A perfect key to success by these PTCE braindumps

If you really to show your professionalism so just Passing the PTCE exam is not sufficient. You should have enough The Pharmacy Technician Certification Examination knowledge that will help you work in real world scenarios. Killexams.com specially focus to improve your knowledge about PTCE objectives so that you not only pass the exam, but really get ready to work in practical environment as a professional.

Exam Code: PTCE Practice exam 2022 by Killexams.com team
PTCE The Pharmacy Technician Certification Examination

Medications (40%)
- Generic names, brand names, and classifications of medications
- Therapeutic equivalence
- Common and life-threatening drug interactions and contraindications (e.g., drug-disease, drug-drug, drug-dietary supplement, drug-laboratory, drug-nutrient)
- Strengths/dose, dosage forms, routes of administration, special handling and administration instructions, and duration of drug therapy
- Common and severe medication side effects, adverse effects, and allergies
- Indications of medications and dietary supplements
- Drug stability (e.g., oral suspensions, insulin, reconstitutables, injectables, vaccinations)
- Narrow therapeutic index (NTI) medications
- Physical and chemical incompatibilities related to non-sterile compounding and reconstitution
- Proper storage of medications (e.g., temperature ranges, light sensitivity, restricted access)

Federal Requirements (12.5%)
- Federal requirements for handling and disposal of non-hazardous, hazardous, and pharmaceutical substances and waste
- Federal requirements for controlled substance prescriptions (i.e., new, refill, transfer) and DEA controlled substance schedules
- Federal requirements (e.g., DEA, FDA) for controlled substances (i.e., receiving, storing, ordering, labeling, dispensing, reverse distribution, take-back programs, and loss or theft of)
- Federal requirements for restricted drug programs and related medication processing (e.g., pseudoephedrine, Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies [REMS])
- FDA recall requirements (e.g., medications, devices, supplies, supplements, classifications)

Patient Safety and Quality Assurance (26.25%)
- High-alert/risk medications and look-alike/sound-alike [LASA] medications
- Error prevention strategies (e.g., prescription or medication order to correct patient, Tall Man lettering, separating inventory, leading and trailing zeros, bar code usage, limit use of error-prone abbreviations)
- Issues that require pharmacist intervention (e.g., drug utilization review [DUR], adverse drug event [ADE], OTC recommendation, therapeutic substitution, misuse, adherence, post-immunization follow-up, allergies, drug interactions)
- Event reporting procedures (e.g., medication errors, adverse effects, and product integrity, MedWatch, near miss, root-cause analysis [RCA])
- Types of prescription errors (e.g., abnormal doses, early refill, incorrect quantity, incorrect patient, incorrect drug)
- Hygiene and cleaning standards (e.g., handwashing, personal protective equipment [PPE], cleaning counting trays, countertop, and equipment)

Order Entry and Processing (21.25%)
- Procedures to compound non-sterile products (e.g., ointments, mixtures, liquids, emulsions, suppositories, enemas)
- Formulas, calculations, ratios, proportions, alligations, conversions, Sig codes (e.g., b.i.d.k, t.i.d., Roman numerals), abbreviations, medical terminology, and symbols for days supply, quantity, dose, concentration, dilutions
- Equipment/supplies required for drug administration (e.g., package size, unit dose, diabetic supplies, spacers, oral and injectable syringes)
- Lot numbers, expiration dates, and National Drug Code (NDC) numbers
- Procedures for identifying and returning dispensable, non-dispensable, and expired medications and supplies (e.g., credit return, return to stock, reverse distribution)

The Pharmacy Technician Certification Examination
PTCB Certification benefits
Killexams : PTCB Certification benefits - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/PTCE Search results Killexams : PTCB Certification benefits - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/PTCE https://killexams.com/exam_list/PTCB Killexams : White Paper on Pharmacy Technicians 2002: Needed Changes Can No Longer Wait

Sidebar: Appendix - Policy Statements of National Associations

The following statements are published with the permission of the respective organizations and were accurate as of March 2002, with the exception of (d), which was accurate as of June 2002.

  1. The American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy

  2. The American Association of Pharmacy Technicians

  3. The American Pharmaceutical Association

  4. The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists

  5. The National Association of Chain Drug Stores

  6. The National Community Pharmacists Association

  7. The National Pharmacy Technician Association

  8. The Pharmacy Technicians Educators Council

www.aacp.org/Docs/AACPFuntions/AboutAACP/4308_CumulativePolicies,1980-2001.pdf

Policies On Supportive Personnel

  1. AACP supports inclusion in the professional pharmacy curriculum of didactic and experiential material related to the supervision and management of supportive personnel in pharmacy practices. (Source: Professional Affairs Committee, 1990)

  2. Training for technicians in pharmacy must be based on competencies derived from tasks that are deemed appropriate by the profession and currently performed by technical personnel. (Source: Professional Affairs Committee, 1989)

  3. Pharmacy schools should offer their assistance to supportive personnel training programs to assure that programs meet appropriate educational objectives. (Source: Professional Affairs

  4. Training for supportive personnel in pharmacy must be based on sound educational principles with clearly established competency objectives. (Source: Professional Affairs Committee, 1987)

www.pharmacytechnician.com/

Preamble

Pharmacy Technicians are healthcare professionals who assist pharmacists in providing the best possible care for patients. The principles of this code, which apply to pharmacy technicians working in any and all settings, are based on the application and support of the moral obligations that guide the pharmacy profession in relationships with patients, healthcare professionals and society.

Principles

  1. A pharmacy technician's first consideration is to ensure the health and safety of the patient, and to use knowledge and skills to the best of his/her ability in serving patients.

  2. A pharmacy technician supports and promotes honesty and integrity in the profession, which includes a duty to observe the law, maintain the highest moral and ethical conduct at all times and uphold the ethical principles of the profession.

  3. A pharmacy technician assists and supports the pharmacists in the safe and efficacious and cost effective distribution of health services and healthcare resources.

  4. A pharmacy technician respects and values the abilities of pharmacists, colleagues and other healthcare professionals.

  5. A pharmacy technician maintains competency in his/her practice and continually enhances his/her professional knowledge and expertise.

  6. A pharmacy technician respects and supports the patient's individuality, dignity, and confidentiality.

  7. A pharmacy technician respects the confidentiality of a patient's records and discloses pertinent information only with proper authorization.

  8. A pharmacy technician never assists in dispensing, promoting or distribution of medication or medical devices that are not of good quality or do not meet the standards required by law.

  9. A pharmacy technician does not engage in any activity that will discredit the profession, and will expose, without fear or favor, illegal or unethical conduct of the profession.

  10. A pharmacy technician associates with and engages in the support of organizations, which promote the profession of pharmacy through the utilization and enhancement of pharmacy technicians.

www.aphanet.org

APhA supports the use of automation for prescription preparation and supports technical and personnel assistance for performing administrative duties and facilitating pharmacist's provision of pharmaceutical care.

The American Pharmaceutical Association supports the pharmacists' authority to control the distribution process and personnel involved and the responsibility for all completed medication orders regardless of practice setting.
(J Am Pharm Assoc. NS36:396. June 1996)

  1. APhA recognizes, for the purpose of these policies, the following definitions:

    1. Licensure: The process by which an agency of government grants permission to an individual to engage in a given occupation upon finding that the applicant has attained the minimal degree of competency necessary to ensure that the public health, safety, and welfare will be reasonably well protected. Within pharmacy, a pharmacist is licensed by a State Board of Pharmacy.

    2. Registration: The process of making a list or being enrolled in an existing list.

  2. APhA supports the role of the State Boards of Pharmacy in protecting the public in its interaction with the profession, including the Boards' oversight of pharmacy technicians, through their control of pharmacists and pharmacy licenses.

  3. In States where the Board of Pharmacy chooses to exercise some direct oversight of technicians, APhA recommends a registration system.

  4. APhA reaffirms its opposition to licensure of pharmacy technicians by statute or regulation.
    (J Am Pharm Assoc. NS36:396. June 1996)

The committee recommends that APhA endorse the use of properly supervised supportive personnel in pharmacy practice as a positive step toward improving the quality and quantity of pharmaceutical services provided by the profession.
(J Am Pharm Assoc. NS11:277. May 1971)

The committee would be opposed to any assumption of the pharmacist's professional functions by sub-professionals or technicians. There is a need to determine exactly what these functions are and the relative position of the pharmacy intern. Under no circumstance should a sub-professional program in pharmacy create an individual such as the former "qualified assistant" still practicing in some states.
(J Am Pharm Assoc. NS6:332. June 1966)

www.ashp.org
See also www.ashp.org/public/hq/ (accessed 2002 Apr 4).
See also www.ashp.org/public/hq/policy/2001PolicyPositions.pdf (accessed 2002 Apr 4).

Credentialing of pharmacy technicians

Source: Council on Legal and Public Affairs To advocate and support registration of pharmacy technicians by state boards of pharmacy (registration is the process of making a list or being enrolled in an existing list; registration should be used to help safeguard the public by interstate and intrastate tracking of the technician work force and preventing individuals with documented problems from serving as pharmacy technicians); further,To advocate and support mandatory certification of all current pharmacy technicians and new hires within one year of date of employment (certification is the process by which a nongovernmental agency or association grants recognition to an individual who has met certain predetermined qualifications specified by that agency or association); further,To advocate the adoption of uniform standards for the education and training of all pharmacy technicians to ensure competency; further,To oppose state licensure of pharmacy technicians (licensure is the process by which an agency of government grants permission to an individual to engage in a given occupation upon a finding that the applicant has attained the minimal degree of competency necessary to ensure that the public health, safety, and welfare will be reasonably well protected); further,To advocate that licensed pharmacists should be held accountable for the quality of pharmacy services provided and the actions of pharmacy technicians under their charge.

0212

Source: Council on Educational Affairs

To support the goal that technicians entering the pharmacy work force have completed an accredited program of training; further,

To encourage expansion of accredited pharmacy technician training programs.

Image of and career opportunities for pharmacy technicians

Source: Council on Educational Affairs To promote the image of pharmacy technicians as valuable contributors to health care delivery; further,To develop and disseminate information about career opportunities that enhance the recruitment and retention of qualified pharmacy technicians.

0209

Source: Council on Educational Affairs

To collaborate with appropriate professional and academic organizations in fostering adequate education on substance abuse and chemical dependency at all levels of pharmacy education (i.e., schools of pharmacy, residency programs, and continuing-education providers); further,

To support federal, state, and local initiatives that promote pharmacy education on substance abuse and chemical dependency; further,

To advocate the incorporation of education on substance abuse and chemical dependency into the accreditation standards for Doctor of Pharmacy degree programs and pharmacy technician training programs.

Opposition to creation of "pharmacist assistant" category of licensed pharmacy personnel

Source: House of Delegates To reaffirm the following statement in the "White Paper on Pharmacy Technicians" (April 1996) endorsed by ASHP and the American Pharmaceutical Association:"Although there is a compelling need for pharmacists to expand the purview of their professional practice, there is also a need for pharmacists to maintain control over all aspects of drug product handling in the patient care arena, including dispensing and compounding. No other discipline is as well qualified to ensure public safety in this important aspect of health care."Further,To note that some interest groups in pharmacy have advocated for the creation of a new category of licensed personnel called "Pharmacist Assistant" that would have (a) less education and training than pharmacists and (b) independent legal authority to perform many of the functions that are currently restricted to licensed pharmacists; further,To support the optimal use of well trained, certified pharmacy technicians under the supervision of licensed pharmacists; further,To oppose the creation of a category of licensed personnel in pharmacy such as "Pharmacist Assistant" that would have legal authority to perform independently those professional pharmacy functions that are currently restricted to licensed pharmacists.

8610

Source: Council on Legal and Public Affairs

To work toward the removal of legislative and regulatory barriers preventing pharmacists from delegating certain technical activities to other trained personnel.

This policy was reviewed in 1997 by the Council on Legal and Public Affairs and by the Board of Directors and was found to still be appropriate.

www.nacds.org

Issue Brief -- Pharmacy Technicians (Issued October 2001; updated April 2002)

Registration, training and certification of pharmacy support personnel (pharmacy technicians) and maximizing the duties that such pharmacy technicians can perform.

Allowing pharmacy technicians to be utilized to the fullest extent possible without any ratio will:

  1. Enhance pharmacists availability to counsel patients and to confer with other health professionals;

  2. improve overall service to patients;

  3. ease workload and Strengthen professional satisfaction for pharmacists; and,

  4. enhance efficiency and Strengthen resources available for meeting the increased prescription volume and addressing the pharmacist shortages.

  1. Certification should be voluntary and not mandatory.

  2. "Certification" exams should be effective tools for evaluating pharmacy technicians at the various pharmacy practice sites, such as community retail pharmacies, hospital pharmacies, and other practice settings.

  3. If pharmacy technicians decide to be certified they should be permitted to perform expanded duties and responsibilities.

  4. Pharmacy technicians, even if not certified, should be permitted to do routine nonjudgmental dispensing functions including, but not limited to, handling nonjudgmental third party and other payment issues, offering the patient the availability of the pharmacist for counseling, placing telephone calls to prescribers for refill requests, taking phone calls from prescribers' offices authorizing refill prescriptions, and preparing prescriptions for pharmacist's final review.

  1. Boards of Pharmacy should allow for employer-based pharmacy technician training programs and examination pursuant to a Pharmacy Technician Training Manual.

  2. Boards of Pharmacy should recognize that employer-based technician training programs prepare technicians to work in their own particular practice setting, and that technician training programs should be designed to teach competencies relevant to the particular practice setting.

  3. Chain pharmacy technician training programs and examinations should receive Board approval.

  1. Continue to permit an unlimited number of technicians and allow each practice setting to determine their optimal ratio.

  2. Allow technicians to perform non-judgmental tasks . . . those duties that do not require the expertise of a pharmacist.

  3. Allow technician training tailored to the pharmacy and to the company operations and standards.

  4. Allow certification to remain voluntary.

  5. Allow certified pharmacy technicians to perform additional duties and responsibilities commensurate with their competencies.

  6. Approve employer based training and examination pharmacy technician programs and recognize the importance of practice site specific training and examination programs such as community pharmacy based programs.

  7. Recognize the NACDS pharmacy technician training and examination program for certification of pharmacy technicians.

www.ncpanet.org

NCPA supports the use of pharmacy technicians in community pharmacies to enhance the pharmacist's role in the provision of quality pharmacist care. NCPA believes the proper training and supervision of technicians by the pharmacist is critical to the health and safety of patients.

Technician Support and Technology: Recognizing the current environment of regional shortages of pharmacists and the projected increase in prescription volume due to potential Medicare prescription drug benefit coverage and an aging population, NCPA recommends enhancing patient care and addressing manpower issues through the more efficient utilization of technician support and technology. NCPA strongly opposes the creation of any category of supportive personnel, which is not under the direct supervision of a licensed pharmacist.

www.pharmacytechnician.org/

Medication Errors: NPTA feels that the use of highly trained, educated and certified pharmacy technicians in the pharmacy profession will assist in efficiently and effectively reducing the occurrence of medication errors.

Technician Liability: NPTA feels that with the emergence of national technician certification, producing increased roles and responsibilities, the issue of technician liability will become an evermore-present factor. Currently, NPTA does not have a position statement on technician liability.

Technician Education and Training: NPTA fully supports formalized education and training programs at institutions of higher education. NPTA feels strongly that at some point, pharmacy technicians should be required to obtain a degree/certificate to be allowed to practice as a pharmacy technician. At this point, NPTA does not have a position statement on whether this degree should be aone or two year degree, when this policy should be implemented, or an appropriate approach for those already practicing. The requirement of formal education for pharmacy technicians, which is not present in most states, will be an integral part of the advancement of pharmacy practice, patient safety and a more efficient/effective health-care system.

National Certification: NPTA fully supports legislated requirements of certification by pharmacy technicians across the United States. National Certification is an appropriate and effective first step towards the educational and training goals for pharmacy technicians of the future.

Continuing Education: NPTA strongly believes that an independent organization should be setup to accredit and monitor providers of pharmacy technician level continuing education programs. NPTA feels that while certified pharmacy technicians should be allowed to utilize ACPE CE Programs, that no organization (local, state or national) should make ACPE programs a requirement, since currently all ACPE programs are designed at the pharmacist's level.

www.rxptec.org/

PTEC strongly recommends that all pharmacy education and programs seek ASHP accreditation.

PTEC strongly recommends that all pharmacy technician-training programs have a minimum of 600 contact hours, in accordance with ASHP accreditation standards.

In the short term, PTEC will:

  1. Work with AACP to design and implement programs which would provide step-wise technician training curriculum credits which could be used towards pharmacist training and education.

  2. Advocate a PTEC representative attend AACP board meetings, and invite AACP officers to attend PTEC board meetings.

PTEC advocates that:

  1. Within 5 years, all technician-training programs have a minimum of 600 contact hours; and

  2. Within 10 years, all technician-training programs evolve into 2-year associate degree programs.

PTEC recognizes the need for, and supports the development and introduction of, appropriate credentials for pharmacy technicians, including at the specialty level.

PTEC will work with AACP to design and implement programs which would provide step-wise technician-training curriculum credits that could be used towards pharmacist training and education.

The PTEC recommended pharmacy technology program content is published on its website: www.rxptec.org/rptpc.html

Wed, 03 Aug 2022 11:59:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/448330_6
Killexams : Health Career In A Year – Advanced-Level Pharmacy Tech Program

If you are looking for a health care career in a year, Chattanooga State offers a 12-month technical certificate course in Advanced-Level Pharmacy Technology, the area’s only American Association of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) accredited program. Currently, the program has openings for an additional 7-to-10 students.

According to Program Director Dr. Nancy Watts, the Pharmacy Tech program boasts an impressive 100 percent job placement rate and graduates from this program can look forward to pay averaging $18 per hour with benefits … roughly $37,000+ annually to start.

Students who qualify for financial aid, TN Promise or TN Reconnect scholarships may want to explore this opportunity for a good paying career in a short period of time. The Bureau of Labor Statistics states that the job demand for certified pharmacy technicians is expected to grow 12 percent from 2016-2026, faster than average for all occupations. 

The Advanced-Level program will prepare students for the national Pharmacy Technician Certification Board (PTCB) exam and supervisory roles in a variety of contemporary pharmacy settings such as: hospitals, community practice, specialty compounding, insurance companies, home-care and assisted living facilities. Students will acquire additional knowledge, skills and behaviors, and abilities beyond those of entry-level technicians needed for today’s advanced-level roles.

For more information on the Advanced-Level Pharmacy Technology program or information session, call 423-697-4450 or visit https://www.chattanoogastate.edu/pharmacy-technician-certificate for online applications and complete program information.

 

Sun, 17 Jul 2022 11:59:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.chattanoogan.com/2019/8/19/394800/Health-Career-In-A-Year-.aspx
Killexams : Pharmacy Technician Certification Board (PTCB) Launches Supply Chain And Inventory Management Certificate'

(MENAFN- PR Newswire)

WASHINGTON, July 19, 2022 /PRNewswire/ -- As part of its mission to ensure pharmacy technicians meet the evolving challenges in medication safety, the Pharmacy Technician Certification Board (PTCB) launched a new Supply Chain and Inventory Management Certificate today. This advanced credential assesses pharmacy technicians' knowledge of laws and regulations, administrative processes, inventory management, documentation requirements, and key players in the supply chain.

'Medications go through a lot of steps before they even get to the patient,' said PTCB Executive Director and CEO William Schimmel. 'Pharmacy technicians are integral to this process, and we want to make sure they have the tools and best practices they need to shepherd medications safely to their patients.'

Understanding supply chain operations promotes patient safety and pharmacy efficiency.

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Pharmacy technicians play an increasingly vital part in patient care teams, and fluency in supply chain and inventory management can help keep the focus on safety at every step - from the manufacturing lab to the medicine cabinet. By earning this certificate, technicians can demonstrate their understanding of supply chain and inventory management regulations, processes, and responsibilities and better adapt to changing guidelines.

'Keeping track of processes and inventory is precise work, making supply chain management one of the biggest challenges in pharmacy and healthcare today,' said Heidi McKinnon, PharmD, RPh, Sr. Program Manager of Supply Chain Quality and Compliance at Amazon. 'PTCB's new credential can help technicians operate more safely, accurately, and efficiently.'

As the nation's first and only nonprofit pharmacy technician credentialing organization, PTCB sets the unified standard for delivering medication safety and patient care in all practice settings. PTCB's commitment to best practices in patient care, transparency, and advancing career opportunities for pharmacy technicians has made its programs the most widely accepted credentials across the country.

For more information, please visit PTCB.org .

About PTCB The Pharmacy Technician Certification Board (PTCB) is the nation's first, most trusted, and only nonprofit pharmacy technician credentialing organization. Founded on the guiding principle that pharmacy technicians play a critical role in advancing medication and patient safety, PTCB has established the universal standard of excellence for those supporting patient care teams through offering the industry's most-recognized credentials, including the PTCB certification for Certified Pharmacy Technicians (CPhT).

SOURCE Pharmacy Technician Certification Board (PTCB)

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Killexams : FoliPrime Reviews – Do NOT Buy Foli Prime Yet!

FoliPrime is a nutritional supplement designed to support your hair.

By applying 2 to 3 drops of FoliPrime serum onto your scalp, you can purportedly “watch your hair grow back” while enjoying a natural hair loss remedy.

Does FoliPrime really regrow your hair? Can you cure baldness using FoliPrime? Keep reading to discover if FoliPrime lives up to the hype.

What is FoliPrime?

FoliPrime is a liquid serum sold exclusively online through TheFoliPrime.com.

Featuring a blend of natural ingredients, vitamins, minerals, herbs, and plant extracts, FoliPrime can purportedly regrow lost hair while maintaining hair and scalp health.

Just apply 2 to 3 drops of FoliPrime onto your scalp daily, then enjoy powerful results within days.

FoliPrime was created by Mark Peterson, a pharmacy technician passionate about plants. Mark developed the formula based on a traditional African remedy for hair loss. After refining the formula in his lab in the United States, Mark is confident FoliPrime can change your life.

How Does FoliPrime Work?

FoliPrime contains a blend of ingredients that work in different ways to support scalp health and hair health.

Some of the ingredients support healthy inflammation. Turmeric, for example, could support inflammation throughout your body – including on your scalp.

Other ingredients in FoliPrime supply your body the tools it needs to grow hair. Studies show zinc deficiency, for example, is linked to poor hair health. FoliPrime contains zinc for that reason.

FoliPrime also contains B vitamins, nutrients, plants, herbs, and other ingredients linked to hair health. Mark, the creator of FoliPrime, sourced many of these ingredients from a traditional African topical rub.

Villagers in Africa use these ingredients to protect their skin from the sun. However, Mark found the rub had a secondary benefit of encouraging hair growth and locking moisture into the skin, preventing your skin from drying out. By concentrating the rub into a serum, Mark was able to achieve hair growth-related benefits.

Today, anyone can buy FoliPrime online, spread 2 to 3 drops of serum on their scalp daily, and enjoy scalp-supporting benefits.

FoliPrime Benefits

According to the FoliPrime label, the formula can support three main benefits:

  • Support thinning hair
  • Promote strong and thick hair
  • Maintain healthy scalp

However, according to a video featured on TheFoliPrime.com, you can “watch your hair grow back” after using black lemon zest and other ingredients within the formula.

Some parts of the FoliPrime website claim FoliPrime doesn’t just maintain scalp and hair health: it regrows hair in balding areas of your scalp – something no other liquid supplement has been proven to do.

How to Use FoliPrime

Here’s how the manufacturer recommends using FoliPrime to regrow hair:

  • Dispense 2 to 3 drops of serum directly onto the scalp or into the palm of your hand
  • Using your fingertips, gently work the formula into your scalp
  • Massage the formula in a circular motion
  • Allow time for the hair to fully absorb the serum, and do not dry right away

FoliPrime Ingredients

FoliPrime contains a blend of vitamins, minerals, plant extracts, and herbs. Together, these ingredients can purportedly regrow hair, support scalp health, and help maintain healthy hair, among other benefits.

Here are all of the active ingredients in FoliPrime and how they work:

Lemon Peel Oil: Mark Peterson, the pharmacy technician who created FoliPrime, is a big believer in lemon peel oil. He claims that by rubbing “black lemon zest” on your scalp, you can “watch your hair grow back.” Each drop of FoliPrime contains lemon peel oil for that reason.

Castor Oil: FoliPrime contains castor oil, a popular beauty product ingredient linked to hydration and moisturization.

Turmeric: If you’re struggling with hair loss because of inflammation, then turmeric could help. FoliPrime contains turmeric, which is rich with natural antioxidants like curcumin. Curcumin is a curcuminoid shown to support healthy inflammation.

Niacin & Biotin: Niacin and biotin are two B vitamins found in many topical skin treatments. They may help brighten the skin.

Stinging Nettle: Stinging nettle is a natural plant extract that could support inflammation within the skin and scalp, making it easier for hair to regrow. Found in many supplements, stinging nettle is one of the most research-backed ingredients in FoliPrime. Studies genuinely show stinging nettle can boost hair growth more than a placebo, helping you support normal hair growth on your scalp.

Cayenne Pepper: Commonly found in weight loss aids, cayenne pepper contains capsaicin, the active ingredient that gives peppers their spiciness. Like stinging nettle, capsaicin is backed by surprising research showing it can help with hair growth and hair loss. One study found over 60% of people experienced better hair growth after applying a capsaicin gel to their scalp, for example. Capsaicin may work by temporarily raising inflammation in targeted areas of your scalp, forcing your body to send healing compounds (including blood and oxygen) to the area – just like it would target an infection.

Zinc: Zinc is crucial for multiple body processes, including hair growth. Some people have hair growth problems because of low zinc levels. If you are deficient in zinc, then the zinc in FoliPrime could help.

Hyaluronic Acid: One of the most popular natural moisturizing agents available today, hyaluronic acid is crucial for helping your skin absorb more moisture. Hyaluronic acid holds more water than an ordinary molecule, helping to boost hydration within your skin.

Tea Tree Oil: Backed by centuries of use in traditional medicine and modern beauty products, tea tree oil is one of the most proven ingredients in FoliPrime. Studies show tea tree oil can help lock moisture into your skin and hair. There’s a reason so many hair serums contain tea tree oil. Although there’s no evidence proving tea tree oil can regrow hair in bald spots, studies suggest tea tree oil can help maintain the health of your existing hair.

The Story Behind FoliPrime

FoliPrime was created by a man named Mark Peterson. Mark is a pharmacy technician who is passionate about using natural ingredients to solve common problems.

Mark got the idea for FoliPrime after discovering a village where people grow hair 20x faster than ordinary humans – despite not washing their hair or following modern medical practices.

Mark wanted to find out why these villagers grew hair so quickly. He traced their hair growth secret to the Namib Desert. The Himba tribe of the Namib Desert cover their entire hair and body with a mixture of clay, oil, and local herbs to protect themselves from the sun, bugs, and lock in moisture.

After identifying the specific oils, herbs, and ingredients used in this traditional mask, Mark started testing the formula back home. Eventually, his work led him to develop FoliPrime.

Mark has not published his formula in a peer-reviewed journal, nor has he released clinical trial results to the public. However, he’s confident his hair growth serum will “change your life,” and he cites several third party studies on individual ingredients within the FoliPrime formula.

Scientific Evidence for FoliPrime

The makers of FoliPrime cite over a dozen studies validating each individual ingredient within the formula. We’ll review those studies below to determine if FoliPrime can really regrow hair, support scalp health, and support hair growth.

First, Mark cites this 2018 study on the medicinal properties of black turmeric. Researchers found evidence traditional healers had used black turmeric for centuries. And, modern research linked turmeric to antioxidant activity, pain relief activity, and relaxant effects, among other benefits. The study does not connect black turmeric to hair growth or any hair-related benefits.

Mark is also a big believer in black turmeric because of its rhizomes. Studies suggest the rhizomes of black turmeric are linked to specific benefits. In this study, researchers found the rhizomes of black turmeric were rich with barium, silicon, carbon, magnesium, and chlorine, among other ingredients. That study shows turmeric may be rich in specific vitamins and minerals, although researchers did not connect this information to hair loss or hair growth.

Mark also cites WebMD’s page discussing herbs and hair growth. According to WebMD, certain herbs can help with hair growth, including horsetail, red clover, and stinging nettle. FoliPrime contains one of those ingredients (stinging nettle), which may help with hair growth because it’s rich in beta-sitosterol, which raises factors that stimulate hair growth. However, it’s unclear if stinging nettle works when applied topically: most supplements use stinging nettle orally, and you take it daily to supply your body the beta-sitosterol it needs.

A separate study linked stinging nettle to vasodilating and regenerative effects. Researchers found a specific connection between hair loss and stinging nettle, and researchers believe the connection was linked to the vasodilating, regenerative effects of stinging nettle.

Mark also cites a study reviewing various herbal treatments for baldness. In the study, researchers found saw palmetto, capsaicin, pumpkin seed oil, rosemary oil, onion juice, and garlic juice could all help stimulate hair growth. FoliPrime contains just one of those ingredients – capsaicin. Capsaicin could work by increasing serum IGF-I in patients. One study found 64.5% of patients treated with capsaicin grew hair, compared to just 11.8% in a control group. Furthermore, 88% of patients in the capsaicin group experienced hair growth following treatment. Researchers praised capsaicin gel for being a potentially effective hair growth treatment.

The zinc in FoliPrime could also help with hair growth. It’s unclear if zinc works when applied topically, but oral supplementation of zinc is linked to hair growth. In this 2012 study, researchers found oral zinc supplementation “cured or improved” hair loss in all patients.

However, it’s important to note there are only two FDA-approved way to treat hair loss: finasteride (Propecia) and minoxidil (Rogaine). Studies show these two treatments can treat pattern baldness and regrow or stop hair loss in balding areas. There’s no evidence that any nutritional supplement or topical serum can regrow hair in balding areas – although they could support hair growth on the rest of your scalp and help you maintain current hair growth.

Overall, FoliPrime contains a blend of ingredients linked to hair loss, hair growth, and scalp health. Although some ingredients may work more effectively when taken orally, and we don’t know the dosage or concentration of ingredients in FoliPrime, it’s possible these ingredients could support various hair-related benefits.

FoliPrime Ingredients Label

The makers of FoliPrime disclose the full list of ingredients in FoliPrime, although they do not disclose individual dosages of each ingredient.

The largest ingredient in FoliPrime is purified water, with MCT oil and argan oil being the next most common ingredients.

Here are all of the ingredients in FoliPrime, according to the label:

Unlisted dosage of purified water, MCT oil, argan oil, tea tree oil, lemon essential oil, castor oil, turmeric oil, candelilla wax, niacin, biotin, stinging nettle leaf extract, cayenne pepper fruit extract, zinc oxide, and hyaluronic acid

Each bottle contains 2 fl. oz. of formula, or around 60mL.

FoliPrime Pricing

FoliPrime is priced at $69 per bottle, although the price drops as low as $49 per bottle when ordering multiple units.

Here’s how pricing breaks down on the official FoliPrime website:

  • 1 Bottle: $69 + Free US Shipping
  • 3 Bottles: $177 + Free US Shipping
  • 6 Bottles: $294 + Free US Shipping

Each bottle contains 2 fl. oz. of formula, or 60mL. The manufacturer claims each bottle contains a 30 day supply of liquid formula. Because the manufacturer recommends applying 2 to 3 drops of serum directly onto your scalp daily, each bottle contains 60 to 90 drops of liquid formula.

FoliPrime Refund Policy

FoliPrime is backed by a 60 day moneyback guarantee.

If you do not regrow your hair with FoliPrime, or if you are unhappy with the results of the formula for any reason within 60 days, then you can request a complete refund with no questions asked.

Contact the manufacturer to initiate the refund process.

About FoliPrime

FoliPrime is an Akron, Ohio-based company. The company partnered with a pharmacy technician named Mark Peterson to create FoliPrime.

You can contact FoliPrime via the following:

Online Support Form: https://thefoliprime.com/help/contact-us.php

FoliPrime makes their formula in an FDA-approved, GMP-certified facility using natural ingredients.

While most supplement companies source natural ingredients from cheap factories in Asia, FoliPrime claims to source all ingredients “from local growers” who let plants naturally grow to full maturity with “no chemical treatments.”

Final Word

FoliPrime is a nutritional supplement that uses vitamins, minerals, plant extracts, herbs, and other ingredients to help support hair growth.

Some people use FoliPrime to regrow hair in balding areas of their scalp. Others use FoliPrime to support hair growth on parts of their scalp that still have hair.

By rubbing 2 to 3 drops of FoliPrime serum on your scalp daily, you can purportedly enjoy a range of benefits.

To learn more about FoliPrime or to buy the serum online today, visit the official website at TheFoliPrime.com >>>

Mon, 18 Jul 2022 10:31:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://www.bellevuereporter.com/marketplace/foliprime-reviews-do-not-buy-foli-prime-yet-2/
Killexams : CMC adds pharmacy technician program to catalog

A new program at Colorado Mountain College could help fill pharmacy technician openings around the state, a CMC spokesperson said.

“Most pharmacies in all of our CMC serving areas are hiring at least two techs at this point,” said Amy Connerton, the CMC Pharmacy Technician Program director and an associate professor, explaining the college serves nine counties throughout the state.

As a result of Colorado legislation signed into law in 2019, pharmacy technicians working within the state are required to receive certification through the State Board of Pharmacy.



CMC’s pharmacy technician program enables graduates to apply for the Pharmacy Technician Certification Exam, and if they pass the exam, they are eligible to work as technicians in hospitals, clinics, assisted-living facilities or pharmacies.

“The pharmacy technician path offers a level of exposure to the medical field that grants people the opportunity to determine whether they would like to continue with a medical career,” said Elizabeth Poulos, CMC dean of the School of Nursing, Health Sciences, Public Safety, Wellness and Outdoor Studies. “And they have a guaranteed job following certification to provide them with hourly income as they decide where to go with their medical career.”



A CMC news release states pharmacy technicians in Colorado can earn up to $27 an hour.

To be eligible for the program, a potential student needs to pass an academic placement test, but there are no course prerequisites, Connerton said. Students entering the program need to take only the courses related to the program to earn their certification, she added.

“Students will get a basic introduction to pharmacy, learn about law and ethics, calculations, drug classifications, compounding medications and aseptic techniques,” Connerton said.

With eight students enrolled in the inaugural program, Connerton said she felt the certification courses, which consist of about 29 credits, were off to a good start, but she would like to see enrollment double in the future.

“The program is offered completely online, so students can participate from all over our district,” she said. “Our goal is for everyone enrolled to receive their certification within three semesters.”

Students currently enrolled are scheduled to graduate from the program in July. People interested in the program can enroll for the college’s 2022 spring semester through CMC’s open enrollment program, a news release states. Go to ColoradoMtn.edu for more information about enrollment.

Once certified, Poulos said students could be placed with employers partnering with the college.

“We will follow up with them after they receive their certs to ensure they found work,” she said. “If not, we can help them build those relationships with our network of health care providers.”

Reporter Ike Fredregill can be reached at 970-384-9154 or by email at ifredregill@postindependent.com.

Sat, 20 Nov 2021 00:08:00 -0600 en-US text/html https://www.postindependent.com/news/cmc-adds-pharmacy-technician-program-to-catalog/
Killexams : WellSpan Chambersburg Hospital team members ratify new three-year contract

WellSpan Chambersburg Hospital team members represented by Service Employees International Union Healthcare Pennsylvania (SEIU Healthcare PA) voted Tuesday to ratify the tentative agreement reached last week between the Hospital and the union, according to a WellSpan news release.

WellSpan Health logo

SEIU Healthcare Pennsylvania represents thousands of professional and technical employees, direct care workers and service employees in hospitals, skilled nursing facilities, home and community based services, and state facilities across the commonwealth, according to the union.

“We are very pleased to have reached an agreement that provides our team members with a competitive economic package and substantially enhanced benefits,” John Massimilla, WellSpan vice president and WellSpan Chambersburg Hospital president, said in the news release. “We believe this strong package will help us recruit and retain the employees needed to care for our community.”

The three-year agreement covers approximately 1,300 WellSpan Chambersburg Hospital employees and will expire July 1, 2025.

In an email Friday morning, a WellSpan spokesman was not able to immediately provide details, such as raises and benefits included in the new contract, as well as terms of the previous contract to use as a comparison.

Read more:keep safe from ticks while enjoying summer fun

WellSpan Health states that its vision is "to reimagine healthcare through the delivery of comprehensive, equitable health and wellness solutions throughout our continuum of care. As an integrated delivery system focused on leading in value-based care, we encompass nearly 1,900 employed providers, 220 locations, eight award-winning hospitals, home care and a behavioral health organization serving South Central Pennsylvania and northern Maryland."

Benjamin Knight, a certified pharmacy technician at the hospital and local union chapter president, said the agreement was an "investment" in the hospital.

"We’re glad WellSpan Chambersburg Hospital is recognizing our hard work and our dedication to providing the highest standards of care and safety to our community members,” Knight said in the news release. “Investment in our hospital is essential. We appreciate that we are able to work alongside WellSpan to accomplish that and continue to lead the way in exceptional patient care.”

This article originally appeared on Waynesboro Record Herald: WellSpan Chambersburg Hospital union members ratify contract

Fri, 08 Jul 2022 00:29:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://www.yahoo.com/lifestyle/wellspan-chambersburg-hospital-team-members-122926390.html
Killexams : Impact of Robotic Antineoplastic Preparation on Safety, Workflow, and Costs

Antineoplastic therapy represents a highly beneficial class of medications that must be used with great care because of their toxicity and narrow therapeutic window. Intravenous antineoplastic agents present additional safety challenges.14 In addition to patient safety concerns, antineoplastic preparation and administration create significant staff risks.59

The medication use system includes several stages that are vulnerable to opportunities for potentially harmful medication errors (MEs), such as incorrect drug, dose, concentration, or storage.10 latest efforts to Strengthen medication safety have predominantly addressed the ordering, transcription, and administration stages of the system. Technologic solutions have greatly improved medication safety and workflow efficiency during these medication system stages including computerized provider order entry, bar-coded medications, and smart infusion pumps.11

Antineoplastic and adjuvant medication preparation, dispensing, and waste disposal make up a standardized pharmacy process that includes many safety steps.12 These steps ensure correct matching of the order to the patient and the medication, drug transfer to both intermediate and final delivery containers, and careful disposal of waste. The costs for the process including materials, equipment, and labor are quite high. In addition to the risks to patients, there are risks to staff associated with exposures to antineoplastics in the form of spills, aerosol exposure, and needle sticks.13,14

Robotic compounding environments offer the potential for safer and more cost-effective antineoplastic and adjuvant medication preparation. However, technologic interventions can also introduce unintended consequences including potential or genuine harmful outcomes.15 Therefore, we undertook a study of the impact of a robotic device that prepares antineoplastics and adjuvant medications on patient and staff safety, unintended consequences, workflow efficiencies, and costs.

The Brigham and Women's/Dana-Farber Cancer Care Center is a 124-bed inpatient center providing comprehensive oncology care within Brigham and Women's Hospital, a tertiary care 793-bed hospital. In 2009, the Brigham and Women's Hospital pharmacy provided approximately 16,500 antineoplastic and 4,000 adjuvant medication doses.

The primary outcomes were errors with the potential for patient harm (serious MEs) and errors with the potential for staff harm (staff safety events). We also assessed the unintended consequences of robotic use, including mechanical and software failures and the accuracy of prepared drugs, and estimated the labor and ancillary material costs associated with medication preparation. We did not evaluate the frequency of adverse drug events. Definitions are listed in Table 1.

Table

Table 1. Definitions of Outcome Measures

Table 1. Definitions of Outcome Measures

Measure Definition
Medication error Any error in the process of ordering, preparing, dispensing, or administering a drug; medication errors identified in this study were only associated with drug preparation
Serious medication error Medication error with the potential for life-threatening, serious, or significant patient harm
Staff safety event Potentially hazardous near-miss breach of medication preparation or disposal procedures or policies
Dose variation Percent difference between the ordered (intended) dose and measured prepared dose
Failed medication preparation Measured medication preparation that is > 5% ± variation from the prescribed dose and does not meet pharmacy quality standards
Mechanical failure event Failure in the mechanical manipulation of medication vials, syringes, or final administration containers resulting in an incomplete and/or incorrectly prepared product rejected by the robot
Software failure event Failure in the robotic software system resulting in an incomplete and/or incorrectly prepared product rejected by the robot
Drug preparation time Observed time taken in the preparation of medications by pharmacy staff including both the pharmacist and pharmacy technician
Ancillary material cost Cost of materials used to produce an antineoplastic or adjuvant preparation, including hazardous drug protective and containment equipment and additional fluids used to dilute or deliver the active ingredient.
Labor cost Cost of antineoplastic or adjuvant preparation by pharmacists and technicians based on the amount of time used in preparing medications and hourly salary and fringe benefit rates

The study was conducted between May 2009 and April 2011 and was approved by the institutional review board. Consent for voluntary observation was obtained from pharmacy personnel who prepared antineoplastic and adjuvant medications.

Description of Manual Chemotherapy Preparation

The manual process for antineoplastic and adjuvant medication production in the pharmacy during the baseline period is as follows. A physician order in the computerized order entry system is Verified by the pharmacist. The pharmacy technician scans the medication and diluent; an additional label instructs the technician as to the volume of medication to add to the diluent bag, and it is brought into the biologic safety cabinet (commonly known as a laminar flow hood) for manufacture. The final product is checked by the pharmacist, who compares the preparation label with all vials used to make the preparation and electronically signs his or her approval in the pharmacy verification system.

Description of the Robotic Intervention

We studied the Health Robotics CytoCare robot (Bolzano, Italy), which was installed in mid 2009. The robot maintains the ISO Class 5 standard for aseptic handling of medications with minimal microbiologic contamination including a negative-pressure environment to protect staff from antineoplastic exposures. The robotically prepared production system is the same as the manual process up to the point of the physical preparation of the products.

The integrity of the microbial and internal gravimetric dose accuracy checking of the robot was validated by outside sources. Before using the robot, test medications were prepared and sent to an outside testing laboratory (Dyanlabs, St Louis, MO). These antineoplastic medications were tested for accuracy, sterility, pyrogenicity, pH level, and concentration before the robot was certified for use. The accuracy testing was done with high-performance liquid chromatography. Recently, the pharmacy department implemented a comprehensive program to test the accuracy of robotically compounded sterile products every 6 months and sterility and pyrogenicity on a weekly basis. The robot also has self-diagnostic software that checks and verifies the balance scale daily before use.

The robotic software organizes the sequence of preparations according to the expected administration time and prompts the technician to scan and load the products for preparation. The products are compounded by the robot through a gravimetric process to precisely weigh the products used to prepare a dose. The final product is considered acceptable by the robot if it falls between ± 5% of the expected weight. Products that do not meet this specification are failed by the robot. The pharmacist checks the robot-generated final label detailing how much medication was added to the diluent bag and the final percent variance and verifies this electronically in the robotic software and pharmacy system.

Medication and Staff Safety

We directly observed the antineoplastic and adjuvant medication production process as described by Flynn et al,16 Allan et al,17 and us18 in previous observational trials. Nondisguised observations were conducted by trained pharmacist observers using a tablet computer with a Microsoft Access database for time-motion capture.19,20 Inter-rater reliability testing was conducted among the pharmacist observers. Potential events recorded by observers were independently reviewed and classified by a physician (J.M.R.) and pharmacist (W.W.C.) experienced in medication safety research. Reviewers were blinded as to the study period of the events.

Events were rated as to the presence of a ME or staff safety event using a five-point Likert scale and the severity of potential harm to patients or staff. Potential severity of patient and staff safety was rated as life-threatening, severe, significant, or little or no harm.21 Events rated as little or no harm were not included in the primary outcomes. Events on which the reviewers did not initially come to consensus were adjudicated in person.

Medication Accuracy

Accuracy was determined using specific gravity calculations to compare the genuine product dose weight with the ordered dose.22 The specify gravity for each medication and reconstitution fluid was obtained from the manufacturer. A demo of preweighed, prepackaged manufacturing sets was used to standardize and test our process.

For each measured preparation, the variance from the ordered dose was determined. This measurement process was not blinded to the staff because of the pre/post nature of the intervention. The measured preparations were convenience samples chosen on random days not known in advance by the pharmacy staff. Any medication preparation that failed our accuracy measurements was disposed of and was not administered to a patient.

We considered the final product (antineoplastic or adjuvant) preparation to pass the accuracy measurement if the measured weight was within ± 5% of the predicted weight and to fail if outside those parameters. The US Pharmacopeia Chapter 795 standard for compounded preparations allows a variance of ± 10%.23 We used the tighter variance limits of more than ± 5%, because they are consistent with our pharmacy standards and the tighter standards of the robot as well. Products with ± 5% to 10% variance were rated as insignificant deviations with little or no potential for harm. Products with more than ± 10% variance were rated as serious deviations that were potentially harmful.

Workflow of Medication Preparation

A trained research pharmacist conducted the time-motion analysis of the medication preparation workflow at a different time from the safety observations. The production workflow time started during the baseline phase when the pharmacy technician placed the agents and ancillary items in the laminar flow hood and during the intervention phase when the technician placed the products for preparation in the robot. We timed the pharmacy technician completing the drug preparation/manufacture process from that point forward. Technician time when using the robot included loading and unloading the product from the robot. We also included the time required for pharmacist verification.

Costs of Medication Preparation

We calculated the labor costs of the drug preparation time using the time-motion data and the staff hourly wage and fringe rates. The cost of ancillary materials used to make the final products during drug preparation was also calculated. Ancillary materials included syringes, needles, final administration containers, reconstitution fluids, and the components of the closed-system transfer device (PhaSeal; BD, Franklin Lakes, NJ), which included the vial adapter, injection adapter, and infusion adapter.

Unintended Consequences

We also monitored for the presence of unintended consequences. During the observations, we documented mechanical and software failure events that although they had little or no potential for patient or staff harm, did contribute to delays in medication preparation or the need to repeat preparations. The effects of these unintended consequences were also captured in the time-motion analysis of medication production times.

Statistical Analyses

Significance values between the study periods of serious MEs, staff safety events, and medication accuracy were calculated using a two-tailed Fisher's exact test. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to assess variance in the medication doses, workflow, and costs of ancillary goods analyses. The κ statistic was used to determine inter-rater reliability for events.

Safety

A total of 49 and 104 safety observation sessions spanning 87 and 175 hours were conducted in the baseline and intervention periods, respectively. We observed 1,421 and 972 drug preparations (bags and syringes) in the baseline and intervention periods, respectively. We found nine (0.7%) and seven (0.7%) serious MEs (P = .8) in the baseline and interventions periods, respectively. No events were judged potentially life threatening, with events nearly evenly split between significant and serious level of harm.

We observed 73 (5.1%) and 28 (2.9%) staff safety events (P = .007) in the baseline and intervention periods, respectively (Table 2). All events were judged to be potentially significantly harmful; none were considered serious or life threatening. None of the observed staff safety events resulted in genuine harm. Examples of safety events and unintended consequences are summarized in Appendix Table A1 (online only). The inter-rater reliability for event rating was good (κ = 0.51).

Table

Table 2. Types of Errors During Antineoplastic and Adjuvant Medication Preparation

Table 2. Types of Errors During Antineoplastic and Adjuvant Medication Preparation

Error Type Baseline: Manual Preparation
Intervention: Robotic Preparation
No. % No. %
Serious medication errors
    Wrong dose and/or final concentration 2 22 6 86
    Wrong drug 3 37 0 0
    Wrong technique 2 22 0 0
    Incomplete seal of medication access port 2 22 0 0
    Other 0 0 1 14
    Total 9 100 7 100
Staff safety events
    Spill or leak 34 47 23 82
    Closed-system transfer device failure 2 2 0 0
    Wrong technique 2 2 0 0
    Lack of protective equipment 35 48 1 4
    Other 0 0 4 14
    Total 73 100 28 100

Unintended Consequences

There were 45 events of unintended consequence (4.6%) specifically attributable to the new technology, including 41 mechanical and four software failure events. None of these events resulted in the production of a final product, and they thus were not judged to be serious MEs. These events included 24 cases with no drug injected into the bag or syringe; four cases of drug weight failure rejected by the internal checking system of the robot; three cases of bags, syringes, or needles dropped or cracked before completion; three reconstitution shaker failures; two medication carousel malfunctions; five other mechanical failures; and four software failures preventing drug preparation completion.

Medication Accuracy

We conducted accuracy measurement on 44 days including 184 baseline preparations and 110 intervention robotic preparations (Table 3). In the baseline phase, there were a total of 23 failed preparations (12.5%) and one failed preparation (0.9%) in the intervention period (P = .002) using our cutoff point of more than ± 5% variance. On secondary analysis using the industry standard of more than ± 10% variance, eight preparations (4.3%) failed in the baseline and none failed when robotically prepared.

Table

Table 3. Accuracy of Prepared Antineoplastic and Adjuvant Medications

Table 3. Accuracy of Prepared Antineoplastic and Adjuvant Medications

Agent Baseline Period
Intervention Period
P
Total Bags No. Failed Preparation
Percent Dose Variation
Total Bags No. Failed Preparation
Percent Dose Variation
No. % Median Range No. % Median Range Failed Preparation Dose Variation
Antineoplastics
    Busulfan 5 1 20 2.9 7 to −1.5 0 NA NA
    Cisplatin 3 0 0 1.8 2.3 to −1.3 3 0 0 2.2 3.6 to −2.0 1
    Cyclophosphamide 48 1 2.1 1.7 5.7 to +1.8 0 NA NA
    Cytarabine 50 9 18 2.2 −17.6 to +28.8 26 1 3.8 2.0 −5.8 to +4.1 .15 .16
    Etoposide 21 3 14.3 2.7 −12.0 to +1.1 39 0 0 3.8 −1.3 to +5.0 .04 .16
    Fludarabine 22 7 31.8 3.8 −51.3 to +1.5 12 0 0 3.1 −5.0 to +0.6 .04 .26
    Methotrexate 7 1 14.3 2.6 −8.0 to +2.8 0 NA NA
    Mitoxantrone 7 1 14.3 2.7 −7.0 to +0.2 0 NA NA
    Total 163 23 14.1 2.1 80 1 1.3 2.9 < .001 .13
Adjuvants
    Leucovorin 0 4 0 0 1.8 −2.6 to −1.1 NA NA
    Mesna 21 0 0 2.4 −4.3 to +4.3 26 0 0 1.3 −4.9 to +1.6 1 .05
    Total 21 0 0 2.4 30 0 0 1.4 1.4 1 .05
All preparations 184 23 12.5 2.1 110 1 0.9 2.5 < .001 .91

Workflow of Medication Preparation

We conducted a total of 20 workflow observations including 34 hours observing 281 preparations during the baseline period and 18 hours observing 100 preparations in intervention period. The mean preparation times were 7 minutes 24 seconds and 10 minutes 51 seconds in the baseline and intervention periods, respectively (P = .009). Although the pharmacy technician's mean drug preparation time increased by 160% (4 minutes 12 seconds v 10 minutes 5 seconds), the pharmacist's time decreased by 76% (3 minutes 13 seconds v 46 seconds) from the baseline to the intervention period.

Costs of Ancillary Materials and Labor

The hourly salary and fringe costs were $25.44 per hour for pharmacy technicians and $64.23 per hour for staff pharmacists. The mean total pharmacy labor costs per preparation were $5.22 and $5.10 per preparation in the baseline and intervention periods, respectively. The mean costs for ancillary materials per preparation were $13.36 and $6.44 in the baseline and intervention periods, respectively (P < .001).

Robots have been used for several years in pharmacy preparation of predominantly nontoxic medications.24 Our study of a robotic compounder for antineoplastic and adjuvant agents found no overall change in serious MEs, but did find benefits with respect to staff safety and costs. Although we observed no genuine events of staff harm during the study, we found a significant reduction in the number of potentially harmful staff safety events, in part because of the containment area of the robot, which is sealed during the compounding process. We found many mechanical or software failure events associated with robotic preparation that were not potentially harmful to patients but did affect workflow and resulted in some wasted medications.

The most impressive finding was the improved accuracy of prepared chemotherapy and adjuvants by robotic compounding, with a reduction in the failure rate from 12.5% to 0.9%. After liberalizing the accuracy standards from ± 5% to ± 10% variance, we still found impressive improvements in failure rates because of the accuracy of the robot (4.5% to 0%). As a result of these observations, the pharmacy staff underwent reeducation to Strengthen accurate manual preparations under the hood. The pharmacy also installed the i.v.SOFT gravimetric workflow software (Health Robotics) for manual preparation of antineoplastic and adjuvant medications.

We found that by eliminating the pharmacy technician's handling of open/exposed antineoplastic and adjuvant medications during robotic preparations, we were able to reduce ancillary costs associated with several components of the closed-system transfer device. In both arms of the study, the infusion adapter portion of the closed-system transfer device was still required on the final administration container; the vial and injection adapters used during manual preparation were no longer necessary during robotic preparation. The savings for these components accounted for 60% of the overall cost of the closed-system components, and when annualized for the 16,500 antineoplastic bags/syringes prepared in our hospital in 2009, they would have saved $115,500 in material costs.

We found no overall change in the pharmacy department labor costs between the study periods; there was a decrease in pharmacist time observed in the intervention period because of the quicker scanning process associated with the robotic software package. The pharmacist could scan the final administration container with all product information displayed on a single screen. This process prevented the pharmacist from having to gather various data, both in computer and written form, to verify all information.

We also found a number of unintended consequences associated with robotic mechanical and software failures. Although the majority of these observations resulted in no medication used before the production was halted, there was wasted medication in a minority of these events. The impact of these unintended consequences on pharmacy costs because of wasted medications could not be determined during our study. Several robotic failures were corrected during and after the latter part of the study with manufacturer updates to software and mechanical features such as improved clamp design and a second robotic arm. Our experience with this early-generation robotic technology is similar to our experience with first-generation smart infusion pumps, where iterative device improvements were made, in part, in response to our findings.25 In that study, we discovered several hardware and software characteristics that have since been improved to reduce pump input errors and risky nursing workflow shortcuts that bypassed the decision support safety benefits of the pump.

Lastly, we cannot make any conclusions about the clinical impact of the enhanced accuracy of robotically prepared medications. It is likely that in the future, technologies will be available to inexpensively and rapidly confirm the concentration and dosage accuracy of a large variety of high-risk prepared intravenous medications such as antineoplastic agents, vasopressors, vasodilators, and narcotics. Such technologies will likely include in-line sensors that can be used in pharmacies, operating rooms, or critical care units.26

Regarding limitations, our study compared only the costs of ancillary items used for medications manually prepared in the baseline period and robotically prepared in the intervention period and did not account for all costs associated with antineoplastic and adjuvant preparation. We were unable to measure the impact of the robot on potentially reducing the amount of disposed unused portions of drug vials or increased waste resulting from mechanical failures or any increased waste associated with failed preparations. The cost of this waste cannot be charged to patients, and it adds significant expense to the annual pharmacy budget.27 We did not conduct a comprehensive cost-benefit analysis, which would have included the cost of the robot installation and training pharmacy staff to use the robot. We studied the first-generation model of this particular robot, and during the early study stages, it was programmed to prepare fewer antineoplastics than toward the latter study stages. Although the closed-system transfer device was used in both arms of the study, the robotic process itself does not provide any protection from exposure during the administration of medication beyond the continued use of the infusion adapter by nursing. We did not use wipe, air, or biologic sampling to determine genuine exposure to antineoplastic medications in our study. To better understand the amounts of antineoplastic medications that staff are exposed to during preparation of these products, additional studies would need to be performed. Our findings may not be generalizable to other commercially available robotic devices that can prepare antineoplastic and adjuvant medications.

In conclusion, the implementation of a robot to manufacture antineoplastic and adjuvant medications resulted in no change in the rate of serious MEs but did significantly reduce staff safety events when compared with manual preparation. The robot was far more accurate in preparing antineoplastic and adjuvant doses than manual preparation. Unintended mechanical and software failures were introduced by the robot, but these were not considered safety hazards. Additional studies are needed to assess the overall costs and benefits of using this expensive but potentially valuable alternative to manual preparation of antineoplastic and adjuvant medications and the clinical impact of the improved accuracy of preparations.

Copyright © 2012 by American Society of Clinical Oncology

Supported by McKesson Automation, Cranberry, PA. Presented in part in poster format at the 45th American Society of Healthcare Pharmacists Midyear Symposium, Anaheim, CA, December 5-9, 2010. We thank Stuart Lipsitz, PhD, Michele Campolielto, PharmD, Kwok Szeto, RPh, and Henry Lam, RPh, for their contributions.

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Sat, 30 Jul 2022 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html https://ascopubs.org/doi/10.1200/JOP.2012.000600
Killexams : Rising retail, restaurant, fast-food wages make hiring tougher for manufacturing, construction, health care

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Wed, 03 Aug 2022 17:33:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://www.usatoday.com/story/money/2022/08/03/u-s-wage-growth-retail-restaurant-pay-now-rivals-skilled-jobs/10212553002/ Killexams : Drug Topics® Announces the Addition of The National Pharmacy Technician Association to its Strategic Alliance Partnership Program

ISELIN, N.J., Aug. 03, 2022 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Drug Topics®, the leading multimedia resource for pharmacy professionals, today announced that it has added the National Pharmacy Technician Association (NPTA) to its Strategic Alliance Partnership (SAP) program.

“We are excited about this important opportunity to partner with NPTA,” said William Mulderry, vice president, group publisher of Drug Topics® and Total Pharmacy®. “It’s clear from the current trends in U.S. health care that the role of the pharmacy technician continues to grow in key areas within retail pharmacies, testing and disease prevention to name two. NPTA is the largest professional trade association for pharmacy technicians in the world. Working together, NPTA and Drug Topics® can accelerate more efficiently the shared knowledge amongst the busiest patient-facing pharmacists and pharmacy technicians in the country.”

Founded in 1999, NPTA represents over 80,000 individuals practicing in a diverse variety of practice settings, including community pharmacy, health-system pharmacy, federal pharmacy services, purchasing and education, among others.

“We are thrilled to partner with Drug Topics®,” said Mike Johnston, CPhT-Adv, founder and CEO of NPTA. “Drug Topics® has an unmatched record in serving pharmacists with insights on the latest issues in pharmacy practice, and NPTA is excited to help extend their focus and impact to pharmacy technicians.”

The Drug Topics® SAP program is a community of medical associations, societies and advocacy groups that foster collaboration and an open exchange of information among trusted peers for the benefit of patients and their families. As part of this joint effort, Drug Topics® will work with the Association of Community Cancer Centers (ACCC) to inform and educate practicing pharmacists in Directions in Oncology Pharmacy™ and Directions in Health Systems™ publications.

For more information about the Drug Topics® SAP program, visit its website.

About The National Pharmacy Technician Association

The National Pharmacy Technician Association (NPTA), which was founded in 1999, is the largest professional trade association for pharmacy technicians in the world. The association represents over 80,000 individuals practicing in a diverse variety of practice settings, including community pharmacy, health-system pharmacy, federal pharmacy services, purchasing and education, among others. NPTA is committed to advancing the pharmacy technician career through education, advocacy and support. www.pharmacytechnician.org

About Drug Topics®

Founded in 1857, Drug Topics® is a valued content resource amongst the busiest, patient-facing pharmacists in the United States. The publication provides regular news, expert opinion, industry analysis, career guidance and peer perspectives. Drug Topics® continuing education, powered by AdvanCE™, is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education as a provider of continuing pharmacy education. Drug Topics® is a brand of MJH Life Sciences™, the largest privately held, independent, full-service medical media company in North America dedicated to delivering trusted health care news across multiple channels.

About Total Pharmacy®

Designed specifically for entrepreneurial pharmacists and independent pharmacy market stakeholders, Total Pharmacy® delivers resources to effectively maximize profits, minimize costs and Strengthen the overall patient experience. Our mission is to redefine the value and standards of community pharmacy by providing trusted content and business solutions that drive measurable change in healthcare delivery. Total Pharmacy® is a brand of MJH Life Sciences™, the largest privately held, independent, full-service medical media company in North America dedicated to delivering trusted health care news across multiple channels.

Drug Topics® Media Contact
Lauren Biscaldi
lbiscaldi@mjhlifesciences.com


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Killexams : White Paper on Pharmacy Technicians 2002: Needed Changes Can No Longer Wait

Sidebar: Appendix - Policy Statements of National Associations

The following statements are published with the permission of the respective organizations and were accurate as of March 2002, with the exception of (d), which was accurate as of June 2002.

  1. The American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy

  2. The American Association of Pharmacy Technicians

  3. The American Pharmaceutical Association

  4. The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists

  5. The National Association of Chain Drug Stores

  6. The National Community Pharmacists Association

  7. The National Pharmacy Technician Association

  8. The Pharmacy Technicians Educators Council

www.aacp.org/Docs/AACPFuntions/AboutAACP/4308_CumulativePolicies,1980-2001.pdf

Policies On Supportive Personnel

  1. AACP supports inclusion in the professional pharmacy curriculum of didactic and experiential material related to the supervision and management of supportive personnel in pharmacy practices. (Source: Professional Affairs Committee, 1990)

  2. Training for technicians in pharmacy must be based on competencies derived from tasks that are deemed appropriate by the profession and currently performed by technical personnel. (Source: Professional Affairs Committee, 1989)

  3. Pharmacy schools should offer their assistance to supportive personnel training programs to assure that programs meet appropriate educational objectives. (Source: Professional Affairs

  4. Training for supportive personnel in pharmacy must be based on sound educational principles with clearly established competency objectives. (Source: Professional Affairs Committee, 1987)

www.pharmacytechnician.com/

Preamble

Pharmacy Technicians are healthcare professionals who assist pharmacists in providing the best possible care for patients. The principles of this code, which apply to pharmacy technicians working in any and all settings, are based on the application and support of the moral obligations that guide the pharmacy profession in relationships with patients, healthcare professionals and society.

Principles

  1. A pharmacy technician's first consideration is to ensure the health and safety of the patient, and to use knowledge and skills to the best of his/her ability in serving patients.

  2. A pharmacy technician supports and promotes honesty and integrity in the profession, which includes a duty to observe the law, maintain the highest moral and ethical conduct at all times and uphold the ethical principles of the profession.

  3. A pharmacy technician assists and supports the pharmacists in the safe and efficacious and cost effective distribution of health services and healthcare resources.

  4. A pharmacy technician respects and values the abilities of pharmacists, colleagues and other healthcare professionals.

  5. A pharmacy technician maintains competency in his/her practice and continually enhances his/her professional knowledge and expertise.

  6. A pharmacy technician respects and supports the patient's individuality, dignity, and confidentiality.

  7. A pharmacy technician respects the confidentiality of a patient's records and discloses pertinent information only with proper authorization.

  8. A pharmacy technician never assists in dispensing, promoting or distribution of medication or medical devices that are not of good quality or do not meet the standards required by law.

  9. A pharmacy technician does not engage in any activity that will discredit the profession, and will expose, without fear or favor, illegal or unethical conduct of the profession.

  10. A pharmacy technician associates with and engages in the support of organizations, which promote the profession of pharmacy through the utilization and enhancement of pharmacy technicians.

www.aphanet.org

APhA supports the use of automation for prescription preparation and supports technical and personnel assistance for performing administrative duties and facilitating pharmacist's provision of pharmaceutical care.

The American Pharmaceutical Association supports the pharmacists' authority to control the distribution process and personnel involved and the responsibility for all completed medication orders regardless of practice setting.
(J Am Pharm Assoc. NS36:396. June 1996)

  1. APhA recognizes, for the purpose of these policies, the following definitions:

    1. Licensure: The process by which an agency of government grants permission to an individual to engage in a given occupation upon finding that the applicant has attained the minimal degree of competency necessary to ensure that the public health, safety, and welfare will be reasonably well protected. Within pharmacy, a pharmacist is licensed by a State Board of Pharmacy.

    2. Registration: The process of making a list or being enrolled in an existing list.

  2. APhA supports the role of the State Boards of Pharmacy in protecting the public in its interaction with the profession, including the Boards' oversight of pharmacy technicians, through their control of pharmacists and pharmacy licenses.

  3. In States where the Board of Pharmacy chooses to exercise some direct oversight of technicians, APhA recommends a registration system.

  4. APhA reaffirms its opposition to licensure of pharmacy technicians by statute or regulation.
    (J Am Pharm Assoc. NS36:396. June 1996)

The committee recommends that APhA endorse the use of properly supervised supportive personnel in pharmacy practice as a positive step toward improving the quality and quantity of pharmaceutical services provided by the profession.
(J Am Pharm Assoc. NS11:277. May 1971)

The committee would be opposed to any assumption of the pharmacist's professional functions by sub-professionals or technicians. There is a need to determine exactly what these functions are and the relative position of the pharmacy intern. Under no circumstance should a sub-professional program in pharmacy create an individual such as the former "qualified assistant" still practicing in some states.
(J Am Pharm Assoc. NS6:332. June 1966)

www.ashp.org
See also www.ashp.org/public/hq/ (accessed 2002 Apr 4).
See also www.ashp.org/public/hq/policy/2001PolicyPositions.pdf (accessed 2002 Apr 4).

Credentialing of pharmacy technicians

Source: Council on Legal and Public Affairs To advocate and support registration of pharmacy technicians by state boards of pharmacy (registration is the process of making a list or being enrolled in an existing list; registration should be used to help safeguard the public by interstate and intrastate tracking of the technician work force and preventing individuals with documented problems from serving as pharmacy technicians); further,To advocate and support mandatory certification of all current pharmacy technicians and new hires within one year of date of employment (certification is the process by which a nongovernmental agency or association grants recognition to an individual who has met certain predetermined qualifications specified by that agency or association); further,To advocate the adoption of uniform standards for the education and training of all pharmacy technicians to ensure competency; further,To oppose state licensure of pharmacy technicians (licensure is the process by which an agency of government grants permission to an individual to engage in a given occupation upon a finding that the applicant has attained the minimal degree of competency necessary to ensure that the public health, safety, and welfare will be reasonably well protected); further,To advocate that licensed pharmacists should be held accountable for the quality of pharmacy services provided and the actions of pharmacy technicians under their charge.

0212

Source: Council on Educational Affairs

To support the goal that technicians entering the pharmacy work force have completed an accredited program of training; further,

To encourage expansion of accredited pharmacy technician training programs.

Image of and career opportunities for pharmacy technicians

Source: Council on Educational Affairs To promote the image of pharmacy technicians as valuable contributors to health care delivery; further,To develop and disseminate information about career opportunities that enhance the recruitment and retention of qualified pharmacy technicians.

0209

Source: Council on Educational Affairs

To collaborate with appropriate professional and academic organizations in fostering adequate education on substance abuse and chemical dependency at all levels of pharmacy education (i.e., schools of pharmacy, residency programs, and continuing-education providers); further,

To support federal, state, and local initiatives that promote pharmacy education on substance abuse and chemical dependency; further,

To advocate the incorporation of education on substance abuse and chemical dependency into the accreditation standards for Doctor of Pharmacy degree programs and pharmacy technician training programs.

Opposition to creation of "pharmacist assistant" category of licensed pharmacy personnel

Source: House of Delegates To reaffirm the following statement in the "White Paper on Pharmacy Technicians" (April 1996) endorsed by ASHP and the American Pharmaceutical Association:"Although there is a compelling need for pharmacists to expand the purview of their professional practice, there is also a need for pharmacists to maintain control over all aspects of drug product handling in the patient care arena, including dispensing and compounding. No other discipline is as well qualified to ensure public safety in this important aspect of health care."Further,To note that some interest groups in pharmacy have advocated for the creation of a new category of licensed personnel called "Pharmacist Assistant" that would have (a) less education and training than pharmacists and (b) independent legal authority to perform many of the functions that are currently restricted to licensed pharmacists; further,To support the optimal use of well trained, certified pharmacy technicians under the supervision of licensed pharmacists; further,To oppose the creation of a category of licensed personnel in pharmacy such as "Pharmacist Assistant" that would have legal authority to perform independently those professional pharmacy functions that are currently restricted to licensed pharmacists.

8610

Source: Council on Legal and Public Affairs

To work toward the removal of legislative and regulatory barriers preventing pharmacists from delegating certain technical activities to other trained personnel.

This policy was reviewed in 1997 by the Council on Legal and Public Affairs and by the Board of Directors and was found to still be appropriate.

www.nacds.org

Issue Brief -- Pharmacy Technicians (Issued October 2001; updated April 2002)

Registration, training and certification of pharmacy support personnel (pharmacy technicians) and maximizing the duties that such pharmacy technicians can perform.

Allowing pharmacy technicians to be utilized to the fullest extent possible without any ratio will:

  1. Enhance pharmacists availability to counsel patients and to confer with other health professionals;

  2. improve overall service to patients;

  3. ease workload and Strengthen professional satisfaction for pharmacists; and,

  4. enhance efficiency and Strengthen resources available for meeting the increased prescription volume and addressing the pharmacist shortages.

  1. Certification should be voluntary and not mandatory.

  2. "Certification" exams should be effective tools for evaluating pharmacy technicians at the various pharmacy practice sites, such as community retail pharmacies, hospital pharmacies, and other practice settings.

  3. If pharmacy technicians decide to be certified they should be permitted to perform expanded duties and responsibilities.

  4. Pharmacy technicians, even if not certified, should be permitted to do routine nonjudgmental dispensing functions including, but not limited to, handling nonjudgmental third party and other payment issues, offering the patient the availability of the pharmacist for counseling, placing telephone calls to prescribers for refill requests, taking phone calls from prescribers' offices authorizing refill prescriptions, and preparing prescriptions for pharmacist's final review.

  1. Boards of Pharmacy should allow for employer-based pharmacy technician training programs and examination pursuant to a Pharmacy Technician Training Manual.

  2. Boards of Pharmacy should recognize that employer-based technician training programs prepare technicians to work in their own particular practice setting, and that technician training programs should be designed to teach competencies relevant to the particular practice setting.

  3. Chain pharmacy technician training programs and examinations should receive Board approval.

  1. Continue to permit an unlimited number of technicians and allow each practice setting to determine their optimal ratio.

  2. Allow technicians to perform non-judgmental tasks . . . those duties that do not require the expertise of a pharmacist.

  3. Allow technician training tailored to the pharmacy and to the company operations and standards.

  4. Allow certification to remain voluntary.

  5. Allow certified pharmacy technicians to perform additional duties and responsibilities commensurate with their competencies.

  6. Approve employer based training and examination pharmacy technician programs and recognize the importance of practice site specific training and examination programs such as community pharmacy based programs.

  7. Recognize the NACDS pharmacy technician training and examination program for certification of pharmacy technicians.

www.ncpanet.org

NCPA supports the use of pharmacy technicians in community pharmacies to enhance the pharmacist's role in the provision of quality pharmacist care. NCPA believes the proper training and supervision of technicians by the pharmacist is critical to the health and safety of patients.

Technician Support and Technology: Recognizing the current environment of regional shortages of pharmacists and the projected increase in prescription volume due to potential Medicare prescription drug benefit coverage and an aging population, NCPA recommends enhancing patient care and addressing manpower issues through the more efficient utilization of technician support and technology. NCPA strongly opposes the creation of any category of supportive personnel, which is not under the direct supervision of a licensed pharmacist.

www.pharmacytechnician.org/

Medication Errors: NPTA feels that the use of highly trained, educated and certified pharmacy technicians in the pharmacy profession will assist in efficiently and effectively reducing the occurrence of medication errors.

Technician Liability: NPTA feels that with the emergence of national technician certification, producing increased roles and responsibilities, the issue of technician liability will become an evermore-present factor. Currently, NPTA does not have a position statement on technician liability.

Technician Education and Training: NPTA fully supports formalized education and training programs at institutions of higher education. NPTA feels strongly that at some point, pharmacy technicians should be required to obtain a degree/certificate to be allowed to practice as a pharmacy technician. At this point, NPTA does not have a position statement on whether this degree should be aone or two year degree, when this policy should be implemented, or an appropriate approach for those already practicing. The requirement of formal education for pharmacy technicians, which is not present in most states, will be an integral part of the advancement of pharmacy practice, patient safety and a more efficient/effective health-care system.

National Certification: NPTA fully supports legislated requirements of certification by pharmacy technicians across the United States. National Certification is an appropriate and effective first step towards the educational and training goals for pharmacy technicians of the future.

Continuing Education: NPTA strongly believes that an independent organization should be setup to accredit and monitor providers of pharmacy technician level continuing education programs. NPTA feels that while certified pharmacy technicians should be allowed to utilize ACPE CE Programs, that no organization (local, state or national) should make ACPE programs a requirement, since currently all ACPE programs are designed at the pharmacist's level.

www.rxptec.org/

PTEC strongly recommends that all pharmacy education and programs seek ASHP accreditation.

PTEC strongly recommends that all pharmacy technician-training programs have a minimum of 600 contact hours, in accordance with ASHP accreditation standards.

In the short term, PTEC will:

  1. Work with AACP to design and implement programs which would provide step-wise technician training curriculum credits which could be used towards pharmacist training and education.

  2. Advocate a PTEC representative attend AACP board meetings, and invite AACP officers to attend PTEC board meetings.

PTEC advocates that:

  1. Within 5 years, all technician-training programs have a minimum of 600 contact hours; and

  2. Within 10 years, all technician-training programs evolve into 2-year associate degree programs.

PTEC recognizes the need for, and supports the development and introduction of, appropriate credentials for pharmacy technicians, including at the specialty level.

PTEC will work with AACP to design and implement programs which would provide step-wise technician-training curriculum credits that could be used towards pharmacist training and education.

The PTEC recommended pharmacy technology program content is published on its website: www.rxptec.org/rptpc.html

Tue, 02 Aug 2022 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/448330
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