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Exam Code: AZ-801 Practice exam 2023 by team
AZ-801 Configuring Windows Server Hybrid Advanced Services

Title: Microsoft AZ-801 Configuring Windows Server Hybrid Advanced Services

Test Detail:
The Microsoft AZ-801 exam is designed to validate the knowledge and skills required to configure advanced services in a Windows Server hybrid environment. This certification is intended for IT professionals who work with Windows Server and are responsible for implementing and managing hybrid solutions.

Course Outline:
The Microsoft AZ-801 course provides participants with a comprehensive understanding of configuring advanced services in a Windows Server hybrid environment. The following is a general outline of the key areas covered in the certification program:

1. Implementing Windows Server Hybrid Infrastructure:
- Introduction to Windows Server hybrid scenarios and solutions
- Implementing Azure Active Directory (AAD) Connect for directory synchronization
- Configuring Azure AD authentication and integration with Windows Server Active Directory

2. Implementing Windows Server Hybrid Identity:
- Configuring Azure AD Connect with password hash synchronization
- Implementing pass-through authentication and federated identity
- Managing user accounts and groups in a hybrid environment

3. Implementing Hybrid Network Connectivity:
- Configuring Azure Virtual Network (VNet) peering and virtual network gateways
- Implementing Azure ExpressRoute for secure and dedicated network connectivity
- Configuring site-to-site and point-to-site VPN connections

4. Implementing Hybrid Application Connectivity:
- Configuring Azure Application Gateway for load balancing and traffic management
- Implementing Azure Front Door for global application delivery and routing
- Configuring hybrid connectivity for web applications and APIs

Exam Objectives:
The Microsoft AZ-801 exam assesses candidates' knowledge and skills in configuring advanced services in a Windows Server hybrid environment. The exam objectives include, but are not limited to:

1. Implementing Windows Server hybrid infrastructure and Azure AD integration.
2. Configuring hybrid identity with Azure AD Connect and authentication methods.
3. Establishing hybrid network connectivity using Azure Virtual Network and ExpressRoute.
4. Configuring hybrid application connectivity with Azure Application Gateway and Front Door.

The Microsoft AZ-801 certification program typically includes comprehensive training provided by Microsoft or authorized training partners. The syllabus provides a breakdown of the syllabus covered throughout the course, including specific learning objectives and milestones. The syllabus may include the following components:

- Introduction to Microsoft AZ-801 exam overview and certification process
- Implementing Windows Server Hybrid Infrastructure
- Implementing Windows Server Hybrid Identity
- Implementing Hybrid Network Connectivity
- Implementing Hybrid Application Connectivity
- exam Preparation and Practice Tests
- Final Microsoft AZ-801 Certification Exam

Configuring Windows Server Hybrid Advanced Services
Microsoft Configuring Topics
Killexams : Microsoft Configuring syllabus - BingNews Search results Killexams : Microsoft Configuring syllabus - BingNews Killexams : How to Install and Configure the Microsoft PC Manager on Windows 11 No result found, try new keyword!Microsoft realized that Windows users could benefit from an official PC Manager app that could help maintain the PC. And so, the Microsoft PC Manager was born. PC Manager is an app that lets you ... Sat, 03 Dec 2022 05:27:00 -0600 en-us text/html Killexams : How to change and configure Microsoft Edge Proxy Settings

Learning how to change and configure Microsoft Edge Proxy Settings is quite important to users who would like to protect their online privacy. Many web browsers, including Microsoft Edge, have features that support proxy. However, some users don’t know to go about it, which is relatively simple. A proxy server intercepts your computer network traffic before it gets to you; it’s just another remote computer. The are many reasons why users switch to a proxy, but the main one is to get an extra measure of online security.

How to change and configure Microsoft Edge proxy settings

What is Edge Proxy Server?

The Edge proxy server is a server that is located on the intranet and connects to the main server via the Internet. It is not bound to other proxy servers. It resolves a request for content from a local cache and proxying from the original server. Edge proxy server cannot request to any other proxy server.

The proxy works so that your IP address will not be revealed. You access the Internet using the proxy’s IP address. It is a great way to ensure you are safe online, especially for sites or malicious people tracking your activities online. It’s good to know that there are paid and free proxy server services.

There are two ways to configure a proxy server in MS Edge and it’s simple. You can use the manual way or simply use the automatic configuration. We will discuss this later in this article. This post will elaborate on changing and configuring Microsoft Edge Proxy settings. If you want to access geo-restricted content, protect your devices or conceal your IP address, you are in the right place. Continue reading.

Changing and configuring Edge proxy settings is a straightforward process, but you don’t need some specific browser proxy settings to surf on standard web pages. However, these settings can be changed to access geo-restricted pages or just for security purposes. To change and configure Microsoft Edge proxy settings, use any of the following methods:

  1. Manual proxy setup
  2. Automatic proxy setup

To turn off proxy settings in Microsoft Edge, go to the menu (three dots) on the top right and scroll down to Settings. Choose System and, on the left side, click on Open your computer’s proxy settings. From there, toggle off the buttons next to Automatically detect settings, Use setup script, and Use a proxy server. To complete the process click Save.

1] Manual proxy setup

How to change and configure Microsoft Edge proxy settings

To set up a proxy setting manually, you need to use Wi-Fi or Ethernet internet connections. If you are connected to any VPN, you need to disable it while setting up and using the proxy server. Here is how:

  • Open Edge by clicking the icon on the taskbar or by typing Edge on the search box.
  • On the top right, click on the three dots for more options. From the list, go down to see Settings and click on it.
  • Scroll down the Settings menu. You will Advanced settings, go ahead and select View advanced settings option.
  • Select Open proxy settings and head to the Manual proxy setup option and toggle the Use a proxy server button on.
  • Enter the required details and select the Save button.
  • Now, you will get a prompt asking you to put in a Proxy username and password. Enter these details correctly and your proxy server on Microsoft edge will be configured and ready to run.

Read: Can’t connect to the proxy server says Microsoft Edge

2] Automatic proxy setup

How to change and configure Microsoft Edge proxy settings

If you feel setting up a proxy server manually is a lot of work, you can choose the automatic mode option. As in the manual setup, you need only to use Ethernet or Wi-Fi connections. Deactivate any VPN running on your computer. This setup automatically detects settings and uses a setup script. Here is how:

  • Open Windows Settings by pressings the Windows key + I.
  • Head to the Network & Internet and go to the Proxy tab.
  • Here, toggle the Automatically detect settings button on, as well as the Use setup script options.
  • Insert the script URL and hit the Save button to complete the process.

Let us know if these methods helped you change and configure Microsoft Edge proxy settings.

Read: Ethernet works but not WiFi in Windows.

How to change and configure Microsoft Edge proxy settings
Mon, 13 Feb 2023 18:09:00 -0600 en-us text/html
Killexams : 9 Types Of Network Protocols & When To Use Them

Network protocols are something that most users don’t think twice about, but they play a critical role in making the internet work. Without them, there would be no way for servers or devices to communicate with each other.

Every piece of online content—from text to images, video and audio—is delivered to the end user via network protocols. But what is a network protocol exactly?

What Is a Network Protocol?

A network protocol is a mechanism or a set of procedures that enables devices to communicate back and forth across the internet. In order to communicate together, two devices must support the same protocol or a gateway will need to be used to translate the communication.

There are three main types of network protocols you need to be aware of:

  • Network management protocols – These protocols set out policies designed to monitor, manage and maintain a network. Examples include SNMP, FTP, POP3 and Telnet.
  • Network communication protocols – A group of protocols used to establish rules and formatting (such as syntax, synchronization and semantics) for exchanging data across a network. Types of network communication protocols include TCP, UDP, IP, HTTP, IRC, BGP and ARP.
  • Network security protocols – Security protocols are protocols that use security measures such as cryptography and encryption to protect data. Examples include SFTP, SSL and HTTPS.

Network Protocol vs. Internet Protocol

While there are many different types of network protocols, Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is one of the most widely used due to its ability to break down data into packets so they can be transferred (you can read more about TCP further below).

Under the traditional TCP/IP model of networking, TCP is used alongside the Internet Protocol (IP) to identify hosts to send data across the internet.

Within this model, IP identifies and defines the IP address of devices or applications that data will be forwarded to, and then TCP routes the data through a network to guide the content to its final destination.

Network Protocol vs. Communication Protocol

Network management and communication protocols are two of the most important types of protocols.

Essentially, communication protocols including TCP/IP and HTTP are designed to enable two devices to exchange data, whereas network management protocols are designed to help manage and troubleshoot performance.

For example, network management protocols such as Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) can monitor and troubleshoot the connection between an endpoint and the network so that administrators can better understand the status and availability of infrastructure.

In contrast, communication protocols are mainly concerned with defining formatting and syntax rules to set out a framework for two devices to exchange data with each other.

Below we’re going to look at nine types of network protocols that empower and drive modern networking.

1. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) A.K.A. Internet Protocol (IP)

TCP is a protocol that converts data into packets so that it can be sent between a server and a client. Organizations use TCP to transfer content such as files, text, images and emails because it guarantees that the packets will be delivered accurately and in the correct order.

It’s worth noting that TCP will establish a connection between the origin and the destination devices before attempting to transfer data. This three-way handshake is outlined briefly below:

  • The client or web browser sends the destination server a Synchronize Sequence Number (SYN).
  • The destination server sends an acknowledgement message known as SYN-ACK.
  • The origin device receives the SYN-ACK message and generates an ACK acknowledgement message, which finalizes the connection.

2. User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

UDP is a communication protocol that’s designed to send packets from one device to another on a network. Many organizations use UDP as an alternative to TCP because it offers higher transfer speeds.

While this increase in speed comes at the cost of accuracy, UDP better supports video/audio streaming services, online games or voice-over-internet-protocol (VoIP) calls, which can handle some degree of data loss.

Another key difference between the two is that UDP won’t attempt to establish a connection before sending packets on to the destination. At the same time, it also doesn’t ensure the delivery of data to the other device.

3. File Transfer Protocol (FTP)

FTP is a network protocol that’s used to transfer files from one device to another over an unencrypted TCP/IP connection. With FTP, a user can load up a web browser or FTP client such as FileZilla or FTP Voyager and send up to 2GB at once.

Many organizations use FTP because of its ability to send large files or lots of files at once in a way that’s fast and efficient. Unfortunately, this efficiency comes at the cost of security as FTP transmits all data in plain text.

For this reason, many organizations opt to use a secure version of FTP called File Transfer Protocol Secure Sockets Layer (FTPS), which functions the same but uses SSL encryption to obscure the transferred data.

4. Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)

HTTP is a communication protocol that enables systems to communicate on the World Wide Web. With HTTP, a client will send a hypertext message request to a web server asking for access to the resources needed to load a web page.

The server hosting the content will then respond and enable the client to load all the necessary text, images and videos featured on the page. HTTP’s request-response cycle is outlined briefly below:

  • The client sends an HTTP request message to the web server to request access to the web page content.
  • The web server processes the request message.
  • The web server sends a response message that includes the requested content or web page.
  • The client receives the message and loads the content in the web browser for the end user to view.

There is also an encrypted version of HTTP called HTTPS, which uses SSL/TLS encryption to encrypt requests and responses so they can’t be accessed by third parties.

5. Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)

SNMP is an application layer protocol that’s used to collect management information from devices such as computers, routers, switchers, firewalls and printers.

Network monitoring platforms often use SNMP to monitor the performance and status of devices throughout a network in real time.

The protocol works with an SNMP manager or software client sending SNMP GET requests to SNMP-enabled devices.

SNMP-enabled devices each have a local SNMP agent that collects performance data from the device and will forward this information to the SNMP manager so that an administrator can get a top-down view of performance and status.

6. Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)

ICMP is a network protocol that devices use to warn about connectivity issues and errors. ICMP can notify devices that a forwarded message was too long or arrived out of order, and will issue an error message requesting that the device resend the content.

Troubleshooting tools such as Ping send ICMP requests to a device and measure the round-trip time, or the time it takes for the device to respond to the request. The amount of delay in the response can then be used to measure the quality of the connection.

Other tools such as traceroute use ICMP to troubleshoot and measure the efficiency of network routes, telling the user how much time it took to traverse from one device to another.

Sometimes, cybercriminals will use the protocol as part of an ICMP flood attack where they attempt to overwhelm a server with illegitimate ICMP requests to take its computing resources away from the end user.

7. Post Office Protocol (POP)

POP3 is a network protocol that enables a server to retrieve emails from a remote server and obtain them to the local device. Whenever the client connects to the server via TCP, it automatically downloads all the new messages to it, making them accessible to the user both online and off-line.

Email platforms like Microsoft Outlook can use POP3 to collect email messages from remote servers via TCP/IP so that they’re available off-line.

Under the default setting, all emails are deleted from the server automatically once the obtain is complete, but the user can also configure it to store emails on the server for a certain time period.

8. Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP)

IMAP is another protocol that’s used for retrieving emails. With IMAP, whenever a user clicks on an email, it isn’t downloaded or stored on their computer locally but remains on the remote server, enabling the user to check their email from multiple devices.

The main difference between IMAP and POP3 is that the latter only allows users to obtain and access emails locally on the same computer. IMAP also doesn’t automatically delete emails from the server.

9. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)

SMTP is a mail delivery protocol that allows a device to send and deploy email to a remote endpoint with a TCP connection. Many providers including Microsoft Outlook, Gmail and Yahoo Mail use SMTP to send messages to remote servers.

Briefly, an organization will first create an SMTP server, which employees can connect to and communicate with via a mail user agent (MUA) or email client such as Gmail. Through this connection, they can deliver emails to the SMTP server and other users.

Unlike POP3, SMTP cannot retrieve emails from a mailbox, and unlike POP3, it doesn’t automatically delete emails.

Bottom Line

If you’re struggling to get to grips with the different types of network protocols, try to focus on understanding TCP/IP first, as this is the technical foundation that many of the most important communication protocols will use to communicate.

Thu, 10 Aug 2023 03:00:00 -0500 Tim Keary en-US text/html
Killexams : Configuring a Microsoft SNA Server Killexams : Windows: APPC Access Method : Configuring a Microsoft SNA Server
Communications Access Methods for SAS/CONNECT and SAS/SHARE Software

Central to the SNA network is the SNA server, which is responsible for performing connections between local and remote hosts on a local area network (LAN).

Note:   An unqualified reference to Windows means all Windows platforms - Windows NT, Windows 95, Windows 98, and Windows 32s.  [cautionend]

Network Administrator
To set up an SNA network perform the following tasks:
  1. Install the SNA server.
  2. Configure the SNA server.
  3. Configure SNA clients.
  4. Optionally configure Host Account Synchronization Service. For details about installing this service, see Microsoft SNA Server Getting Started and Installing and Configuring Host Security Integration.

You install and configure the SNA server on a Windows NT computer, and you configure SNA clients on any of three Windows platforms: Windows NT, Windows 32s, Windows 95, and Windows 98. After the SNA server and the SNA clients are installed and configured, users of SAS/CONNECT and SAS/SHARE can make connections transparently from their local hosts to the remote hosts that they want by using the SNA server.

The following figure shows an SNA network.

Typical SNA Network Configuration


Installing the SNA Server

It is assumed that you already have completed installation of the SNA server product. Before you can configure the SNA server, verify that the following tasks have been completed.

  1. Install the appropriate drivers (for example, 802.2 Token Ring, Ethernet, or X.25).
  2. Select the appropriate networking protocols (for example, DLC for LAN).
  3. Install the SNA Server link services.

    Link services define the protocol that is used between the SNA Server software and the communications adapters installed in your computer (for example, 802.2 Token Ring, Ethernet, SDLC, or X.25).

    If the setup program detects more than one network operating system on your computer, you must specify which systems you are using (for example, Microsoft LAN Manager, Novell Netware, or both).

Configuring the SNA Server

After you have installed the SNA server and link supports, use the SNA Server Administration Program (SNA Server Admin) to perform the following tasks:

  1. Configure the server.
  2. Specify connections.
  3. Configure Logical Units (LU) (local and remote).
  4. Define LU-to-LU pairs and modes.

Configuring the Server

Configure the SNA server by specifying the local Network Name and Control Point Name.

Specifying the Connection Name

Specify the connection name (for example, 802.2 Token Ring, SDLC, or X.25) and other properties that are appropriate to your configuration.

Connection properties are the software components of the SNA server that communicate through the device driver to a particular communications adapter.

Configuring Logical Units

Perform the following steps to configure the desired number of logical units:

  1. Configure the desired number of local logical units (LUs) to be used.

    An LU may be dependent or independent. An LU's ability to perform dependently or independently in a SAS/CONNECT remote host session is based on the communications software that your network uses.

    SAS/CONNECT can use either a dependent or an independent LU. If you are using dependent LUs, you must have one dependent LU defined for each concurrent remote session established by the local session. A single independent LU allows multiple concurrent SAS/CONNECT sessions.

    SAS/SHARE requires an independent LU. When using Remote Library Services (RLS), SAS/CONNECT also requires an independent LU.

  2. Configure the desired number of remote logical units (LUs) to be used.

    You must define all remote LUs to the SNA Server because the Microsoft SNA Server does not support end node (EN) Advanced Peer-to-Peer Networking (APPN) capabilities. You must also define remote (or partner) LUs to connect to a remote host with SAS/CONNECT or to access a SAS/SHARE server.

    When defining a remote LU for an MVS remote host in a SAS/CONNECT session, you must also account for the LU pooling capabilities of the remote MVS SAS session so that appropriate surrogate LUs are defined to the SNA Server.

    Your options for defining remote LUs follow:

    • If using the APPC access method, you may assign a specific LU to the APPC_SURROGATE_LUNAME variable. For information about the APPC_SURROGATE_LUNAME variable, see SAS/CONNECT Only Options. In this case, you must define this remote LU to the SNA server.
    • You may allow the remote OS/390 session to supply an LU from a pool of LUs. Although you do not need to assign a value to APPC_SURROGATE_LUNAME, you must define to the SNA server all possible MVS LU names that reside in this surrogate LU pool.
    • Instead of defining surrogate LUs to the SNA server, you may configure the local LU to accept Implicit Incoming Remote LUs.

Defining LU-LU Pairs and Communications Mode Properties

Define the local LU-remote LU pairs, and specify the properties of the communications mode to be used between each pair.

If site-naming conventions permit, specify the mode name SASAPPC. The APPC access method uses this mode name if the APPC_LU62MODE variable has not been defined. See SAS/CONNECT and SAS/SHARE Options for information about setting APPC_LU62MODE.

Specify the minimum contention-winner parameter, which is relevant for SAS software because only contention-winner sessions are used for locally initiated communication.

Communication between SAS/CONNECT local and remote hosts requires only one contention-winner session. However, this limit affects the number of data sets that can be accessed concurrently by means of the SAS/CONNECT Remote Library Services or a SAS/SHARE server.

When defining session limits, define enough sessions so that session limits will never be reached. If session limits are reached, the next time a user attempts to connect to a remote host with SAS/CONNECT or a client host attempts to access a SAS/SHARE server, the APPC layer will not return to the application layer until a session is available. Although a lengthy wait may seem like an error condition (such as no response from SAS or a loop), the underlying APPC layer is waiting for a session to become available.

You have completed the configuration of a Windows NT SNA server.

Configuring a Windows SNA Client

Client configuration tasks are based on the platform on which the client is running:

  • Windows NT
  • Windows 95
  • Windows 98
  • Windows 32s.

Tasks for configuring a Windows NT, a Windows 95, and a Windows 98 client are identical.

Configuring a Windows NT, a Windows 95, or a Windows 98 Host as a Local Host or a SAS/SHARE Client

Use the SNA Server Client Setup Program to configure Windows NT, Windows 95, and Windows 98 clients.

This section highlights the general tasks that you perform to configure an SNA client. For complete details, see the Microsoft SNA Server Installation Guide and the Microsoft SNA Server Administration Guide. (Contact the Microsoft Corporation for information about this documentation.)

Perform the following tasks:

  1. Identify the transport (for example, client/server protocols) for communication with the SNA server (e.g., TCP/IP, Named Pipes, or IPX/SPX).
  2. Specify the network domain in which a server can be located so that data can be routed to it over a local area network (LAN).
  3. Specify client mode (local or remote).

If you intend to use the Windows NT, Windows 95, or Windows 98 computer strictly as a local host connecting to a remote host in a SAS/CONNECT session or as a client accessing a SAS/SHARE server, you have successfully completed the configuration process.

Configuring a Windows NT, a Windows 95, or a Windows 98 Host as a Remote Host or as a SAS/SHARE Server

If you intend to use either of these computers as a remote host for a SAS/CONNECT session or as a SAS/SHARE server, you must perform additional configuration tasks.

  1. Configure TPs (transaction programs) that can be invoked.

    You may execute a program named TPSETUP.EXE, which was supplied by Microsoft and enhanced by SAS Institute, to configure and modify TP properties. Running the program automatically adds entries to the registry, which is a configuration file.

    For Windows NT, the TPSETUP.EXE program is located at !sasroot\CORE\WINNT\TPSETUP.EXE. For Windows 95 and Windows 98, the TPSETUP.EXE program is located at !sasroot\CORE\WIN95\TPSETUP.EXE.

    The TPSETUP.EXE command with arguments follows:

    TPSETUP <-TP TP-name>
    <-CMD 'SAS-command-line'>


    -TP TP-name
    specifies a transaction program. Two TPs are provided: SASRMT and SASTP62. See SASRMT Transaction Program and SASTP62 Transaction Program for more information about these programs.
    allows you to modify an existing -TP entry in the registry. The TP configuration dialog window opens, showing previously entered TP properties. Omission of the -EDIT argument invokes an empty dialog window, where you define properties.
    -LU local-LU-alias
    is the client's alias for the local-LU that you configured at the SNA server. The assignment of a local-LU-alias to a specific Windows NT, Windows 95, or Windows 98 client allows the SNA server to route the incoming request for attachment (ATTACH) to the appropriate client computer by alias name. The SNA server checks each client's configuration file for its local-LU-alias to determine where to route the request. If you are going to define SASTP62 and would like more than one remote window host, you must specify the local-LU-alias.
    -CMD command-line
    specifies a command that automatically executes SAS at the remote host when a local host connects to it in a SAS/CONNECT session. A command line is required only when you have defined the SASRMT transaction program.

SASTP62 Transaction Program

For Version 7 and later, the APPC access method performs dynamic TP naming which automatically generates the SASTP62 TP definition for you.

Note:   Dynamic TP naming is only available when communicating between two Version 7 (or later) sessions.  [cautionend]

For Version 6.12 and earlier, you must still define a SASTP62 transaction program at the host where a SAS/SHARE server will be executing or where a remote SAS/CONNECT session will be established.

To define the SASTP62 transaction program in the registry, specify the following command:


SASRMT Transaction Program

You must define a SASRMT transaction program at the host where a remote SAS/CONNECT session will be established.

To define the SASRMT transaction program in the registry, specify the following command:


Note:   For Windows NT, you must run the SASRMT transaction program as an application, not as an NT service. Therefore, make sure that you start the Microsoft program TPSTART.EXE before allowing users to establish SAS/CONNECT sessions with remote hosts.  [cautionend]

You have completed the configuration of the Windows NT, Windows 95, or Windows 98 host as a SAS/CONNECT remote host or a SAS/SHARE server.

Configuring a Windows 32s Client

Use the SNA Server Client Setup Program to configure a Windows 32s client.

This section highlights the general tasks that you perform to configure an SNA client. For complete details, see the Microsoft SNA Server Installation Guide and the Microsoft SNA Server Administration Guide.

Note:   A Windows 32s host is supported only as a local host that connects to a remote host in a SAS/CONNECT session.  [cautionend]

Perform the following tasks:

  1. Identify the protocol for communication with the SNA server (for example, TCP/IP, Novell, or IPX/SPX).
  2. Specify the domain in which a server can be located so that data can be routed to it over a local area network (LAN).
  3. To enable the client to connect automatically to the SNA server when booted, insert the following variable assignment in the [windows] section of the WIN.INI configuration file:
  4. If you intend to create or to access a SAS/SHARE server on this host, you must define the SASTP62 transaction program in the WIN.INI file.

    You either may edit the WIN.INI file directly, or you may execute a program named TPSETUP.EXE, which is supplied by Microsoft, that automatically updates the configuration file.

    The appropriate entries to the WIN.INI file follow:


    Define the local-LU that you configured at the SNA server by inserting the following variable assignments in the [sastp62] section of the WIN.INI file:


    The assignment of a local-LU-alias to a specific Windows 32s client allows the SNA server to route the incoming request for attachment (ATTACH) to the appropriate Windows 32s computer by an alias name. The SNA server checks each Windows 32s client's configuration file for its local-LU-alias to determine where to route the request.

You have completed the configuration of the Windows 32s client.

For details about how to install and configure the SNA server and SNA clients using the SNA Server Setup Program, see the Microsoft SNA Server Installation Guide and the Microsoft SNA Server Administration Guide.

For details about configuring Windows NT Host Security Integration features, see Microsoft SNA Server Getting Started and Installing and Configuring Host Security Integration.

Contact the Microsoft Corporation to obtain information about this documentation.

Copyright 1999 by SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA. All rights reserved.

Fri, 21 Jan 2022 10:38:00 -0600 text/html
Killexams : Microsoft talks about the future of Microsoft Teams

The path of collaborative tools takes a new turn as Microsoft unveils a series of significant updates in the July 2023 edition of ‘What’s New in Microsoft Teams.‘ These additions, announced at the Microsoft Inspire conference, shed light on the forthcoming features in Microsoft Teams.

  1. Microsoft 365 Copilot for Teams Phone (Early Access Program): Microsoft 365 Copilot for Teams Phone enhances calls with AI capabilities, automatically generating summaries, noting action items, and providing answers during unscheduled calls. Copilot helps users stay focused and engaged during unscheduled calls. It works for both VoIP and PSTN calls.
  2. Microsoft 365 Copilot for Teams Chat (Early Access Program): Microsoft 365 Copilot for Teams Chat uses AI to synthesize important information, reducing chat management efforts and making chat-based collaborations more streamlined and organized.
  3. Collaborative Notes in Microsoft Teams Meetings (Public Preview): Collaborative Notes in Teams Meetings allow attendees to create agendas, take real-time notes, and define follow-up tasks together for more productive and interactive meetings. They stay in sync and can be shared via chats, group chats, emails, and other documents. Assigned tasks are synced with To Do, and Planner, and email notifications are sent.
  4. Shared Calling: Shared Calling simplifies Teams Phone deployments and can save expenses by letting groups of users make and receive PSTN calls with shared phone numbers and plans.
  5. Improved Search in Specific Chat or Channel: Teams now has a better search for finding specific information in chats or channels, reducing clutter.
  6. Chat Embedded in Microsoft Edge Browser: Teams now allows chat within the Microsoft Edge browser, making multitasking easier. Clicking on a webpage link from Teams chat opens a chat window within the browser.

Connecting Teams with Dynamics 365 CRM

Microsoft Viva Sales, now Microsoft Sales Copilot, joins with Teams. It offers real-time insights, coaching, and content help, boosting teamwork and efficiency.

Teams 2 1

Teams 2 1

Better Collaboration with Maps Integration

Teams mixing with Microsoft Dynamics 365 CRM gives direct access to records and links chats with CRM activities. Adding location info through Maplytics improves decision-making.



In a nutshell, Microsoft sees Teams changing collaboration, merging with Dynamics 365 CRM and Maps, and giving businesses a strong edge.

Tue, 22 Aug 2023 04:13:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Killexams : Best Infrastructure as Code Tools for DevOps in 2023

Software developers and project managers can use infrastructure as code (IaC) software to automate the management and provisioning of infrastructure. By bypassing manual configuration, software development teams can enjoy lower costs, faster speed, and fewer errors. This guide will discuss the following infrastructure as code tools in terms of their features, pros, cons and pricing so you can pick the ideal solution for your needs:

  • Puppet: A great option for teams seeking IaC software that can handle large-scale infrastructure and also has an established and supportive community.
  • Chef: An excellent pick for developers seeking a flexible and advanced configuration management tool that relies on infrastructure as code to automate complex tasks.
  • Terraform: An ideal solution for development teams seeking an open-source IaC tool for cloud-based environments.

Jump to:


Puppet CI/CD tool.

Puppet is an IaC tool that uses its own declarative language to define desired infrastructure states. It has a solid interface and reporting capabilities and is ideal for teams and organizations in charge of managing large-scale infrastructures.

Features of Puppet

Some of Puppet’s features that have made it a popular DevOps tool include:

  • Multi-platform support.
  • Real-time monitoring.
  • Policy-as-code.
  • Third-party integrations.

Puppet supports multiple platforms, including Windows, Linux, Microsoft Azure, AWS, GCP and more. The IaC software has real-time monitoring and reporting to help developers spot drift and compliance errors. It also leverages policy-as-code for streamlining and enforcing compliance. You can also extend Puppet’s functionality by integrating it with third-party cloud, infrastructure, secret management, policy-as-code and other services.

SEE: What is DevOps?

Pros of Puppet

Puppet’s pros include:

  • Well-established community.
  • Fast error fixes.
  • Learnable language.
  • Intuitive interface.

Since Puppet has been around since 2005, it has a large, well-established community that can offer support and resources for new users and those who stumble upon obstacles. Puppet highlights lines containing coding errors so they can be fixed quickly.

While Puppet’s use of its own declarative scripting language (DSL) can be a con for some newer users, the language is at least easy to learn and eventually write. Puppet’s user interface is also clean and easy to follow.

Cons of Puppet

Puppet’s cons include:

  • Can be complicated to configure.
  • Complexity – known for its steep learning curve.
  • Requires some programming knowledge.
  • Pricing.

Setting up Puppet can take some time and patience and requires users to be more hands-on than some simpler competing tools since it was designed more for system administrators than less technical users.

Puppet has a steep learning curve, and unless you have a programming background and knowledge of the Puppet DSL, you may have a hard time adapting to it. Additionally, since Puppet only has two versions, some teams may find the custom Enterprise pricing prohibitive if they want more advanced features.

Puppet Pricing

Project managers and developers can choose between Open-Source Puppet and Puppet Enterprise. The open-source version is free.

Puppet offers the Enterprise version via custom-priced plans. It comes with automation features, extensions and more. Get a custom Puppet Enterprise pricing quote.

Progress Chef

Progress Chef reporting.

Progress Chef (formerly Chef) is a flexible configuration management tool with a large following that uses infrastructure as code. It is used by software developers, DevOps teams, system administrators and more to automate their infrastructure and applications’ configuration management.

Features of Chef

Chef has several features that make it a popular DevOps tool, including:

  • Platform-agnostic.
  • IaC features and adherence.
  • Recipes and cookbooks.
  • Chef Supermarket.
  • Integrations with third-party DevOps tools.

Chef is a platform-agnostic programmer tool due to its system resource abstraction, allowing it to support different cloud platforms and operating systems. Due to its reliance on infrastructure as code, Chef keeps configuration consistent and repeatable and promotes version control via a host of version control tools.

Staying in line with the “Chef” name, the IaC tool relies on recipes and cookbooks. Recipes are specific actions/configurations, while cookbooks are recipe collections. Chef’s recipes and cookbooks keep configuration management simple for developers by letting them reuse code and embrace the power of modularity.

The Chef Supermarket is loaded with pre-built cookbooks to speed up configuration management. There is also a large community ecosystem that supplies users with best practices, cookbooks, modules and more. Chef is highly extensible, too, thanks to third-party integrations with Jenkins, CircleCI and other popular tools.

Pros of Chef

Some of Chef’s biggest advantages as an IaC tool include:

  • Advanced configuration management capabilities.
  • Extensibility.
  • Community support.
  • Versatile, offering greater control of configurations.

Some of Chef’s competition is best served for handling basic tasks. Chef, on the other hand, has advanced configuration management features to handle complex tasks, such as test driven development infrastructure deployment on-demand. Progress Chef also excels in extensibility as the programmer tool integrates with top DevOps tools like CircleCI, Jenkins, Bitbucket, GitHub and more.

If you are looking for an infrastructure as code tool with a large community that offers added support and resources, you will find just that with Chef. And if you are looking for an IaC tool that is flexible so you have more configuration control, Chef offers that, too, since it follows a code-driven approach.

Cons of Chef

Chef could Excellerate in some areas as a developer tool, such as:

  • Required experience level.
  • Time investment.
  • Expensive for small teams.

Yes, Chef was built to handle even the most complex tasks. But to unlock that functionality, you will face a steep learning curve. Remember that Chef was created with experienced programmers in mind, so it will take some time to learn. One thing that could help is taking a Ruby course prior to tackling Chef. Beyond the complexity obstacle, you may find Chef pricey, especially if you are part of a smaller development team with a limited budget.

Pricing of Chef

Developers can buy Chef directly through Progress or via a marketplace. Buy the IaC tool from Progress, and you can get a custom quote for the SaaS or on-premise option. Buy Chef from the Azure Marketplace, and you get three options:

  • Two-Hour Test Drive: Try Chef for two hours for free.
  • BYOL: Pay for Azure compute time and bring your own license.
  • Custom Private Offer: Get a custom quote on Chef from Azure.

Buy Chef from the AWS Marketplace, and you have two options:

  • BYOL: Pay for AWS compute time and bring your own license.
  • Chef on AWS Marketplace: Get a Chef subscription on your AWS account. Software and usage fees start at $0.20 per hour or $189 yearly.

You can learn more about Chef in our Chef Configuration Management Tool Review.


Terraform devops tool.

HashiCorp Terraform is an open-source IaC tool ideal for developers and teams comfortable working with the Go language who need strong infrastructure management for cloud-based environments.

Features of Terraform

Some of Terraform’s top features as a DevOps tool include:

  • Support for multiple operating systems.
  • Multi-cloud deployment.
  • Network infrastructure management tools.
  • Plenty of integrations for developer tools.

Terraform supports multiple operating systems, including Windows, macOS, Linus, FreeBSD, OpenBSD and more. You can use Terraform for multi-cloud deployment, and it also has features for managing network infrastructure, such as firewall policies and load balancer member pools. Terraform offers extensibility, too, through integrations with CI/CD pipelines, version control systems and other programmer tools.

Pros of Terraform

Terraform’s strengths include:

  • Easy setup.
  • Flexibile hosting and platform support.
  • Repeatability and built-in modularity.
  • Highly performant.

Terraform is easy to set up and is flexible, with support for Azure, AWS and other cloud providers. The infrastructure as code software’s use of modules promotes repeatability, and its use of the Go language makes it fast and efficient.

Cons of Terraform

Terraform’s weaknesses include:

  • Onboarding can be difficult.
  • Documentation could use improvement.
  • On-premises performance not as good as cloud.
  • State management is not optimal.

Terraform is ideal for developers familiar with the Go or Golang language. If you are not, you may find the language unusual and difficult to learn at the start, which can slow onboarding.

Some users have found Terraform’s documentation complex and hard to understand. And while it works well with clouds, Terraform may suffer some issues when working with on-premises services. Managing the state file in Terraform to avoid conflicts can also be tricky and result in unexpected behaviors.

Terraform pricing

Terraform has a self-managed open-source option that is always free. It also has paid cloud and self-managed plans:

  • Free (cloud): Up to 500 resources per month. Has the essential features for getting started with IaC provisioning.
  • Standard (cloud): Starts at $0.00014 per hour per resource. For developers or teams adopting IaC provisioning.
  • Plus (cloud): Custom pricing. For enterprises needing scalability.
  • Enterprise (self-managed): Custom pricing. For enterprises with added compliance and security needs.

SEE: Building your Platform Engineering practice on AWS with Terraform

What to look for in infrastructure as code software

With various IaC tools on the market, choosing the right one for your software development team may seem like a daunting task. How can you ensure you pick the proper infrastructure as code software? First, if your budget is limited, consider the cost as the pricing of IaC tools can vary greatly. Luckily, many have free trials you can sign up for to deliver the features a test drive, while others may have free plans with limited features.

If the cost of certain IaC software acts as a deterrent, remember that these developer tools can save your team plenty of money by eliminating the need for manual infrastructure setup and maintenance.

After considering cost, look for an infrastructure as code tool that is user-friendly with an intuitive interface. And lastly, look at its features. Standard features that the ideal IaC tool should have include automation that saves time and money while minimizing human error, built-in security (encryption, identity access management, data loss prevention, etc.), solid customer service and support and scalability (autoscaling, dynamic orchestration, rolling updates, etc.). The ideal IaC software should also have plenty of integrations with third-party developer tools and services, plus a library of plugins for added extensibility.

Final thoughts on the best infrastructure as code tools

The IaC tools listed above can help your software development team cut costs, increase speed and eliminate errors linked to manual configuration. Before picking an IaC tool from our list, review its features, pros, cons and pricing to ensure it is the right pick for you.

SEE: Top DevOps career paths

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