in terms of regulation, technology, market demand and social acceptance. 

China-based Ehang has become the world’s first company to receive airworthiness certification for its fully autonomous, passenger-carrying air taxis.  (Ehang)

Ehang’s air taxis need to comply with the laws and regulations of different countries and regions where they might operate. They also need to coordinate with other aircraft that use the same airspace. Ehang has been working closely with regulators to establish standards and policies for UAM. 

One big hurdle is working to gain social acceptance and trust from the public. The manufacturer needs to educate and inform us about the benefits and risks of UAM. It also needs to address the potential issues and concerns of noise, privacy and environmental impact. For its part, Ehang has been conducting public demonstrations and campaigns to raise awareness and confidence in UAM. 

China-based Ehang has become the world’s first company to receive airworthiness certification for its fully autonomous, passenger-carrying air taxis.  (Ehang)


Kurt's key takeaways 

Ehang’s air taxis are a pioneering achievement that could transform how we travel in cities across this country. By receiving the first industry approval for fully autonomous, passenger-carrying air taxis, Ehang has opened up new possibilities and opportunities for UAM. But with all new technology comes challenges, and those are what Ehang needs to tackle to be successful moving forward. 

How do you feel about the idea of traveling in an air taxi with no pilot? Do you think this is a recipe for trouble? Let us know by writing us at

China-based Ehang has become the world’s first company to receive airworthiness certification for its fully autonomous, passenger-carrying air taxis.  (Ehang)

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China-based Ehang has become the world’s first company to receive airworthiness certification for its fully autonomous, passenger-carrying air taxis.  (Ehang)

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Sat, 28 Oct 2023 06:08:00 -0500 Fox News en text/html
House Republicans outline 2024 game plan as they predict ‘stronger’ position to grow majority

Just one year before the 2024 election, House Republicans are releasing their game plan to expand their majority in the lower chamber, predicting they will have a “stronger” position than they did in the 2022 midterm elections in which the party gained a four-seat majority.

The National Republican Congressional Committee released a memo on Monday outlining four key areas Republicans are expected to lean on during the 2024 cycle, including the party’s strong fundraising numbers, candidate recruitment, and messaging on key campaign issues. The memo also highlights what House Republicans consider to be weaknesses for their Democratic counterparts, including key races in which Democrats have yet to recruit candidates.


“While Republicans lost ground in Senate and Governors’ races last cycle, House Republicans broke the trend, picking up seats and taking the majority by winning in blue districts from coast to coast,” the memo states. “With one year until Election Day 2024, House Republicans are arguably in just as strong, if not stronger, position to grow our majority.”

The memo touts the NRCC’s fundraising prowess over the last year as the group has focused much of its attention on targeted Republicans in districts that were won by President Joe Biden in 2020. The NRCC unveiled a new strategy earlier this year that has encouraged “member-to-member giving,” according to the memo, allowing candidates with lower advertising rates to be more competitive against their Democratic opponents.

“The results are remarkable,” the memo states, pointing to fundraising numbers that show targeted Republicans have consistently outraised targeted Democrats in all three fundraising quarters so far this year.

Targeted Republicans hold an average of $1.8 million cash on hand compared to targeted Democrats with $1.3 million. In the third quarter, vulnerable GOP lawmakers raised an average of $164,512 more than their Democratic counterparts, according to the memo.

“Money builds majorities and endangered House Republicans are in a strong position to hold their seats,” the memo states.

The NRCC is also touting its candidate recruitment ability, highlighting a number of candidates who are running in competitive districts won by Biden in 2020 that they believe can be flipped in 2024.

“In the last Presidential election, all 15 Congressional seats flipped from blue to red were won by a female, minority, or veteran candidate,” the memo states. “Strong candidates with compelling backgrounds that match the life stories and experiences of voters are able to compete to win in tough districts where top-of-the-ticket Democrats will be presumed to be victorious.”

Alternatively, the memo hits out against Democrats’ recruitment in competitive districts, highlighting a number of Democratic primaries that could result in “brutal intraparty” fights.

The memo highlights a number of key campaign issues that are expected to become the foundation of the GOP platform in 2024 such as inflation, crime, and immigration at the southern border. Republicans will specifically hit vulnerable Democrats on their voting record on those three issues, tying lawmakers to Biden’s policies as they seek to oust the first-term incumbent.

“Skyrocketing inflation from reckless liberal spending bills, a nationwide crime wave and an unsecured border lends itself to a historically positive political environment for Republicans,” the memo states. “Combine that with a Democrat President that Americans believe to be too old and feeble to lead, House Republicans will grow their majority.”


All 435 seats are up for grabs in 2024 as Republicans seek to hold their slim majority in the lower chamber. Of these, 42 are considered competitive, with most of those held by Democrats, giving the GOP a slight advantage as it prepares for the next election cycle.

However, of the 42 competitive seats, 18 are held by Republicans in districts that voted for Biden in 2020, compared to just five Democrats who must defend their seats in districts carried by former President Donald Trump. That means there are just enough vulnerable GOP-held seats to keep things competitive heading into the next election cycle.

Sun, 05 Nov 2023 20:32:00 -0600 en text/html
Certified Benz & Beemer No result found, try new keyword!Includes reviews of Certified Benz & Beemer from DealerRater. Want to share your experience with this dealership? Very knowledgeable Salesman. From start to finish my west Texas trade-in then ... Tue, 14 Nov 2023 10:00:00 -0600 What Does it Mean to Hold an ECA or CEP Designation?

Equity Compensation Associate (ECA) and Certified Equity Professional (CEP) Designations

What Does it Mean to Hold an ECA or CEP Designation?

Organizations and individuals use Equity Compensation Associate (ECA) and Certified Equity Professional (CEP) designations as a measurement of basic (ECA Exam), intermediate (Level II), and advanced (Level III) knowledge, skills, and abilities. The Certified Equity Professional Institute (CEPI), at Santa Clara University, is the only certification body for equity compensation professionals.

The CEPI curriculum covers accounting; corporate and securities laws; taxation; and design, analysis and administration, ensuring that CEP designees have achieved a required level of expertise in all of the relevant areas of equity compensation. We offer a Level I competency path with the new Equity Compensation Associate (ECA) Designation, in addition to our Level III competency path for the Certified Equity Professional (CEP) Designation.


The CEPI curriculum is challenging and in-depth. Organizations and individuals use the exams as a measurement of knowledge, skills, and abilities.

  • The ECA exam (basic) teaches the fundamentals in equity compensation. Candidates are introduced to the terminology and are given a basic understanding of policy, procedures and routine transactions.
  • In Level II (intermediate), candidates have an understanding of all aspects of plan administration, including roles of internal and external service providers. This includes familiarity with the specific code and regulatory provisions applicable to equity compensation programs and a thorough understanding of certain common equity compensation-related transactions and issues.
  • In Level III (advanced), candidates have exposure to various types of multidimensional plans. Candidates are expected to have the ability to identify, analyze, and help resolve complex problems, with particular skills in situations that require an understanding of the interaction among several technical areas.

The core of the curriculum is in the CEP Study Packet's syllabi and detailed studying lists.

Study Materials Information

Wed, 15 Nov 2023 11:46:00 -0600 en text/html
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Sun, 29 Oct 2023 08:43:00 -0500 en-US text/html
PM to outline digital handout

The government will announce details of its 10,000-baht digital money handout on Friday as critics continue to slam the scheme, saying it will do more harm than good to the economy.

Prime Minister Srettha Thavisin said he will hold a press conference to spell out the scheme's details at 2pm on Friday.

He also said other coalition partners have not voiced concerns over the Pheu Thai Party's digital wallet policy.

Asked if there would be any good news during today's press conference, the prime minister only said: "I will explain everything all by myself."

Meanwhile, critics on Thursday took aim at the scheme during a seminar -- "The Digital Money Handout: A Disaster or Future for the Country?".

Somchai Srisutthiyakorn, a former election commissioner, said the government has been pushing for the digital money policy, but many hurdles remain.

"It has ordered state agencies to review budget spending for the 2024 fiscal year to milk them [for money to finance the handout]," Mr Somchai said.

"The government did not study laws related to financial discipline carefully ... Even the Government Savings Bank cannot lend money to the government to finance the scheme," he said.

"During the upcoming press conference, I believe the government will announce its decision to delay the handout, probably until May."

The launch of the scheme has been touted to be Feb 1.

"It may be the case that the 10,000-baht giveaway could be paid out in four instalments of 2,500 baht rather than a single payment. If so, this will no longer boost the economy," Mr Somchai said.

Thirachai Phuvanatnaranubala, a former finance minister, told the seminar that any handout scheme designed to achieve political gain would set a dangerous precedent for other political parties in future elections, and it could bring the country to its knees.

Mr Thirachai said the State Fiscal and Financial Disciplines Act prohibits any projects designed to achieve political gain that could cause damage to the country.

Previously, a sub-committee overseeing the implementation of the digital wallet project made several recommendations, including limiting the handout to 15–16 million people who have state welfare cards, which will cost the state 150–160 billion baht.

Thu, 09 Nov 2023 16:36:00 -0600 en text/html

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